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Technical Committee 211

Ground Improvement
Comit technique 211

Amlioration des sols

General Report of TC 211


Ground Improvement
Rapport gnral du TC 211
Amlioration des sols
Huybrechts N.

Belgian Building Research Institute, BBRI & KU Leuven, Belgium

Denies N.

Belgian Building Research Institute, BBRI, Belgium

ABSTRACT: The present General Report highlights the significant contributions of the papers of the Session of the XVIII ICSMGE
dedicated to Ground Improvement. All papers that have been reviewed are referred (in bold) in the General Report in order to provide
a balanced overview of the entire Technical Session.
This General Report discusses the latest developments and current researches in the field of Ground Improvement (GI) works. The
various GI techniques are classified considering the recent classification proposed by Chu et al. (2009). The papers are then tackled
according to the described GI technique and with regard to the topics that are assessed: execution process, mechanical characterization
of the treated material (in laboratory or in situ), case history, Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) activities and design
aspects. Conceptual works and numerical modeling are supported by laboratory and field investigations - with in situ monitoring and
large scale tests. Finally, other references on the topics discussed are also given in the report.
RESUME : Le prsent rapport gnral met en vidence les contributions significatives des articles de la session amlioration des
sols de la 18me CIMSG. Tous les articles revus ont t rfrencs (en gras) dans le rapport gnral de manire fournir une vue
densemble quilibre du contenu de cette session.
Ce rapport discute des derniers dveloppements et des recherches actuelles dans le domaine des travaux damlioration des sols. Les
diffrentes techniques sont classes selon la rcente classification propose par Chu et al. (2009). Les articles sont ensuite abords en
tenant compte de la technique dexcution dcrite et du sujet choisi par les auteurs : procd dexcution, caractrisation mcanique
du matriau trait (en laboratoire ou in situ), cas pratique, activits de contrle et dassurance du point de vue de la qualit et aspects
lis au dimensionnement. Les approches de conception et la modlisation numrique sont supportes par des recherches en laboratoire
et par lexprience de chantier apporte par le monitoring in situ et par les essais en grandeur relle. Finalement, dautres rfrences
concernant le domaine de lamlioration des sols sont aussi indiques.
KEYWORDS: ground improvement/reinforcement, deep mixing, drainage, geosynthetics, grouting, inclusions, vacuum consolidation
1

INTRODUCTION

Ground improvement (GI) is one of the major topics in


geotechnical engineering. With regard to the world population
growth and in response to the expansion needs of our society, it
has become a fast growing discipline in civil engineering as an
alternative allowing construction on soft/weak/compressible
soils. Various specialized ground improvement conferences
have been frequently held in the past and recent years such as
the International Symposium on Ground Improvement
organized by the Technical Committee 211 of the ISSMGE and
recently held in Brussels (Denies and Huybrechts, 2012)
especially with more than 140 papers and 7 General Reports
focusing on GI works. A number of books covering various
topics on ground improvement have been also published in the
past. Most of them are referred in Chu et al. (2009). During the
last decades the importance of the ground improvement market
has enormously increased. New methods, tools and procedures
have been developed and applied in practice. In order to support
this evolution in a scientific way, research programs have been
and are being carried out worldwide, leading to more and better
insights and delivering the basis for the establishment of design
methods, quality control procedures and standards. As a result,
many technical papers on GI works were published in journals
and conference proceedings. It is not possible to mention all.
Separate lists are given on the TC211 website
(www.bbri.be/go/tc211). Major GI techniques have been

documented by the Working Groups of TC211 and are currently


available on this website.
TC211 adopts a classification system as shown in Table 1 in
Chu et al. (2009) with the following categories (and methods):
- A. GI without admixtures in non-cohesive soils or fill
materials (dynamic compaction, vibrocompaction,)
- B. GI without admixtures in cohesive soils (Replacement,
preloading, vertical drains, vacuum consolidation,)
- C. GI with admixtures or inclusions (Vibro replacement,
stone columns, sand compaction piles, rigid inclusions,)
- D. GI with grouting type admixtures (Particulate and
chemical grouting, Deep mixing, jet grouting,)
- E. Earth reinforcement (geosynthetics or MSE, ground
anchors, soil nails,)
This classification is based on the broad trend of behaviors of
the ground to be improved and whether admixture is used or
not. In the following sections, the papers of the Session of the
XVIII ICSMGE dedicated to GI works will be reviewed
according to this classification and with regard to the topics that
are assessed: execution process, mechanical characterization of
the treated material, case history, QA/QC activities and design
aspects. It can already be noted that there is no paper
considering GI without admixtures in non-cohesive soils
(category A) in the present Technical Session.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

GI WITHOUT ADMIXTURES IN COHESIVE SOILS

In the present Technical Session, six papers can be put in the


category B: GI without admixtures in cohesive soils. They are
mainly related to the subject of consolidation acceleration by
vertical drains combined with surcharge or Vacuum. The
interest seems to be oriented to the approach of smear. ParsaPajouh et al. (2013) address this delicate topic so difficult to
model due to the lack of field parameters. According to the
authors, the smear zone varies between 1.6 and 7 times the drain
radius or 1 to 6 times the mandrel equivalent diameter.
Numerical models are used within the framework of case
studies. Parameters studies confirm their validity. As a result of
their researches, it is recommended to assess the smear zone on
the basis of trial construction with the help of back calculation
process.
Chai and Carter (2013) present a theoretical approach of
Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) and consolidation
combining vacuum pressure and surcharge loading. Using
Hansbos (1981) solution, consolidation parameters of the
smear zone and the undisturbed zone were derived using a
simple equation. Adopting an average well resistance and with
some approximation, the dimensionless parameter quantifying
the effects of PVD spacing, smear zone and well resistance can
be expressed. The study was performed in uniaxial
consolidation condition, which is not in agreement with the real
isotropic character of deformation under Vacuum. Moreover,
the classical assumption of uniform smear zone cannot be
measured. However the pore pressure measurements of the
tested samples are in extreme close concordance with the
prediction confirming the validity of the approach and the
selected parameters.
Indraratna et al. (2013) treat similar subject in conjunction
with a real construction site in the Port of Brisbane where the
consolidation of thick Holocene clays was performed with
PVDs under surcharge and/or Vacuum loading. Variable drain
spacing was selected and analytical solutions were proposed.
For the excess pore pressure dissipation, the same equation as in
Chai and Carter (2013) was adopted. The results demonstrate
that Vacuum combined with preloading would speed up
consolidation compared to preloading alone. Moreover,
Vacuum results in isotropic consolidation increasing the
stability of the surcharge fill (decreasing lateral displacements).
In a similar way, Lee et al. (2013) have also studied the
effect of the smear zone for a consolidation case history in
Busan (South Korea). Modification of Hansbo's analysis is
proposed to study the degree of consolidation considering the
properties of the soil within the smear zone.
As another case history, Islam and Yasin (2013) present an
application of PVDs coupled with preloading used for the
construction of a large container yard in Bangladesh. The soil
profile consists of 4 to 6 m thick silty clay, 8 to 10 m of sand
and silt and 16 m of clayey silt. On the basis of design
requirements, GI of the upper soft clay layer was considered
essential. Five alternatives were assessed and compared. A
solution combining PVD and preloading was adopted for this
site. The settlement under preloading was monitored during the
consolidation phase. Pre and post consolidation SPT tests are
presented to illustrate the efficiency of the technique. It is
believed that dynamic compaction although economical would
not have been technically feasible due to the clayey nature of
the upper fill. However, dynamic replacement in the upper 4 m
with densification of the lower silty sand might have been
technically and financially optimal.
For their part, Jebali et al. (2013) have assessed the theory
of Carillo using three different oedometer tests carried on Tunis
soft soil. Oedometer tests were conducted, conventionally (NF
P94-90-1) for the first test, with a vertical drain allowing only
radial drainage for the second one and finally with a drain

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allowing vertical and radial drainage for the last one. Defining
Cr and Cv as the radial and vertical coefficients of consolidation
and Kr and Kv as the coefficients of radial and vertical
permeability, they observed that the often-made assumption of
the equality between the ratios Cr/Cv and Kr/Kv is only valid at
high levels of stress conditions. Moreover, on the basis of
experimental results, the authors demonstrated that the global
degree of consolidation computed with respect of the Carillos
theory can lead to underestimated consolidation times.
The paper of Weihrauch et al. (2013) describes a
combination of GI methods for the improvement of roads in the
HafenCity area in Hamburg. Indeed, in the Hamburg Harbour
area, many roads are lifted with almost 3 m to ensure safety in
case of flooding. Special measures are necessary when the
subsoil contains compressible layers. At the Hongkongstrasse,
three different construction methods have been applied, namely:
- installation of PVD and preloading with sand (settlements of
more than 30 cm have been measured);
- filling with lightweight aggregate: expanded clay (almost no
settlement was observed);
- pile supported embankment including geogrid-reinforced
sand layer (measurements are discussed in another paper).
The different aspects of each method are described. The
conclusion is that when comparing different methods, not only
the absolute costs must be ascertained, but also the project
specific reconstruction, protection and follow-on measures, as
well as the time and flexibility for individual measures, and
their technical feasibility under local conditions.
3
3.1

GI WITH ADMIXTURES OR INCLUSIONS


Rigid inclusions

Moving towards category C, GI with admixtures or inclusions,


the paper presented by Kirstein and Wittorf (2013) is an
interesting transition between categories B and C. Indeed, the
authors describe the improvement of soft fat clay using rigid
inclusions combined with vertical drains, preloading and the use
of geotextile. The aim of the project was the construction of a
bridge for a new road in Germany including 1.5 to 7 m high
embankments. Vertical drains were first used to accelerate the
consolidation under the embankments (preloading condition).
Even using 600 kN/m woven geotextiles, vertical settlement of
around 1.5 m and horizontal displacement up to 27 cm were
measured throughout one year of monitoring. Because the
bridge could not tolerate residual settlements, Controlled
Modulus Columns (CMC) were designed and executed. The
design of the transition interface between the bridge and the
embankment, referred as the Load Transfer Platform (LTP), was
confirmed by the monitoring.
Cirin et al. (2013) set the constructive procedures and
bases of design of rigid inclusions including the LTP. The
ASIRI guidelines (IREX, 2012) were not yet published at the
time of preparation of this paper. The paper highlights the
difference with pile foundation. In rigid inclusion solutions,
there is no mechanical link between the pile and the structure. A
LTP is usually placed between the inclusions and the structure.
This distribution layer spreads the acting loads from the
structure towards the underlying soil-inclusions setup. As
indicated by the authors, isolated or continuous footings can
possibly be used to directly transmit the loads to the soilinclusions setup. This GI technique can also be applied for
embankments and landfills.
The following paper constitutes a good transition with the
next topic concerning stone columns. According to Carvajal et
al. (2013), dealing with the design of Column Supported
Embankments (CSE), a clear distinction has to be made
between rigid inclusions (e.g. concrete type columns)
characterized by a brittle behavior in its Ultimate Limit State

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

(ULS) and stone columns (made of gravel and sand) which


demonstrate a ductile behavior in its Serviceability Limit State
(SLS) due to its compressibility and drainage characteristics
(influence of the consolidation process on the design). Due to
the brittle behavior of concrete type columns, larger safety
factors have to be introduced, certainly for very slender
elements. The General Reporters fully agree that similar
approaches cannot be applied for very slender concrete type
columns and for stone columns. However it has to be remarked
that it is not common to consider stone columns as drainage
elements.
3.2

Stone columns

In the present Technical Session, Vlavianos et al. (2013)


propose technical solutions for the design of a road project in
the Region of Western Greece. The geology of the site consists
of soft silty clays and silty sands with high liquefaction
susceptibility. The high ground water table and the seismicity of
the area result in a design solution including GI. The installation
of stone columns followed by preloading was selected. For the
design of the bridge embankments and the pile foundations for
bridge piers, a comparative parametric study was performed
with or without stone columns. As discussed by the authors, the
main aim of the preloading was the increase of the undrained
shear strength of the superficial fine-grained soil layer. With the
installation of the stone columns, the following requirements
were met:
- increase of the general stability of the embankments;
- increase of the bearing capacity;
- reduction of the internal forces in the classical pile
foundations;
- acceleration of the consolidation process;
- mitigation of the liquefaction susceptibility.
Although stone columns is nowadays a well-known GI
method, installation effects arising during the execution still
remains poorly understood. In order to investigate this question,
Klimis and Sarigiannis (2013) describe the numerical analysis
of the installation of stone columns with a diameter of 0.8 m
and a depth of 23 m by means of the FLAC 3D Finite
Difference code. The excavation stage has been modeled in one
unique step and the realization of the stone column as follows:
- a) vibration and compaction, modeled by the application of
an equivalent radial pressure against the internal wall of the
cylindrical excavation;
- b) filling with a linear elastic geomaterial.
This numerical sequence was necessary to correctly determine
the area in the surrounding soil influenced by the installation of
the stone column and hence to assess with more accuracy the
effective diameter of this latter.
Poon and Chan (2013) present another methodology to
design stone columns. In this analysis, stone columns are
replaced by equivalent strips, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The
equivalent friction angle of the strips is dependent of the stress
concentration ratio which is defined as the ratio of the average
applied vertical stress within stone column to the average
vertical stress of the surrounding soil at the same level. A
method is proposed to compute this ratio by means of an
axisymmetric Finite Element Model (FEM) containing one
column and the surrounding soil. Numerical results obtained
with this methodology (2D FEM with strips) have been
compared with the results of a 3D FEM and with the results of a
conventional 2D FEM analysis in which the entire soil is
represented by a single block with equivalent properties. The
authors conclude that the strip model is preferable to the block
model for the assessment of the horizontal displacements.
Further research is still necessary to investigate the question of
the equivalent strength of the interface in the 2D strip method.

Figure 1. 2D stone column strips, from Poon and Chan (2013)

3.3

Geotextile confined columns

Rigid inclusions are a common GI technique for foundations of


embankments in soft soils. Nevertheless, when the soft soil does
not provide enough lateral support, the columns can be encased
with a geotextile. The following papers mainly focus on the
geotextile confined columns, also defined as geoencased
granular columns (GECs).
Castro et al. (2013) describe and compare analytical and
numerical analyses considering the behavior and the
performances of geotextile confined columns (GECs).
Parametric studies of the settlement reduction and stress
concentration show the efficiency of GECs for GI purposes.
This efficiency is mainly related to the contrast of stiffness
between the encasement and the soil. As another conclusion, it
is found that the settlement reduction is nearly the same for
different replacement ratios but decreases with the applied load.
Finally, columns with smaller diameter are better confined.
If GECs are often used to reduce settlements induced by the
construction of large embankments on soft soils, up to now no
rational displacement based design approach has been
introduced. For the purpose of investigating this question, Galli
and di Prisco (2013) first review the most common design
standards and then focus on the interaction between the
embankment and the geoencased columns. The main
contribution of the paper resides in the consideration of the
deformable base of the embankment. Indeed, real embankments
are characterized by a deformable base, as illustrated in Fig. 2.
As a consequence, different values of settlement are expected
for the top of the column (uc) and for the soil (us) at the base of
the embankment. As explained by the authors, vertical stresses
are redistributed at the base of the embankment between the
internal zone of the cell (above the column characterized by an
average stress i) and the external one (a circular crown above
the soil, characterized by an average stress e) due to the arch
effect. Shear stresses are then activated at the GEC-soil
interface, and differential settlements are expected even at the
top of the embankment.

a)

b)

Figure 2. Mechanical response of the system in case of (a) rigid and (b)
deformable embankment, from Galli and di Prisco (2013)

Hataf and Nabipour (2013) have designed a reduced-scale


model in such a way to identify the parameters governing the
behavior of the GECs installed in clayey soils. As a result, they
propose to encapsulate only the upper half of the column.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Geosynthetic reinforced column or pile supported


embankment the use of geogrids

Another way to use geosynthetic material for GI application is


the design of geogrids for the support of embankment, land
levees, yards and structure foundations (slabs and superficial
isolated or continuous footings).
Investigating the use of geosynthetics for reinforcement
under ground mass collapse, Ponomaryov and Zolotozubov
(2013) compare the method outlined in British Standard BS
8006 and several design approaches with numerical
calculations. On the basis of experimental elongation results,
they introduce the ratio of actual tensile force to deformation.
Computational assumptions are proposed for the description of
the mechanisms of stress-strain development in the reinforced
ground mass. The authors finally present a comparison between
experimental measurements and the results of seven different
methods used for the calculation of the tensile force in the
geosynthetic, its deflection and the surface settlement.
Mihova and Kolev (2013) analyze the benefit of a
geosynthetic reinforced pad of crushed stone used for the
foundation of a hall in Sofia over soft saturated soil. Field tests
were performed to estimate the E-moduli before and after
improvement. The authors also conducted Finite Element
analysis to model the consolidation process and to confirm the
design stability under static and seismic conditions.
Dimitrievski et al. (2013) present a history case of soil
reinforcement with geosynthetics for the construction of a sixstorey structure in Ohrid (Republic of Macedonia). Multi layers
geogrids were designed and the effects of the geostatic,
hydrostatic and dynamic loading conditions were studied with
the help of FEM calculations. The validity of the analysis was
demonstrated with the help of in situ measurements obtained for
a close similar structure.
3.5

Sand compaction piles (SCPs)

In the sand compaction pile (SCP) method, sand is fed into the
ground through a casing pipe and is compacted by vibration,
dynamic or static compaction to form columns. In practice,
SCPs are mainly used to prevent liquefaction and reduce
settlement with similar success in sandy and clayey soils. With
the help of laboratory and field tests, Burlacu et al. (2013)
investigate the potential of columns made of loess-sandbentonite mixture for the reinforcement of collapsible loess
deposits in Romania. Indeed, as explained in the paper of
Alupoae et al. (2013), these collapsible soils require GI works.
They are characterized by high water sensitivity: when its water
content increases, important deformations in the soil can be
observed. In such a way to illustrate this phenomenon, the
authors present a case study of differential settlement of
buildings founded on loess sensitive to wetting. In spite of the
good realization and control of the foundation, important
differential settlements were measured thereafter as a result of
the defective rainwater recovery system.
3.6

Microbial methods

The use of microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP)


to cement cohesionless soils has recently received substantial
attention from geotechnical researchers. The most common
MICP mechanism is hydrolysis of urea. MICP via ureolytic
hydrolysis relies on microbes to generate urease enzyme, which
then serves as a catalyst for the calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
precipitation reaction. If it is to date well known that the
mechanical properties of the treated soils are directly correlated
to the amount of (CaCO3) precipitation, a gray area still remains
concerning the influence of the original nature of the granular
material on the resulting properties of the treated soil. Within
the framework of a laboratory campaign, Tsukamoto et al.

