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MUSCLES OF THE HEAD & NECK

ARYEPIGLOTTICUS
ORIGIN
Apex of arytenoid cartilage

INSERTION
Lateral border of epiglottis

ACTION
Aids closure of additus of larynx

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

AURICULARIS
ORIGIN
Cartilage of auricle

INSERTION
Galeal aponeurosis

ACTION
Adjusts position of ear

NERVE
Temporal branch of facial nerve (VII)

BUCCINATOR

ORIGIN
External alveolar margins of maxilla and mandible by molar teeth, to
maxillary tubercle and pterygoid hamulus and posterior mylohyoid line
respectively, then via pterygomandibular raphe between bones

INSERTION
Decussates at modiolus of mouth and interdigitates with opposite side

ACTION
Aids mastication, tenses cheeks in blowing and whistling, aids closure
of mouth

NERVE
Buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)

INFERIOR CONSTRICTOR
ORIGIN
Cricopharyngeus: lateral aspect of arch of cricoid
cartilage. Thyropharyngeus: oblique line of laminar of thyroid cartilage
and fibrous cricothyroid arch

INSERTION
Cricopharyngeus: continuous with muscle of opposite side, behind
pharynx. Thyropharyngeus : lower pharyngeal raphe

ACTION
Aids swallowing . Cricopharyngeus acts as upper esophageal sphincter

NERVE
Pharyngeal plexus (IX, X and sympathetic) via pharyngeal branch of X
with its motor fibers from cranial accessory (XI)

MIDDLE CONSTRICTOR

ORIGIN
Lower third of stylohyoid ligament, lesser cornu and superior border of
greater cornu of hyoid bone

INSERTION
Middle portion of pharyngeal raphe

ACTION
Aids swallowing

NERVE
Pharyngeal plexus (IX, X and sympathetic) via pharyngeal branch of X
with its motor fibers from cranial accessory nerve (XI)

SUPERIOR CONSTRICTOR
ORIGIN
Lower two thirds of medial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphe and
posterior end of mylohyoid line on mandible

INSERTION
Upper midline pharyngeal raphe and pharyngeal tubercle of clivus of
occiput

ACTION
Aids swallowing

NERVE
Pharyngeal plexus (IX, X and sympathetic) via pharyngeal branch of X
with its motor fibers from cranial accessory (XI)

CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII
ORIGIN
Medial superciliary arch

INSERTION
Skin of medial forehead

ACTION
Wrinkles forehead

NERVE
Temporal branch of facial nerve (VII)

CRICOTHYROID
ORIGIN
Anterolateral aspect of cricoid cartilage

INSERTION
Inferior cornu and lower laminar of thyroid cartilage

ACTION
Lengthens and tenses vocal cords by tilting thyroid cartilage forwards

NERVE
External branch of superiorlaryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS

ORIGIN
Outer surface of mandible posterior to oblique line

INSERTION
Modiolus at angle of mouth

ACTION
Depresses and draws angle of mouth laterally

NERVE
Mandibular branch of facial nerve (VII)

DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS


ORIGIN
Outer surface of mandible along oblique line

INSERTION
Skin of lower lip

ACTION
Depresses and draws lower lip laterally

NERVE
Mandibular branch of facial nerve (VII)

DIGASTRIC

ORIGIN
Anterior belly: digatric fossa on posterior surface of symphysis
menti. posterior belly: base of medial aspect of mastoid process

INSERTION
Fibrous loop to lesser cornu of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates hyoid bone. Aids swallowing and depresses mandible

NERVE
Anterior belly: mylohyoid nerve (V). posterior belly: facial nerve (VII)

DIGASTRIC (ANTERIOR VIEW)


ORIGIN
Anterior belly: digastric fossa on posterior surface of
symphysis menti. posterior belly : base of medial aspect of
mastoid process

INSERTION
Fibrous loop to lesser cornu of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates hyoid bone: Aids swallowing and depresses
mandible

NERVE
Anterior belly: mylohyoid nerve (V). posterior belly: facial
nerve (VII)

FRONTALIS

ORIGIN
Occipital : highest nuchal line and mastoid process. Frontal: superior
fibers of upper facial muscles

INSERTION
Galeal aponeurosis

ACTION
Wrinkles forehead and fixes galeal aponeurosis

NERVE
Posterior auricular and temporal branches of facial (VII)

