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A definition of humanity seems easy to think of yet difficult to propose, and there
have been disputes about it among different schools of thought. Most pioneers in social
thought and leaders of movements claim that the main feature of their activities is their
humanism and humanitarian efforts. To avoid having misconceptions about humanity or
sinking in the whirlpool of literal interpretations and logical disputes, we need to first focus
on the reality of the human being and his different aspects, and then discuss the derived
infinitive word form humanity, its meaning, virtues, and functions.
1. Human beings are objective beings who are different from other objective beings with
respect to freedom of choice, meaning that their actions and behaviours are a result of
their reasoning and will, albeit relatively.
2. Human beings are to a large extent affected by their surroundings, that is, the physical
environment and other beings.
3. Human beings are social beings who naturally interact with other human beings.
4. Human beings are created by God, the Creator of the universe. This relation with God
has different dimensions which affect them as persons and all of their relationships.
These four features are like four chapters of the book of humanity. Thus, human
values are those basic elements in the nature of human beings which are to be developed by
his own efforts. This development is an evolutionary movement in which no part of the
human existence harms the others and none of these elements should stop the movement of
the human being towards a better state.
The holy Quran emphasizes on the full alignment of religion and humanity is Surah Ar-Rum

So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the Faith: (establish) Allah's handiwork
according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the
work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind
understand not.

Also, the following hadith suggests that Islam is in harmony with the humans nature:
All the born are born with the God-given nature.1
When it is said that Islam means to surrender to God, it means whenever something or
someone is put in its or his real position in creation, it or he will be a Muslim. Thus, the
position for which God has created human being is to achieve humanity and the human
beings humanity equals his Islam, i.e., his level of submission to God.
A human being is related with God, his own kind, nature, and the whole creation from
that natural position. So, a human beings Islam is his humanity. The holy Quran emphasizes
on the full alignment of religion and humanity. Surah Al-Baqarah (2:137-138) demonstrate
this truth:

So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back,
it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the
All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. (Our religion is) the Baptism of Allah: And who can
baptize better than Allah? And it is He Whom we worship.

Usul al-kafi, Sheykh Muhammad Kulayni, vol. 2, p. 12.

Characteristics of Man
Defining man and his characteristics cannot be carried out by man himself. There are
several reasons for this, the most important of which are listed below:
1. Peoples understanding of themselves and their feelings is influenced by their social
and cultural standpoints, their unique situations, and their worldly interests.
2. People are at various stages of continued development and therefore, they never
exactly understand existential dimensions of human beings as they progress and make
efforts to reach them.
Thus, if a human being wants to define human dimensions, features and virtues, his
definition will be limited or biased to some extent. This leads to a multiplicity of definitions
of humanness which causes a human beings goals and purposes to go into a halo of
But, Allah (swt), the Creator of the human being and the entire universe, is the only
Able One to define the human beings characteristics. These characteristics are, in fact,
dimensions of one perfect humanity. This is the meaning of necessity of heavenliness,
unseenness (ghaybi), and absoluteness of religion.
To emphasize on the truth of this issue, we need to refer to the opinions of Islamic
scholars. We are also guided by principles such as legislative obligations are graceful
indicators of intellectual obligations and whatever judgement is made by reason is made by
religion and vice versa. Thus, we can conclude that Islam is identical with humanity and
human values and vice versa.

The Fundamental Qualities

The fundamental qualities that we must all acquire to serve mankind or to develop a
passion to serve mankind are: love for humanity, kindness in our hearts for others, a
charitable disposition, humility, honesty, a thirst for knowledge, a desire to share knowledge
with others and a constant desire to strive in the cause of Allah by doing good. We must be a
people from whom goodness flows towards others. Most Ahmadi Muslims possess these
The teachings of the holy Quran and the example of the Holy Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allah be on him) direct us on how best to serve mankind. The Holy
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) practiced the teachings of the holy Quran
to the fullest extent and is the best example of the true representation of service to mankind
and to Allah. That is why Allah says in the Holy Quran:

"And do not forget to do good to one another."Al-Baqarah (2:238)

And about the holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) the holy Quran says:

"and we have sent thee not but as a blessing (mercy) for the entire universe (for all
peoples)" Surah Al-Anbya (21:108)

"Verily you have in the prophet of Allah an excellent model." Surah Al-Ahzab (33:22)
The holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) emphasized love,
sympathy, and kindness towards all. He also emphasized that we must show each other great
appreciation. He said, "One who is not grateful to mankind is not grateful to Allah."
Furthermore, the holy Prophet (peace be on him) had a great compassion for mankind.
He said, "Sympathy for all mankind is a moral obligation and a duty (Arbaeen)...that religion
is no religion which does no inculcate sympathy, nor does that man deserve to be called a
man who does no have sympathy in him (message of peace)."
Not only that, the holy Prophet (peace be on him) said, "The teachings of the holy
Quran can be divided into two major categories. The first being unity of God, love and
obedience to Him. The second is to treat kindly your brothers and fellow beings... be kind and
merciful to humanity...always work for the good of mankind."

Service to Mankind is Service to Allah

Man is born with a heart of compassion which reacts in accordance to the feelings of
fellow humans. Compassion, love, affection and care are the innate qualities which make a
human. These qualities define man. The development or suppression of these qualities
entirely depends on man himself. From time to time, philosophers and religious scholars have
tried to encourage people to increase these innate qualities in themselves. Humanity is one
such aspect which has been stressed upon in all parts of the world. "Service to Mankind is
service to God" is the proverb highly prevalent all over the world. Serving and treating fellow
human beings with courtesy and kindness is an essential part of a good moral conduct. All
world religions share and support this concept.
Humanity is what you say to someone when you think no one's watching. It's what
you do when you are all by yourself. Humanity is what you feel when you watch another
person suffering and decide to either do nothing or do something. Humanity is the ability to
reach out and hug someone. Humanity is being grateful for your family, your friends, and
your ability to do something in this world to your society.
Humanity is the ability to trust, the ability to connect, the ability to touch. To be
human means we can move, create, love, share and laugh. One example to inculcate the
ability to serve mankind in humans is about the "Good Samaritan" who has helped a sick man
and did not even care to reveal his identity to the people.
Islam has put much emphasis on serving humans, but providing merely food and
shelter to fellow humans cannot be considered as a service to Allah (SWT) on the whole. It is
inappropriate to think that we are serving mankind as a whole by simply spending a huge
amount in charity.
Service to Allah (SWT) is being obedient to Him in a way that He expects humans to
be. The first stage of this obedience is our acceptance of Tawhid. Once we give our
acceptance of the oneness of Allah (SWT), we are expected to obey Him in a way that He has
prescribed to us. This is the stage where man fulfills all the mandatory acts like prayers,
charity, pilgrimage etc. It is the stage where man develops the bondage between himself and
Allah (SWT) directly.
The third stage is serving the family and relations: fulfilling the rights of his
dependents and of people closely related to him. Here again, man attains further closeness to
Allah (SWT) through his family, by pleasing them. No matter what you've done for yourself
or for humanity, if you can't look back on having given love and attention to your own
family, what have you really accomplished? - Lee Iacocca
Then comes the fourth stage, which is about service to human beings. Man attains
closeness to Allah (SWT) by serving his fellow beings but the main question is, in what way
should the fellow beings be served, so that the service could be termed as service to Allah
(SWT) as a whole?
Ayatullah Murtada Mutahhari says: "Serving people is fine and we should serve them.
But if we provide them with food and clothes alone, we would be treating them like animals,