2420

(2013) investigate the influence of the relative density of sand


samples on the MICP. As a result of their study, the MICP tends
to increase as the relative density of the soil decreases.
Nevertheless, considering the results of triaxial tests, maximum
principal stress differences were obtained for the samples with
the highest relative density. In light of these results, this
technique seems to be very promising for the future but due to
the bioplugging (permeability reduction) of the granular
material and to the generation of toxic product (ammonium
salt); soil stabilization using ureolytic MICP remains currently
unusual. According to Hamdan et al. (2013), the use of plant
derived urease to induce the carbonate cementation could be the
solution to avoid these drawbacks.
4
4.1

GI WITH GROUTING TYPE ADMIXTURES


Deep Mixing Method (DMM) and soil stabilization

The deep mixing method (DMM) is nowadays a worldwide


accepted GI technology. In this method, the ground is in situ
mechanically (and possibly hydraulically or pneumatically)
mixed while a binder, based on cement or lime, is injected with
the help of a specially made machine. Numerous reviews and
recent progresses of the DMM are referred in Denies and
Van Lysebetten (2012). In the recent years, the DMM is
undergoing rapid development, particularly with regard to its
range of applicability, cost effectiveness and environmental
advantages, as illustrated by the papers of this paragraph.
In the deep mixing projects, the design can be based on
laboratory mixing tests. Soil-cement samples are then prepared
and tested to study the mechanical properties of the stabilized
soil. But, up to now, many laboratories prepared these samples
without standardized procedure. Actually, molding techniques
have a great influence on the mechanical characteristics of the
stabilized material. According to Grisolia et al. (2013), this
influence is strictly correlated to the workability of the soilcement mixture and this latter can be quantified with the
measurement of the torque required to turn an impeller in the
mixture. Five molding techniques have been studied and the
authors propose the abacus illustrated in Fig. 3 to define the
range of applicability of these techniques in function of this
torque.
Applicable

Marginally Applicable

Not Applicable

3 6

No Compaction

Molding technique

3.4

65

75

Tapping

Rodding
Static
Compaction
25kPa

10 15

Static
Compaction
50kPa
Dynamic
Compaction
0

10

20

30

40

30

40

50

60

70

80

120
90

...
100

mixture's workability, Torque Mt (Nm)


High
workability,
liquid

Low
workability,
consistent

Figure 3. Ranges of applicability of the different molding techniques,


from Grisolia et al. (2013)

The applicability of each molding technique was evaluated by


an Applicability index, related to densest specimens with the
highest strength and results repetitiveness.
Since several decades, DMM has been used for GI works.
But in recent years, this technique has been increasingly used

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

for structural applications. Standardized guidelines for the


design of this kind of applications are not currently available. If
the previous work allows the construction of standardized and
international test procedures for laboratory mix samples, the
Quality Control (QC) of the execution process is generally
based on the results of Unconfined Compressive Strength
(UCS) tests performed on cored material. As part of the semiprobabilistic design approach presented in Eurocode 7, it is thus
essential to define the UCS characteristic value that can be
taken into account in the design. Denies et al. (2013) discuss
the definition of this value. In the first category of approaches,
the characteristic strength is defined as an X% lower limit value
computed either on the basis of a statistical distribution function
or based on the cumulative frequency curve of the original
experimental dataset of UCS values obtained from tests on
cored samples. A second approach to determine the UCS
characteristic value is the use of the average value of the dataset
in combination with a safety factor. For the first category of
approaches, a value for the X% has to be defined. Actually, one
major issue is the representativeness of the core samples with
regard to the in situ executed material. For the purpose of
investigating this question, the authors present the results of a
study on the influence of soil inclusions and then they discuss
the topic of the scale effect with regard to large scale UCS tests.
The following papers concern the investigation of the
mechanical properties of the soil mix material under the field of
laboratory or in situ experiments and with the help of numerical
modeling.
In such a way to investigate the properties of the soil mix
material, Szymkiewicz et al. (2013) have carried out a
parametric study on lab soil-cement mixtures. The influences of
the particle size, the clay content and the water content on the
strength of the material were considered. They propose an
abacus relating the UCS of the specimens to the cement content.
Six zones are identified in the abacus depending on the nature
of the soil. In addition, the authors also propose a formula valid
for granular soils for the estimation of the UCS at 28 curing
days. This formula takes into account the water, the cement and
the fine contents.
In a similar way, Correia et al. (2013) have performed
laboratory tests to study the improvement of soft clayey silt
with high organic content by mixing it with a binder made up of
75% Portland cement (PC) and 25% blast furnace slag. They
first give a formula for the assessment of the UCS at 28 days in
function of the binder content and the liquidity index (LI) of the
soil. A normalized UCS is then introduced as follows:
UCSLI = UCS x LI. In a second step, the applicability of the
normalized UCS approach is analyzed for seven other cementstabilized soft soils with successful result.
If the water/cement (w/c) ratio is often used in attempt to
understand soil-mix properties, it can be found limited since in
practice execution is mostly performed in soils in the presence
of water (unsaturated or saturated conditions). A well-adapted
governing parameter could be then the porosity/cement index
defined as the ratio of porosity to the volumetric cement content
(n/Civ). Rios et al. (2013) highlight the influence of this index
on the mechanical properties of cemented Porto silty sand.
Unique trend was obtained between the UCS and an adjusted
porosity/cement ratio (n/Civ0.21), proposed by the authors.
Similar observation was also made with indirect tensile
strength. Triaxial tests resulted in two peak strength envelopes
for each predetermined (n/Civ)0.21 and finally, oedometer tests
establish this ratio as the governing parameter of the behavior of
the soil-cement specimen in one-dimensional compression in
lieu of the cement content or the initial void ratio.
A major advance in DMM could be found in the contribution
of Yi et al. (2013) with the investigation of the carbonation of
reactive magnesia (MgO) for soil stabilization. Nowadays,
Portland cement (PC) is the most common binder used in the

deep mixing applications. However, there are significant


environmental impacts associated with its production in terms
of high energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In their
laboratory study, reactive MgO was used as a binder and the
MgO-soil samples were carbonated by CO2 to improve the
mechanical properties of the soil and reduce the CO2 emission.
As an evident result, the UCS values of the uncarbonated MgOstabilised soils were much lower than those of the PC-stabilised
soils; both mixes took ~28 days to finish most of their strength
development.
Nevertheless,
the
carbonation
process
significantly increased the UCS of MgO-stabilised soils in a
very short time, this latter fast reaching the UCS value of the
28-day PC-stabilised soils, indicating that it could be used to
support a structure just after the completion of the carbonation
procedure.
Another type of binder largely used for soil stabilization is
lime. Mesri and Moridzadeh (2013) discuss the results of a
laboratory study focusing on the improvement of the Brenna
clay (high plastic lacustrine clay of North Dakota) by adding
lime. Lime contents varying between 3 and 10 % of the dry
weight of the clay have been considered. The authors observed
a decrease of the measured pH with time and an increase of the
Liquid Limit and the Plasticity Index with time when 5 % of
lime was added. Adding 3 to 8 % of lime, the residual friction
angle (in drained conditions) increases between 3 to 6 %.
Unfortunately the laboratory test results were not compared
with full scale test results.
Extensive laboratory tests have been performed by Szendefy
(2013) for the purpose of determining the effect of lime
stabilization on 21 Hungarian clayey soils. In addition, some in
situ stabilized soils have also been analyzed. According to his
study, the improvement of the clayey soil with the lime is
mainly related to the coagulation of the clay particles related to
the cation exchange. Indeed, during the stabilization with lime,
Ca2+ ions attach to the surface of clay particles. As a result of
this high charging, the clay particles coagulate resulting in a
material characterized by an increased internal friction angle.
The pozzolanic reaction would play then a secondary role in the
stabilization.
Soil stabilization can also be performed with fiber
reinforcement, such as discussed in Madhusudhan and Baudet
(2013). In their study, laboratory tests have been performed to
determine the influence of adding polypropylene fibers on the
shear strength characteristics of completely decomposed granite
(CDG). In Hong Kong, CDG is regularly used for landscaping
and as green cover of existing shotcrete slopes. The test results
clearly indicate an important increase of the UCS when adding
0.5% of fibers and compacting the CDG at the water content
close to the optimum Proctor value. In triaxial drained tests, the
addition of fibers seems to increase the shear strength of the
CDG and its stiffness. Dilation is also reduced.
In Singapore, laboratory tests have been performed by Xiao
et al. (2013) in order to determine the characteristics of the
Singapore upper marine clay when mixed with 20 to 50%
Portland cement (PC) and up to 0.32% fibers of different types.
As a result of their study, strength and ductility of cementtreated clay were improved by fiber reinforcement. There is an
optimum fiber content with regard to performance and
workability of the material. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers are
generally more efficient than polypropylene (PP) fibers except
for low cement and water contents. The length of the fibers has
a significant effect on the ductility of the cement-treated clay for
both fiber types. Concerning the strength, the influence of the
fiber length is more significant for PVA reinforcement than for
PP reinforcement.
Cuira et al. (2013) present the results of numerical models
simulating an axial Static Load Test (SLT) on a soil-cement
column. Numerical and experimental results are compared with
the help of three Finite Element models and one simplified

2421

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

semi-analytical model. Numerical results are in agreement with


the experimental observations all along the SLT but especially
regarding to the fracture pattern: structural failure localized in
the upper part of the column. This numerical study highlights
the nonlinear behavior of the soil-mix material. In comparison
with classical rigid piles, the contrast of strength (and
stiffness) between the column and the soil is lower and has a
huge influence on the global behavior.
Originally, DMM was developed for GI applications in soft
clays and organic soils. But more recently, it was also dedicated
to various structural and environmental applications such as
illustrated by the following case histories.
Recently, the DMM has been chosen for several Hungarian
railway projects involving soft soils, such as the restoration of
the Srrt railway line crossing an area where the subsoil
consists of soft chalky silt. For the foundation of a 4m high
embankment, two DMM were taken into account: the mass
stabilization and the soil-cement columns. Koch and
Szepeshsi (2013) firstly describe results of laboratory tests on
chalky silt samples mixed with cement for different w/c
contents. Both DMM are then assessed using 3D-FEM
considering the site requirements in term of stability and
settlement.
In a similar way, DMM have been widely used in Japan for
the improvement of soft clays and organic soils.
Matsui et al. (2013) introduce the concepts of an hybrid
application of soil-cement columns combined with soil mix
walls (SMW) designed for the foundation of an embankment.
The concept is illustrated in Fig. 4. The authors propose a
conceptual method allowing the control of ground deformation
and ensuring an optimization of the volume of treated soil. The
method is supported by 2D-FEM and in situ monitoring is
performed for the validation of the concept.

39.2m

Ac2- 2

Inside piles

Ac2- 3
Dvc
Dvs

Walls

Figure 6. Time-dependent load sharing between raft and piles, from


Yamashita et al. (2013)
36.2m

1.9m

21.2m

As2

10.0m

Ac1- 2

6.7m 4.5m

1:1.8

9.8m

37.2m

Figure 5. Measured vertical ground displacements below raft, from


Yamashita et al. (2013)

Section view

5.2m

7.0m

12.0m

presented, namely: settlement reduction, improvement of slope


stability, reduction of active pressure on retaining walls and
decrease of liquefaction susceptibility. The two last topics are
then illustrated with case histories.
Other case history tackles the topic of liquefaction
susceptibility restrained with the DMM. Yamashita et al.
(2013) deal with the measurements performed underneath a
piled raft completed with SMW to reduce the risks of
liquefaction. It concerns a 12-storey office building. The load
distribution between piles, SMW and the surrounding soil has
been monitored during a period of three years. After the end of
the construction, settlements of 20 mm have been recorded, as
illustrated in Fig. 5. As another result, 70 % of the load was
taken by the piles, 14 % by the SMW and 15% by the soil, as
shown in Fig. 6. The measurements also learned that the
Tohoku earthquake of March 2011 had almost no influence on
the settlements and on the load distribution.

Outside piles

Figure 4. GI with soil-cement columns and SMW, from Matsui et al.


(2013)

In Lund (southern Sweden) a new generation synchrotron


radiation facility, called MAX IV, is under construction.
According to Lindh and Rydn (2013), it should be 100 times
more efficient than any existing comparable synchrotron
radiation facility in the world. For this kind of facility, the
vibration requirements are very stringent. Various alternatives
were discussed and simulated during the conception. The
optimum solution was achieved with a four meter thick layer of
stabilized soil below the concrete foundation. A combination of
quicklime and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)
was found to be in agreement with both design and construction
requirements.
Jeanty et al. (2013) describe the use of the CSM and the
Trenchmix methods for the realization of SMW. Both
techniques are explained in details and different applications are

If the foundation of embankments and buildings are become


both common applications of the DMM, underpinning with soil
mix material constitutes an interesting emerging technique, such
as illustrated in the following paper.
Traditional DMM are commonly restricted for underpinning,
limitations being mainly related to the capacity of the machine
to pass existing foundation structures as reinforced slabs or
footings, the reduced working spaces and the possible low
headroom conditions. Melentijevic et al. (2013) present a case
history of underpinning of an existing floor slab in an industrial
building using DMM. The soil-cement columns were installed
with the new Springsol tool. After the realization of a contact
grouting between the slab and the soil, the slab and the contact
grouting layer are cored. The spreadable Springsol tool is then
introduced into the gap. Finally, its blades are opened and the
soil-cement column is executed until the predetermined depth.
The conception is supported by numerical modeling and
QA/QC aspects of the project are related to the testing of core
and wet grab samples.
4.2

Use of stabilized dredged material for construction

As previously discussed in Chu et al. (2009), dredging and land


reclamation have increasingly become important parts of
construction activities that involve heavily geotechnical
knowledge. If dredging provides low cost construction material,

2422

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

it is sometimes necessary to resort to additional GI methods in


order to obtain a product meeting the design requirements. The
following paper illustrates how GI and dredging are
complementary construction processes.
Loh et al. (2013) present considerations in the design and
construction of a containment bund made of modified geotextile
tubes (M-GT) filled with cement-mixed soil. In the port of
Singapore, dredged soil mixed with cement was used as in-fill
material in the M-GTs and as the core of a large geotextile
containment bund, as illustrated in Fig. 7. Field instrumentation
and monitoring were carried out with the help of strain
measurements, hydrographic survey, inclinometers and
extensometers during and after the construction to verify the
design and the performance of the system.

Figure 7. Geotextile containment bund, from Loh et al. (2013)

4.3

Recent advances in the jet grouting applications

If special devices have been developed in the past to measure


the diameter of the jet grout columns executed in situ,
considerable effort should be made in the understanding of the
physical processes governing this parameter. Bzwka et al.
(2013) analyze excavated jet grout columns. The experimental
results are used to model the bearing capacity of the columns by
means of the Z-soil software. Indeed, although the jet grout
columns have been realized in compacted medium sand
underlain by stiff clay, almost all columns had an irregular
shape influencing its bearing capacity.
In the grouting applications, the bleed capacity is another
indicator of grout effectiveness, since it is representative of the
volume of voids filled by cement. The grouts water-to-cement
ratio (W/C) and the maximum cement grain size (dmax) are two
important parameters controlling the cement grout bleed
capacity. Pantazopoulos et al. (2013) provide some insights on
the effect of grout bleed capacity on the mechanical properties
of ordinary and microfine cement grouted sands, in conjunction
with the effect of the W/C ratio. They demonstrate that the
distinction between stable and unstable grouts (see EN 12715)
may not be an indicator of grout effectiveness since similar
effects may be produced by both stable and unstable grouts: e.g.
same coefficients of permeability were obtained for a bleed
capacity ranging from 5 (stable) to 30 % (unstable suspension).
Bleed capacity correlates very well with some grouted sand
properties (i.e. unconfined compression strength and cohesion)
and not at all with other properties (i.e. internal friction angle
and damping ratio).
5
5.1

EARTH REINFORCEMENT

In a similar way, Tabarsa and Hajiesmaeilian (2013) have


studied the influence of sand encapsulated non-woven
geotextile (sandwich technique) on the stability of clay
embankment. Using FLAC 2D Finite Difference model, the
authors highlight the efficiency of the method with regard to the
geotextile-reinforced and the unreinforced embankments.
5.2

A significant element in the reclamation of landfills is the


reinforcement and biological stabilization of the slopes which
can be very sensitive to surface erosion. According to Koda
and Osinski (2013), landfill stability improvement activities
can be divided in two phases: the first one consists in the
technical reclamation of the landfill and the second one is the
biological restoration of the vegetation cover. For both phases,
the authors argue it is possible to use recyclable materials such
as fly ash or sewerage sludge. They discuss the improvement of
slope stability of a solid waste disposal with the help of this
approach. On the one side, fly ashes can be considered as
impermeable and present good compaction properties. Mixed
with cohesive soil, it could be therefore used for the capping of
the waste disposal. On the other side, the sewage sludge protects
the seeds from erosion and excessive drying. Moreover the
sewerage sludge presents a high nutrition content supporting the
development of the vegetation cover. Unfortunately, no
information is given in the paper concerning the installation
procedures of the fly ashes and sewerage sludge and how the
influence of vegetation can be introduced in the stability
calculations.
6

Centrifuge tests have been performed by Bo et al. (2013) in


order to study the reinforcement of low plastic brown weathered
shale with polypropylene fibers for the construction of an
embankment. Vertical and horizontal displacements deduced
from the centrifuge tests have been compared with those
obtained from FEM analyses. Both approaches demonstrate the
contribution of the fibers on the stability.

CONCLUSIONS

In the present General Report, 47 papers of the Technical


Session on GI of the XVIII ICSMGE are reviewed. It can be
noted that 40% of these papers deal with Deep Mixing and soil
stabilization, proving the huge interest in these techniques.
Similar percentage was already observed in the Proceedings of
the TC211 IS-GI 2012 (Denies and Huybrechts, 2012) but this
is not surprising, as these methods constitute outstanding and
cost-effective sustainable construction processes.
Finally, beyond the choice of the GI solution, the necessity
of monitoring was also highlighted by several authors of this
Technical Session. For example, van der Stoel et al. (2013)
discuss a well-documented case history concerning the
realization of two deep excavations in the courtyards of a
historical building in Amsterdam. Based on 2D FEM
calculations, an extensive monitoring program has been
proposed and performed (including levelling point
measurements, inclinometers and the use of a permanent
webcam). Thanks to this monitoring process the consequences
of two important accidents during the execution of the
excavations could be limited as much as possible. Most
important was that the time delay remained very small. The
authors conclude that the costs of the meticulous and proactive
monitoring were minor in comparison with the potential costs of
a delayed opening of the hotel.
If ground improvement is really become an efficient and
controllable cost-effective alternative to classical foundation
technique, measure still remains treasure.
7

Geosynthetics

Vegetation methods

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank the chairmen of the TC211 Jan


Maertens and Serge Varaksin for their contribution to the
review of the papers of the Technical Session on GI works.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

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Bzwka, J., Juzwa, A. and Wanik, L. 2013. Selected problems
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Dimitrievski, Lj., Ilievski, D., Dimitrievski, D., Bogoevski, B. and
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Galli, A. and di Prisco, C. 2013. Geoencased columns: toward a
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Grisolia, M. , Leder, E. and Marzano, I.P. 2013. Standardization of the
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Hamdan, N., Kavazanjian, E and ODonnell, S. 2013. Carbonate
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Hataf, N. and Nabipour, N. 2013. Experimental investigation on bearing
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Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. and Geng, X. 2013. Performance
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investigation into the carbonation of MgO for soil stabilisation.

2424

Time-dependent behaviour of foundations lying on an improved ground


Temps-comportement dpendant de fondations reposant sur un sol amlior
Alupoae D., Auencei V., Rileanu P.

"Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services, Department of Roads
and Foundations,43 Dimitrie Mangeron Bd, 700050, Iasi, Romania

ABSTRACT: The paper presents some aspects concerning time-dependent behaviour of the improved foundation soils. The
foundation soils can develop favourable or inappropriate resistance properties under the loads submitted by constructions. Engineers
and investors encounter more and more difficult foundation soils, in their desire to efficiently use the construction sites. In this case,
physical and mechanical properties of the soil have to be improved, in order to sustain the infrastructure and structure of a building.
The paper reviews some improvement methods, after presenting difficult foundation soils from Iai area. The paper presents a case
study regarding problems caused by difficult foundation soils that are present in the region, during the operating period of structures.
The presence of water in the foundation soil created a negative impact in its behaviour, which led to differential settlements and,
consequently, the buildings were switching from their initial vertical position. The study also analyzes time-dependent settlements of
a construction. Finally the paper presents some conclusions resulting from studies both bibliographic and practical.
RSUM : Le document prsente quelques aspects concernant le comportement en temps des sols amliors pour les fondations. Le
terrain de fondation peut avoir un comportement favorable ou par contre dfavorable sous laction des charges donner par les
constructions. Pour utiliser efficacement les terrains des constructions, les ingnieurs et les investisseurs rencontrent souvent des sols
de fondation de plus en plus difficile. Dans ce cas, les proprits physiques et mcaniques du sol doivent tre amliores, afin
dassurer des bonnes conditions dappuis pour l'infrastructure et la structure d'un btiment. Le document passe en revue les sols de
fondation difficiles de la zone de Iai et des mthodes de les amliores. Il est aussi prsent une tude de cas concernant les
problmes qui peuvent apparaitre au cours de la priode d'exploitation de structures, a cause des ces sols de fondation difficiles. La
prsence de l'eau dans le terrain de fondation a eu un impact ngatif sur son comportement, ce qui a produit des tassements
diffrentiels, ca veut dire que les btiments furent commuts de leur position initiale, verticale. Pour conclure, le document prsente
des conclusions issues de ltude bibliographique et pratique la fois.
KEYWORDS: leaning structure, expansive clay, loess, differential settlement.
1

INTRODUCTION

As a result of the analysis performed over time on a large


variety of soils and taking into account soil behaviour in the
presence of external factors, the foundation soils can be divided
in two categories, considering their capacity to support loads
from constructions: good and difficult foundation soils.
The entire existence of the building system depends on the
stability and strength of the foundation soil and this is the main
reason why a special interest is given to the second category of
soils and therefore to the specific issues that must be considered
in the design, execution and operating period of a construction.

