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BATCH REACTOR

INSTRUCTED BY:Ms. G N Maheshika

NAME

:- AHANGAMA A C

INDEX

:- 110022E

COURSE

:- BSc ENGINEERING

GROUP

:- G2

DATE OF PER :- 29/05/2014


DATE OF SUB :- 29/06/2014

1.1 OBSERVATIONS

Sample 1

Figure 1 Sample 1

Coccus
Diplococci
Streptococci
Staphylococci

Reasoning;
Microorganisms with single cell alone can be recognized as Coccus by arrangement.
Diplococci is where 2 spherical bacterium are attached to each other.
When they are attached as links in a chain, the arrangement is described as Staphylococci.
Streptococci is where several number of cells are arranged in a manner of cluster.

Sample 2

Figure 2 Sample 2

Coccus
Diplococci
Streptococci
Staphylococci

Reasoning;
Microorganisms with single cell alone can be recognized as Coccus by arrangement.
Diplococci is where 2 spherical bacterium are attached to each other.
When they are attached as links in a chain, the arrangement is described as Staphylococci.
Streptococci is where several number of cells are arranged in a manner of cluster.

Sample 3

Figure 3 - Sample 3

Bacillus

Reasoning;
Other than Coccus organisms Bacillus morphology can be observed as there are rod shaped
bacterium. But as the photo is not clear, It is hard to come to a conclusion about cell
arrangement.

1.2 OBSERVATIONS
Samples from a restaurant environment

In the PDA sample 3 / 4 colonies


can be observed while in the NA
sample only 1 small colony can be
observed.
Thus it can be said that density of
the fungi in PDA is higher than the
density of bacteria in the given sample.
The NA sample displays a
contrasting behavior of being only 1
colony. This may be as density of fungi
is higher than the density of bacteria.

Figure 4 - From canteen on PDA

Figure 5 - From Canteen on NA

Samples from a lavatory environment


No colonies can be seen in either
PDA medium or NA medium.
As NA sample does not have
colonies, it can be concluded that the
bacteria density in lavatory
environment is quite low.
Also as PDA sample does not
display colonies, there can not be
fungi either.
The reason behind this is lavatories
are frequently cleaned with
disinfectants and bleachers resulting in
reduction of both bacteria and fungi.

Figure 6 - From lavatory on PDA

Figure 7 - From Lavatory on NA

Samples from a classroom environment

No colonies can be observed in


PDA sample which means there is no
fungi present in the given environment.
But as there are about 2 colonies
clearly visible in NA medium it can be
concluded that bacteria density in the
tested environment is higher than fungi
density of that environment.

Figure 8 - From classroom on PDA

Figure 9 - From classroom on NA

Samples extracted from body

Many colonies can be


observed in the sample
obtained from skin rubbing,
much more higher than any
other previous smaples.
Therefore human skin has
high density of fungi on the
surface.
A high density of
colonies can be observed in
NA dish, both small
colonies and large colonies.
The conclusion is human
skin contains large number
of bacteria living on it.
Figure 10 - From Body on PDA

Figure 11 - From Body on NA

1.4 OBSERVATIONS

Figure 12- Gram Staining

After the staining process, according to the observations only cells with pink colored cell body
were visible, with the purple color outline. This means that tested microorganisms are gram
negative. In other words these cells do not contain outer membranes in their cell walls.

1.3 OBSERVATIONS

Figure 13 - Streak plate technique 1

The width of the streak line decrease as it goes from left to right, or in other words, from the
beginning of the streaking to the end point. This means that the density of microorganisms
decrease with the length of the streak line

Figure 14 - Streak plate technique 2

Theoretically the resultant observation should look like a pentagon and also the width of streak
lines should decrease as its drawn around.
But due to lack of experience we could not make a pentagon and as streak lines were not drawn
in order, a clear reduction of width of streak lines can not be observed.

Time
(min)

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

Volume Unreacted
of
acetic
NaOH
acid in
(ml)
reactor
13.1
11.6
11.8
11.2
11.7
11.7
11.6
11.8
11.4
11.7
11.7

8.680933
7.686933
7.819467
7.421867
7.7532
7.7532
7.686933
7.819467
7.5544
7.7532
7.7532

Conversion per
mole of acetic
acid
0.0506
0.1593
0.1449
0.1883
0.1521
0.1521
0.1593
0.1449
0.1738
0.1521
0.1521

1.8464
-36.2871
34.8955
-7.8141
Invalid
Invalid
-36.2871
34.8955
-12.5596
Invalid
Invalid

ln (z)

0.6133
Invalid
3.5524
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid
3.5524
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid

(Plug Flow Reactors, 2014) (Tubular reactor or plug flow reactor, 2014) (Catalano, 1998)

REFERENCES
1. DuDukovic, M. P. (2013). Reactor Selection Strategy. Retrieved from Washington University in
St Louis: http://classes.engineering.wustl.edu/che503/che471-08/Module_6.pdf
2. The University of York. ( 2013, March 18). Chemical Reactors. Retrieved from The Essential
Chemical Industry: http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/processes/chemicalreactors.html
3. TutorVista. (2014). Equivalence Point. Retrieved from TutorVista.com:
http://chemistry.tutorvista.com/analytical-chemistry/equivalence-point.html
4. SIDDIQEE, Z. A. (2009, November 04). Batch Reactors. Retrieved from Scribd.com :
https://www.scribd.com/doc/22995623/Batch-Reactors
5. Geert Hangx, G. K. (2001, August 24). Reaction Kinetics of The Esterification of Ethanol and
Acetic Acid Towards Ethyl Acetate. Retrieved from The Reasearch Consortium:
http://www.cpi.umist.ac.uk/intint/nonconf_del/22.pdf