especially if we suppose no higher values exist for them. If service is confined to this, what
would be the difference between Abu Dhar and Mu'awiya?"2
Definitely, mere provision of food and shelter does not fulfil the purpose. There has to
be an additional form of service. Every Muslim is expected to render his duties towards the
society in which he lives. The actual service to human beings lies in treating them as humans
first. We need to help our fellow human beings in nurturing and growing their innate qualities
which define them as humans. Man is different from all the creatures of both the worlds and
so are his duties and responsibilities towards his Creator. Surely, service to this special
creature has to be by helping him understand and render his responsibilities towards his
Man is born with the innate ability of learning and understanding. He is capable of
multiplying his knowledge through understanding and analysing what he has learnt. Man is
not pre-programmed to obey and pray to Allah (SWT). He does so by his own free will. This
makes him different from the rest of creatures, and therefore heaven and hell are made to
reward and punish him accordingly. The method of serving man is by grooming and
moulding him in accordance to the tenets of Islam. This helps man to distinguish himself and
highlight his superiority towards other creatures. Education and awareness are the two
methods that can be implemented to help man understand himself.
We find in Islamic history the best examples of love and compassion for fellow
human beings. Sometimes we find the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his progeny)
serving the needy and weak; sometimes we see Imam Ali (peace be upon him) sitting with
the sick and the poor, attending to their needs affectionately; and sometimes we see other
members from our holy Ahlul Bayt (peace be upon them) giving the same service to needy
ones. Islam has laid great stress on helping the poor and needy ones. But we know that man's
needs are not confined to just material aspects of life; rather, he seeks to fulfil higher needs as
well, like guidance and seeking knowledge. Hence we find that along with material needs, the
Holy Prophet and Ahlul Bayt have quenched humanity's spiritual thirst as well. Man is a
creature who always longs for company, love and compassion.
If Islam had given the world nothing but this one simple clarion message,

Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created-
Surah Al-Alaq (96:1)
That too at the dawn of the Seventh Century - the entire world would still be in its
debt forever. But the tragedy is that Non-Muslims don't know and Muslims won't tell. Imam
Ja'far as-Sadiq (peace be upon him) served mankind by educating the people, he had more
than 6,000 students studying under him from all over the world. They did not just learn about
Islam, but were taught various subjects including mathematics, astronomy and science. This
eventually terminated the Dark Age in Europe.

The Perfect Man by Ayatullah Murtada Mutahri

We can fulfill our responsibility of serving mankind by educating the people, laying
more emphasis on Islamic education, arranging educational and awareness campaigns about
Islam, helping the people - especially the youth - understand the true meaning behind the
message brought by Holy Prophet and protected by Ahlul Bayt, even at the cost of their lives.
We must encourage them to spread this knowledge among fellow beings.
A Muslim's responsibility does not end just here. It is our duty to act as true
representatives of Islam and behave in accordance to the Islamic tenets. We are expected to
treat our fellow beings with love and honesty, to respect them and always be available to
them whenever they are in need, whatever may be the kind of their need.
Some people object that If Islam is a true religion of God, then why doesnt it help
mankind and promote peace and love? Islam states that service to humanity is a part of faith.
Muslims should be actively engaged in social welfare and in meeting the medical and
educational needs, not only for Muslims, but also for all the communities where they reside.
However, Surah Ali Imran (3:111) stated that:-

They will do you no harm, barring a trifling annoyance; if they come out to fight you,
they will show you their backs, and no help shall they get.
In this verse, Muslims have been enjoined by God to serve mankind and promote
goodness. If they fail to achieve this, then they cannot state that they are the best
people. After all, a faith which is insensitive to the suffering of other human beings and is
not inclined to serve the cause of humanity cannot be described as a good faith. But Islam
teaches that Muslims must be always ready to serve mankind and have love and kindness for
all of Gods creation.

The holy Quran stated in surah An-Nisa (4:36):-

Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good- to parents,
kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbours who are near, neighbours who are
strangers, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (ye meet), and what your right
hands possess: For Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious;-
In this verse, Allah very beautifully guides the Muslims to discharge their duties
towards all of society. We should display kindness to everyone whether they are kind to you
or not. In this way by following this teaching you can create peace, love and harmony in the
Noble Qur'an expressly declares that the human race is one family. All of us are the
children of Adam and Eve, whether our skin is white or black. At various places it says:

"Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings
and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between people in
matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book, after the clear Signs came to
them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His

Grace Guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed. For
Allah guided whom He will to a path that is straight." Al-Baqarah (2:213).