DIFFICULT FOUNDATION SOILS

The sites that have a construction soil with good geotechnical


characteristics are rapidly decreasing. Large urban areas are a
particular problem because, due to the lack of space, it is
necessary to reconsider the possibility of placing a building on a
soil that was unsuitable for constructions until now.
2.1

Difficult foundation soils - classification

These soils are classified as follows:


macroporous soils (present large cavities in their
structure and have the ability to suffer large settlements
when are subjected to a wetting process);
collapsible soils (are characterised by the fact that when
in high humidity develop large deformations);

2.2

liquefiable soils (especially non-cohesive soils


consisting of saturated fine sand which under the action
of a dynamic load suddenly loose their shear strength);
expansive soils (cohesive soils such as clays, which
change their volume when water content varies);
soils that during the freezing and thawing phenomena
change their structure and properties;
peaty soils (organic matter is present in its structure,
have a high and very high compressibility and a low
shear strength);
eluvium (formed as a result of decomposition and
alteration of existing rocks);
saline soils (are characterized by the settlement
phenomena that occurs during a long lasting wetting);
fillings (occur as a result of unconsolidated alluvial
deposits) (Iliesi 2012).
Methods of soil improvement

Given the frequency of soils that present unfavourable


characteristics for constructions over time were developed
methods to improve their mechanical properties, such as:
soil compaction which can be made on surface (rolling,
dynamic, cushions) or in depth (columns, pre-wetting,
dynamic);
chemical soil stabilization (cementation, silicatization,
jet grouting, bentonite etc.);
electrochemical
methods
(electrophoresis
and
electroosmosis);
thermal treatment of soils.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

The case study refers to the problems that can occur with an
improved foundation soil. The method used for improvement is
soil replacing (soil cushion).
3

CASE STUDY

Within the areas with difficult foundation soils, Iai City is the
largest urban settlement located in the eastern part of Romania.
The city lies at the contact between Jijia Meadow and the
Moldavian Plateau. The landscape is varied, forming a region
consisting of eroded hills crossed by Bahlui plateau.
3.1

Soil types in the studied area

Studies performed over the last decades into the existing


terraces of the region show that almost 70% from the current
area of the city have medium and low suitability for
construction purpose, this reason being more or less a natural
barrier for city expansion. Theoretical and practical solutions
offered for solving the issues caused by these types of soils
present a special interest in the current context (Vieru 2010).
Among these types of soils there are two specific categories:
loess and expansive soils.
The different types of soils existing in the studied area have
either a normal behaviour under loads, or an atypical one.
Therefore, upper and medium terraces consist of a
succession of coarser sediments at the bottom followed by a
loess soil sensitive to wetting. Loess layer is yellow-brown with
variable thickness from 8.00 m to 15.00 m lying in the highest
areas of the city. Loess deposits usually consist of silty clay and
clayey silt.
The loess of Iai region has medium plasticity with the liquid
limit LL = 3050%. Grain-size distribution is: 2529% clay,
4347% silt and 2432% sand. Regarding the uniformity
coefficient, the loess of Iai City is considered to have a good
uniformity (Ciornei & Rileanu 2000).

of the particles making up the clay fraction and the nature of the
absorbed ions;
- hydro-geological conditions groundwater is present both
through deep under pressure aquifers and also through free flow
ones. Deep layers have a high mineralization, being intercepted
only by drilling. They have an ascending nature, sometimes an
artesian one. Shallow drillings revealed the presence of captive
water with low mineralization, which can be used locally;
- layer thickness the thicker the layer is, the bigger its
swelling;
- moisturized area if the wet surface under an existing
building is insignificant, the deformations increase and the
probability of deterioration grows (Alupoae et al. 2011).

Figure 2. Contraction breaks and cracks

3.2

On site situation

The case study follows a residential area placed on one of the


hills in Iai City, Romania. The increase of water content inside
the foundation soil determined a differential settlement and the
buildings placed on site were switched from their initial vertical
position.

Bahlui Meadow is characterized as a mixture of sand and


gravel layers at the base of the stratification, followed by a layer
of fat swelling and shrinking clay. The sand layer has a
thickness of almost 4.00 m and the clay is between 5.00 m and
6.00 m. This clay is actually the foundation soil from the area,
requiring good knowledge of soil characteristics.
As far as the soil properties are concerned, Bahlui clay falls
within the category of high swelling and shrinking soils.
Climatic conditions of the area, with temperatures decreasing in
the summer with 10C...20C from day to night and heavy
rainfall, lead to changes in soil volume. To avoid foundation
deterioration the minimum foundation depth has been set at 2.00 m, as deep as the effects of seasonal variations in moisture
content and temperature may not be felt (NE 001-96 1996).

3.2.1 Data regarding the constructions from the studied area


The constructions were built during two different time frames:
Stage 1 between 1994 and 1998, consists of a two
section building 22.0 x 12.0 meters (Section I and
Section II), has a total ground surface of 530 m2, a
structure made of reinforced concrete frames placed on
network of foundation beams. The foundation rests on a
soil cushion, 1.0 meter thick. In 1998 the foundation
system was checked and the results showed that the soil
cushion placed under the foundation had a degree of
compaction of 95.15%. Thus it can be stated that the
operations of soil improvement using mechanical means
were correctly carried out. On site, a layer of loess,
sensitive to wetting, was intercepted in drillings up to
9.0 meters from the ground surface. Under the soil
cushion the thickness of the loess layer is about 5.0
6.0 meters.
Stage 2 the construction of Section III started in 2001,
with a built area of about 850 m2 and a structure and
height similar to the initial sections. This section is not
entirely finished and the main problem is the fact that no
systematization works are carried out. Also, the systems
of rainwater collection and disposal are not finished.
Because of this, in 2010 a movement was observed.

Other factors influencing the volume variation are:


- soil activity volume variation is influenced by molecular
and electro-molecular phenomena reflected by adhesive and
capillary water, their size depending on the mineralogical nature

After the initial observations, measures have been taken to


analyze the technical condition of the building and to establish
the necessary actions to ensure a proper exploitation for the
constructions.

Figure 1. Structural rearrangement for collapsible soils

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

27

Humidity [%]

25
23
Section I
21

Section II
Section III

19
17
15
1998

Table 1. Humidity evolution on the site filling layer


Section

[%]

Humidity
2010

1998

[%]
I
II

20.70
33.42

22.99
32.85

26.90

+19.80

III

---

---

18.31
33.04

24.40

---

Table 2. Humidity evolution on the site soil cushion


Humidity
2010
[%]

Average
humidity
2010
[%]

Increase
of
humidity
[%]

21.15
24.15

21.29

16.37
23.81

20.53

-3.70

II

17.11
23.69

20.63

18.40
24.45

21.77

+5.50

III

---

---

17.61
20.64

19.03

---

2002

2006

2010

Figure 4. Humidity variation on the site, in the earth pillow, for the three
sections of the building

20.70
33.42

22.45

[%]

18

+4.20

17.18
24.15

Average
humidity
1998
[%]

Section III
19

25.83

II

Humidity
1998

Section II

19.57
30.07

24.78

Section

Section I

20

Increase
of
humidity
[%]

16.98
29.16

21

Average
humidity
2010
[%]

[%]

2010

22

Humidity [%]

3.2.2 Causes that led to differentiated settlements


The main cause that led to settlements on the studied case was
determined by the increased humidity in the foundation soil.
This happened as a result of a deficient vertical systematization:
no sidewalks, there were no gradients on site to discharge the
water and also there were not built ditches and surface drainage
systems. The lack of systematization works led to rainwater
infiltrations in the filling layer above the soil cushion used as an
improving method for the loss soil on the site. Water bags were
formed in the filling layer which supplied the permanent
moisture on the layer above the cushion. The humidity of the
cushion became 3.14% higher then the optimum compaction
humidity (19.40%). Also the filling layer recorded higher values
for humidity: 25.07% 27.52%.
Average
humidity
1998
[%]

2006

Figure 4. Humidity variation on the site, in the filling layer, for the three
sections of the building

Figure 3. Photos showing on site displacements

Humidity
1998

2002

Table 3. Humidity evolution on the site surrounding area


Section

Humidity
1998

Average
humidity
1998
[%]

Humidity
2010

Average
humidity
2010
[%]

Increase
of
humidity
[%]

26.85

18.90
29.36

22.30

-20.0

26.85

18.90
29.36

22.30

-20.0

[%]

Topographic measurements were made, on the site, for


verifying settlements that appeared due to moistening of the
foundation soil. By analyzing the results obtained after four
cycles of measurements, the following conclusions can be
drawn:
for section I the measured values of settlements are
insignificant. This happed because the values fall within
the margin of error of the measurements and also
because the variations determined at the markers
considered stationary must be taken into consideration;
for section II were found higher values of the
settlements at the joint between section II and III. This
occurs where the surface water penetrated the ground
and produced a pronounced moistening of the
foundation soil;
for section III were also found higher values of the
settlements at the joint between section II and III. This
occurs where the surface water penetrated the ground
and produced a pronounced moistening of the
foundation soil.
Established settlements have small values and pose no
danger to the behaviour of the building in time. Relative
settlements have also small values, 3.65105 millimetres, much
lower than the admissible relative settlement, which is,
according to Romanian Standards, 0.001 millimetres.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

The settlement speed decreases from 0.213 mm/day, after 9


days, to 0.061 mm/day after 22 days and further to 0.006
mm/day after 83 days. This led to the conclusion that
settlements are slowing down.
3.2.3 Proposed solutions
Continuous monitoring of building settlements and conducting
topographic readings at least every three months until the
constructions are stabilized.
Efficient vertical and horizontal systematization can be done
by making sidewalks, gradients for water discharge, ditches and
surface drains.
For stopping water infiltration in the foundation soil is
mandatory to check utility networks and repair them where is
necessary.
4

CONCLUSIONS

Difficult foundation soils are frequently found on sites located


in large urban areas.
Over time, a series of methods and techniques for improving
the difficult foundation soils were developed. The
implementation of this methods and techniques must take into
consideration the soil characteristics intercepted on the site.
In the case of loess soils that are improved using soil
cushions a good vertical and horizontal systematization is
required to drain the rainwater or the water from other surface
sources and to avoid the appearance of settlements.

2428

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This paper was realised with the support of POSDRU


CUANTUMDOC DOCTORAL STUDIES FOR EUROPEAN
PERFORMANCES IN RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
ID79407 project funded by the European Social Fund and
Romanian Government.
6

REFERENCES

Alupoae D. Baron A. Rotaru A. and Rileanu P. 2011.


Geomorphological characteristics of the Bahlui riverbed soils in
the metropolitan area of Iasi city, Romania, 11th International
Scientific Conference VSU, VI 141-146.
Ciornei A. and Rileanu P. 2000. How to dominate the macroporous
soil sensitive to wetting. Junimea, Iai.
Iliesi A.T. 2012. Geotechnical risk when building on collapsible soils.
PhD. Thesis. Iai.
Vieriu F. 2010. The study of Sarmatian clay and covering formations
from Iai City, seen as foundation soils. PhD Thesis. Iai.
NE 001-96. 1996. Design and building execution on high swelling and
shrinking soils.

Centrifugal and numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil embankments


Etude par centrifugeuse et analyse numrique des remblais renforcs par gotextile
Bo L., Linli J. Ningyu Z., Sinong L.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing, China

ABSTRACT: Centrifuge models and numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced and unreinforced soil embankments are presented.
The results obtained from the centrifuge tests were compared with those from the numerical analysis. It is found that the filamentous
fiber (polypropylene) is effective in constraining lateral displacement and reducing vertical settlement for the case of geosyntheticreinforced soil embankments. Also, the distribution of stress in the geosynthetic-reinforced soil embankment is significantly
ameliorated compared with the unreinforced. The presence of geosynthetic filamentous fibers in reticular structure provides the
reinforced soil embankments strength to resist crack.
RSUM : Dans cet article, les rsultats de modles de centrifugeuse et les analyses numrique des remblais renforcs par gotextile
et non-renforcs sont prsents. Les rsultats obtenus laide de la centrifugeuse sont compars avec ceux des analyses numriques.
Les fibres filamenteux (polypropylne) sont efficaces pour restreindre les dplacements latrales et rduire les tassements verticaux
dans le cas du remblais renforc. De plus, la rpartition des contraintes dans le remblai renforc est amliore de faon significative
compar avec celle du remblai non-renforc. La prsence des fibres dans une structure rticulaire dans le remblai renforc donne une
rsistance contre la fissuration.
KEYWORDS: Embankment ; Geosynthetic-reinforcement ; Centrifuge test ; Numerical analysis
1

INTRODUCTION

The concept and design theory of reinforced soil were proposed


by the French engineer Henri Vidal from model tests in the
1960s. The reinforcement materials include metal strips,
concrete slabs, bamboo ribs and geosynthetic materials, etc.
Now-a-days, geosynthetics was commonly used in reinforcing
soil owing to its easy-controlled properties of structure type and
size, strength, impermeability, acid dissolution and durability.
Cohesion of filamentous fiber reinforced soil comes from
friction between soil and fibers, as well as the constraint force
of the fiber network. The magnitudes of CBR and unconfined
compressive strength(UCS) increase with augment of
filamentous fibers linearly(Xiong Youyan 1989). Soil
reinforced with continuous filamentous fibers is obviously
effective in reducing the vertical deformation of sand under the
vertical pressure; it is superior in reducing horizontal tension
than geogrids(A.F.L.Hyde and M.Ismail 1988). In recent years,
this technique has applied successfully by reinforcing the
embankment using filamentous fibers in embankment projects,
and datum are available from researches (Bao Chenggang and
Ding Jinhua 2012). However, the interaction micro-mechanism
of interface between soil and filamentous fibers is still unclear
(Tang Chaosheng, Shi Bin and Gu Kai 2011, Jie Yuxin and Li
Guangxin 1999).
In this paper, the behavior of geosynthetic-reinforced
embankments has been explored using centrifugal and finite
element modeling. The objectives of this paper include: (1) to
probe the mechanism of filamentous fibers in improving the
stability of the embankment, and (2) to examine the
effectiveness of filamentous fiber reinforcement.
2

CENTRIFUGE TESTS

Centrifuge model testing, because of its ability to reproduce


same stress levels, same deformation and same failure
mechanism in an 1/ n scale model as in a full-scale prototype, is
widely used in studying geotechnical problems. Jie Yuxin and
Guang-Xin Li studied the stability of cohesive soil slope and
fiber-reinforced soil slope with different densities through
centrifugal model tests; Yang Xiwu and Ouyang Zhongchun

obtained the deformation behavior of embankments which


reinforced with various fiber styles. It should be pointed out that
idealized conditions may be created in centrifuge models
carefully to avoid problems caused by stress errors, boundary
effects, particle scale effects and geometrical scale effects.
2.1

Centrifuge testsEquipment and procedure

2.1.1
Equipment
In the present study, centrifuge model tests were performed
using the TLJ60 centrifuge in Chongqing Jiaotong
University. The main parameters of the centrifuge are indicated
in Table 1.
Table 1. The main parameters of the centrifuge
Characteristic
Maximum volume weight
Maximum load

Value
60gt
600kg(100g)
300kg(200g)

Effective radius

2.0m

Maximum acceleration

200g

Acceleration control accuracy


Model box size

0.5%FS
600mm350mm
500mm

2.1.2 Model scale


Due to the inherent symmetry of the embankment about its
centerline, only one half of it was modeled. In order to simulate
the actual project accurately and satisfy the boundary effects,
1:90 scale centrifuge model was constructed. Fig.1 shows the
details of test model and its full-scale prototype.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

(a)

(a) 1:90 scale centrifuge model (cm)

(b)
Figure 2. The marked model

2.2

(b) Full-scale prototype (m)


Figure 1. Arrangement of model for centrifuge test and its prototype

2.1.3
Parameters of soil and fiber
1The physical parameters of the soil
Table 2 gives the parameters of the brown weathered shale that
obtained from compaction test and liquid and plastic limit
combined test.
Table 2. Brown weathered shale material properties
Liquid
Plastic
Optimm
Maximm
limit (%)
water
dry density limit (%)
3
content (%)
(g/cm )
8.9

2.15

26.928

20.193

Plasticity
index
6.735

Before the centrifuge test, soil sample was experienced


airing and grinding, then sieved by 6mm sieve to remove
impurities.
2The parameters of the fiber
Polypropylene fiber with 19mm length was proposed to
construct the fiber reinforced soil embankment model. Table 3
gives the triaxial test strength of the embankment soil with the
fiber ratio of 1 , 2 and 3 respectively.

Centrifuge testssummary of results

2.2.1 Comparison analysis of deformation and displacement


In this section, the results obtained from unreinforced
embankment test are compared with the results obtained from
reinforced embankment test. The deformation of unreinforced
embankment was slightly larger than the deformation of
reinforced embankment. The settlements under the shoulder of
the unreinforced embankment and the slope gradient were
considerably greater than those of reinforced embankment. Two
cracks on the top of the unreinforced embankment and (heave)
beyond the toe of the unreinforced embankment were observed
at the end of the centrifuge tests. Fig.3 and Fig.4 show the
displacement vectorgraph of unreinforced and reinforced
embankment respectively. From the close comparison between
unreinfroced and reinforced embankments, it is evident that
fiber reinforcement reduced the displacement of embankment,
and enhanced the embankment obviously.

Table 3. Embankment soil material parameters


Embankment soil

Cohesion(kPa)

Friction
angle(degrees)

Unreinforced soil

49.167

34.077

19mm-0.1%Polypropylene-reinforced soil

94.005

35.717

19mm-0.2%Polypropylene-reinforced soil

138.294

36.362

19mm-0.3%Polypropylene-reinforced soil

228.356

35.951

2.1.4 Deformation measuring


An array of pins was installed on the front face of the
embankment model as deformation marker. This was used for
measuring the model vertical and horizontal displacement from
coordinate difference between beginning of test and the end of
test through the front perspex window. Fig.2 shows the details
of the marked model.

2430

Figure 3. Deformation of the unreinforced model

Figure 4. Deformation of geosynthetic-reinforced model

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

2.2.2 Comparison analysis of settlement


The maximum lateral displacement of unreinforced model was
72cm, which located in the distance of 8m from the toe of the
embankment. The maximum settlement was 48.6cm, which
located in the distance of 10.8m from the centerline; For
reinforced case, the maximum lateral displacement emerged in
the distance of 8.2m from the toe of the embankment with
35cm, and the maximum settlement was 41.2cm (located in the
distance of 10.4m from the centerline). It is safely to conclude
that the maximum displacement of both unreinforced and
reinforced embankment approximately close to the same point,
whereas the maximum lateral displacement of reinforced
embankment is approximately equal to 48.6% of the maximum
lateral displacement of unreinforced embankment and the
maximum settlement of reinforced embankment is
approximately equal to 84.8% of the maximum settlement of
unreinforced embankment.
The comparison between computation analysis and centrifuge
tests of the embankment discloses that fibers help to resist the
lateral thrust and lateral deformation of the embankment
effectively. This is due to the fact that fibers unified the overall
redistribution of stress and reduced asymmetric settlement of
embankment.
3

Fig.6 present computed displacement and stress contours of the


unreinforced and reinforced models respectively.

