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(a) 2

all three lines correct gains 2 marks

one or two correct gains 1 mark
if there are more than 3 lines then lose mark for each extra line

(b) (i) covalent 1

(ii) four 1
(iii) hard 1
(iv) three 1
(v) soft 1
(c) carbon 1
accept C

2. (a) (i) idea that 2

• two hydrogen atoms share one pair of electrons
• linked by a covalent bond
• each then has two outer electrons / a full outer shell / two
• electrons in the highest (occupied) energy level
(2 marks may be awarded for a correct electron diagram i.e. with electrons on
boundary of or within marked area).
any two for 1 mark each

(ii) idea that 2

• helium atoms do not give / take / share electrons / react
• because the (outer) shell / orbit is full
• highest (occupied) energy level is full
(but not just “contains two electrons”)
for 1 mark each

Keswick School 1
(b) idea that 2
• the (attractive) forces between molecules are weak
(not bonds between atoms)
• so little energy is required / it is easy for molecules to escape from the liquid*
/ escape from other molecules*
(allow evaporate / change into a gas)
for 1 mark each

3. (a) it has strong (attractive) forces or 1

bonds between ions or charged particles
do not accept “..... it has a rigid
structure” or “particles close together”

(b) there is increased vibration of ions or 1

particles on heating
ions have sufficient energy to overcome attractive forces or to 1
break out of the rigid structure or to move about
must be in terms of increased
energy of particles or ions

(c) ions can go to electrodes or ions are free to move 1

do not credit “ions carry charges”

4. (a) X – (metal) atom / ion 1

Y – electron 1

(b) free electrons or electrons move 1

(allow metal) atoms / ions to slide over each other 1
bonding non - directional for 2 marks

Keswick School 2
5. (a) idea that 2
• copper has free electrons / electrons that move
throughout the structure
gains 1 mark
• in copper, electrons from the highest (occupied) energy
level /outer shell, are
free / can move throughout the structure
gains 2 marks

(b) idea that 3

• in graphite, only three bonds are formed by each carbon atom
for 1 mark
• one outer electron (per atom), free to move
for 1 mark
• an electric current is a flow of (free) electrons*
for 1 mark
(* this mark to be given in either (a) or (b) but not in both)

6. (a) nanoparticles / they are small(er) 1

accept 1–100 nm or a few atoms in size
so can easily pass through pores / skin / cell / membranes /
arteries / veins / capillaries / into blood stream owtte 1
must be a comparative statement
can be inferred from smaller particles
allow absorbed for pass through

(b) any one from: 1

• may be toxic (to cells / specific cells)
allow may harm / damage / kill cells / organs / tissues or may
cause cancer
• to ensure safety or reduce risk or risk of litigation
allow may cause allergies / side effects
ignore harmful / dangerous unqualified eg harmful to body /
• nanoparticles may have different properties
• to see if they pass into the body

Keswick School 3
(c) any two sensible ideas from eg: 2
• testing is expensive or testing costs money
allow it costs money
ignore litigation
• testing is time consuming
• don’t see any reason to test since normal sized particles
(of titanium oxide) do not cause harm
accept normal sun cream does not cause harm owtte
• don’t want to risk not producing a popular product (owtte)
eg if unsafe will have to stop production or have to remove
product if toxic
• testing process / unfavourable results might cause alarm /
reduce sales / reduce profit (less money)
• do not want to be seen doing animal testing

7. (a) (i) 27 2
(ii) 13
each for 1 mark

(b) each proton has a/1 positive charge and each electron has a/1 negative 2
charge OR electrons and protons have (equal but) opposite charges
there are equal numbers of protons and electrons in the atom/
so charges cancel or balance (each other)
each for 1 mark

(c) 3

Number of Number of Number of

protons neutrons electrons

Fluride atom 10

Fluride ion 9 10

each for 1 mark


Keswick School 4
8. (a) proton + (1) 3
both required
neutron 1
both required
electron − (1)
both required
(b) 2.8.3 1
accept words or diagram to this effect

(c) (i) 24 1
(ii) 52 1

(d) any one of 1

• gains one or more electrons
accept gains an electron
• becomes an anion
do not credit becomes an ion
• becomes a negative ion

(e) sodium ions have a (single) positive 1

charge and chloride ions have a
(single) negative charge
do not credit ‘chlorine ions’ but
allow this error to be carried forward

ions with opposite charge are 1

attracted (to each other)
or the positive ions and the negative ions are attracted (to each
or the sodium ions and the chloride ions are attracted (to each

(positive and negative) ions are 1

arranged alternatively (in each
direction or dimension)
or ions with the same charge are repelled (by each other) no
mark for just ionic bonds

Keswick School 5