Mankind was but one nation, but differed (later). Had it not been for a word
that went forth before from thy Lord, their differences would have been settled between
them Surah Yunus (10:19).

"Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord

and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other)." Al-Anbya (21:92)

And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your

Lord and Cherisher: therefore fear Me (and no other). Surah Al-Muminun
The Holy Prophet Muhammad, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,
emphasised love, sympathy and kindness towards all mankind, he said One who is not
grateful to mankind is not grateful to Allah (Tirmidhi). Not only that, the Holy Prophet has
said:None among you is a true believer unless he loves for others what he loves for
Furthermore, the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him, emphasised love and kindness for all of Gods creation, he said If a Muslim
plants a tree and men and animals eat from it, all of this will be regarded as an everlasting
act of charity.(Bukhari)
Again the Holy Prophet has exhorted:- All creatures of Allah are His family,
therefore, amongst His creations, God likes the person who treats His creatures in a good
manner (and takes care of their necessities). (Mishkat)


Etiquettes Pertaining to the Lecturers Relationship with his/her Students

In the modern civilization nature of relationship between the teacher and the taught
does not count. But in Islamic scheme of education it holds a very crucial position. In the
present world education is an industry; the teacher is salesman and the student is buyer. Islam
may not allow its educational institutions to turn into business centers. It considers the
teacher as guide (murshid), and the student as seeker (Taalib). Both are to be sincere in their
attitude towards each other. The relationship between the two is to be governed by certain
Quranic principles.
The Quran has used a number of terms to draw a comprehensive and clear picture of
its scheme of life. These are of various categories. Certain terms represent the nature of acts
to be carried out in Islamic life, and some other terms serve as underlying
principles. Adl (justice), ihsan (excellence), jihad (utmost endeavor), and taqwa (Godconsciousness) are the most important underlying principles for life as suggested by the
Quran. These principles generally stand misinterpreted hence misunderstood.
According to general perception, adl is an act to be carried out only in the court of
law, ihsan is applicable in social life, jihad has a role to play in the battlefield, and taqwa is a
form to be demonstrated in mosque and devotional matters. These principles are of general
and universal nature. Their applicability transcends the limitations of time and place.
Educational places are also to be governed by these principles. Teacher-student relationship
is to be established and strengthened further on the basis of these above-mentioned principles.
The prophet (s.a.w.) was a teacher for mankind as mentioned in Surah Al-Jumuah

It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger from among

themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in
Scripture and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;-
While addressing his followers he once observed: "My position among you is that of
your father". Since the Prophet (s.a.w.) is the role model for Muslims, he is to be followed by
the teacher in his teaching profession. The teacher has to interact with his students in the way
their biological fathers treat them. A father loves his children and is always concerned about
their welfare; he wants to see them developing from all angles, physically, emotionally,
morally, and intellectually. The teacher has also to feel concerned about how to ensure his
students growth, mentally as well as morally.

One of the attributes of the Prophet (s.a.w.) as mentioned in the Quran is

gentleness. Surah Ali Imran (3:159) reads:-

It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them Wert thou
severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over
(Their faults), and ask for (Allah's) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of
moment). Then, when thou hast Taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves
those who put their trust (in Him).
It is clear from this Ayah that the secret of the Prophets success, among other things,
was his gentle and kind approach to his disciples. A teacher who has the mission of imparting
knowledge to his students has to act in the same manner so as to ensure success in his task.
The Quran condemns Jewish scholars and priests for their dubious character in Surah
Al-Baqarah (2:44):-

Do ye enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget (To practise it) yourselves,
and yet ye study the Scripture? Will ye not understand?
A Muslim teachers conduct, whether in public or in privacy, should correspond to his
assertions. If the teachers person does not reflect Islamic character, students may not be
expected to be sincere to him in learning from him. This disturbance of relationship between
the teacher and the taught may disturb the whole process of education, causing students to
feel confused.