(a) computed displacement of unreinforced model

FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

(b) computed displacement of reinforced model


Figure 5. Computed displacement of unreinforced and reinforced model

3.1

Assumptions of computing

In the analysis presented in this paper, the unreinforced and


reinforced embankments are modeled using the Drucker-Prager
constitutive model (D-P model).
Two-dimensional plane strain models were constructed with
boundary conditions similar to those of centrifuge models. The
modeling based on follow assumptions: (1) taking geotextile
reinforced soil as homogeneously isotropic material, the
parameters obtained from triaxial tests; (2) without considering
the influence of temperature to embankment; (3) consolidation
was completed under its gravity, and without considering the
impact of pore pressure.
3.2

Parameters

Table 4. Material parameters specified for the finite element analysis


PolypropyleneUnreinforced reinforced
Characteristic
Foundation
embankment
embankment
(19mm-0.1%)
Density
2150
2180
2150
(kg/m3)
Cohesion
49.167
94.005
49.167
(kPa)
Friction
34.077
35.717
34.077
angle(degrees)
Poissons
0.27
0.23
0.27
ratio
Depth
of
18
18
36
embankment(m)

3.3

(a) stress contours of unreinforced model

(b) stress contours of reinforced model


Figure 6. Stress contours of unreinforced and reinforced model

Displacement comparison

The computed results indicated that the values of deformation


and stress as well as its fluctuation range were marginally less
for reinforced embankment than for unreinforced embankment.
The maximum lateral displacement of unreinforced model was
79.442cm (located in the distance of 11.4m from the toe of the
embankment), and the maximum settlement was 51.498cm
(located in the centerline); The maximum lateral displacement
of reinforced model was 38.246cm (located in the distance of
11.4m from the toe of the embankment), and the maximum
settlement was 48.318cm (located in the centerline). Fig.5 and

RESULTS AND COMPARISIONS

Fig.7 shows the variation of lateral displacement and vertical


displacement of unreinforced embankment from centrifuge
tests. Superimposed on the measured variation are the variations
computed by numerical modeling analysis. It can be seen from
Fig.7 that there is a close agreement between the observed and
computed displacements for centrifuge test and numerical
analysis.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

effectively, and the distribution of stress and deformation was


harmonious comparing with the unreinforced.
When using geosynthetic fibers to reinforce embankment, it
also shows two advantages: (1) reinforced embankment can
resist cracks due to the network of intertwined fibers, and(2) the
fiber reinforced soil is closer to a homogeneous, isotropic
material than unreinforced soil.
REFERENCES
(a)

(b)
Figure 7. measured and computed displacement of unreinforced model

Vidal, M.H. 1978. The development and future of reinforced earth.


Proceedings of a SymposiumReinforcement at the ASCE Annual
Convention. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1-61.
Xiong Youyan.1989. Geosynthetic-reinforced soils. Chongqing
Highway Science Research Institute, Chongqing, China.
Tang Chaosheng, Shi Bin and Gu Kai. 2011. Microstructural study on
interfacial interactions between fiber reinforcedment. Journal of
Engineering Geology19(4), 610-614.
Jie Yuxin and Li Guangxin. 1999. A study on colculation method of
texsol. China Civil Engineering Journal2(5), 51-55.
Bao Chenggang and Ding Jinhua. 2012. Researches and applications of
fiber reinforced soils. Soil Engineering and Foundation26(1), 80-83.
Jie Yuxin, Li Guangxin and Chen Lun. 1998. Study of centrifugal
model tests on texsol and cohesive soil slopes. Chinese Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering20(4), 12-15.
Yang Xiwu and Ouyang Zhongchun. 2000. Experimental study on the
strengthened sreep slopes. China Civil Engineering Journal33(5),
88-91.

The comparison between the computed and observed


displacement both in the horizontal direction and in the vertical
direction for the reinforced embankment are shown in Fig.8.
The computed displacement is quite close to the observed
values for both lateral displacement and vertical displacement.

(a)

(b)
Figure 8. Measured and computed displacement of reinforced model

The behavior of reinforced embankment and unreinforced


embankment was successfully investigated using centrifuge
modeling and finite element analysis. The comparisons between
the centrifuge tests and computed results indicated the utility of
fibers can enhance overall stability of embankment. For the case
of reinforced embankments with fibers, it was found that the
deformation, the magnitude of stress, and their variation range
was considerably less than those for unreinforced case. Also,
the fiber reinforcement constrained the lateral displacement

2432

Compacted soil columns for foundations on collapsible soils. Laboratory and in-situ
experimental study
Colonnes de sols compacts utilises pour des fondations sur sols effondrables.
tude exprimentale mene en laboratoire et in-situ
Burlacu C., Olinic E., Manea S.

Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Department of Soil Mechanics and Foundations

U P.

SC Geosond SA Bucharest

ABSTRACT: Moisture-sensitive or collapsible soils are materials with high porosity that under the loads transmitted by the
foundations present additional settlements once the soil is saturated. This category includes loess deposits and other high silt content
soils with uneven porosity. A method often used for foundation on these soils is the realization of local loessoid material compacted
columns. According to the Romanian legislation, it is forbidden to use granular material in loessoid soils. A compromise may be
reached by using a mixture of granular material and local loessoid soil in columns. This paper presents the experimental laboratory
program aiming to achieve an optimal mixture of local material (loess) and monogranular sand in order to improve the values of the
mechanical soil parameters while keeping the permeability coefficient values as low as possible. This objective can be achieved by
adding bentonite. On the experimental polygons, 1:5 scale compacted soil columns were made using a dynamic penetrometer. The
aim of the dynamic penetration tests performed in the center and between the columns was to obtain results concerning the
improvement of the mechanical characteristics of the columns and the foundation soil.
RSUM : Les sols effondrables sont des matriaux avec une porosit leve, qui, suite la saturation, prsentent des tassements
supplmentaires sous leffet des charges transmises par les fondations. Cette catgorie inclue les dpts de loess et dautres sols ayant
un contenu lev de silt avec une porosit irrgulire. Une des mthodes de fondation souvent utilise sur ce type de sols est la
ralisation de colonnes de matriel loessique compact. Bien que la lgislation roumaine interdise lutilisation de matriaux sableux
dans des sols loessiques, ceux-ci peuvent toutefois tre utiliss pour la ralisation de colonnes dans un mlange avec du sol loessique.
Cet article prsente un programme exprimental de laboratoire qui vise raliser un mlange optimal de matriaux lssiques avec du
sable pour amliorer les valeurs des paramtres mcaniques du sol, en maintenant toutefois les valeurs du coefficient de permabilit
le plus bas possible. On peut atteindre cet objectif par laddition de bentonite. Dans le cadre dun programme exprimental, on a
realis des essais l'aide d'un pntromtre dynamique sur des colonnes de sol compact une chelle de 1:5. Le but des essais de
pntration dynamique a t dobtenir des rsultats concernant lamlioration des caractristiques mcaniques des colonnes et du
terrain de fondation.
KEYWORDS: collapsible soils, compacted soil columns, dynamic penetration test, soil mixtures.
1

INTRODUCTION

Moisture-sensitive or collapsible soils are unsaturated


macroporous cohesive soils that, upon saturation with water,
undergo sudden and irreversible changes of the internal
structure, reflected by additional settlements with collapsing
character and decreases in the values of geotechnical parameters
of mechanical behaviour (NP 125: 2010).

In Romania, moisture-sensitive soils cover about 19% of the


countrys territory (approx. 40.000 km2) and it is common
particularly in the eastern part of the country (Figure 1).
In order to characterize a soil as moisture sensitive, it must
meet at least one criterion regarding the physical characteristics
and one criterion regarding the mechanical behaviour, the main
criteria being the following:
A. Criteria regarding physical characteristics:
- ratio of silt fraction: 50 80%
- degree of saturation: Sr < 0,8
- porosity in natural state: n > 45%
B. Criteria regarding mechanical behaviour:
- the index of the additional settlement caused by saturation
under a loading of 300 kPa (in oedometric test): im300 2%.
2 IMPROVEMENT METHODS FOR COLLAPSIBLE
SOILS

Figure 1. Collapsible soil spreading in Romania (Bally,Antonescu 1971)

Difficult foundation soil improvement methods are


continuously progressing, not only quantitatively, but also
qualitatively, as a result of both the development of new
technologies and the recognition of economic and
environmental protection benefits of modern methods.
A significant number of techniques aimed at improving the
mechanical characteristics of difficult foundation soils have

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

been developed. Methods are divided into two wide categories


(Schlosser 1997):
- physical methods soil improvement technologies, by which
soil structure is mainly improved in what concerns contacts
between particles by additives or by reducing porosity in
order to increase the tamping state - physical characteristics
improvement methods;
- mechanical methods soil reinforcing technologies, by
which structural elements are introduced in the ground in
order to increase the mechanical strength mechanical
characteristics improvement methods.
Classification of results sought by difficult foundation soil
improvement (Kirsch, Sondermann 2003):
- increasing density and shearing strength
- reducing compressibility
- influencing permeability in order to reduce infiltrated water
flow or to speed up consolidation process
- improving homogeneity.
3

percentage of sand in the mixture (from 20% to 40%), the


maximum density in dry condition increases. At the same time,
the optimal compaction moisture of the mixtures decreases
The synthesis of the oedometre compressibility tests
depending on the oedometric moduli values indicated that the
same values Eoed 200-300 could be obtained for the mixture
containing an addition of sand of 20%, at smaller humidity
values and at a better tamping state than in case of the natural
loess samples. This trend disappeared once the percentage of
sand in the mixture was increased (40%). In what concerns
samples with bentonite, similar values of oedometric moduli
were obtained at a better tamping state that in case of medium
loess samples, but at a reduced tamping state than in case of
samples with sand, which was also confirmed by the values
obtained following Proctor tests.

LABORATORY TESTS

In the experimental programme, various mixtures of loessoid


material with different natural mineral materials have been
proposed, in view of eliminating moisture sensitiveness,
improving geotechnical parameters of mechanical behaviour
and limiting permeability (Burlacu 2012).
To this purpose, a series of mixtures have been proposed:
loess with sand 1-2 mm (Cu = 1.5) and loess with sand and
bentonite powder addition in two variants of mixture. The
obtained mixtures are presented below:
Mixture 1: 80% loess + 20% sand (1-2 mm);
Mixture 2: 60% loess + 40% sand (1-2 mm);
Mixture 3: 50% loess + 40% sand (1-2 mm) + 10%
bentonite;
Mixture 4: 50% loess + mixture from (40% sand (1-2 mm) +
10% bentonite);
The difference between the last two mixtures consisted in the
way they were mixed. In the first case, all the three materials
were simultaneously mixed and then water was added to reach
different degrees of humidity in order to perform the normal
Proctor test. In case of the last mixture, the sand was first mixed
with the bentonite and with water and then, after this mixture
had dried, it was also mixed with the loess (Olinic 2012).
As a first step, the optimal compaction characteristics of the
proposed mixtures were determined and then, based on the
compacted samples, the compressibility and shearing
mechanical characteristics and the possible moisture-sensitivity
of the compacted material were determined. The samples used
for carrying out the mechanical tests were the ones surrounding
the optimum compacted sample. In order to reach uniform
results, the variation of the density in dry condition depending
on the height of the compacted sample was analyzed and
confirmed (Figure 2). This is why a certain sampling order was
followed.

Figure 3. the results of the Proctor trial for all the mixtures obtained.

If, in case of mixture 3, the Proctor diagram has a maximum


point (dmax, wopt), in case of mixture 4, the same tamping state
was obtained for humidity values between 11% and 15%.
The Proctor diagram resulted for mixture 4 indicated that
sample 3 could have represented a maximum point. Therefore,
in order to validate the results, tests on this sample were carried
out again and similar values were obtained (Figure 4). Given
that, humidity plays a key role in the real scale compaction
process, the last indication regarding mixture 4 is important
because it allows compaction at humidity values belonging to
higher humidity domains.

Figure 4. Results of Proctor test for mixtures 3 and 4.

Figure 2. Dry density teoretical variation depending on the height of the


compacted sample.

As a result of the Proctor test outcome analysis (Figure 3), it


has been observed that along with adding up and increasing the

As to the values of the permeability coefficient, these have


been of the order of 10-5 cm/s for the average loess sample
rising up to values of 10-4 cm/s in case of the mixture containing
40% sand, while in case of the mixtures containing an addition
of bentonite, the measured values were below 10-9 cm/s.

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

IN SITU TESTS

In-situ tests first aimed at identifying the effect of the cone


shape on: the rate at which the cone advances in the ground, the
tamping of the surrounding ground and the compaction degree
of the material in the column body. Three types of cones with a
diameter of 7 cm were made. (Figure 5).

Then, for determining the cone with a wider influence


radius, DPM tests were carried out at a distance of 2Dc=14 cm
towards the columns. These tests indicated [as expected given
its shape (the smallest angle at the top)], that cone no. 1 (300)
had the greatest influence on the tamping state of the soil
around the column.
The tests indicated that cone 1 shape (30) was optimal for
soil columns execution.
4.3

Compacted loess columns

Therefore, 2 m long columns were executed, arranged as an


equilateral triangle network (Figure 7) with a distance of 3Dc 21 cm between the columns.
After finishing the group of columns, average dynamic
penetration tests were conducted both between the columns and
at different distances towards them.
Figure 5. Cones made: a) C1 30; b) C2 60; c) C3 hemisphere.

4.1

Column execution technology

Collapsible soils improvement by soil columns is regulated by


normative C29 - 85. The experimental polygon met the column
execution methodology described in the normative but adapting
it to the equipment that has been newly proposed for their
execution (LMSR-Hk dynamic penetrometer).
Column execution steps are: column hole execution, filling
by fill material portions and fill material compaction until
rejection.
The fill material portion was set for a column with a
diameter of 7 cm and for a height of the compacted material of
21 cm (3 diameters), resulting 1,5 kg of material having optimal
compaction humidity.
Successive tests regarding the obtained compaction degree
indicated that rejection (compaction stopping) was reached after
an advance of maximum 7mm/blow.
4.2

Figure 7. Columns and DPM tests disposal.

Optimal cone shape

On the experimental polygon, columns were executed by using


the three types of cones. Figure 6a presents the blow number
variation per an advance of 10 cm in DPM tests performed in
the centre of the columns and Figure 6b presents the same tests
carried out at a distance of 2 diameters towards the column.

Figure 6. Results of DPM tests carried out in the centre of the columns
and at a distance of 2Dc (14cm) towards the columns.

Figure 8. DPM tests results: a) between the columns; b) @ 1Dc;


c) @ 2Dc; d) @ 3Dc.

In case of DPM tests carried out in the centre of the columns,


the results obtained were similar for all the columns. Therefore,
an optimal shape of the cone that leads to a better compaction of
the column body could not be found.

It may be observed that, at a distance of 3Dc near the


columns, the improvement effect has no longer been perceived
(Figure 8d). When the DPM test was carried out in the centre of
the column group (Figure 8a), the improvement effect recorded
an obvious increase.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

4.4

Loess and sand mixture compacted columns

Finally, on the experimental polygon columns of 60% local


material (loess) and 40% sand were executed. For the execution
of these columns, cone 1 (30) was also used as rammer.

Bally R.J. and Antonescu I. 1971. Loessoid soils in constructions.


Tehnica Publishing House, Bucharest. (in Romanian)
Burlacu C. 2012. Contributions to improvement solutions for weak
foundation soils. PhD Thesis. Technical University of Civil
Engineering Bucharest, Romania.
Kirsch K. and Sondermann W. 2003. Geotechnical engineering
handbook, Volume 2: Procedures, Chapter 2.1. Ground
improvement, 1 - 50. Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, Germany.
Olinic E. 2012. Personal comunication.
Schlosser. 1997. Expos sur la them: Amliorqtion et renforce,ent des
sols. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Confrence on Soil
Mechanics and Fountation Engineering, Volume 4, 2445 2466,
Hamburg, Germany.
NP 125:2010. Normative for foundation of buildings on moisture s
sensitive, collapsible soils. (in Romanian)

Figure 9. DPM tests results for the column executed from a mixture of
loess and sand (N1): a) DPM in the centre of C1 and N1 columns; b)
DPM at 2Dc towards C1 and N1 columns

Figure 9a indicates that the results of the DPM tests carried


out in the centre of the column executed from a mixture of loess
and sand are better that those of the column made entirely of
loess. Moreover, it may be noticed that, unlike the compacted
loess column, the one made of mixture led to the improvement
of the material under the column's body.
Nevertheless, the results of the medium dynamic penetration
test carried out near the columns at a distance of 2Dc (~14 cm)
indicate that the tamping effect is higher that in case of the loess
column.
5

REFERENCES

CONCLUSIONS

Laboratory tests aimed at identifying a mixture of loess and


natural mineral materials, with better mechanical characteristics
and with reduced permeability compared to the one the loess
has in its natural state. From all the solutions proposed
(compacted loess, mixture of loess and sand and mixture of
loess, sand and bentonite) the last one (mixture 4 - sand and
bentonite, mixed with loess after drying) seems to be the
optimal one due to the wide domain in which optimal
compaction parameters are reached.
Concerning mechanical characteristics, no significant
differences seem to exist between the analysed mixtures, but
one can notice that water sensitivity is significantly reduced and
that, compared to the flooded loess, the values obtained are
significantly better.
In-situ tests, performed with a penetrometer, simulated the
execution of loess columns and of loess with compacted sand
columns, at a scale of 1:5. Both the quality of the material in the
column body and the effect on the surrounding ground were
verified by typical tests. The sand improves the mechanical
behaviour of the material in the column body, without
significantly exceeding the mechanical behaviour of natural
loess that has not been flooded.
By executing columns of compacted local material with
natural mineral materials, the mechanical behaviour of the
columns - loess complex that has not been flooded does not
improve, but this technique leads to some nuclei capable of
reducing the negative effect of the accidental flooding of loess.

2436

Selected problems connected with the use of the jet grouting technique
Certains problmes lis lapplication de la technologie dinjection de jet
Bzwka J., Juzwa A., Wanik L.

The Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

ABSTRACT: The paper presents selected problems connected with the use of the jet grouting technique. It is one of the most popular
methods for subsoil strengthening, enhancement for existing foundation, vertical and horizontal waterproof cut-off walls. Columns
made using this method feature a high bearing capacity (very high friction on the shaft). The newest achievements of the numerical
explanation of the interaction between jet grouting columns and subsoil are presented in the paper. The created models will be used to
verify engineering methods of jet grouting columns dimensioning. Computational analyses are conducted using software based on the
finite element method (Z_Soil).
The computational model describes the interaction between a group of jet grouting columns and soil. The main element of this
analysis consists of selection and calibration of computational model of the "group of jet grouting columns subsoil" interaction.
The model space is divided into three zones: columns, soil and the contact layer formed between the columns and the soil massif.
The computational model allows for a plastic character of deformation under load and especially for a non-linearity of contact zone.
The description of shape of a shaft surface of jet grouting columns is very difficult, so the fractal theory is used to describe this shape.
Fractal and box dimensions are used to estimate the irregular surface. This model allows a precise selection of formation parameters,
like the injection rod pull out velocity and number of rotations, injection pressure and the water/cement ratio, which define the
geometry of jet grouting columns.
RSUM : Cet article prsente quelques problmes lis lutilisation de la technique damlioration des sols : le jet grouting. Cette
technique est une de mthodes les plus utilises pour renforcer le sous-sol, les fondations dj existantes et on sen sert aussi comme
les parois verticales et horisontales tanches (impermables leau). Les colonnes ralises par cette mthode se caractrisent par la
grande capacit portante (coefficient de frottement trs lev sur la surface latrale). Dans cet article, on prsente les dcouvertes les
plus rcentes lies aux modlisations numriques de linteraction entre les colonnes de jet et du sol. Les modles dvelopps seront
utiliss pour vrifier les mthodes dingnierie et pour dimensionner les colonnes de jet grouting. Les analyses numriques sont
effectues par les programmes bass sur la mthodes des lments finis (Z_Soil).
Le modle de calcul dcrit linteraction entre un groupe de colonnes de jet grouting et le sol. Lapport le plus important de cette
analyse rside dans le choix et le calage du modle de calcul pour linteraction groupe de colonnes de jet grouting sol". Lespace
du modle est divis en trois zones: colonnes, sol et couche de contact forme entre les colonnes et le massif du sol. Le modle de
calcul permet davoir des dformations plastiques et en particulier de dformation non-linaire de la zone de contact.
La description de la forme des surfaces latrales de ces colonnes est extrmement difficile, alors on a introduit la thorie de fractales
pour la dcrire. Les dimensions de type fractal et de bote, sont utilises pour estimer la surface latrale irrgulire des colonnes. Ce
modle permet de choisir dune manire prcise des paramtres de formation des colonnes tels que: vitesses - de rotation et
davancement en descente de la tige de forage, le nombre de rotation, la pression de coulis inject, rapport eau/ciment, qui dfinissent
la gomtrie des colonnes de jet grouting.
KEYWORDS: jet grouting technique, interaction between columns and subsoil, shape and dimensions of jet grouting column.
1

JET GROUTIMG COLUMNS INTERACTION


WITH SUBSOIL

The jet grouting method is frequently used in the engineering


practice. It may be used for nearly all types of soils, both natural
and man-made. It does not work only for a subsoil built of
organic soils. The method consists in a high-pressure injection
into the subsoil of an injectant stream (most often being a
cement grout), which cuts and disintegrates the soil body,
forming after binding with soil fractions a petrified soilcement composite of any geometrical form, e.g. close to a
column cylinder shape. This solution because of the speed of
performance and very good parameters of subsoil strengthening
is frequently used to strengthen a weak subsoil under high
transport embankments or bridge abutments (Bzwka 2009;
Juzwa 2012b; Modoni and Bzwka 2012).
To explain the interaction between the jet grouting columns
and the strengthened subsoil it is suggested to apply numerical
methods and to build models reflecting the operation of a single
column and the interaction of jet grouting columns group in

transferring the load to deeper soil layers. A solution is sought,


which would allow optimising design solutions of jet grouting
columns, would ensure safety of a structure designed this way
and at the same time would contribute to the works costs
cutting. The authors emphasise especially as precise as possible
reflection of real conditions, existing on a site.
A single column and a group of columns are the subject of
numerical and in situ analysis. A single column is an idealised
form, seldom existing in practice. However, the analysis of its
behaviour is a starting point to make models more realistic and
built of a group of columns. For the needs of analysis of
interactions occurring between jet grouting columns
strengthening a weak subsoil and the soil body numerical
models were constructed, considering the environment division
into three material zones: the soil-cement material of jet
grouting columns the contact layer the subsoil (Bzwka
2009, 2010).
Because of a physical inhomogeneity and of a complicated
geometrical arrangement the finite element method was used to

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

build models and the Z_Soil software was used for


computations. An elastic ideally plastic model of Coulomb
Mohr boundary surface with non-associated law of flow were
adopted to describe the mechanical behaviour of the soil
environment and the jet grouting columns material.
To perform computer simulations it is necessary to give the
following parameters: angle of internal friction , angle of
dilatancy , cohesion c, modulus of elasticity E and Poissons
ratio . Values of parameters for soils building the model
subsoil were taken based on in situ tests on a test site. The
following values were taken, for sand: E = 55.5 MPa, = 0.3,
= 31.8, c = 1 kPa, for a cohesive soil interbedding: E = 33.8
MPa, = 0.3, = 18.0, c = 30 kPa. The value of angle of
dilatancy was introduced from the range of values =
(0.350.40). Determination of material parameters for a
cementsoil material depends on the subsoil ground
characteristics, cement type in the grout, the method of columns
performance. To determine them it is necessary to take core
samples from the column performed (Fig. 1). These samples are
then tested for uniaxial and triaxial compression. For the needs
of this study 10 samples were tested for each case, obtaining
results of significant scatter (Bzwka 2009). A statistical
analysis of result values was carried out and after approximation
with the first type regression function the following parameters
were taken for calculations: E = 9888 MPa, = 0.186, =
59.3, c = 1772 kPa. Values of soil parameters (E, , , c) were
taken for the contact zone based on CPT sounding performed in
this area. Their values equal to soil parameters reduced by 1/3.

