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integral is obviously x of the differential dx. However, though true when calcu

lated, apprently it should be interpreted as 1 = dy/dx.

- dy/dx if shouldn't be interpreted as a very small fraction

- There are no "differentials" du in nature if du is interpreted as an infinites

mally small "number", but if interpreted

tautologically as du = du/dx*dx, then yes, these occure in "nature" as "rates" m

ultiplied over a very small change of the

independent change.

from Courant, Calculus for the Practical Man, and Feynman

maybe Piskunov too

p 76 djvu p 92 Courant

1. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

We first encounter the integral in the problem of measur g the

area of a plane region bounded by curved lines. More refined

considerations then permit us to separate the notion of integral

rom the naive intuitive idea of area, and to express it analytically in terms of the notion of number only.

NOTE: Thus we first develop idea in term sof plane region,a nd then seaprate thi

s idea to express anlytically only.

This analytical

definition of the integral we shall find to be of great significance,

not only because it alone enables us to attain complete clarity

in our concepts, but also because its applications extend far

beyond the calculation of areas.

NOTE VERY IMPORTANT! Thus here we can see Courant's stance that the analytical

definition of the

integral not only is the only one that enables us to attain complete

clarity in our concepts, but also because the applications of hte integral exten

ds far beyond

the calculation of areas.

p 80 djvu p 96 Courant

3. Extensions, Notation, Fundamental Rules.

The above definition of the integral as the limit of a sum led

Leibnitz to express the integral by the following symbol:

f /(x)&.

The integral sign is a modification of a s mmation sign which

had the shape of a long S. The passage to the limit from a subdivision of the interval in o finite portions Ax, is suggested by

the use o the letter d in place of A. We must, however, guard

ourselves against thinking of dx as an "infinitely small quantity" or "infinitesimal ", or of the integral as the "sum of

an infinite number of in n{tely small quantities ". Such a conception would be devoid of any clear meaning; it is only a naive

befogging of what we have previously carried out with precision.

ND CALCULATING DEFINITE INTEGRALS BY USING DEFINITE BY COURANT!!!!!!!!

4. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL, THE PRIMITIVE FUNCTION, AND

THE FUNDAMEntAL THEOREMS OF THE DIFFERENTIAL AND

INTEGRAL CALCULUS.

As we have already mentioned above, the conne on between

the problem of integration and the problem of di erentiation is

the corner-stone of the di erential and integral calculus. This

connexion we will now study.

1. he Integral as a Function of the Upper Limit.

The value of the definite integral of a functionf (z) depends on

the choice of the two limits of integration a and b. It is a function of the lower limit a as well as of the upper limit 5. In order

limit a to be a definite fixed number, denote the variable of inegration no longer by z but by u (cf. p. 82), and denote the upper

limit by z instead of b in order to suggest that we shall let the

upper limit vary and that we wish to investigate the value of

the integral as a function of the upper limit. Accordingly, we

ff(u) du = (x).

We call this function q)(x) an indefinite integral of the function

f(x). When we speak of an and

not of t e indefinite integral, we

suggest that instead of the lower

limit a any other could be chosen,

in which case we should ordinarily obtain a different value

for the integral. Geometrically

the indefinite integral for each

value of x will be given by the

area (shown by shading in fig. 17)

under the curve y f(u) and

bounded by the ordinates u---- a

and u

x, the sign being determined by rules given earlier

(p. 81).

If we choose another lower limit a in place of the lower limit

a, we obtain the indefinite integral

tF (x) f (u) du.

The difference tF(x) -- ( (x) will obviously be given by

which is a constant, since a and a are each taken as fixexl given

numbers. Therefore

T(x) = $ (x) + const.;

Different indefinite integrals of the same function differ only

by an additive constant.

NOTE: Thus in the mathematical proof, we take the lower boundary as a constant

a and make the upper

boundary vary (and thus replace by x)(and them being indefinite integrals, anoth

er graphical representation of + C, instead

of just vertical shifts in graph) and then take a different >lower boundary< and

take the integral between

lower boundaries, all to show that "the difference between indefinite integrals

differ only by a constant", since

of course in the integral between both lower boundaries they are both constants

"a" and thus are a constant, and do not

vary.

limit, and introduce the function

in which b is a fixed number. tiere again two such in-

tegrals with different upper limits b and

additive constantf f(u) du.

differ only by an

NOTE: This is just to show that the indefinite integrals differ only by a consta

nt still even when upper boundaries are given a fixed

constant instead.