Etiquettes Pertaining to the Students Relationship with His Lecturers

Seeking knowledge is a sacred duty that is obligatory on every Muslim, male and
female. The first word revealed of the Quran was iqra or read. Surah Az-Zumar (39:9)

Is one who worships devoutly during the hour of the night prostrating himself or
standing (in adoration), who takes heed of the Hereafter, and who places his hope in the
Mercy of his Lord - (like one who does not)? Say: "Are those equal, those who know
and those who do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive
Mu`adh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Seek knowledge, for seeking it
for the sake of Allah is a sign of consciousness of Allah; acquiring it is an act of worship;
studying it is a glorification (of Allah); and searching for it is (a kind of) jihad (striving in
Allah's cause)"
There is a certain amount of etiquettes pertaining to the students relationship with his
lecturer that a student should follow. We will give you this advice and this etiquette for
seeking knowledge; may Allah cause you to benefit thereby.
1. The student should take as much care as he can to select teachers known for their piety,
humility, and religious commitment.
Knowledge cannot be gained only from books; you must also have a lecturer whom
you trust to open the door to knowledge and keep you from making mistakes. So you
must strive to choose lecturer who are preoccupied with seeking knowledge and are of a
good nature, who can help you in achieving your aim, add to the benefits you have
already gained, encourage you to seek more knowledge, stop you from feeling bored and
tired, who are religiously-committed, trustworthy and of good character, who are sincere
towards Allah and who are not merely messing about.
Beware of being preoccupied in the beginning with the disputes among the scholars,
or among people in general, because this confuses the mind. Instead, give your all to the
book that you are reading or the topic that you are studying until you become competent
in it.

2. The student should behave humbly in his teachers presence and should show them
Observe the utmost standards of etiquette when you sit with your lecturer and speak
with him. Ask questions in a proper manner and listen attentively. Be polite when
studying the book with him and do not try to argue or compete with him. Do not initiate
conversation with him, or walk ahead of him, or speak too much in his presence, or
interrupt when he is teaching. Do not call him directly by his name or nickname.
In Surah Al-Mujadila (58:11):-

O ye who believe! When ye are told to make room in the assemblies, (spread out and)
make room: (ample) room will Allah provide for you. And when ye are told to rise up,
rise up Allah will rise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and
who have been granted (mystic) Knowledge. And Allah is well-acquainted with all ye
`Ubdah b. al-Smit relates that Allahs Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Whoever
fails to show honor to our elders, mercy to our children, and due deference to our
scholars is not one of us.3
3. A student should remain under his teachers tutelage in order to benefit from their
conduct and their practice. He should seek to emulate their good manners and behaviors.
He should avoid behaving contrarily.
The student should inculcate good conduct in his personality as he learns it from his
Mlik said: My mother used to put my turban on and say: Go to Rab`ah and learn
good manners from him before learning from his knowledge.
`Abd Allah b. al-Mubrak said: They used to learn good manners before acquiring
He also said: It is as if good manners are two-thirds of knowledge.
Ab Zakariyy al-`Anbar said: Having knowledge without good manners is like having
a fire without fuel. Having manners without knowledge is like having a body without a

Musnad Ahmad (21693) Al-Haytham declares its chain of transmission to be good (hasan) in Majma` alZawid (1/127)

Al-Ghazl writes in Ihy `Ulm al-Dn : A student should not neglect any respectable
discipline or branch of knowledge. He should at least be acquainted with its general
subject and its objectives. If his lifetime permits, he should make a detailed study of it all.
Otherwise, he should prioritize, dealing exhaustively with what is most important and a
making an overview of the rest.4
This is because the different branches of knowledge augment one another and relate to
one another. Surah Al-Ahqaf (46:11)

The Unbelievers say of those who believe: "If (this Message) were a good thing,
(such men) would not have gone to it first, before us!" And seeing that they guide
not themselves thereby, they will say, "this is an (old,) falsehood!"