GENIOGLOSSUS
ORIGIN
Superior mental spine on posterior surface of symphysis
menti

INSERTION
Central mass of tongue and mucous membrane

ACTION
Protracts tongue

NERVE
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

GENIOHYOID

ORIGIN
Inferior mental spine on posterior surface of symphysis menti

INSERTION
Superior border of body of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates and protracts hyoid bone. Depresses mandible

NERVE
C1 fibers carried by hypoglossal nerve (XII)

HYOGLOSSUS
ORIGIN
Superior border of greater cornu of hyoid bone

INSERTION
Lateral sides of tongue

ACTION
Depresses tongue

NERVE
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

INFERIOR OBLIQUE

ORIGIN
Orbital surface of maxilla behind orbital margin

INSERTION
Post/inferior quadrant of sclera behind equator of eyeball

ACTION
Elevates eye in adduction. Laterally rotates eye in abduction

NERVE
Inferior division of oculomotor nerve (III)

INFERIOR RECTUS
ORIGIN
Inferior tendinous ring within orbit

INSERTION
Inferior sclera anterior to equator of eyeball

ACTION
Depresses eye . Laterally rotates eye in adduction

NERVE
Inferior division of oculomotor nerve (III)

INTRINSIC MUSCLE OF TONGUE

ORIGIN
Superior and inferior longitudinal, transverse and vertical
elements

INSERTION
Mucous membrane, septum and other muscles of tongue

ACTION
Alter shape of tongue and so aid mastication, speech and
swallowing

NERVE
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID
ORIGIN
Lateral aspect of arch of cricoid

INSERTION
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage

ACTION
Adducts and medially rotates arytenoid cartilage (closes rima glottidis)

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

LATERAL PTERYGOID

ORIGIN
Upper head: infratemporal surface of sphenoid bone. Lower
head: lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate

INSERTION
Pterygoid fovea below condyloid process of mandible and intraarticular cartilage of temporomandibular joint

ACTION
Depresses and protracts mandible to open mouth. Pulls forward
cartilage of joint during opening of mouth. Aids in chewing.

NERVE
Nerves to lateral pterygoid (anterior division of mandibular nerve
(V))

LATERAL RECTUS
ORIGIN
Lateral tendinous ring within orbit

INSERTION
Lateral sclera anterior to equator of eyeball

ACTION
Abducts eye

NERVE
Abducent nerve (VI)

LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS


ORIGIN
Anterior surface of maxilla below infraorbital foramen

INSERTION
Outer end of upper lip and modiolus

ACTION
Elevates angle of mouth

NERVE
Buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)

LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS


ORIGIN
Medial infra-orbital margin

INSERTION
Skin and muscle of upper lip

ACTION
Elevates and everts upper lip

NERVE
Buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)

LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI

ORIGIN
Upper frontal process of maxilla

INSERTION
Skin of lateral nostril and upper lip

ACTION
Dilates nostril and elevates upper lip

NERVE
Buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)

LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS


ORIGIN
Inferior aspect of lesser wing of sphenoid bone

INSERTION
Superior tarsal plate and skin of upper eyelid

ACTION
Elevates and retracts upper eyelid

NERVE
Superior division of oculomotor nerve (III) and sympathetic
to smooth muscle portion

LEVATOR VELI PALATINI

ORIGIN
Apex of inferior surface of petrous temporal bone and medial rim
of auditory tube

INSERTION
Palatine aponeurosis

ACTION
Elevates, retracts and lateral deviates soft palate. May open
auditory tube on swallowing

NERVE
Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from
cranial accessory nerve (XI)

LONGUS CAPITUS
ORIGIN
Anterior tubercles of transverse proceses of C3-6

INSERTION
Anterior basilar occipital bone

ACTION
Flexes cervical spine and atlanto-occipital joint

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C1-3

LONGUS COLLI

ORIGIN
Anterior body of T1-3, anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C37.