We will now differentiate the indefinite integral (I)(x) with

respect to the variable x. The result is the following theorem:

The inclefr ite integral

q) (x) --- f.f(u) du

of a continuous function f(x) always possesses a derivative (I)' (x),

that is, differentiation of the indefinite integral of a given eonti uous function always gives us back that same function.

This is the root idea of the whole of the differential and integral

calculus.

NOTE: Thus he considers the root idea of the whl of differential and integral c

alculus to be that the differentiation of the indefinite integral of a given con

tinuous funciton always gives

us back that same function.

The proof follows extremely simply from the interpretation of the integral as an area. We form the di eren

quotient

q) (x + h) -- q) (x)

h '

and observe that the numerator

q) (x + h)- q) (x) =J , +hf (u, du _ f, f(u)du = f + f (u)du

ts the axea between the ordinate corresponding to x and the

ordinate corresponding to x + h.

Now let x o be a point in the interval between x and x + h at

which the function f(x) akes its greatest value, and x a a point

at which it takes i s leaat value in that interval (of. tlg. 18).

NOTE: Thus we are differentiation with respect to x, not with respect to udu, so

it's x, which

is the upper boundary, that we're differentiating with respect to. The integral

in teh numerator

then becomes from x to x+h which shows that the derivative which we divide by h

will be

the function itself.

p djvu p 128

Then the area in question will lie between the values hf(xo) and

hf(xx) , which represent the areas of rectangles with the interval

from x to x q- h as base and f(xo) and f(xx) respectively as allitudes. Expressed analytically,

f(Xo)

q) (x q- h) - q) (x) _ f(x ).

-- h

This can also be proved directly from he definition of the integral without appealing to the geometrical interpretation.*

To do this we write

+hf(u)du = lira

f(uv)Auv,

where %

, ,x , u ..... un

x q- h are points of division of

the interval from x io x q- h, and the greatest of the absolute

values of the differences A% %- %_

ends to zero as n

increases. Then A%/h is certainly positive, no ma er whether

h is positive or negative. Since we know that f(x0) f(u ) f(x )

and since the sum of the quantities A% is equal to h, it follows

that

f(xo) _

and hus if we let

tend to infinity we obtain the inequalities

stated above for

1 f + (I) (x + h) - (I) ( )

f(u) du or

I h now ends o zero, both f(%) and f(x ) must end to the

limit f(x), owing to the ontinnity of the fimcfion. We therefore

see at once that

)'(x) =

)(x + ) - )( ) =_y(x),

as stated by our theorem.

theorem, by 3, No. 5, p. 97:

The integral of a eo tinuous funetio i(x) is itself a continuous

function of the upper limit.

NOTE: This I haven't seen before that the integral of a continuous function f(x)

is itself a continuous funciton of the upper limit.

For the sake of completoness we would point out that if we

regard the definite integral not as a function of its upper limit

but as a function of its lower limit, the derivative is not equal

to f(x), but is instead equal to --f(x). In symbols: if we put

4(x)

then 4' (x) -- -- f (x).

The proof follows {mmediaiely from the remark that

f (u)du : -- f (u)du.

group of all primitive functions is answered by the following

theorem, sometimes referred to as the fundamental theorem of

the different!a! and integral calculus:

The difference of two primitives F (x) and Fz(x) of tk same fu wtion f(x) gs always a constant:

Thus from any one primitive function F(x) we ca obta

others in the form

(x) +

by su le. choic of t constant c. Oonversely, for every valu of

t e constant o the expression F (x)

F(x) - c represents a primitive function of f(x).

NOTE: Thus two different sections cover what was covered in Kilmogrov on the fu

ndamental theorem relating definite and indefinitne integrals as well.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

from Mathematics for Nonmathematician Morris Kline

p 388 djvu p 405

The major idea characterizing the integral calculus is the inverse to that

underlying the differential calculus: namely, instead of finding the derivative

of a function from the function, one proceeds to find the function from the

derivative. Of course, all really significant ideas prove to have extensions and

applications far beyond what is immediately apparent, and we shall find this

to be true of the integral calculus also.