4. The student should bear patiently any harsh treatment or sternness that his teachers might
sometimes exhibit. He should find some excuse for their behavior.
Seeking knowledge is one of the highest of pursuits, and heights cannot be scaled
except by working hard and patiently. So be patient and persevere. If Jihad requires an
hour of patience, then the seeker of knowledge must be patient until the end of his life.
Surah Ali Imran (3:3) says:-

(O ye who believe! Persevere in patience and constancy; vie in such perseverance;

strengthen each other; and fear Allah; that ye may prosper.
5. The student should be considerate and polite in asking his teachers questions. Indeed, one
of the best approaches to seeking knowledge is to ask questions in the right way. If the
teacher remains silent, the student should not press him to answer.
Do not pressure him to give you an answer, and avoid asking too many questions,
especially in front of other people, for this will make you appear to be showing off and
make him bored with you.

Al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulumuddin (1/55)

Adhere to purity of intention in what you do. Let your aim be to seek the Face of
Allah (i.e., the pleasure of Allah) and the abode of the Hereafter. Beware of showing off
and loving to make yourself appear to be superior to your peers.
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: Whoever seeks
knowledge in order to compete with the scholars or to prove himself superior to the
ignorant or to make the people look up to him, Allah will cause him to enter Hell. (AnNasai).
6. The student should be attentive, even when the topic is one that he is already well versed
in. This is one of the best manners a student of knowledge can exhibit.
Spend the most of your youth and your whole life in learning. Do not be deceived by
procrastination and wishful thinking about the future. Every hour of your life that passes
cannot be replaced. Do away with whatever you can of distractions and obstacles that
prevent you from striving your utmost to attain knowledge.
Hence the salaf (righteous predecessors) encouraged keeping away from ones family
and keeping a distance from ones homeland, because when a person is distracted he will
not be able to understand facts of knowledge and subtle issues. Allah has not given man
two hearts in his chest, and similarly it is said that knowledge will not give you a part of it
until you give it your all.
Let your concern to seek knowledge be uppermost; do not be content to learn only a
little when you are able to do more. Do not be content with a little of the legacy of the
Prophets (peace and blessings be upon them), and do not delay learning anything that you
can or be distracted or put off by wishful thinking. Delay is a problem, and if you learn
something now you can learn something else later.
Make the most of your time, when you are free and when you are busy. Make the
most of your youth when your mind is fresh and you have fewer distractions, before you
become distracted by false ambitions and the desire for worldly possessions.
You should try to obtain as many of the books you need as you can because they are
the tools of learning. Do not make getting and keeping a lot of them (without benefiting
from them) the only share of knowledge that you have, and collecting them the only share
of understanding that you have. You also have to use and benefit from them as much as
you can.


Dr. Sano Koutoub Moustapha, Professor of Jurisprudence and Its Principles at the
International Islamic University, Malaysia, states the following:
"The relationship between teacher and student should be based on mutual love and respect.
The teacher should treat the students as his or her own children, and the students should
consider the teacher as their own parent.
In this regard, they should exchange respect and love within Islamic principles. If a
teacher has been mistreated, the student should do his or her best to assist the teacher in
getting back his or her right. However, one should make sure that the teacher was mistreated
based on evidence and proof, not on passion and sympathy.
Islam calls upon all Muslims to help their fellow Muslims when an injustice is done
against them. In this regard, the student should do his or her best to help remove injustice
done against the teacher.
Having said this, I can say that if there is mistreatment on the part of the teacher
towards the student, it is up to the student to complain officially. However, the student should
always consider the teacher as a parent and not try to get the teacher in trouble. The student
should find ways and means to get his or her rights without hurting the teacher. Mutual
understanding and tolerance are highly recommended as far as the issue raised in the question
is concerned.
Finally, I should add here that Islam calls upon teachers to be fair and honest.
Teachers have to be models to be followed. They should not do injustice to their students. If
they did so, they would certainly face dire consequences on the Day of Judgment."

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