GEOMETRY OF JET GROUTING COLUMNS

The shape of columns made by the jet grouting technique, due


to specific nature of this technology, is very diversified and
difficult to predict. It depends inter alia on the type and
condition of soils making the subsoil, the injection system used
(single, double or triple) and on technological parameters
(injection pressure, size and shape of injection nozzles, speed of
injection rod pulling out and rotations and others) (Wanik and
Bzwka 2012).
To determine precisely the geometry of jet grouting columns
they are excavated, making their measurement and macroscopic
visual inspection possible. The shaft may have various shapes
(Fig. 4) depending on the aforementioned factors.
a)

b)

Figure 2. Model deformations [m] under influence of the load of


embankment: a) h=2.0 m; b) h=4.0 m high (Z_Soil) (Bzwka et al.
2012; Juzwa 2012a).
Figure 1. Core samples for strength tests (Bzwka, 2009).

A 2D model was built cutting from the space around


columns an area large enough, allowing idealisation of
boundary conditions. Boundary conditions were taken in the
form of: full fixing of the base of the halfspace cut and partial
fixing, allowing a vertical shift, on side surfaces of the halfspace
In the model of a flat system a group of 3 columns was
taken, each of them 4.0 m long and 0.8 m in diameter, arranged
at a distance of 2.5 m, while the subsoil is stratified. Division
into quadrilateral isoparametric elements was assumed. The grid
was concentrated in the area of contact zone. An incremental
load (uniform for all columns) was applied to such system,
reflecting a real transport embankment 4.0 m high, laid at fixed
intervals in layers 0.5 m thick.
The image of system deformations caused by columns
loading is presented for two stages in Fig. 2. Corresponding
stresses are shown in Fig. 3. The stress maps perfectly show the
range of transition zone, which parameters affect the
distribution of internal forces values in the system (Bzwka et
al. 2012; Juzwa 2012a).

Fractal theories may be used to describe an irregular surface


of jet grouting columns. Using a fractal and a box dimension it
is possible to describe better an irregular shaft surface of a jet
grouting column, its shape and roughness. A more precise
description of roughness and geometrical parameters of soil
particles allows a more detailed determination of such
properties as: porosity, density and shear strength (Bzwka and
Skrzypczyk 2011).
The paper presents an example of fractal dimension and box
dimension calculation for an excavated jet grouting column
made in a single system (see Fig. 68). Results of studies
presented in papers (Kawa and Wieczorek 2005; Wanik 2012a,
2012b; Wanik and Bzwka 2012) have been used.
The described jet grouting column was made in average
compacted medium sand, under which a stiff silty clay was
situated. After column excavating and cleaning, an irregular
shaft surface was disclosed and also a clear change of column
diameter on the boundary of two layers forming the subsoil (see
Fig. 5).

a)

2438

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

a)

a)

b)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 3. Map of vertical stresses of the model under influence of the


load of embankment: a) h=2.0 m; b) h=4.0 m high (Z_Soil) (Bzwka et
al. 2012; Juzwa 2012a).
Figure 4. Different shapes of excavated jet grouting columns
(photos: J. Bzwka, and K. Wanik).

2439

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Figure 5. Structure
(photo: J. Bzwka).

of

excavated

jet

grouting

column

SUMMARY

Issues presented in the paper show the scale of problems related


to the representation of actual interaction of jet grouting
columns with the surrounding subsoil. Theoretical models
require repetitions and calibration, making the obtained results
realistic. It is especially important to determine the thickness
and parameters of the contact zone formed at the contact of
column material and the subsoil.
The shape and dimensions of formed jet grouting columns
depend on the type and condition of soils building the subsoil
and on technological parameters of columns forming, such as:
the injection pressure, the injection rod pulling out and rotation
speed, the density of injected cement grout as well as the
number and size of injection nozzles.
A large number of factors affecting geometry and hence
related columns bearing capacity and the soilcement material
strength causes problems in designing. To verify geometry of
columns made it is necessary to perform excavations and to
measure the diameter, circumference shape and to assess the
shaft structure. Mathematical issues from the field of fractal and
box dimension allow creating a clear description of
a complicated shape of jet grouting columns shaft.
4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The coAuthors: Anna Juzwa and Lidia Wanik received a grant


of the DoktoRIS project a scholarship program for innovative
Silesia region cofinanced by the European Union of the
European Social Fund.
5
Figure 6. Method for determining fractal dimension for column
(Kawa and Wieczorek 2005; Wanik 2012a).

Figure 7. Method for determining box dimension for column


(Kawa and Wieczorek 2005; Wanik 2012a).

Figure 8. Fractal dimension and box dimension for jet grouting column.

2440

REFERENCES

Bzwka J. 2009. Interaction between jet grouting columns and subsoil.


Monograph published by the Silesian University of Technology,
Gliwice (in Polish).
Bzwka J. 2010. FEM analysis of interaction of jet grouting column
with subsoil. Scientific Conference on Natural and Technical
Problems of Environmental Engineering Soil parameters from in
situ and laboratory tests, Pozna 27-29 September 2010, 445455.
Bzwka J. and Juzwa A. and Wanik L. 2012. Selected problems of jet
grouting application. Inynieria Morska i Geotechnika, No. 4,
514519 (in Polish).
Bzwka J. and Skrzypczyk J. 2011. Fractal dimensions in geotechnics.
Proc. of the 9th International Conference on New Trends in Statics
and Dynamics of Buildings, 20-21 October 2011, Bratislava,
Slovakia, 2124 (in Polish).
Juzwa A. 2012a. Computational description of interaction between
group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. Monograph:
Experimental and theoretical tests in Civil Engineering published
by the Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, 6774 (in
Polish).
Juzwa A. 2012b. Subsoil strengthening by using jet grouting
technology. 9th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil
Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, 22-25
July 2012.
Kawa K. and Wieczorek W. 2005. Fractals application in geotechnics.
Master thesis, The Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of
Civil Engineering, Gliwice (in Polish).
Modoni G. and Bzwka J. 2012. Analysis of foundations reinforced
with jet grouting. ASCEJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.
Wanik L. 2012a. Application of fractals to describe shape of jet
grouting columns. Monograph: Experimental and theoretical tests
in Civil Engineering published by the Silesian University of
Technology, Gliwice, 133141 (in Polish).
Wanik L. 2012b. Fractal and box dimensions in description of jet
grouting columns geometry. Inynieria Morska i Geotechnika, No.
4, 432434 (in Polish).
Wanik L. and Bzwka J. 2012. Influence of various factors on geometry
of jet grouting columns. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki
Rzeszowskiej, Budownictwo i Inynieria rodowiska, z.59
(3/12/IV), No. 283, t. 4, 117124 (in Polish).

Column Supported Embankments for Transportation Infrastructures: Influence of


Column Stiffness, Consolidation Effects and Cyclic Loading
Remblais sur sols renforcs avec de colonnes ballastes pour les infrastructures de transport:
Influence de la rigidit des colonnes, des effets de consolidation et du chargement cyclique
Carvajal E., Vukoti G.

Kellerterra S.L., Madrid, Spain

Sagaseta C.

University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain

Wehr W.

Keller Holding GmbH, Offenbach, Germany


ABSTRACT: Ground improvement methods based on column-type elements are analyzed regarding the influence of the column
properties on serviceability and safety of the Column Supported Embankments (CSE). Particularly, treatments made by rigid
inclusions are analyzed and compared with stone columns. Stiffness of column-type elements determines the design and risks
involved. Rigid inclusions are analyzed according to the recent French national project ASIRI. In the case of these elements, a
considerable mobilization of negative skin friction and punching effects governs their behavior in the Ultimate Limit State, which
represents a non-ductile mechanism of failure. Whereas stone columns present a ductile behavior determined in the domain of
Serviceability Limit State (SLS). It is pointed out, that possible damages on CSE systems may extend settlement stabilization due to
the consolidation process, if no drainage elements are adopted. It is also noted that risks related to rigid columns in the SLS under
cyclic loading, may be decisive in the design of CSE composed by low-heights embankments. Briefly, it could be stated that rigid
inclusions present higher risks, increasingly when their diameters are smaller than 30 cm.
RSUM : On analyse les mthodes d'amlioration des sols avec des colonnes pour la fondation des remblais sur sols mous. En
particulier, on analyse les inclusions rigides selon les recommandations du rcent projet national franais ASIRI, et on prsente la
comparaison avec des colonnes ballastes. La rigidit de la colonne dtermine la conception et les risques associs. Dans le cas des
inclusions rigides, une mobilisation considrable du frottement ngatif et la portance rsultante gouvernent leur comportement dans
l'tat limite ultime, ce qui reprsente un mcanisme non-ductile de rupture. Au contraire, les colonnes ballastes prsentent un
comportement ductile dtermine dans le domaine de l'tat limite de service. Il a t observ que les risques de colonnes rigides dans
les ELS peut tre retards moins que on installe quelques lments de drainage. On a remarqu aussi que les risques associs aux
inclusions rigides soumises aux chargements cycliques peuvent tre dcisives pour remblais de faible hauteur. Ainsi, les inclusions
rigides prsentent des risques plus levs, de plus en plus lorsque leur diamtre est plus petit que 30 cm.
KEYWORDS: Load Transfer Platform, geosynthetic, embankment, rigid inclusion, stone columns, risk, stiffness, arching effect

INTRODUCTION

Column Supported Embankments (CSE) represent an


innovative solution for transport infrastructure over soft soils, in
order to reduce execution time and general earthworks. Hence,
the use of low-height embankments based on column-type
elements tends to be preferred, whenever possible, instead of
direct soil replacement or preloading with or without vertical
drains. Recently, the use of CSE is increasing, and consequently
growing interest in developing reliable and unified criteria for
their design and construction is observed.
However, due to the possibility of application of a wide
range of ground improvement techniques, further risk
assessment has to be done. Risks and reliability related to CSE
could be largely analyzed considering the influence of column
stiffness in Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States.
Furthermore, column stiffness also affects consolidation process
and the system behavior against cyclic or dynamic loading, very
often decisive for safety and serviceability.
2
2.1

order to optimize the solution, ground improvement methods


have been increasingly used in the last years.
Ground improvement methods should intent not to take the
entire action by the supporting elements, but only the difference
between the required and existing bearing capacity without
improvement (Wehr et al. 2012). This is applicable to stone and
sand columns, which take important part of the foundation load,
and make the most of soil confinement to ensure its own
capacity. These two types of columns accelerate the
consolidation process and do not need any embedment to
transfer the loads to stiffer soil layers; thereby they can be
considered as authentic ground improvements.
On the other side, the columns made by the addition of
bonding agents, mortar or concrete into the ground, do not
accelerate consolidation. The improvement introduced by such
columns mainly consists of the load transfer to the stiffer layers
in the same way as piles, thus, to ensure their correct application
the largest embedment is frequently desired.
Load Transfer
Platform (LTP)

COLUMNS SUPPORTED EMBANKMENT SYSTEMS

HC

Embankment
Plane with S = 0

Geosynthetics

Pile cap

End Bearing
Columns

Type of columns

Soft Soil

Typical elements of CSE systems are shown in Figure 1.


Initially, reinforced piles with concrete cap were applied, in
order to absorb the largest load of embankment as possible. In

2441

Soil with
intermediate
Stiffness

Floating Columns

Firm Soil

Figure 1. Elements of Column Supported Embankment Systems

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

(b) (b)

(a)

(c)

(d)

Figure 2. Mechanism of load transfer in the CSE: (a) approaches of arching-effect shape; (b) resultsof laboratory test performed by Chen et al.
(2008); (c) load transfer mechanism proposed by Combarieu (1974, 1988); (d) influence of confined modulus on improvement factor (Kirsch 2004).

These kinds of columns, with predominantly round crosssections of 25 cm to 80 cm diameter, are denominated Rigid
Inclusion according to the French national research project
ASIRI (Amliorations de Sols par Inclusions Rigides). Rigid
inclusions may be arranged in a regular grid, although, due to
horizontal stresses sometimes have to be distributed in wall or
panel form in order to overcome slope and internal instability.
2.2

Load Transfer Platform

The design and operation of CSE is largely influenced by the


load transmission mechanism toward the columns, through a
Load Transfer Platform (LTP) laid out at the base of
embankment. LTPs are generally composed by a layer of
compacted granular material that in many cases has to be
reinforced by geosynthetics, or composed by layers treated with
hydraulic binder.
LTP behavior is essentially determined by two parameters.
The efficacy or efficiency E, defined as the ratio between load
on the column head QP and the total load on the surrounding
soil within a unit cell (W + Q), where W is the weight of
embankment and Q is the force due to surcharge on the surface;
and the critical Height HC, which indicates the height of
embankment where differential settlements in between column
head and middle of the grid are negligible. As stated by several
authors, E and HC depend on many factors such as column
rigidity, shear strength of LTP layers, spacing between columns,
and soft soil stiffness (Zaeske and Kempfert 2001, Okay 2010).
Most theoretical methods focus on the requirements of the
geosynthetic within LTPs for piled embankments, considering a
void between rigid elements. The geosynthetic takes the load
that remains in the middle of columns and delivers it to the
column heads by means of membrane effect. Consequently
almost all load is acting on the columns heads. According to
these methods only a minor part or even any soil reaction is
considered. Several guidelines or recommendations documents
deal with these methods (BS8006 2010, EBGEO 2010, Nordic
Handbook 2005). Such approaches could be classified
according to the shear stress form-distribution that governs the
mechanism of arch load-transfer and differential settlements
within the LTP (Han and Colling 2005), see Figure 2a.
According mentioned approaches HC varies from 0.7 to 1.6
times the clear distances between columns (s - a).

Figure 3. Influence of column modulus on the


differential settlements within Load Transfer Platform
(Gangakhedar 2004).

Otherwise, the method proposed by Combarieu (1974,


1988), and adopted in the ASIRI Recommendations, deals not
only with the load transfer into LTP but also along the entire
length of rigid columns. Furthermore, ASIRI project's
recommendations are based on various physical and numerical
modelling (Jenck 2005, Chevalier et al. 2008). 1
Figure 2c shows the mechanism of load transfer proposed in
the ASIRI, where differential settlements between soil and
columns produce negative skin friction in the upper part of the
column; at certain depth where settlements are the same in soil
and columns, the skin friction is equal to zero, and below this
neutral plane the load in the columns is transferred through
positive skin friction and tip resistance. It can be noted that such
mechanism is quite similar to those exhibited by the combined
pile-raft foundations (CPRF).
3
3.1

INFLUENCE OF THE COLUMN CHARACTERISTICS


Columns stiffness

Unfortunately, so far there is not any analytical method


(commonly used) that takes into account the variation of
column stiffness, and accordingly numerical modelling usually
have to be performed to analyze the influence of column
stiffness. However, even the most relevant numerical modelling
that can be found in the literature has no focus on the risks and
suitability aspects related to the column stiffness.
Kirsch (2004) analyzed the influence of the ratio between
confined modulus of columns and soil on the improvement
factor ratio of settlements with and without improvement).
Results indicate that confined modulus ratios beyond 40 to 50
do no suppose considerable increments on improvement factor
, (Figure 2d). Similarly, Gangakhedar (2004) performed a
numerical analysis of the influence of Youngs modulus of the
columns, on the differential settlements at the base of
geosynthetic reinforced embankment. Figure 3 shows that
differential settlements increase with increasing column
modulus. Although it can be noted that there exists a greater
increase of differential settlements when modulis are higher
than those usually obtained for stone columns, of about 80 to
120 MPa, and that differential settlements tends to be much
higher with the increase of column modulis if no geosynthetic
reinforcement is considered.
Therefore, the cost-operating inefficiency of columns may
be stated when column modulus are higher than 120 MPa, or
modulus ratio are larger than 40 to 50, approximately. If
columns rigidity exceeds this limits, CSE system requires an
increase on the capacity of geosynthetic-reinforcement and the
additional improvement is negligible.
It is well known that stone columns have a load-carrying
mechanism by lateral bulging, whereas rigid inclusions transmit
the load by skin friction and punching effect on their tip and
head. In the latter case, the usual amount of differential
settlement obtained in the column head implies a behavior
controlled by its ultimate limit state (ULS), and governed by
mobilization of negative skin friction. Figure 3 depicts that such

2442

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

Figure 4. (a) Estimation of evolution of negative skin friction with degree of consolidation (Alonso et al. 1984); (b) chart for geosynthetic design
based of allowable differential settlement (Lawson 2000); (c) influence of height and friction angle of embankment on Efficacy factor (Jenck 2005).

deformation in the head of rigid inclusions may suppose the


failure state, as settlements may reach levels corresponding
tolarge percent of column diameter. Furthermore, the punching
failure in the head and toe of columns occurs immediately after
the application of embankment load, and associated risk
increases with smaller diameters of rigid inclusion, being quite
sensitive to the variation of the soil parameters also.
On the other side, flexible elements like stone columns tend
to reduce the punching effects at the base of embankment. In
this case the system gives a ductile behavior, whereas, due to
column compressibility and its drainage characteristics, the
ultimate limit state is reached after large deformation and at the
end of consolidation. Therefore, the behavior of such system
takes place in the domain of serviceability limit state (SLS).
Wehr et al. (2012) proposed three categories of increasing
risks, in order to assess the reliability of ground improvement
methods according to their ductility and sensitivity to the
variation of soil and materials parameters, taking as a reference
the standards DIN 1054 and Eurocode 7. Thus, regarding to
columns-type elements, flexible columns with small risks (stone
columns, vibro compaction, sand columns) are in category A;
rigid columns with diameter larger than 30 cm, which presents
an average risk, are in category B; and rigid inclusions with
diameters less than 30 cm and non-ductile behavior, which
represent a high risk, are in category C.
3.2

Consolidation process

The addition of cement agents disables the drainage capacity of


rigid columns, whereby settlements stabilization is obtained
only due to a high load concentration on the columns. However,
during the consolidation of pore pressures produced by the
remaining part of embankment load that act on the soil, an
important negative skin friction is generated in the part of
columns above the neutral plane, very similar to piles, but
without any capacity and structural connections. Consequently,
the risk should be assessed due to possible reduction or loss of
the load concentration on columns (or efficiency factor) along
the lifetime of the CSEs. This situation could occur if certain
loss of arching effect happens, as a consequence of possible
LTPs deteriorations, e.g. due to internal failure of geosyntheticreinforcement. In this case, the consolidation would occur in the
long term, according to the permeability of the natural soil.
Moreover, it would involve the evolution of neutral plane
over the time, dominated by the increase of negative friction.
Figure 4a shows an example of this complex mechanism
reported by Alonso et al. (1984).
In the case of stone columns, the rapid settlements
stabilization is expected due to their drainage capability. Castro
and Sagaseta (2009) analyzed the evolution of stress
concentration on the stone columns, showing that in the very
beginning entire load is carried by the soil, and the final load
concentration on the columns is obtained after consolidation
(Figure 5). However, after short period of consolidation,

2443

effective stress of soil tends to increase, and additionally


provides greater confinement to the columns. Such results
suppose an improvement of the whole column-soil system.