NOTE: Thus when we find the integral, we're always assuming that the function we

're finding an integral of (the integrand) is a derivative.

p 132 djvu p 142

We suppose that a material point is moving along a straight line with

velocity v = f(t), where t is the time. We already know that the distance

a covered by our point in the time between t = t l and t = 1 2 is given

by the definite integral

f t.

a = fit) dt.

t,

Now let us assume that the law of motion of the point is known to us;

that is, we know the function s = F(t) expressing the dependence on the

time t of the distance s calculated from some initial point A on the straight

line. The distance a covered in the interval of time [11' 1 2 ] is obviously

equal to the difference

a = F(1 2 ) - F(t l ).

In this way we are led by physical considerations to the equality

f t.

f(t) dt = F(t 2 ) - F(I I ),

t,

which expresses the connection between the law of motion of our point

and its velocity.

NOTE: Thus this section is about connection between differnetial and integral c

alculus, and this section also is

about the general mehtod for finding definite integrals, so these two

topics are intimately related, or even one and the same.

NOTE: Thus by physical considerations, if we have a function of velocity and al

so know it's indefinite integrals as a funciton of position

or distance, then we know that the definite integral (distance covered in interv

al from t0 to t1) from t0 to t1 interval is F(t1) - F(t0), and

thus physically this makes sense.

know from 5, may be defined as a function whose derivative for all

values of t in the given interval is equal to f(I), that is

F'(I) = f(t).

Such a function is called a primitive for f(I).

We must keep in mind that if the functionf(t) has at least one primitive,

then along with this one it will have an infinite number of others; for if

F(t) is a primitive for fit), then F(t) + C, where C is an arbitrary constant,

is also a primitive. Moreover, in this way we exhaust the whole set of

primitives for f(t), since if F I (I) and F 2 (1) are primitives for the same

function f(I), then their difference 4>(t) = FI(t) - F 2 (1) has a derivative

1O. INTEGRAL

133

q,'(t) that is equal to zero at every point in a given interval so that q,(t)

is a constant. *

NOTE: Thus this part says that we can reasonably cancel out the constants C in t

he integral, when

taking the difference F(t1) - F(t0) because there's an infinite amount of indefi

nite integrals with constant's C and

there must be one therefore, in which these constants cancel out. (this is done

stating the use of hte mean value theorem).

determine laws of motion which differ from one another only in the fact

that they correspond to all possible choices for the initial point of the

motion.

We are thus led to the result that for an extremely wide class of functions

f(x), including all cases where the function fix) may be considered as the

velocity of a point at the time x, we have the following equalityt

r f(x) dx = F(b) - F(a),

a

(30)

where F(x) is an arbitrary primitive for f(x).

This equality is the famous formula of Newton and Leibnitz, which

reduces the problem of calculating the definite integral of a function to

finding a primitive for the function and in this way forms a link between

the differential and the integral calculus.

NOTE: Thus these + C constants, physically interpreted means that they only dif

fer from one another in that

they correspond to all possible choices for the initial point of the motion.

NOTE: Thus as they differ only in their initial points of motion, we get the in

terval by subtracting

on the interval, where the initial points won't affect the values.

!!!!!!!!!!On physical interpretation of derivative and why best not to think gra

phically!!!!!!!!!!!!!

3. THE DERIVATIVE

The concept of the derivative, like that of the integral, is of

intuitive origin. Its sources are (1) the problem of constructing

he tangent to a given curve at a given point and (2) the problem

of finding a precise definition for the velocity in an arbitrary

motion.

2. ae Derira[ire as a Velocity.

Just as naive intuition led us to the notion of the direction

of the tangent to a curve, so it causes us to assign a velocity to a

motion. The definition of velocity leads us once again to exactly

the same limiting process as we have already called differentiation.

Let us consider, for example, the motion of a point on a

straight line, the position of the point being determined by a

single co-ordinate y. This co-ordinate y is the distance, with its

proper sign, of our moving point from a fixed point on the line.

