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Fluid Flow Concepts

in Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Nature of flow in porous media
Steady state flow
-- Single-phase and two-phase
-- Linear and radial
-- Incompressible and compressible
Transient flow
-- Continuity equation
-- Diffusivity equation
-- Pressure distribution
Applications
-- Water influx from aquifers
-- Well productivity
-- Reservoir simulation equations -- Well test analysis
-- Water and gas coning phenomena

Nature of Fluid Flow


in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Dimensions

Coordinates

Examples

1-D

Cartesian x

Core sample, Thin linear aquifer

1-D

Radial r

Well in thin reservoir, Peripheral influx

2-D

Cartesian x , y

Large open areas in thin reservoirs

2-D

Cartesia x , z

Cross-section of a layered reservoir

2-D

Radial r , z

Well in a layered reservoir

3-D

Cartesian x , y , z

Large open areas in thick reservoirs

3-D

Spherical r , ,

Coning near partially-penetrating wells

Coordinate Systems
z

z
y

Cartesian

Radial

Spherical

x, y , z

r, , z

r,,

Examples of Reservoir Flow Types

Flow

Flow
1-D Linear

1-D Linear

Producing well

Gas

Coning 2-D Radial

Homogeneous 1-D Radial r


Heterogeneous 2-D Radial r , z
Oil

3-D Spherical r , ,

Types of Reservoir Flow


One-phase, two-phase or three-phase
Incompressible liquid or compressible gas
Isothermal or variable temperature
Steady state or transient (time variations)
With or without gravity and capillary effects
Constant phase compositions (black oil) or
variable composition (miscible, chemical,
combustion and steam distillation)

Steady State Single-Phase Flow


Linear, incompressible liquid

Steady State Single-Phase Flow


Linear, compressible gas
P1
qg

P2

L
Differential form of Darcys law:
qg = - (kA / Bgg)(dP/dx)
Gas formation volume factor Bg = 5.04 ZT / P
Integration yields:
qg = (0.703 kA (P12 P22) / (ZTgL)

Steady State Single-Phase Radial Flow

Steady State Two-Phase Radial Flow

Transient Flow Equations

Pressure Distribution

Pressure Distribution

Transient Pressure Solutions


Single-phase, infinite linear system
Reservoir
Interior boundary
x = 0 , P = Pw

Aquifer
Exterior boundary
x = , P = Pi

Single-Phase, Infinite Linear System


Example

Transient Pressure Solutions


Single-phase, radial system
Well
rw

re

re

Reservoir

rw

Aquifer

Reservoir

Transient Pressure Solutions


Single-phase, radial system
Solution is presented as:
PD = f (tD , rD)
QD = f (tD , rD)
PD = f (tD)
QD = f (tD)

for constant flow rate


for constant boundary pressure
for constant flow rate, infinite system
for constant boundary pressure, infinite system

Both graphical form and tables


Some solutions include exterior boundary conditions and
geometry
For large values of dimensionless time (tD), simple
expressions are also presented
These solutions provide basis for transient well test
analysis and water influx from aquifers

Additional Flow Equations


Capillary pressure
Pco-w = Po Pw

and

Pcg-o = Pg Po

Gravity effect
If gravity effect is significant, a pressure gradient is added :
or
(w - o)g sin
(w - o)g sin

Fluid
Saturations

CASE

EQUATION

Aquifers

Sw = 1.0

Undersaturated reservoirs

So = 1.0 - S wi

Constant volume gas reservoir

Sg = 1.0 Swi

Oil and water twophase flow

So = 1.0 Sw

Water drive gas reservoirs

Sg = 1.0 Sw

Oil and gas two-phase flow

So + Sg = 1.0 Swi

Oil, water and gas three-phase flow

So + Sw + Sg = 1.0