INSERTION
Anterior arch of atlas (C1) and bodies of C2-4

ACTION
Flexes and rotates cervical spine

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C2-6

MASSETER
ORIGIN
Anterior two thirds of zygomatic arch and zygomatic process of
maxilla

INSERTION
Lateral surface of angle and lower ramus of mandible

ACTION
Elevates mandible (enables forced closure of mouth)

NERVE
Anterior division of mandibular nerve (V)

MEDIAL PTERYGOID

ORIGIN
Deep head medial side of lateral pterygoid plate and fossa
between medial and lateral plates . Superficial head : Tuberosity
of maxilla and pyramidal process of palatine bone

INSERTION
Medial aspect of angle of mandible

ACTION
Elevates the mandible and assits in closing the jaw. Aassits the
lateral pterygoids in moving the jaw side-to-side.

NERVE
Nerve to medial pterygoid (main trunk of mandibular nerve (V))

MEDIAL RECTUS
ORIGIN
Medial tendinous ring within orbit

INSERTION
Medial sclera anterior to equator of eyeball

ACTION
Adducts eye

NERVE
Inferior division oculomotor nerve (III)

MENTALIS

ORIGIN
Incisive fossa on anterior aspect of mandible

INSERTION
Skin of chin

ACTION
Elevates and wrinkles skin of chin and protrudes lower lip

NERVE
Mandibular branch of facial nerve (VII)

M. UVULAE
ORIGIN
Posterior border of hard palate

INSERTION
Palatine aponeurosis

ACTION
Shapes uvula

NERVE
Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from
cranial accessory nerve (XI)

MYLOHYOID
ORIGIN
Mylohyoid line on internal aspect of mandible

INSERTION
Anterior three quarters : midline raphe. posterior quarter:
superior border of body of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates hyoid bone, supports and raises floor of
mouth. Aids in mastication and swallowing

NERVE
Mylohyoid nerve (V)

NASALIS (COMPRESSOR, DILATOR


AND DEPRESSOR)
ORIGIN
Frontal process of maxilla

INSERTION
Nasal aponeurosis

ACTION
Opens and closes nostrils , particularly in forced respiration

NERVE
Part of dilateralor nasalis is depressor septi from maxilla above central
incisor to immobile part of nasal septum

OBLIQUE ARYTENOID
ORIGIN
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage

INSERTION
superior pole of opposite arytenoid cartilage

ACTION
Adducts arytenoid cartilages (closes rima)

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

OBLIQUUS CAPITIS INFERIOR


ORIGIN
Spinous process of axis (C2)

INSERTION
Lateral mass of atlas (C1)

ACTION
Rotates atlanto-axial joint

NERVE
Suboccipital nerve (posterior primary ramus of C1)

OBLIQUUS CAPITIS SUPERIOR

ORIGIN
Lateral mass of atlas (C1)

INSERTION
Lateral half inferior nuchal line

ACTION
Lateral flexes atlanto-occipital joint

NERVE
Suboccipital nerve (posterior primary ramus of C1)

OMOHYOID
ORIGIN
Suprascapular ligament and adjacent scapula

INSERTION
Inferior border of body of hyoid bone

ACTION
Depresses hyoid bone and hence larynx

NERVE
Ansa cervicalis nerve (C1,2,3)

ORBICULARIS OCULI

ORIGIN
Medial orbital margin and lacrimal sac (orbital, palpebral and lacrimal
parts)

INSERTION
Lateral palpebral raphe

ACTION
Closes eyelids, aids passage and drainage of tears

NERVE
Temporal and zygomatic branches of facial nerve (VII)

ORBICULARIS ORIS
ORIGIN
Near midline on anterior surface of maxilla and mandible and modiolus
at angle of mouth

INSERTION
Mucous membrane of margin of lips and raphe with buccinator at
modiolus

ACTION
Narrows orifice of mouth, purses lips and puckers lip edges

NERVE
Accessory parts are incisivus labii superioris and inferioris

PALATOGLOSSUS

ORIGIN
Palatine aponeurosis

INSERTION
Posterolateral tongue

ACTION
Elevates posterior tongue and closes oropharyngeal isthmus
and aids initiation of swallowing

NERVE
Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from
cranial accessory nerve (XI)

PALATOPHARYNGEUS
ORIGIN
Palatine aponeurosis and posterior margin of hard palate

INSERTION
Upper border of thyroid cartilage and blends with constrictor
fibers. Upper fibers interdigitate with opposite side

ACTION
Elevates pharynx and larynx . Closes nasopharyngeal isthmus in
swallowing

NERVE
Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from
cranial accessory nerve (XI)