The motion is given if we know y as a function of the time t,

y-- f(t). If this function is a linear functionf (t) ---- c q- b, we call

the motion a uniform motion witlz tlze velocity , and for every pair

of values t and t x which are not equal to one another we can write

e _f(t ) --f(t)

The velocity is therefore the difference quotient of the function

ct q-b, and this difference quotient is completely independent

of the particular pair of instants which we fix upon. But what

are we to understand by the velocity of motion at an instant t

ff the motion is no longer nullorton.

quotient f(q) --f(t), which we shall call the average velocity in

the time interval between t a and t. If now this average velocity

tends tea defmibe limit when we let the instant t a come closer

and closer to t, we shah natqlmlly define this ]imlt as the velocity

at the time t. In other words: tlze velocity at tlze time t is tlze derivative

f, (t) -_- nmf(q) - f(t)

From this new meaning of the derivative, which in itself has

nothing to do with the tangent problem, we see that it really is

appropriate to define the limiting process of differentiation as a

purely analytical operation independent of geometrical intuitions.

Here again the differentiability of the position-function is an

assumption which we shall always tacitly make, and which, in

fact, is absolutely necessary if the notion of velocity is to have

any meaning.

7. The Derivative and the Difference Quotient.

The fact that in the limiting process which defines the derivative the difference A tends to 0 is sometimes expressed by

saying that the quantity A becomes infi tely small. This expression indicates that the passage to the limit is regarded as a process during which the quantity r is never zero, yet approaches

zero as closely as we please. In Leibnitz's notation the passage

to the limit in the process of differentiation is symbolically expressed by replacing the symbol A by the symbol d, so that we

can define Leibnitz's symbol for the derivative by the equation

dy Ay

dz oAz'

If, however, we wish to obtain a clear grasp of the meaning of

the differe ial calculus we must beware of regarding the derivative as the quotient of two quantities which are actually

"infinitoly small ". The differerwe quot/e A__y absolutely must

be formed with differences ax which are not equal to O. After

the form/ng of this difference quotient we must imagine the

passage to the limit carried out by means of a transformation or

some other device. We have no right to suppose that first Ax

goes through something like a limiting process and reaches a

value which is infinitesimally small but still not 0, so that Az

and Ay are replaced by "in nltely small quantities" or "infmitesima]s" dz and alp, and that the quotient of these quantities is then formed.

NOTE: Thus the main argument for not conceiving of dy/dx as a quotient of infini

tisemals is because

we must necessarily form the difference quotient FIRST with delta x not equal to

0, BEFORE taking the limit.

alp, and that the quotient of these quantities is then formed. Such a conception of the derivative is incompatible with the clarity of ideas demanded in mathematics;

in fact, it is entirely meaningless. For a great many simpleminded people it undoubtedly has a certain charm, the charm of

mystery which is always associated with the word "infinite ";

and in the early days of the differential calculus even Leibnitz

himself was capable of comb'ming these vague mystical ideas

with a thoroughly clear understanding of the limiting process.

It is true that this fog which hung round the foundations of the

new science did not prevent Leibnitz or his great successors

from finding the right path. But this does not release us from

the duty of avoiding every such hazy idea in our building-up

of the differential and integral calculus.

in itself, but is actually of great flexibility and the utmost

usefulness. The reason is that in many calculations and formal

transformations we can deal with. the symbo/s dy and clx

in exactly the same way as if they were ordinary numbers. They

enable us to give neater expression to many calculations which

can be carried out without their use. In the following pages

we shall see this fact verified over and over again, and shall

find ourselves justified in making free and repeated use of it,

provided we do not lose sight of the symbolical character of

the signs dy and dx.

NOTE: Thus we in many transformaitons we dan deal with dy and dx "as if" they we

re ordinary numbers.

Def def this 12!

While tiao idea of the differential as an inCh;rely small quantity has no meaning, and it is accordingly futile to define the

derivative as the quotient of two such quantities, we may still

try to assign a sense to the equationf'(x) ---- dy/dx in such a way

that the expression dy/dx need not be thought of as purely

symbolic, but as the actual quotient of two quantities d and d .

