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(a) 40 + 12 + (3 × 16) 2
= 100
each for 1 mark

(b) Mr of CaO = 56 4
for 1 mark
mass required = 60 × 100/56
for 2 marks
= 107.1
for 1 mark

(c) (i) calcium hydroxide 1

(ii) solid 1

2. (a) C H O
0.60 0.15 0.40 1
12 1 16
= 0.05 = 0.15 = 0.025 1
2 6 1 1
C2H6O 1
1 mark for dividing the correct amount or multiples of correct
amount by Ar
1 mark for proportions
1 mark for whole number ratio – accept any multiple
1 mark for correctly written simplest formula
correct formula without working gets only 2 marks
correct formula gains full marks
provided steps 1 and 2 are correct.
ecf can be allowed from step 2 to 3 or step 3 to 4
formula can be in any order eg OH6C2

Keswick School 1
(b) intermolecular forces / bonds 1
are weak 1
(covalent) bonds are weak = 0
forces between molecules or bonds between molecules (1)
(attractive) forces are weak = 1
are weak (1)
if no marks awarded, allow low boiling point or small Mr for 1

(c) (i) to check the safety of the perfume (owtte) 1

accept references to possible harmful / dangerous effects of
perfume or possible reactions on skin
eg to show it does not damage skin / cause cancer etc.
allow to see what it smells like on the skin
allow so the company do not have to test on animals

Keswick School 2
(ii) any two from:
idea from text linked with an explanation
• the company claim to have tested the product:
but we cannot be certain they have or how thorough they
are or how accurately reported
• companies did not disclose how they did their tests:
so they could not be checked or so they could not be
shown to be reliable / valid or so they could not be repeated
or converse
eg companies should disclose how they did their tests so that
results can be checked etc.
• companies may not have repeated their tests:
so they may not be reliable
• companies do their own tests:
so they may be biased or so they may not be truthful
about their results or so they may not be reliable
or converse
eg independent tests should be done so as to ensure there is no
bias etc.
• the companies are using different tests:
so the results cannot be compared or so results will be
different or so results will not be fair / valid / reliable
or converse
eg companies should do the same tests so that the results will
be fair etc.
• companies would not give false information because of
damage to reputation or it might lead to litigation 2

3. (a) fewer product molecules than reactant molecules (owtte) or 1

accept forward reaction produces fewer molecules
accept left hand side for reactants and right hand side for
3 reactant molecules and 1 product
or 3 volumes of gas becomes 1 volume of gas
accept high pressure favours the side with fewer molecules
ignore references to reaction rate

Keswick School 3
(b) any three from: 3
• low temperature gives best yield
accept add heat as increased temperature or ‘less’ as poor
or high temperature gives poor yield
• because the reaction is exothermic
accept reverse argument if clearly expressed
• reaction too slow at low temperature
or reaction faster at high temperature
accept add heat and reaction goes faster
• temperature used gives a reasonable yield
at a fast rate / compromise explained
allow get less product but it takes less time
for 2 marks

4. (a) 2.61 / range 2.5 to 2.7 2

correct answer with or without or with wrong working gains 2
(accept answers between 2.5 and 2.7)
if answer incorrect moles of salicylic acid = 2/138 = 0.0145
ie 2/138 or 0.0145 gains 1 mark
(180/138) × 2 gains 1 mark
1 g → 180/138 = (1.304 g) gains 1 mark
(not 1.304g alone)

Keswick School 4
(b) 42.1 range 40.7 to 42.3 2
accept correct answer with or without or with wrong working
for 2 marks
ecf ie (1.1 / their answer from (a)) × 100 correctly calculated
gains 2 marks
if answer incorrect percentage yield = 1.1 / 2.61 × 100 gains 1
if they do not have an answer to part (a)
they choose not to use their answer then:
• yield = (1.1 / 2.5) × 100 (1)
• = 44
accept 44 for 2 marks with no working

(c) any one from: 1

• errors in weighing
• some (of the aspirin) lost
do not allow ‘lost as a gas’
• not all of the reactant may have been converted to product
eg reaction didn’t go to completion
allow loss of some reactants
• the reaction is reversible
accept other products / chemicals
• side reactions
ignore waste products
• reactants impure
• not heated for long enough
• not hot enough for reaction to take place

Keswick School 5
(d) any one from: 1
• use lower temperature
• use less fuel / energy
ignore references to use of catalyst
• produce product faster or speed up reaction
• more product produced in a given time (owtte)
• increased productivity
• lowers activation energy

5. (a)
2 marks for comments related to temperature
low / lower / lowest temperature (or 100 °C from graph) 1
ignore reference to catalyst
any one from: 1
● (forward) reaction exothermic
● if the temperature is increased the yield of product will
decrease or reaction right to left
2 marks for comments relating to pressure
high / higher / highest pressure 1
(or greater than 450 atm, from graph)
any one from: 1
● four reactant molecules but only
two product molecules (owtte)
reverse reaction goes from 2
molecules / moles / volumes to 4
molecules / moles / volumes
● increase in pressure favours the
reaction which produces the least
number of molecules
decrease in pressure favours the back reaction because it
produces the most molecules

Keswick School 6
(b) at low temperatures the reaction is too slow 1
accept compromise between yield and rate
450 °C gives a reasonable yield at a reasonable rate
catalyst does not work at low temperatures
high pressures could be dangerous / expensive 1
accept 200 atmospheres gives a reasonable yield at reasonable
cost / safely
for 1 mark 450 °C and 200 atmospheres are compromise

(c) (i) heat is recycled / heat from the reactor 1

is used to heat gases going into the reactor
unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled 1

(ii) sensible comment related to conservation of energy 1

eg cost of energy pollution aspects of burning fuels to provide
energy etc.
sensible comment related to conservation of materials 1
eg cost of materials
cost of converting raw materials into nitrogen and hydrogen
natural gas is non-renewable source

6. (a) (i) iron must be named 1

do not accept Fe

(ii) hydrogen 1
and oxygen mixtures 1
burn rapidly 1

(b) (i) lowers concentration 1

accept dilutes the acid
do not accept cooling
less collisions (between particles) 1

Keswick School 7
(ii) H+ (aq) 1
accept H3O+ only if 2 in front of H2O

OH (aq) 1
if spectator ions correctly included on
both sides, maximum = 1 mark

(iii) Ca(OH2) weak alkali 1

accept NaOH strong alkali
Ca(OH)2 causes no problems 1
accept NaOH causes named problem
(eg caustic or exothermic or burns or corrosive)

7. (a) A faster because: the graph line steeper / the reaction had stopped earlier 2
accept sample B slower because: the graph line was less steep /
the reaction stopped later
A because CO2 given off faster / fizzes more for 1 mark
B because CO2 given off slower / fizzes less for 1 mark

(b) increases the speed / energy of the (hydrochloric acid) particles 1

collide more frequently 1
collide more energetically / successfully 1
accept more successful collisions = 2 marks

Keswick School 8