PLATYSMA
ORIGIN
Skin over lower neck and upper lateral chest

INSERTION
Inferior border of mandible and skin over lower face and angle of mouth

ACTION
Depresses and wrinkles skin of lower face and mouth. Aids forced depression of
mandible

NERVE
Cervical branch of facial nerve (VII)

POSTERIOR CRICOARYTENOID
ORIGIN
Posterior aspect of cricoid cartilage

INSERTION
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage

ACTION
Abducts and laterally rotates arytenoid cartilage (opens rima glottidis)

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

PROCERUS
ORIGIN
Nasal bone and cartilages

INSERTION
Skin of medial forehead

ACTION
Wrinkles and 'frowns' forehead

NERVE
Temporal branch of facial nerve (VII)

RECTUS CAPITUS ANTERIOR


ORIGIN
Lateral mass of atlas (C1)

INSERTION
Basilar occipital bone anterior to occipital condyle

ACTION
Flexes atlanto-occipital joint

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C1

RECTUS CAPITUS LATERALIS

ORIGIN
Lateral mass of atlas (C1)

INSERTION
Jugular process of occipital bone

ACTION
Lateral flexes atlanto-occipital joint

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C1

RECTUS CAPITUS POSTERIOR MAJOR


ORIGIN
Spinous process of axis (C2)

INSERTION
Lateral half of inferior nuchal line

ACTION
Extends and rotates atlanto-occipital joint

NERVE
Suboccipital nerve (posterior primary ramus C1)

RECTUS CAPITUS POSTERIOR MINOR

ORIGIN
Posterior process of atlas (C1)

INSERTION
Medial half of inferior nuchal line

ACTION
Extends and rotates atlanto-occipital joint

NERVE
Suboccipital nerve (posterior primary ramus C1)

RISORIUS
ORIGIN
Deep fascia of face and parotid

INSERTION
Modiolus and skin at angle of mouth

ACTION
Retracts angle of mouth

NERVE
Buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)

SALPINGOPHARYNGEUS

ORIGIN
Inferior cartilage and mucosa of pharyngeal orifice of auditory tube

INSERTION
Upper border of thyroid cartilage and inferior constrictor muscle
fibers

ACTION
Elevates pharynx and larynx and aids swallowing . Opens auditory
canal during swallowing

NERVE
Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from
cranial accessory nerve (XI)

SCALENUS MEDIUS
ORIGIN
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C2-7

INSERTION
Superior aspect of neck of 1st rib

ACTION
Accessory to inspiration

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C3-8

SCALENUS MINIMUS
ORIGIN
Anterior tubercle of transverse process of C7

INSERTION
Suprapleural membrane (Sibson's fascia)

ACTION
Supports suprapleural membrane

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C7

SCALENUS POSTERIOR
ORIGIN
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes C4-6

INSERTION
Post/lateral surface of 2nd rib

ACTION
Accessory to inspiration

NERVE
Anterior primary rami of C6-8

SPLENIUS CAPITIS

ORIGIN
Lower ligament nuchae, spinous processes and supraspinous
ligaments T1-3

INSERTION
Lateral occiput between superior and inferior nuchal lines

ACTION
Extends and rotates cervical spine

NERVE
Posterior primary rami of C3, 4

SPLENIUS CERVICIS
ORIGIN
Spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments of T3-6

INSERTION
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-3

ACTION
Extends and rotates cervica spine

NERVE
Posterior primary rami of C5, 6

STAPEDIUS
ORIGIN
The pyramid (posterior wall of middle ear)

INSERTION
Neck of stapes

ACTION
Protects and critically damps ossicular chain

NERVE
Facial (VII), in middle ear

STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

ORIGIN
Anterior and superior manubrium and superior medial third of
clavicle

INSERTION
Lateral aspect of mastoid process and anterior half of superior
nuchal line

ACTION
Flexes and laterally rotates cervical spine. Protracts head
when acting together . Extends neck when neck already
partially extended

NERVE
Spinal accessory nerve (lateral roots C1-5)

STERNOHYOID
ORIGIN
Superior lateral posterior aspect of manubrium

INSERTION
Inferior border of body of hyoid bone

ACTION
Depresses hyoid bone and hence larynx

NERVE
Ansa cervicalis nerve (C1, 2, 3)