For this purpose we first define the derivative f'(x) by our limiting process, then tbin] of x as fixed and consider the increment

h Az as the independent variable. This quantity h we call

the differential of z, and write h

dx. We now define the expression dy = y'dx = ] f'(x) as the differential of t e function y;

dy is therefore a number which has nothing to do with infinitely

small quantities. So the derivative y,

y' = f'(x) is now really the quotient

of tk differentials dy and dx; but

in this statement there is nothing

remarkable; it is, in fact, merely

a tautology, a restatement of the

verbal definition. The di erential

dy is accordingly the linear part of

the increment Ay (see fig. 16).

g infinitey small quantities, but

is in fact, a tautology ( a mere restatement of the verbal definition).

0

Fi . :6.--The differential a

Nevertheless, it may be pointed out for She sake of completeness

that we may also form second and higher differentials. For if

we .bln] of

as chosen in any manner, but always the same

for every value of x, then dy= hf'(x) is a function of x, of which

we can again form the differential. The result will be called

the second differentia of y, and will be denoted by the symbol

d

d2f(x). The increment of ] f'(x) being h(f'(z - ] ) --f'(x)],

the second differential is obtained by replacing the quantity in

brackets by its linear part hf"(x), so that d2y--- -- h f"(x). We

may naturally proceed further along the same lines, obtaining

third, fourth, ... differentials of y, .&c., which can be defined

by the expressions h f'"(x), haftS(x), and so on.

NOTE: See how the differential dy = hf'(x) is a function of x, and is also a fun

ction of x of which further differntials

can be formed.

10. Remarks on Applications to the Natural eienees.

In the applications of mathematics to uatural phenomena

we never have o deal with sharply defined quantities. Whether

a length is e a y a metre is a question which cannot be decided

by any experiment and which consequently has no "physical

meaning ". Again, there is no immediate physical meaning in saying that the length of a material rod is rational or irrational; we

can always measure it with any desired degree of accuracy in

rational numbers, and the real matter of interest is whether or

not we can manage t perform such a measurement using rational

numbers with relatively small denominators. Just as the question of rationality or irrationality in the rigorous sense of "exact

mathematics" has no physical meaning, so the actual carrying

out of limiting processes in applications will usually be nothing

more than a mathematical idealization.

NOTE: Thus Courant's stance is that in physical appications, the actual carrying

out fo a limiting process will

usually be nothing mroe than a mathematicla idealization.

The practical significance of such ideal zations lies chiefly

in the fact that if they are used all analytical expressions

become essentially simpler and more manageable. For example,

it is vastly simpler and more convenient to work with the

notion of instantaneous velocity, Which is a function of only

o definite time-instant, than with the notion of average

velocity between two different instants. Without such idealization every rational investigation of nature would be condemned

to hopeless complications and would break down at the very

outset.

NOTE: Thus he thinks the significance of such idealizations is that they are sim

pler and more manageable.

We do not intend, however, to enter into a discussion of the

relationship of mathematics to reality. We merely wish to

emphasize, for the sake of our better undersf nding of the theory,

that in applications we have the right to replace a derivative

by a difference quotient and vice versa, provided only that the

differences are small enough to guarantee a sufficiently close

approximation. The physicist, the biologist, the engineer, or

anyone else who has to deal with these ideas in practice, will

therefore have the right to identify the difference quotient

with the derivative within his limits of accuracy. The smaller

the increment h-----d of the independent variable, the more

accurately can he represent the increment Ay-----f(x - h)- f(x)

by the differential dy hf'(x). So long as he keeps within the

limits of accuracy required by the problem, he is accustomed

to speak of the quantities d ----- h and dy hf'(z) as "infinitesimals ". These "physically infinitesimal" quantities have a

precise meaning. They are finite quantities, not equal to zero,

which are chosen small enough for the given investigation,

e.g. smaller than a fractional part of a wave-length or smaller

than be distance between two electrons in an atom; in general,

smaller than the degree of accuracy required.

NOTE: Also notice he was against "infinitisemal" interpretation before but now s

ays that

"physically infinitesimal" quanitites have a precise meaning, that they are fini

te quantiites not equal to 0, chosen

small enough for the given investigation, such as fracitnal part of a wavelentg

ht or smaler than the distance between two electrons in an

atom ( in general smaller htan degree of accuracy required.)

Def Def this 12.25!

