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# Fluid Flow Concepts

## in Oil and Gas Reservoirs

Nature of flow in porous media
-- Single-phase and two-phase
-- Incompressible and compressible
Transient flow
-- Continuity equation
-- Diffusivity equation
-- Pressure distribution
Applications
-- Water influx from aquifers
-- Well productivity
-- Reservoir simulation equations -- Well test analysis
-- Water and gas coning phenomena

## Nature of Fluid Flow

in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Dimensions

Coordinates

Examples

1-D

Cartesian x

1-D

2-D

Cartesian x , y

2-D

Cartesia x , z

2-D

## Well in a layered reservoir

3-D

Cartesian x , y , z

3-D

Spherical r , ,

## Coning near partially-penetrating wells

Coordinate Systems
z

z
y

Cartesian

Spherical

x, y , z

r, , z

r,,

## Examples of Reservoir Flow Types

Flow

Flow
1-D Linear

1-D Linear

Producing well

Gas

Heterogeneous 2-D Radial r , z
Oil

3-D Spherical r , ,

## Types of Reservoir Flow

One-phase, two-phase or three-phase
Incompressible liquid or compressible gas
Isothermal or variable temperature
Steady state or transient (time variations)
With or without gravity and capillary effects
Constant phase compositions (black oil) or
variable composition (miscible, chemical,
combustion and steam distillation)

Linear, incompressible liquid

Linear, compressible gas
P1
qg

P2

L
Differential form of Darcys law:
qg = - (kA / Bgg)(dP/dx)
Gas formation volume factor Bg = 5.04 ZT / P
Integration yields:
qg = (0.703 kA (P12 P22) / (ZTgL)

## Transient Flow Equations

Pressure Distribution

Pressure Distribution

## Transient Pressure Solutions

Single-phase, infinite linear system
Reservoir
Interior boundary
x = 0 , P = Pw

Aquifer
Exterior boundary
x = , P = Pi

Example

Well
rw

re

re

Reservoir

rw

Aquifer

Reservoir

## Transient Pressure Solutions

Solution is presented as:
PD = f (tD , rD)
QD = f (tD , rD)
PD = f (tD)
QD = f (tD)

## for constant flow rate

for constant boundary pressure
for constant flow rate, infinite system
for constant boundary pressure, infinite system

## Both graphical form and tables

Some solutions include exterior boundary conditions and
geometry
For large values of dimensionless time (tD), simple
expressions are also presented
These solutions provide basis for transient well test
analysis and water influx from aquifers

Capillary pressure
Pco-w = Po Pw

and

Pcg-o = Pg Po

Gravity effect
or
(w - o)g sin
(w - o)g sin

Fluid
Saturations

CASE

EQUATION

Aquifers

Sw = 1.0

Undersaturated reservoirs

So = 1.0 - S wi

Sg = 1.0 Swi

So = 1.0 Sw

Sg = 1.0 Sw

## Oil and gas two-phase flow

So + Sg = 1.0 Swi

## Oil, water and gas three-phase flow

So + Sw + Sg = 1.0