Figure 5. Time development of soil and column stresses, (Castro and


Sagaseta 2009)

GENERAL ASPECTS OF SAFETY VERIFICATION

There is a range of recommendations that attempt to unify


design of LTPs composed by geosynthetic-reinforcement layers,
basically used in piled embankments (BS8006 2010, EBGEO
2010, Nordic Handbook 2005). However, the design of columntype elements is redirected to typical pile standards. As it was
mentioned in section 2.2, it has to be emphasized, that these
recommendations deal with systems where almost entire load is
transferred to bearing elements heads, hence negative skin
friction is practically negligible. According to what has been
stated here about the higher level of risk exhibited by the rigid
inclusions with small diameter, the most important safety
aspects of such elements will be commented.
4.1

Large-height embankment

The ASIRI recommendations define two different situations:


Domain 1: if the ULSs are not guaranteed without
improvement, rigid inclusions are used to ensure the global
stability, and bearing capacity of rigid inclusions for both ULSs
and SLSs have to be checked, similarly to the French Eurocode
7 application for piles.
Domain 2: if the ULSs are analyzed for the situation without
improvement, then rigid inclusions are used as settlement
reducers, and only SLSs have to be proceeded.
Taking into account the ASIRI recommendations, it could be
distinguished that when the CSE system comprises
embankments with more than 3 to 5 m height, the design is
usually focused to guarantee the ULSs. Regarding to the
external bearing capacity (GEO) for rigid inclusions, the most
important checks against the permanent loads will be punching
at their heads and tips, as well as the horizontal stresses,
bending moments and shear stresses due to slope
failures.Buckling effects have to be checked when soft soil has
pressuremeter modulus smaller than 3 MPa.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 6. (a) Factor of soil arching reduction (Heitz et al. 2008); (b) stress conditions in the subgrade due to moving load on the pavement surface;
(c) pavement deformation due to hard-point effects associated with the presence of rigid inclusions.

Regarding to the structural bearing capacity (STR), a


minimum compressive strength of 7 MPa has to be adopted, and
no shear stress is allowed for unreinforced columns smaller than
30 cm. Besides, if tension can develop, for Domain 1 the rigid
inclusions have to be reinforced, whereas for Domain 2 only an
adequate tensile strength of concrete could be adopted.
On the other hand, Katzenbach et al. (2012) have compared
the safety checks outlined in the ASIRI recommendations with
other guidelines for similar foundation systems usually used in
Germany (CSV, CRPF), according to the partial safety factor
approach. They reported that ASIRI has lower values of safety
factors than those the compared guidelines indicate.
4.2

Low-height embankment

In the case of embankments with heights less than 3 meters,


the design is usually aimed to guarantee the SLSs, according to
the Domain 2. Basically, the geometry of the CSE systems has
to be set to avoid excessive deformation in the surface of the
embankments, in order to allow an adequate traffic operation.
For this objective Lawson (2000) proposed the chart depicted in
Figure 4b, for the design of the height and geosyntheticreinforcement of LTP layers considering the columns as hard
points, and according to typical thresholds adopted in transport
projects related to differential settlements.
The differential settlements also depend on the LTP strength.
Figure 4c shows the analysis of Jenck (2005) related to the
influence of the height of the embankment and the strength of
unreinforced LTPs in terms of friction angle. Results indicate
that efficiency factor E increase with height of embankments
until a maximum value similar to the critical height HC. Also, it
can be seen that when LTP is composed by materials with
friction angle less than 20 degree the efficiency factor is
drastically reduced, and practically negligible when = 0.
So far it is not fully analyzed the behavior of CSE against the
cyclic loading of traffic. Heitz et al. (2008) have demonstrated
that the arching mechanism to transfer load of LTP can only be
formed in a very limited extent if geosynthetic reinforcement is
not placed. Based on laboratory model tests under cyclic
loading, they proposed a soil arching reduction factor, k.
Figure 6a shows this factor depending on the ratio of fill
height and column spacing h/s, the frequency f and amplitude of
the cyclic load c.For rigid inclusion application negative
influence of the traffic loading has to be considered during
construction and operation stages. Figure 6b illustrates that
cyclic loading of traffic can generate the rotation of principal
stresses in the subgrade layers, which could cause severe
damages to the rigid inclusions and pavement serviceability in
the long term, especially for low-height embankments.
Finally, Figure 6c shows an example of pavement
deformation due to a combination of the effects mentioned.
5

CONCLUSIONS

The influence of columns stiffness commonly used on the


Column Supported Embankment (CSE) systems has to be
rigorously investigated in order to establish the implications on
the safety and serviceability issues. The facts that indicate the
higher risks of rigid inclusions compared with flexible ground

2444

improvement methods like stone columns are exposed,


especially when diameters of rigid inclusions are smaller than
30 cm. Moreover, the requirements of LTPs in terms of strength
and thickness, has to be more strict for rigid inclusion
comparing with stone columns, in order to ensure the arching
load transfer in the long term behavior of the CSEs, for both
static and cyclic loading.
6

REFERENCES

Alonso E. Josa A. and Ledesma A.1984. Negative skin friction on piles:


a simplified analysis and prediction procedure. Geotechnique 34.
No. 3. pp 341-357.
ASIRI National Project. 2012. Recommendations for the design,
construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements.
British Standard 8006. 2010. Code of practice for strengthened/
reinforced soils and other fills. British Standard Institution. London.
Castro J. and Sagaseta C. 2009. Consolidation around stone columns.
Influence of column deformation. Int. J. Num. Anal. Meth.
Geomech. 33(7): 851-877. doi:10.1002/nag.745.
Chen Y. M. Cao W. P. and Chen R. P. 2008. An experimental
investigation of soil arching within basal reinforced and
unreinforced piled embankments. Geotex. and Geom. 26. 164-174.
Chevalier B. Combe G. and Villard P. 2008. Modlisation discrte:
tude du report de charge. Rapport 3-08-4-01.
Combarieu O. 1988. Amlioration des sols par inclusions rigides
verticals. Application ldification des remblais sur sols
mdiocres. Revue franaise de gotechnique No. 44. pp 57-79.
EBGEO. 2011. Recommendation for design and analysis of earth
structures using geosynthetic reinforcement. Ernst & Sohn. Berlin.
Gangakhedar R. 2004. Geosynthetic reinforced piled-supported
embankments. Master thesis. University of Florida.
Han J. and Collin J.G. 2005. Geosynthetic Supported System over Pile
Foundations. ASCE. G.S.P. 130-142. pp. 3949-3953
Heitz C. Lking J. and Kempfert H.G. 2008. Geosynthetic reinforced
and pile supported embankments under static and cyclic loading.
Proceedings EuroGeo 4. Edinburg. United Kindong.
Jenck O. 2005. Le renforcement des sols compressibles par inclusions
rigides verticales. Modlisation physique et numrique. Thse de
Doctorat. INSA Lyon.
Kirsch F. 2004. Experimentelle un numerische Untersuchungen zum
Tragverhalten von Rttelspopfsulen, Dissertation am Institut fur
Grundbau un Bodenmechanik. Heft 75. Braunschweig.
Katzenbach R. Bohn C. Wehr J. 2012. Comparison of safety concepts
for soil reinforcement methods using concrete columns. Technische
Universitt Darmstadt. Institut un Versuchsanstalt fr Geotechnik.
Lawson C. R. 2000. Serviceability limits for low-height reinforced piled
embankment. Proceedings GeoEng 2000. Melbourne. Australia.
NGG. 2005. Nordic Handbook Reinforcedment soil and fills, Nordic
Geotechnical Society. Stockholm
Okay U.S. 2010. Etude exprimentale el numrique des transferts de
charge dans un massif renforc par inclusions rigides. Application
des cas de chargements statiques et dynamiques. PhD in the scope
of ASIRI. INSA Lyon and Universit Claude Bernard.
Wehr W. Topolnicki M. And Sonderman W. 2012. Design Risks of
ground improvement methods including rigid inclusions.
International Symposium Ground improvement. Brussels.
Zaesk D. and Kempfert H.G. 2001. Wirkungsweise von unbewehrten
und unbewehrten mineralischen Tragschichten ber pfahlartigen
Grndungselementen. Universitt Gh Kassel. Heft 10.

Foundations of embankments using encased stone columns


Fondations de remblais avec des colonnes ballastes entoures de gotextile
Castro J., Sagaseta C., Caizal J., Da Costa A., Miranda M.
University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain

ABSTRACT: Stone columns are a common improvement technique for foundations of embankments in soft soils. When the soft soil
does not provide enough lateral support, the columns are encased with a geosynthetic. This paper presents a closed-form solution to
study soft soil improvement, both reduction of settlement and consolidation time, by means of encased stone columns. An end-bearing
column and its surrounding soil, is modelled in axial symmetry under a rigid and constant load. Soil is assumed as elastic but plastic
strains are considered in the column. An elasto-plastic behaviour is also considered for the encasement by means of a limit tensile
strength. Parametric studies of the settlement reduction and stress concentration show the efficiency of encasing the columns, which is
mainly ruled by the encasement stiffness compared to that of the soil. The analytical results are in good agreement with numerical
analyses. Finally, the encasement length is analysed using the closed-form solution.
RSUM: Les colonnes ballastes sont une technique d'amlioration de sol pour les remblais en sols mous. Lorsque le sol mou ne
fournit pas assez de soutien latral, les colonnes sont entoures avec un gosynthtique. Cet article prsente une solution analytique
pour tudier l'amlioration des sols mous, la rduction des tassements ainsi que le temps de consolidation, au moyen des colonnes
entoures en gotextile. Une colonne ne reprenant les efforts que par la pointe et le sol environnant sont modliss en axisymtrie
sous une charge constant. Le comportement du sol est suppos lastique mais les dformations plastiques sont considres dans la
colonne. Un comportement lasto-plastique est galement pris pour le gosynthtique au moyen d'une rsistance la traction limite.
Des tudes paramtriques de la rduction du tassement et de concentration de contraintes montrent l'efficacit de l'enveloppe
gosynthtique des colonnes, ce qui est principalement rgie par la rigidit de lenveloppe gosynthtique par rapport celle du sol.
Les rsultats analytiques prsentent une bonne concordance avec les analyses numriques. Finalement, la longueur de lenveloppe
gotextile est analyse en utilisant la solution base sur une cellule lmentaire constitue dune colonne et dun volume lmentaire
de sol.
KEYWORDS: soft soils, ground improvement, encased stone columns, analytical solution, numerical analyses.
1

INTRODUCTION

Stone columns, either by the vibro-replacement or vibrodisplacement methods, are one of the most common
improvement techniques for foundation of embankments or
structures on soft soils. The inclusion of gravel, which has a
higher strength, stiffness and permeability than the natural soft
soil, improves the bearing capacity and the stability of
embankments and natural slopes, reduces total and differential
settlements, accelerates soil consolidation and reduces the
liquefaction potential. Alteration of the natural soft soil caused
by stone column installation (Guetif et al. 2008, Castro and
Karstunen 2010) is not usually considered in their design.
Stone columns may not be appropriate in very soft soils that
do not provide enough lateral confinement to the columns. It is
generally accepted that those are soils with undrained shear
strengths below 5-15 kPa (Wehr 2006). To increase the lateral
confinement of the columns, and consequently their vertical
capacity, encasing the columns with geotextiles has proved to
be a successful solution in recent years.
A high tensile stiffness of the encasement is recommended
as it will be shown in this paper; and therefore, other
geosynthetics, such as geogrids, are also used to encase the
column (Sharma et al. 2004, Gniel and Bouazza 2009).
However, geogrids do not act as a filter and do not avoid
contamination of the column with fines.
The development of encased stone columns as a ground
improvement technique has come with an increasing number of
studies in the last decade. However, most of the research is done
using numerical methods (e.g. Murugesan and Rajagopal 2006,
Malarvizhi and Ilamparuthi 2007, Smith and Filz 2007, Yoo
2010, Lo et al. 2010) and there are very few analytical solutions
available in the literature (Raithel and Kempfert 2000, Pulko et
al. 2011). That recently motivated the authors to develop a new
closed-form solution to study the deformation and consolidation

around encased stone columns (Castro and Sagaseta 2011). That


solution is an extension of another previous analytical solution
developed for non-encased stone columns (Castro and Sagaseta
2009).
This paper analyses the main features of that closed-form
solution, showing its limitations and range of applicability, the
influence of the key parameters for routine design and a
comparison with numerical analyses.
2
2.1

CLOSED-FORM SOLUTION
Model

The vertical capacity of the columns is a fundamental issue


when the applied load is concentrated on the columns.
Therefore, column encasement is very useful in those cases
(Murugesan and Rajagopal 2010, Khabbazian et al. 2010); but
also under distributed loads, such as tanks or embankments,
because the increase of lateral confinement reduces the
settlement.
The authors' closed-form solution (Castro and Sagaseta
2011) is limited to distributed uniform loads because it is based
on a unit cell model, i.e. only one column and its surrounding
soil are studied in axial symmetry. Furthermore, the column is
assumed to be fully penetrating in the soft soil and the applied
load is considered as rigid, i.e. uniform settlement. The area of
soft soil, Al, that is improved by each column, Ac, is generally
expressed by the area replacement ratio, ar=Ac/Al, but
sometimes is also defined in terms of the relation between
diameters or radii, N=rl/rc=1/ar.
The solution is developed for a horizontal slice at a depth z
of the unit cell, and consequently, shear stresses between slices
at different depths are not considered (Figure 1). The overall

2445

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

behaviour of the whole unit cell is obtained by means of


integration of the solution at the different depths.

Tg J g

pa

Axis

at any depth, z

zs

rs

rc

Column

rc

Encasement

rl

2.4
Figure 1. Analytical model.

2.2

Consolidation

The analysis of consolidation around encased stone columns as


a fully coupled problem is difficult to deal with. As a
simplifying assumption, the solution uses the average value of
the excess pore pressure along the radius, u , which is a simple
way of getting a reasonably accurate solution. The details of this
kind of approach can be found in Castro and Sagaseta (2009).
Multiple instantaneous load steps may be considered. The
column (drain) is considered to be fully permeable, which is
doubtful for conventional stone columns but is reasonable if the
columns are coated with a geotextile. In this way, consolidation
around encased stone columns is studied using any conventional
solution for radial consolidation (e.g. Barron 1948) and a
modified coefficient of consolidation that accounts for the
influence of column and encasement.
2.3

Encasement

The encasement is modelled as a cylindrical shell of negligible


thickness around the column. Therefore, it is valid for different
types of coating, such as geotextiles, geogrids... Encasement
behaviour is supposed to be linear elastic-perfectly plastic and
characterized by a tensile stiffness, Jg, and a maximum tensile
strength, Tg,max. During column installation, the encasement is
pre-stressed to an initial tensile stress, Tg,i. The encasement
tensile stress obtained with the analytical solution is the
increment from that value, Tg.

sr

Tg

rs
rc
rc

J g sr
rc2

rs

(3)

Those simple equations (Eq. 2 and 3) show how the


encasement influence depends on its stiffness and radius.

Soil

rc

(2)

where sr is the radial displacement of the interface.


Combining these two equations, the radial equilibrium
between soil and column at their interface depends on the
encasement properties (stiffness and radius) and its radial
expansion.

Horizontal slice
zc

sr
rc

Tg

Formulation

The detailed formulation of the solution can be found in Castro


and Sagaseta (2009, 2011). Three different possible phases are
identified: (a) soil, column and encasement in the elastic range,
(b) column yielding and (c) encasement yielding, which will
occur after column yielding in a real situation.
A sensible design should cause yielding of the column but
not of the encasement. Therefore, the last phase of the solution
may not be considered and it is just necessary to check that the
tensile stress of the encasement does not exceed its strength.
The solution considers just one instantaneous load step, but it
is quite straightforward to generalize it for multiple loading
steps (Castro and Sagaseta 2008), taking the initial stresses as
the final ones of the previous load step. However, modelling the
real loading steps is only necessary to study the consolidation
process but not for the final values as it gives the same results.
2.5

Drained solution

The studied closed-form solution models the consolidation


process. However, consolidation around stone columns,
especially if the columns are coated with a geotextile, may be
nearly as fast as the loading pace, which means that for these
cases drained condition is a more reasonable assumption.
In any case, depending on the soil permeability and the
loading pace, the real behaviour is between drained condition
and an undrained loading followed by consolidation.
Fortunately, both cases yield very similar final values as can be
shown numerically.
Nonetheless, analytical solutions use
simplifying
assumptions that have different consequences in each situation.
The most evident example is disregarding the elastic strains in
the column once it has reached its active state. This assumption
gives acceptable results for non-encased columns or when the
consolidation process is modelled but not if drained conditions
are considered for encased columns (Castro and Sagaseta 2011).
Hence, in that last case it is necessary to account for those
elastic strains in the column (Pulko et al. 2011).
3

PARAMETRIC STUDY AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES

Figure 2. Equilibrium and compatibility conditions of the encasement.

3.1

The encasement is compressed in vertical direction, and as it


can only take tension, it does not have any influence in vertical
direction. Its equilibrium and compatibility conditions (Figure
2) are those of a thin tube under internal, rc, and external
pressure, rs.

Numerical simulations are included in the parametric study to


evaluate the accuracy of the closed-form solution and the
influence of its simplifying assumptions, such as neglecting the
shear stresses and using an average pore water pressure along
the radius. Coupled numerical analyses of the unit cell were
performed using the finite element code Plaxis v8.6 (Brinkgreve
2007). For comparison purposes, the same boundary conditions
and material properties of the analytical solution were chosen
for the numerical models. Therefore, a rigid plate was set on top

rc

Tg
rc

rs

(1)

2446

Numerical model

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

of the unit cell, the soil was modelled as elastic and the
encasement and the column as elastic-perfectly plastic.
Stress concentration

The ratio between the vertical stress on the column and on the
soil is usually called the stress concentration factor
(SCF=zc/zc) and gives an idea of the part of the applied load
that the soil transfers to the column. Figure 3 shows its variation
with time. The vertical stresses on the soil and on the column
may vary with the radius, and therefore, their averaged values
are used to calculate the SCF.
A higher encasement stiffness provides a better lateral
confinement to the column, and hence, the column supports a
higher load. A good agreement is found between the analytical
and the numerical results. However, as it happens for the stone
column solution (Castro and Sagaseta 2009), the agreement for
low degrees of consolidation (<30%) is not very good due to
inherent assumptions of Barrons solution.

SCF, zc/zs

c=40

Column
yielding

K0s=0.6

pa/(z')=10

FE

0
0.0001

c=40

0.6

=0.53

0.5
0.4

FE

Closed-form solution
Jg/(rcEs)=0
Jg/(rcEs)=0.75
Jg/(rcEs)=2

0.3
=0.233-0.235

0.5

1.0

1.5

Normalised applied load, pa/(L's)

Figure 4. Settlement reduction. Influence of the applied load.