2. The Question of Applications.

The relation of the primitive sum-function to the density of

distribution perhaps becomes clearer when it is realized that

from the point of view of physical facts the limiting processes

of integration and differentiation represent an idealization, and

that they do not express anything exact in nature. On the contrary, in the realm of physical actuality we can form in place of

the integral only a sum of very many small quantities and in

place of the derivative only a difference quotient of very small

quantities. The quantities Az remain different from 0; the

passage to the limit Az-+ 0 is merely a mathematical simplification, in which the accuracy of the mathematical representation

of the reality is not essentially impaired.

NOTE: Thus in physical acutality in place of the integral we can form only a sum

of

very small quantities and in place of the derivative we can form only a differen

ce quotient of very small quantites.

As an example we return to the vertical coli mn of air. According to the atomic theory we find that we cannot thln]r of

the distribution of mass as a continuous function of z. On the

contrary, we will assume (and this, too, is a simplifying. idealization) that the mass is distributed along the z-axis in the form

of a large number of point-molecules lying very close to one

another. Then the sum-function F(z) will not be a continuous

function, but will have a constant value in the interval between

two molecules and will take a sudden jump as the variable z

passes the point occupied by a molecule. The amount of this

jump will be equal o the mass of the molecule, while the average

distance between molecules, according to results established in

atomic theory, is of the order of 10 -s cm. If now we are performing upon this air column some measurement in which masses

of the order 10

molecules are to be considered negligible, our

function cannot be distinguished from a contiw ous function.

For if we choose two values z and z - Az whose difference Az

is less than 10 - cm., then the difference between F(z) and

F(z - r) will be the mass of the molecules in the interval;

since the number of these molecules is of the order of 10 , the

values of F(x) and F(x Az) are, so far as our experiment is

concerned, equal. As density of distribution we consider simply

the difference quotient AF(z)_ F(z -Az)- F(z). it is an

Ax Ax '

impotent physical assumption that we do not obtain measurably

different values for this quotient when Ax is allowed to vary

ALREADY WENT THROUGH BOTH VOL OF COURANT, PISKUNOV DOESN'T HAVE ANY,

CALCULUS FOR THE PRACTICAL MAN THOMPSON SEEMS TO BE GOOD WITH PHYSICAL INTERPRET

ATION, EVEN THOUGH

MAY NOT BE ANALYTICAL INTERPRETATION SO DEF CONT ON THOMPSON, BUT FIRST SEE HIS

CONCEPT OF DERIVATIVE AND

THEN GO ON TO SEE CONCEP TOF INTEGRAL.

MAYBE DO FEYNMAN MAYBE NOT, BECAUSE HIS INTERPRETATION IS TOO SPECIFIC AND FOCUS

ED ON

SIMPLE PROBLEMS OF FINDING VELOCITY FROM DISTANCE AND FINCING DISTANCE FROM VELO

CITY, AND THIS

DOESN'T MAKE IT SEEM TOO TRANSFERABLE THEREFORE TO OTHER PROBLESM YOU MAY WANT T

O CONSIDER.

!!!!!!!!!!

P 94 DJVU P 103

All the three problems discussed, in spite of the fact that they refer to

different branches of science, namely mechanics, geometry, and the

theory of electricity, have led to one and the same mathematical operation

to be performed on a given function, namely to find the limit of the ratio

of the increase of the function to the corresponding increase h of the

independent variable as h --+ O. The number of such widely different

problems could be increased at will, and their solution would lead to the

same operation. To it we are led, for example, by the question of the rate

of a chemical reaction, or of the density of a nonhomogeneous mass and

so forth. In view of the exceptional role played by this operation on

functions, it has received a special name, differentiation, and the result

of the operation is called the derivative of the function.

Thus, the derivative of the function y = f(x), or more precisely, the

value of the derivative at the given point x is the limit* approached by the

ratio of the increase f(x + h) - f(x) of the function to the increase h

of the independent variable, as the latter approaches zero. ...

variable as h goes to 0, which is very concise and precise.

p 117 djvu p 127

The first summand on the right side of this equality depends on Llx

in a very simple way, namely it is proportional to Llx. It is called the

differential of the function, at the point x, corresponding to the given

increment Llx, and is denoted by

dy = f'(x) Llx.

it is proportional to delta x (change in x).