STERNOTHYROID
ORIGIN
Medial posterior aspect of manubrium

INSERTION
Oblique line of lamina of thyroid cartilage

ACTION
Depresses larynx

NERVE
Ansa cervicalis nerve (C1, 2, 3)

STYLOGLOSSUS
ORIGIN
Anterior surface and apex of styloid process and upper quarter
of stylohyoid ligament

INSERTION
Superolateral sides of tongue

ACTION
Retracts and elevates tongue, aids initiation of swallowing

NERVE
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

STYLOHYOID

ORIGIN
Base of styloid process

INSERTION
Base of greater cornu of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates and retracts hyoid bone. Aids swallowing and elevates larynx

NERVE
Mandibular branch of facial nerve (VII)

STYLOHYOID (ANTERIOR VIEW)


ORIGIN
Base of styloid process

INSERTION
Base of greater cornu of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates and retracts hyoid bone. Aids swallowing and
elevates larynx

NERVE
Mandibular branch of facial nerve (VII)

STYLOPHARYNGEUS

ORIGIN
Medial aspect of styloid process

INSERTION
Posterolateral border of thyroid cartilage

ACTION
Elevates larynx and pharynx . Aids swallowing

NERVE
Muscular branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

SUPERIOR OBLIQUE
ORIGIN
Body of sphenoid above tendinous ring

INSERTION
Post/superior quadrant of sclera behind equator of eyeball

ACTION
Depresses eye in adduction. Medially rotates eye in abduction

NERVE
Trochlear nerve (IV)

SUPERIOR RECTUS

ORIGIN
Superior tendinous ring within orbit

INSERTION
Superior sclera anterior to equator of eyeball

ACTION
Elevates eye. Medially rotates eye in adduction

NERVE
Superior division of oculomotor nerve (III)

TEMPORALIS
ORIGIN
Temporal fossa between inferior temporal line and infratemporal
crest

INSERTION
Medial and anterior aspect of coronoid process of mandible

ACTION
Elevates mandible and posterior fibers retract

NERVE
Deep temporal branches from anterior division of mandibular
nerve (V)

TEMPOROPARIETALIS

ORIGIN
Aponeurosis above auricularis

INSERTION
Galeal aponeurosis

ACTION
Fixes galeal aponeurosis

NERVE
Temporal branch of facial nerve (VII)

TENSOR TYMPANI
ORIGIN
Cartilaginous and bony margins of auditory tube

INSERTION
Handle of malleus (via processus trochleariformis)

ACTION
Protects and critically damps ossicular chain

NERVE
Nerve to medial pterygoid (main trunk of mandibular nerve (V))

TENSOR VELI PALATINI


ORIGIN
Scaphoid fossa and medial aspect of spine of sphenoid bone

INSERTION
Palatine aponeurosis (via pulley of pterygoid hamulus)

ACTION
Tenses soft palate prior to elevation

NERVE
Nerve to medial pterygoid (main trunk of mandibular nerve (V))

THYRO-ARYTENOID & VOCALIS


ORIGIN
Lower posterior surface of angle between laminae of thyroid cartilage

INSERTION
Vocal process of arytenoid cartilage

ACTION
Shortens and relaxes vocal cords by medial rotation and protraction of arytenoid
cartilage

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

THYRO-EPIGLOTTICUS & VOCALIS


ORIGIN
Lower posterior surface of thyroid cartilage

INSERTION
Lateral border of epiglottis

ACTION
Aids closure of additus to larynx

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

THYROHYOID
ORIGIN
Oblique line of lamina of thyroid cartilage

INSERTION
Inferior border of body of hyoid bone

ACTION
Elevates larynx or depresses hyoid bone

NERVE
C1 fibers carried by hypoglossal nerve (XII)

TRANSVERSE ARYTENOID
ORIGIN
Posterior surface and muscular process of arytenoid cartilage

INSERTION
Corresponding surfaces of opposite cartilage

ACTION
Adducts arytenoid cartilage (closes rima glottidis)

NERVE
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

ZYGOMATICUS MINOR
ORIGIN
Lateral infra-orbital margin

INSERTION
Skin and muscle of upper lip

ACTION
Elevates and everts upper lip

NERVE
Buccal branch of facial nerve (VII)