Closed-form solution

Closed-form solution
Jg/(rcEs)=0
Jg/(rcEs)=2

0.001

0.01

0.1

0.6
Ec/Es=40

c=s=0.3

0.4

c=40

's='c
pa/(L's)=1 K0s=0.6
c=10

0.2

Jg/(rcEs)=5
Jg/(rcEs)=2
Jg/(rcEs)=0.75
Jg/(rcEs)=0

0.8

0.05

Time factor, Tr

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Area replacement ratio, ar

Figure 3. Stress concentration on the column with time.

Figure 5. Settlement reduction. Influence of the encasement stiffness for


different area replacement ratios.

Settlement reduction

The settlement reduction decreases with the applied load, pa,


from an elastic value, e, and approaches a plastic one, p, at
the same rate as plastic strains develop in the column (Figure 4).
The applied load is normalized by the initial vertical stress
because column yielding depends on that factor, pa/(L's).
On the other hand, the settlement reduction introduced by the
encasement is nearly the same for different area replacement
ratios (Figure 5), which means that column encasement is
equally useful for different area replacement ratios, yet columns
of smaller diameters are better confined. In Figures 4, 5 and 6,
the numerical results validate the accuracy of the analytical
solution, but the agreement gets slightly worse as the tensile
stiffness of the encasement increases. Hence, the only
assumption that has a slightly noticeable effect in the results is
neglecting the elastic strains in the column during its plastic
deformation. A future improvement of the analytical solution
including those elastic strains is currently being developed.

'c='s=10 kN/m

Ec/Es=40
Es=1 MPa

pa=100 kPa = =0.3


c
s
ar=0.11

100
Settlement, sz [mm]

3.3

=0.62

c=10

FE

c=10

=0.70

1.0

c=s=0.3

rc=0.5 m

's='c
c=s=0.3 K =0.6
0s
ar=0.11

Ec/Es=40
Es=1 MPa
ar=0.25

Ec/Es=40

0.7

0.2

Settlement reduction factor,

10

Settlement reduction factor,

3.2

0.8

200

c=40

300

L=10 m
K0s=0.6

c=10

FE
400

500
0.0001

Closed-form solution
Jg/(rcEs)=0
Jg/(rcEs)=0.75
Jg/(rcEs)=2
0.001

0.01

0.1

Time factor, Tr

Figure 6. Time-settlement curve.

3.4

Encasement length

The effectiveness of encasing the columns in reducing the


settlement is directly related to the tensile stress of the
encasement, which provide lateral support to the column. Some
authors (e.g. Khabbazian et al. 2010, Gniel and Bouazza 2009,
Murugesan and Rajagopal 2006) have proposed a partial
encasement of the columns, limiting it to the upper part where

2447

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

the initial lateral stresses are lower. Then, the analysis focuses
on the length of the column that should be encased. Here, a
preliminary study of the encasement length is presented using
the authors' closed-form solution.
The closed-form solution provides the vertical strain of the
column at different depths. Figure 7 shows that those strains are
higher at shallow depths and linearly decrease with depth, as
initial horizontal stresses increase. If the column is encased,
those strains are lower but follow a similar pattern. Therefore,
encasing the columns is more effective in their upper part but
that varies linearly with depth and there is not a critical length
of the encasement that should specifically be used.
0

Ec/Es=40

's='c
c=s=0.3 K =0.6
0s
ar=0.11

Depth factor, z 's / pa

c=40

c=10

Jg/(rcEs)=0
Jg/(rcEs)=2

Elastic column
(high depths)
0

Vertical strain, z (%)

Figure 7. Vertical strain at different depths.

CONCLUSIONS

The main features of a closed-form solution, recently developed


by the authors (Castro and Sagaseta 2011), to study soft soil
improvement, both reduction of settlement and consolidation
time, by means of encased stone columns are presented. The
analytical solution pretends to be a simple and useful tool for
design. Therefore, only a unit cell, i.e. an end-bearing column
and its surrounding soil, is modelled in axial symmetry under a
rigid and constant load.
Parametric studies of the settlement reduction and stress
concentration show the efficiency of encasing the columns,
which is mainly ruled by the encasement stiffness compared to
that of the soil. Therefore, encasing stone columns is
recommended in very soft soils and the encasement should be
stiff enough. Besides, the settlement reduction decreases with
the applied load. Column encasement is equally useful for
common area replacement ratios but columns of smaller
diameters are better confined.
The results of the closed-form solution agree well with
numerical analyses. The only assumption of the solution that
has a slightly noticeable effect in the results is neglecting the
elastic strains in the column during its plastic deformation.
Therefore, including those elastic strains is an improvement of
the presented solution under development.
Finally, a preliminary analysis of the encasement length
shows that is more efficient to encase the columns in the upper
part, as expected, but there is not a critical length of the
encasement that should specifically be used.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work presented is part of a research project on "An


integrated calculation procedure for stone columns, considering
the influence of the method of installation", for the Spanish
Ministry of Science and Innovation (Ref.: BIA2009-13602).
6

REFERENCES

Balaam N.P. and Booker J.R. 1981. Analysis of Rigid Rafts supported
by Granular Piles. International Journal for Numerical and
Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 5: 379-403.
Barron R.A. 1948. Consolidation of fine-grained soils by drain wells.
Transactions ASCE 113: 718742.
Brinkgreve R.B.J. 2007. Plaxis finite element code for soil and rock
analysis, 2D, version 8. Rotterdam: Balkema.
Castro J. and Karstunen M. 2010. Numerical simulations of stone
column installation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 47(10): 11271138.
Castro J. and Sagaseta C. 2008. Influence of stone column deformation
on surrounding soil consolidation. In M. Karstunen and M. Leoni
(ed.), Proc. of the 2nd International Workshop on Geotechnics of
Soft Soils, Glasgow, pp. 333-338. Leiden: Balkema.
Castro J. and Sagaseta C. 2009. Consolidation around stone columns.
Influence of column deformation. International Journal for
Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 33: 851-877.
Castro J. and Sagaseta C. 2011. Deformation and consolidation around
encased stone columns. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 29, 268276.
Gniel J. and Bouazza A. 2009. Improvement of soft soils using geogrid
encased stone columns. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 27: 167
175.
Guetif, Z., Bouassida, M. and Debats, J.M. 2007. Improved soft clay
characteristics due to stone column installation. Computers and
Geotechnics 34(2): 104-111.
Kempfert H.-G. 2003. Ground improvement methods with special
emphasis on column-type techniques. In: Proceedings of the
International Workshop on Geotechnics of Soft Soils-Theory and
Practice, SCMEP, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands, pp. 101-112.
Khabbazian M., Kaliakin V.N. and Meehan C.L. 2010. Numerical study
of the effect of geosynthetic encasement on the behaviour of
granular columns. Geosynthetics International 17: 132143.
Lo S.R., Zhang R. and Mak J. 2010. Geosynthetic-encased stone
columns in soft clay: A numerical study. Geotextiles and
Geomembranes 28: 292302.
Malarvizhi S.N. and Ilamparuthi K. 2007. Comparative study on the
behaviour of encased stone column and conventional stone column.
Soils and Foundations 47: 873885.
Murugesan S. and Rajagopal K. 2006. Geosynthetic-encased stone
columns: Numerical evaluation. Geotextiles and Geomembranes
24: 349358.
Murugesan S. and Rajagopal K. 2010. Studies on the Behavior of Single
and Group of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns. Journal of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 136: 129-139.
Pulko B. and Majes B. 2005. Simple and accurate prediction of
settlements of stone column reinforced soil. In: Proceedings of the
16th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical
Engineering, Osaka, Japan, vol. 3, pp. 1401-1404.
Raithel M. and Kempfert H.G. 2000. Calculation models for dam
foundations with geotextile coated sand columns. In: Proceedings
of the International Conference on Geotechnical & Geological
Engineering, GeoEngg2000, Melbourne.
Sharma S.R., Phanikumar B.R. and Nagendra, G. 2004. Compressive
load response of granular piles reinforced with geogrids. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal 41: 187192.
Smith M. and Filz G. 2007. Axisymmetric numerical modeling of a unit
cell in geosynthetic-reinforced, column-supported embankments.
Geosynthetics International 14: 1322.
Wehr J. 2006. The undrained cohesion of the soil as criterion for the
column installation with a depth vibrator. In: Proceedings of the
International Symposium on vibratory pile driving and deep soil
vibratory compaction, TRANSVIB 2006, Paris.

2448

Consolidation theory for combined vacuum pressure and surcharge loading


Thorie de la consolidation sous laction combine du vide et dun pr-chargement
Chai J.-C.

Saga University, Japan

Carter J. P.

The University of Newcastle, Australia

ABSTRACT: Atheory describing the consolidation of a uniform clayey deposit with and without prefabricated vertical drain (PVD)
improvement under the combination of a vacuum pressure and a surcharge load has been developed and expressed as closed-form
equations. For the case of a soil layer without PVD improvement, both one-way and two-way drainage boundary conditions are
considered. Laboratory consolidation tests using combinations of vacuum pressure and surcharge load were conductedunder
oedometer conditions with vertical or radial drainage. The measured excess pore water pressures are compared with values predicted
by the theory presented in the paper. It has been demonstrated that the theory is valid and can be used for designing preloading
projects that involve the combination of a vacuum pressure and a surcharge load.
RSUM : Une thorie dcrivant la consolidation dun dpt argileux uniforme avec et sans amlioration par drains verticaux
prfabriqus (DVP) sous laction combine du vide et dun pr-chargement a t dveloppe avec un systme ferm dquations. Pour
le cas dune couche de sol sans amlioration par DVP, des conditions aux limites drainantes par un ct et par deux cts sont
considres. Des essais de consolidation au laboratoire sous des conditions oedomtriques ont t raliss sous vide et pr-chargement
avec des drains verticaux ou radiaux. La surpression interstitielle mesure est compare avec les valeurs prvues par la thorie
prsente dans le prsent article. Il a t dmontr que la thorie est valable et peut tre utilise pour dfinir des projets de prchargement qui impliquent lutilisation combine du vide et dun pr-chargement.
KEYWORDS:consolidation, vacuum pressure, embankment, laboratory test, soft clay
1

INTRODUCTION

Preloading a soft clayey deposit with the combination of a


vacuum pressure and a surcharge load (embankment fill) has
several advantages, such as increasing the preloading pressure
and reducing lateral displacements of the deposit, etc. (e.g.,
Chai et al. 2006). Its use in engineering applications has
increased in recent years (e.g., Kelly and Wong 2009; Hirata et
al. 2010; Indraratna et al. 2011).
Vacuum consolidation has different characteristics compared
with consolidation induced by direct application of a surcharge
load (Chai et al. 2009). For a soil deposit without any
improvement in consolidation performance that might result
from the installation of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs),
when a vacuum pressure is applied water is drained out of the
soil layer only at the boundary where that vacuum pressure is
applied. This applies for both cases of one-way and two-way
drainage conditions. However, for a deposit with one-way
drainage constrained to deform under one-dimensional (1D)
conditions, the final state is a uniform vacuum pressure
distribution throughout the deposit and consequently zero flow
rate. But for a deposit with two-way drainage, at the bottom
boundary the excess pore water pressure is fixed at zero and
effectively no vacuum pressure can be applied at this location,
and so the final state involves the steady flow of pore water
toward the boundary at which the vacuum pressure is applied.
Considering these complicating factors, Chai and Carter (2011)
recently derived a consolidation theory for soils subjected to
vacuum pressure. However, their theory cannot be applied
directly for cases that involve a combination of vacuum
pressure and surcharge loading, and therefore there is a need to
develop a reliable theory for such cases.
This paper presents a newly developed consolidation theory
applicable to soils subjected to a combination of vacuum
pressure and surcharge loading. This theory is applicable to the

2449

case of a uniform soil deposit with or without PVD


improvement. Predictions obtained using this theory are
compared with the results of laboratory tests conducted under
oedometer conditions, for cases that involve both vertical and
radial drainage conditions, with the latter designed to simulate
the consolidation of a deposit improved by PVDs. It has been
shown that the theory is valid and can be used for
designingpreloading projects that involve a combination of
vacuum pressure and surcharge loading.
2

CONSOLIDATION THEORY

2.1Uniform layer without PVDs


Under the same assumptions as those made in Terzaghis 1D
consolidation theory (Terzaghi 1943), the governing equation
and the boundary conditions for the generation and dissipation
of excess pore water pressure in a saturated soil layer under a
combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge load are as
follows:

2u u

z 2 t

(1)

u (0, t ) pvac

(2)

cv

u H , t
0 for t 0 (one-way drainage)
z

u H , t 0 for t 0 (two-way drainage)

(3)
(3a)

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

wherez = the spatial coordinate; t = time; u = the excess pore


water pressure; cv = the coefficient of consolidation of the soil;
pvac = the magnitude of the applied vacuum pressure at z = 0;
and H is the thickness of the deposit.
With the presence of a vacuum pressure, the final state is not a
condition with zero excess pore pressure in the deposit.
Therefore, the solution to the governing equation must consist
of two parts, namely the steady state solution (Y(z)) and the
transient solution (v(z,t)) (Chai and Carter 2011). With the
boundary condition defined by Eq. (2), u(z, t) can be expressed
in the following form:

u ( z, t ) pvacY ( z ) pvac v1 ( z, t ) ps v2 ( z, t )

(4)

whereps = the magnitude of the applied surcharge load. The


term -pvacY(z) is the final steady state excess pore water pressure
distribution and (pvac v1(z, t)+ psv2(z, t)) is the time-dependent
component of the excess pore water pressure.
2.1.1One-way drainage
For this case the excess pore water pressure distribution is given
by:

u pvac ( pvac ps )

n 1

sinan z e a c t (5)
2n 1

2
n v

wherean = (2n-1)/(2H). In this case, Y(z) = 1, and the v1(z, t) =


v2(z, t) and its expression is given in the last set of parentheses
of Eq. (5). The average degree of consolidation is given by:

U 1

n 1

c t

2 n 1
1
4H
e
2
2n 1
v

(6)

2.1.2Two-way drainage
In this case the excess pore water pressure distribution in the
soil is given by:

pvac ps

sin n z
z 2

u ( z , t ) pvac 1

e c t
p
H

n 1

s
n sin n ( H z )

2
n v

(7)
where n n H . The average degree of consolidation is
given by:

(t ) 1
U

n 1

c t

2 n 1
1
H
e
2
2n 1
vs
2

(8)

2.2 Uniform layer with PVD improvement


The theory for a PVD-improved soil deposit is derived here for
the case of one-way drainage conditions using a unit cell model,
as shown in Fig. 1. The governing equation for consolidation is
as follows:

u 1 u
u
ch 2
t
r r r
2

(9)

wherer = the radial distance and ch = the coefficient of


consolidation in the horizontal direction. The boundary
conditions are:

2450

Figure 1. Unit cell model and boundary conditions

u re , z , t
0
r

(10)

u r ,0, t
u ' r ,0, t
0,
0
z
z

(11)

u r , l , t
u ' r , l , t
0,
0
z
z

(12)

u ' rw ,0, t pvac

(13)

whereu and u' = the excess pore water pressures in the


undisturbed zone and the smear zone, respectively (Fig. 1), z =
depth from the ground surface, rw = equivalent radius of a PVD,
and re = radius of the unit cell. The solutions for u and u' can be
expressed as:

u (r , z, t ) pvac ( pvac ps )v(r , z, t ) for (rs<rre) (14)


u ' (r, z, t ) pvac ( pvac ps )v' (r , z, t ) for (rw<rrs) (15)
wherers = radius of the smear zone. The additional conditions
for getting explicit expressions for v and v' are the following
water flow continuity conditions.
(1) The total inflow of pore water through the boundary of a
cylinder with a radius of r has to be equal to the change in
volume of the hollow cylinder with outer radius of re and
inner radius of r.
(2) The pore water flow into the PVD from a horizontally cut
soil slice is equal to the change of vertical flow rate in the
PVD.
At the interface between the smear zone and the undisturbed
zone, the radial flow rate from the undisturbed zone is equal to
the flow rate into the smear zone.
With these conditions and using the same assumptions as
those adopted in obtaining Hansbos (1981) solution, it can be
shown that the expressions for v(r, z, t) and v(r, z, t) are as
follows:

2 r r 2 rw2

re ln r 2

kh
w

exp 8Th
v' r , z , t
2

k s re k s 2
2

n 12lz z
k
w

fo

r ( rw r rs )(16)

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

re2 ln s
2
2
r 2 ln r r rs kh 2 2
e
r r
2
rs
ks s w 8Th
1
for
vr, z, t 2
2 exp

re

kh n2 12lz z 2

kw

( rs r re )(17)
where: n = re/rw, s = rs/rw,kh and ks = the hydraulic
conductivities in the horizontal direction of the undisturbed
zone and the smear zone respectively, kw = the hydraulic
conductivity of the drain (PVD), l = the drainage length of a
PVD, and Th = cvt/(4re2). Parameter represents the effects of
PVD spacing, smear zone and well resistance. Adopting an
average well resistance and with some approximation, the
expression for is as follows (Hansbo 1981):

ln(n / s ) (k h / k s ) ln(s )

3 2l 2 k h

4 3rw2 k w

(a) Vertical drainage test

(18)

The average degree of consolidation (Uh) of the unit cell is


(Hansbo 1981):

U h 1 exp 8Th /

(19)

3 COMPARISON OF TEST RESULTS AND PREDICTIONS


Laboratory consolidation tests involving the combination of a
vacuum pressure and a surcharge load have been conducted
under oedometer conditions with both verticaland radial
drainage (the latter to simulate the effects of PVD drainage),
and the measured excess pore pressures have been compared
with the predicted values.

(b) Radial drainage test


Figure 2. Sketch of the set-up of the tests

3.1Test details
Figures 2(a) and (b) show the set-up of the tests, with vertical
(V-test) and radial (R-test) drainage conditions,respectively.
During testing, the settlement, the excess pore water pressure at
the bottom of the sample (V-test) or the middle height of the
consolidation ring (R-test), and the horizontal earth pressure at
the middle height of the consolidation ring can be measured.
For the R-test, the centre drainage porous stone tube has an
outer diameter of 8 mm, which is inserted into a predrilled hole
at the center of a sample with a filter paper placed between the
soil sample and the tube. The soil samples were re-consolidated
from Ariakeclay slurries under a surcharge pressure of 20 kPa.
Two series of tests, V-tests and R-tests, were conducted.
Here only one test from each serieshas been chosen to compare
with the values predicted by the theory presented above. In the
case of the V-test, the test with one-way drainage conditions has
been selected, because for two-way drainage conditions no pore
water pressures were measured with the device used. The two
series of tests were conducted at different times and different
soil samples were used. Some of available soil properties as
well as the test conditions are listed in Table 1. In this table, the
vertical effective stress, 'v0, indicates that the soil sample was
first consolidated under 'v0 (simulating the initial effective
stress of the soil sample at a specified depth in the deposit) and
then the consolidation test was conducted by applying
additional incremental consolidation pressures (vacuum
pressure and surcharge load).

2451

Figure 3. Comparison of predicted and measured ub values

3.2Comparison of measured and predicted pore pressures


3.2.1V-test
After initial consolidation under 'v0 = 40 kPa, the thickness of
the sample was 18.7 mm (or compression of about 1.2 mm).
Further, under 80 kPa vacuum pressure and 80 kPa surcharge
load, the additional compression was about 3.2 mm. Since the
thickness of the sample is also the vertical drainage path length,
in the predictions an average sample thickness of 17.2 mm was
adopted. Comparison of the measured and the predicted excess
pore water pressures at the bottom of the sample (ub) is shown

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Table 1. Some soil properties and test conditions


Test

Soil

Plasticity
limit,
Wp
(%)

Liquid
limit,
WL(%)

Coefficient
of
consolidation
cv or ch (m2/min)

Cc

e 0

'v0
(kPa)

pvac
(kPa)

ps
(kPa)

V-test
Ariake clay-1
60.3
120.5
2.310-5#
0.75
2.5
40*
80
80
R-test
Ariake clay-2
56.8
120.3
5.010-6
0
80
80
*: Initial vertical effective stress in the sample; #: The value was obtained by fitting the measured consolidation rate; : After pre-consolidation under
20 kPa pressure.

in Fig. 3. Except for the fact that the measured initial value of
ubof about 72 kPa is slightly lower than the 80 kPa applied
surcharge load, the prediction almost matches the measured data.
The slightly lower initial ub value may indicate that the
specimen was not 100% saturated.
Although two-way drainage test was not conducted, using
the same soil parameters as for one-way drainage test, and
assuming the thickness of the soil sample is 20 mm, the
predicted excess pore water pressure (u) distribution within the
sample at different elapsed times are given in Fig. 4 to
demonstrate the capacity of the proposed theory.