NOTE: Another subtle but equally important point is that we call it the differne

tial of the fucnction >"at the point x"<, and

thus the differential of a function depends on the point it's taken at. Thus to

say "the integral of a differential is the function itself" really means

we're summing differentials, since the value of the differential changes through

out the funciton, and thus throughout the integration process. It also depends

on as well the increment delta x.

p 118 djvu p 128

In practical problems the differential is often used as an approximate

value for the increment in the function. For example, suppose we have

the problem of determining the volume of the walls of a closed cubical

box whose interior dimensions are 10 x 10 x 10 cm and the thickness

of whose walls is 0.05 cm. If great accuracy is not required, we may argue

as follows. The volume of all the walls of the box represents the increment

Lly of the function y = x 3 for x = 10 and Llx = 0.1. So we find approximately

118

y

FIG. 21.

n. ANALYSIS

x

Lly dy = (x 3 )' Llx = 3x 2 L1x = 3, 10 2 . 0.1 = 30 cm 3 .

NOTE: Thus in practical problems the differential does have a concrete interpret

ation. The interpretation of the differential

is as an approximation for the increment of the function. This makes sense. If

dy = (dy/dx)*delta x = (dy/dx)*dx, that means we're

multiplying the derivative rate of change by a small change in the function, and

thus we get an approximation to the increment of hte funciton

change in y.

of the independent variable by dx and to call it also a differential. With

this notation the differential of the function may be written thus:

dy = f'(x) dx.

Then the derivative is the ratio f'(x) = dyJdx of the differential of the

function to the differential of the independent variable.

so call it a differential just for

purposes of symmetry.

of an "indivisible." This concept, which from a modern point of view

was never very clearly defined, was in its time, in the 18th century, a

fundamental one in mathematical analysis. The ideas concerning it have

undergone essential changes in the course of several centuries. The

indivisible, and later the differential of a function, were represented as

actual infinitesimals, as something in the nature of an extremely small

constant magnitude, which however was not zero. The definition given

in this section is the one accepted in present-day analysis. According to this

definition the differential is a finite magnitude for each increment Llx

and is at the same time proportional to Llx. The other fundamental

property of the differential, the character of its difference from Lly, may

be recognized only in motion, so to speak: if we consider an increment

Llx which is approaching zero (which is infinitesimal), then the difference

between dy and Lly will be arbitrarily small even in comparison with

Llx.

NOTE: Thus the differntial is a finite magnitude for each increment change in x

(delta x) and is at the same time proportional to delta x.

NOTE: Also as change in x approaches 0 the difference between change in y delt

ay and dy will be arbitrarily small, evenin comparison with delta x.

function forms the basis

analysis to the study of

clear way in the case of

V and VI.

of most of the applications of infinitesimal

nature. The reader will see this in a particularly

differential equations, dealt in this book in Chapters

te functions forms the basis fo most applicatoins of analsis to the study of nau

tre.

djvu p 517 Courant

CHAPTER X1

The Differential Equations

for the Simplest Types of Vibration

On several occasions we have already met with di erential

equations, that is, equations from which an nnknown function

is to be determined and which involve not only this function

The simplest problem of this type is that of finding the indefinite integral of a given functionf (x). This problem requires us to

find a function y = F(x) which satisfies the differential equation

y' --f(x) = 0. Fur er, we solved a problem of the same type in

Chap. III, 7 (p. 178), where we showed that an equation of the

form y'= ay is satisfied by an exponential function y = ee .

As we saw in Chap. V (p. 294), differential equations arise in

connexion with the problems of mechanics, and indeed many

branches of pure mathematics and most of applied mathematics

depend on differential equations. In this chapter, without

going into the general theory, we shall consider the differential

equations of the simplest types of vibration. These are not only

of theoretical value, but are also extremely important in applied

mathematics.

DEF DEF THIS 12.5!

It will be convenient to bear the following general ideas and

definitions in mind. By a solutio of a ditierential equation we

mean a function which, when substituted in the differential

equation, satisfies the equation for all values of the independent variable that are being considered. Instead of solution

the term integral is often used: in the first place because

the problem is more or less a generalization of the ordinary

problem of integration; and in the second place because

it frequently happens that the solution is actually found by

integration.

NOTE: Thus by "solution" it is meant a function which when substituted in the di

fferential equation, satisfies the

eqution for all values ofth eindependent variable beign considered.

NOTE: The solution is usually found by integration.

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