Depth, D (mm)

0
pvac = 80 kPa
ps = 80 kPa

water pressure at the periphery of the sample starts to reduce.


Comparison of the excess pore water pressures at the periphery
of the sample (ure) is given in Fig. 5. For this case, during the
consolidation period the measured excess pore water pressure
initially decreased but then increased for a brief period before
finally exhibiting further dissipation.
Furthermore, the
measured final excess pore water pressure did not reach the
applied vacuum pressure of 80 kPa. Nevertheless, the trends of
both the measured and the predicted dissipation curves are
similar.
From the above comparisons, it can be seen that the theory
provides reasonable predictions of the measured soil behaviour
and so it should be able to be used reliably for designing
preloading projects that adopt a combination of vacuum
pressure and surcharge load to consolidate the soil deposit.
4 CONCLUSIONS

10
15

20
-80

1 min

-40
0
40
Excess pore pressure, u (kPa)

80

Figure 4. Predicted u variation in soil sample under two-way drainage


boundary condition

A consolidation theory, expressed in closed-form equations, for


soil consolidation under the combination of a vacuum pressure
and a surcharge load has been developed for a uniform clayey
deposit with and without prefabricated vertical drain (PVD)
improvement. For cases without PVD improvement, both oneway and two-way drainage boundary conditions have been
considered.
Laboratory consolidation tests were conducted, adopting a
combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge loading under
oedometer conditions with both vertical and radial drainage.
The excess pore water pressures measured in these test were
compared with values predicted by the suggested theory. It has
been demonstrated that the theory is valid and can be used for
designing preloading projects that adopt a combination of
vacuum pressure and surcharge load to pre-consolidate soft soil
deposits.
REFERENCES

Figure5.Comparison of predicted and measured ure

3.2.2 R-test
The geometric parameters required to calculate the predictions
for this case are: re = 30 mm; rw = 4 mm; and l = 20 mm. The
assumed radius of the smear zone, rs = 7 mm; the hydraulic
conductivity ratio, kh/ks = 5; kh = 10-9 m/s; and kw = 10-4 m/s. In
the case of radial drainage, with Eqs. (16) and (17) the initial
condition of a uniform excess pore water pressure (u0)
distribution in a unit cell is not satisfied (which is a particular
limitation of this theory). These equations only ensure that the
average initial value of u0 is the same as the applied value. The
predicted initial value at the periphery of the sample (unit cell)
is higher than the applied value. The predicted values are
compared with the measured data from the time at which the
predicted value at the periphery was equal to the applied initial
value. In the physical test at the corresponding time, the pore

2452

Chai, J. C., Carter, J. P. and Hayashi, S. 2006. Vacuum consolidation


and its combination with embankment loading.Canadian
Geotechnical Journal 43(10), 985-996.
Chai, J.-C., Matsunaga, K., Sakai, A. and Hayashi, S. 2009. Comparison
of vacuum consolidation with surcharge load induced consolidation
of a two-layer system. Gotechnique 59(7), 637-642.
Chai, J.-C. and Carter, J. P. 2011. Deformation analysis in soft ground
improvement. Springer, p. 247.
Hansbo S. 1981. Consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated
drains. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm 3, 677-682.
Hirata, M., Kitoh, M., Yamada, K., Iizuka, A. and Arai, K.
2010.Deformation behavior and counter measures of expressway
embankment on super-soft ground.Journal of Japan Society of Civil
Engineers 66(2), 356-369 (in Japanese).
Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Ameratunga, J. and Boyle, P. 2011.
Performance and Prediction of Vacuum Combined Surcharge
Consolidation at Port of Brisbane.Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering ASCE137(5), 550-554.
Kelly, R. B., Wong, P. K. 2009. An embankment constructed using
vacuum consolidation. Australian Geomechanics 44(2), 55-64.
Terzaghi K. 1943. Theoretical soil mechanics. New York, John Wiley
and Sons.

Displacement rigid inclusions


Inclusions rigides refoules
Cirin A., Pauln J.

Soletanche-Bachy-CIMESA, Mexico

Racinais J.

Menard, France

Glandy M.

Soletanche-Bachy-Pieux, France

ABSTRACT: In soils with poor mechanical properties and in areas where the generation of excavation debris is an issue, given the
restrictions regarding its disposal, the solutions of massive soil improvement with displacement rigid inclusions solve both needs. In
this paper we describe the basis of the constructive procedure of displacement rigid inclusions. We explain the concept of
improvement with this kind of inclusions; we itemize the bases of their design, and describe their construction sequence, highlighting
the controls during the execution to ensure quality.
RSUM: Dans les sols ayant des proprits mcaniques faibles comme dans les zones o llimination des matriaux produits des
travaux reprsente un problme, les Inclusions Rigides avec refoulement de sol donnent des solutions ces deux situations. Larticle
explique le concept des solutions damlioration des sols en utilisant la technique des Inclusions Rigides, donne les bases du
dimensionnement, et dcrit la squence de construction des inclusions Rigides en insistant sur les contrles utiliss pour assurer la
qualit finale.

KEYWORDS: soft soil, rigid inclusion, displacement of soil, excavation debris.

INTRODUCTION

When studying what type of foundation is best suited to


withstand the shock that a new building (structure) will impose
on the soil, it is necessary to check not only the limit conditions
for failure, but also the limit conditions of service, including
total and differential settlements.
Being successful in the choice and design of the type of
foundation to be built largely depends on the control of two
variables: load and settlement. Nevertheless, there are additional
parameters that also play an important role in the decision
process, such as the cost of the foundation with respect to the
total cost of the project, construction time and increasingly
the impact on the environment.
The foundations based on rigid inclusions (system structure
massive soils improvement) have experienced a boom in recent
years, especially in works on large areas subjected to uniform
vertical loads. While this is not a new concept (wooden
inclusions were used since prehispanic times in Mexico see
Auvinet, G., 2006), there is now specialized equipment
capable of building concrete rigid inclusions following special
procedures that not only achieve higher production results, but
also greater depths and better loadbearing capacities. They also
respect strict quality controls. This gives us the possibility to
propose foundations based on the installation of grids of rigid
inclusions made of poor concrete that meet specific technical
requirements regarding load bearing capacities and the
reduction of settlements. They are also attractive: economically
and for their constructive feasibility, as well as for their reduced
construction times and the quality of their execution.
Displacement inclusions in particular have the great
advantage of not generating construction debris, which benefits
the environment and reduces or eliminates the cost of its
removal. In soils with a large frictional component, the ratio of
voids surrounding the inclusion is reduced by the incorporation
of the concrete so that the relative compactness of the material

increases, as well as the perimeter friction of the inclusionground. The construction process of the displacement rigid
inclusion guarantees quality control in the execution, so the
concrete is placed continually and safe from contamination.
2

BASES OF DESIGN

The goal is to install a set of inclusions in soils with low bearing


capacity and/or highly compressibility to create a layer of
compound soil-inclusions material that has better mechanical
properties.
The improvement or reinforcement of soils with rigid
inclusions is commonly used to ensure bearing capacity and/or
reduce settlements in the following types of work:

Slabs,
Superficial footings (isolated or continuous),
Embankments, landfills,
Work or storage yards.

The solution is characterized by the fact that the traditional


mechanical link between the pile and the structure in deep or
mixed foundations does not exist. A distribution layer, also
called a Load Transfer Platform (LTP), is usually placed
between the inclusions and the structure to be supported, and
this is what marks the difference between piles and inclusions.
The distribution layer spreads the acting loads on the slab or
other covering surface towards the underlying soil-inclusions
setup. The system described is configured as shown in Figure 1.
If there are concentrated vertical loads from one column,
isolated or continuous footings can be used to directly transmit
the loads to the soil-inclusions setup.

2453

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

3
Transfer layer
Compressible soils
Rigid inclusions

Hard layer

Rigid inclusions
d

Trasfer layer

Figure 1. Inclusion under a load uniformly distributed on the surface.


Side and top views.

CONSTRUCTIVE SEQUENCE

The equipment used for the construction of displacement rigid


inclusions kind must circulate over a flat working platform,
drained and stable, generally constructed of granular material.
The inclusions are built from this platform.
The drilling equipment consists of a crane supported on
caterpillars with a cab for the operator and a mast that supports
a cylindrical auger of a defined length. The auger is hollow and
has a special geometry see Figures 4a, 4b, capable of
displacing soil laterally when drilling. This is the most
important feature of displacement rigid inclusions because the
surrounding soil becomes laterally compressed. Lateral friction
increases in the case of mainly granular soils or soils with a
large content of sand.
At the bottom part of the tip there is a hinged lid that remains
closed during the drilling phase to prevent the entry of material
into the inner tube and which opens to allow the exit of the
concrete to form the inclusions.
Besides the necessary drilling equipment there has to be a
concrete pump which feeds the upper side of the drilling tool
through flexible hoses.

In this case the LTP may not be required and a significant


portion of the load from the superstructure will be supported by
the grid of inclusions and the remainder will be supported by
the soil surrounding the inclusions see Figure 2.
q

Compressible soils
Rigid inclusions

Hard layer

Figure 2. Model setup of inclusions under an acting strut load on a


footing. Side view.

Figure 4a. Diagram of the typical point of the hollow auger for
displacement rigid inclusions.

In the same way that the inclusion-soil system supports


vertical loads uniformly distributed or concentrated from
buildings, this application can be extended to the case of
embankments and landfills in which the system will receive the
weight of the material that forms the embankments or landfills.
A particular case occurs when the embankment or landfill is
significantly high and the soil reinforced with inclusions
participates in its stabilization see Figure 3.
Embankment

Failure surface

Figure 4b. Point of the hollow auger for displacement rigid inclusions
developed for Soletanche-Bachy, RefSol system.

Compressible
soils
Hard layer
Rigid inclusions

Figure 3. Inclusions that help stabilize an embankment or landfill


constructed on the surface.

The inclusions will generally be subjected to the action of


vertical forces caused by discharges from the building or due to
the weight of the embankment or landfill. However, in cases
where the inclusions participate in the stabilization of
embankments or landfills, or when they are subjected to the
action of seismic forces, the generation of lateral forces will
also have to be taken into account in the design.
Several approaches and ways of analyzing and designing
inclusions have been developed. Some of them have been
recently brought together in the ASIRI (Amlioration des Sols
par Inclusions Rigidessee ASIRI National Project, 2012).

With the topographic location of the inclusion to be built, the


process begins by placing the mast of the crane upright and
lowering the auger into the ground. A rotor torque and a
descending vertical force are applied to the auger to cut,
penetrate and displace the soil laterally. This action is
performed continuously until the drill reaches the specified
depth see Figure 5A.
At this point, the concrete is pumped from the tank of the
pump through a flexible hose to the upper part of the hollow
auger to fill it completely and to generate sufficient pressure on
the concrete.

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

(A)

(B)

(C)

Figure 5. Execution sequence of a displacement rigid inclusion.

Then the auger is lifted a few centimeters from the soil at the
bottom of the perforation, which causes the lid at the lower end
of the auger to open. The concrete, subject to pressure, pours
into the bottom of the hole, filling it. While still pouring
concrete and controlling the pressure, at this point the operator
lifts the auger continuously by means of a rotor torque and a
vertical pulling force see Figure 5B. This process continues
until the auger is fully above ground see Figure 5C. The
concrete is poured continuously from the bottom of the
perforation until it reaches the level defined as the head of
inclusion, which can be between the working platform level and
a few dozen centimeters below it.
Throughout the process of building an inclusion (Figures 5A,
5B and 5C) real time and continuous monitoring of the
parameters that intervene in its execution are done with
electronic devices located in the cab of the crane. They detect
the signals sent by various sensors installed at strategic points of
the construction equipment. Through this monitoring, the
operator has control of the different construction parameters and
can ensure the quality of the construction of the inclusion at all
times and along its entire height. Among the parameters
controlled are: the drilling depth, the pressure and the volume of
the concrete, the upward and downward speeds, rotation and the
auger's torque.
The equipment is also able to store the record of the controls
for each inclusion, to be processed later on a personal computer.
Continuous records are obtained along the depth(see Figure 6).

The procedure described is a clean process that leaves


practically no perforation debris on the work platform. There
are also no vibrations or damage to the surface layers, which
makes working in areas adjacent to sensitive structures possible.
Additionally, the method is capable of achieving high industrial
production compared with traditional methods of pile
construction.
For quality control, it is also necessary to carry out strength
tests on samples of the concrete used. There will be as many
tests as are needed or as required by local regulations. The
common values of resistance to compressive strength of the
concrete used for the construction of displacement rigid
inclusion range from 10 to 15 MPa at 28 days, with modules of
elasticity usually set between 5,000 and 10,000 MPa, although
higher resistance and rigidity levels can be used according to the
needs of each project.
The commercial diameters of displacement rigid inclusion
construction range between 250 and 500 mm and can reach
depths of up to 30 m.
To guarantee the quality of the implementation and the
design criteria, this construction procedure has been certified by
the international bureau of control and certification Bureau
Veritas.
4

CONCLUSIONS

Soil improvement and reinforcement with displacement rigid


inclusions kind solves a great number of foundations in which
not only increasing bearing capacity, reducing settlements or
ensuring slope stability play an important role, but where also
cost and execution times are factors to be considered.
Given the type of auger used in the construction these
inclusions are defined as displacement inclusions where the
surrounding soil is displaced and laterally compressed at the
moment of drilling, which increases the compactness of soils
whose frictional component is significant.
During construction of displacement rigid inclusion there is
real-time monitoring of parameters such as drilling depth,
pressure and volume of the poured concrete, advancement speed
and auger rotation, downward force of the rotor torque of the
auger, which ensures a high quality control of the construction.
Due to the advantages provided by the design of soil
improvement systems with rigid inclusions, plus the
geotechnical and environmental benefits of displacement rigid
inclusions, numerous projects worldwide are being approached
with this technique.
5

REFERENCES

Auvinet, G. (2006). Rigid inclusions in Mexico City soft soils: history


and perspectives, International Symposium Rigid inclusions in
difficult soft soil conditions, Instituto de Ingeniera, UNAM, Cd.
de Mxico.
Combarieu, O. (1988). Amlioration des sols par inclusions rigides
verticales Application ldification des remblais sur sols
mdiocres. Revue Franaise de Gotechnique N 44, 5779.
ASIRI National Project (2012). Recommendations for the design,
construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements.
Bureau Veritas. Cahiers des charges CMC.
Bureau Veritas. Cahiers des charges Refsol.
Figure 6. Record of monitoring in continuous real time: (A) Inclusion
profile (mm), (B) Perforation energy (bar), (C) Perforation speed (m/h),
(D) Rotation torque (t.m), (E) Rotation speed / Bearing force.

The start and stop of the concrete pump is wirelessly


controlled by the crane operator from the cab. The speed at
which the auger advances, the rotor torque, the rotation speed
and down force or extracting force of the auger is controlled
manually through the hydraulic system of the crane.

2455

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Prediction of the unconfined compressive strength in soft soil chemically


stabilized
Prediction of the unconfined compressive strength in soft soil chemically stabilized
Prvision
Prvision de
de la
la rsistance
rsistance
la
la compression
compression non
non confine
confine dans
dans sols
sols mous
mous chimiquement
chimiquement stabilises
stabiliss
A.A.S. Correia; P.J. Venda Oliveira & L.J.L. Lemos
Correia
A.A.S.;
Venda
Oliveira
P.J., Lemos
L.J.L. Portugal
Department
of Civil
Engineering
University
of Coimbra,
Department
of Civil Engineering
University
of Coimbra, Portugal
aalberto@dec.uc.pt;
pjvo@dec.uc.pt
& llemos@dec.uc.pt

ABSTRACT: The chemical stabilization of soils is a ground improvement technique consisting on the mechanical mixing of the in
situ natural soil with binders. The chemical stabilization of soils can be applied with either slurries (wet method) or powder (dry
method) binders. When the stabilizing binders are mixed with the soil, physico-chemical interactions take place and are responsible
for the stabilization effect, which has a major influence on the mechanical behaviour of the improved material. This stabilizing effect
is dependent on a range of parameters which should be analysed through a long and extensive laboratory and field trial test program,
as stated in the european standard (EN 14679:2005). In order to minimize the number of tests during the optimization process, this
paper presents a simple method to predict the unconfined compressive strength, which is independent of the binder content and state
(powder or slurry). The method is successfully applied to a wide range of soils, showing its versatility (Correia, 2011). Applying the
generalised relationship of the method, it is possible to predict the unconfined compressive strength for any binder content and state
from one single unconfined compression test.
RSUM : La stabilisation chimique de sols est une technique de l'amlioration des sols qui consiste en le mlange mcanique dans
situ du sol naturel avec liants. La stabilisation chimique de sols peut tre applique avec coulis (mthode mouille) ou poudre
(mthode sec) liants. Quand les liants stabilisateurs sont mlangs avec le sol, ils produisent interactions physique-chimique lesquels
sont responsables pour l'effet de la stabilisation, qui a une influence majeure sur le comportement mcanique du matriel amliore.
Cet effet stabilisateur est dpendant dune gamme de paramtres qui devraient tre analyss travers dun long et tendu programme
dessais en laboratoire et sur terrain, comme nonc dans la norme europenne (EN 14679:2005). Pour minimiser le nombre dessais
pendant le processus de l'optimisation, cet article prsent une mthode simple de prdire la rsistance la compression simple, qui est
indpendant du contenu de liant et tat (poudre ou coulis). Le mthode est applique avec succs une grande gamme de sols,
montrant sa versatilit (Correia, 2011). Appliquant la version gnralise du mthode, c'est possible prdire la rsistance la
compression simple pour tout contenu de liant et tat bas d'une seule essais la compression simple.
KEYWORDS: chemical stabilization, unconfined compression test, soft soils, strength prediction.
1

INTRODUCTION.

Over the last few decades, infrastructure requirements and land


occupation policies have demanded construction on soils with
poor geotechnical properties (in particular, soft soils). These
soils are usually characterized by low strength and high
compressibility, demanding from geotechnical engineers new
and challenging solutions to overcome these undesirable
engineering characteristics. One of the ground improvement
techniques that have been used with success in practice is the
chemical stabilization, where the natural soil is mechanically
mixed in situ with binders (usually called Mass Stabilization, or,
Deep Mixing when applied in depth). This technique has given
good results when applied to soft soils, becoming a prominent
subject nowadays, rapidly growing and wide spreading around
the world due to its technical and economical benefits when
compared with other ground improvement techniques.
At first the chemical stabilization of soils used the quicklime
as the hardening agent. Later on, the use of Portland cement has
permanently been outpacing the use of quicklime, not only
because Portland cement is readily available at reasonable cost
but also because cement is more effective than quicklime
(Horpibulsuk et al 2011, hnberg 2006, Lorenzo and Bergado
2004, Kitazume and Terashi 2002). However, additives such as
granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, gypsum and silica dust,
among others, may be used specially for the improvement of
soft soils with high water content or organic soils (Kitazume
and Terashi 2002, Edil and Staab 2005).

The chemical stabilization of soils can be applied with either


slurries (wet method) or powder (dry method) binders. When
the stabilizing binders are mixed with the soil, physico-chemical
interactions take place and are responsible for the stabilization
effect, which has a major influence on the mechanical behaviour
of the improved material. This stabilizing effect is dependent on
a range of parameters which should be analysed through a
laboratory and field trial test program, as stated in the european
standard (EN 14679:2005).
The fundamental mechanical properties of cement based
admixed soft soils have been experimentally investigated by
many researchers (Correia 2011, hnberg 2006, HernandezMartinez 2006, Lorenzo and Bergado 2006 and 2004,
Horpibulsuk et al 2004, Kamruzzaman 2002, Horpibulsuk 2001,
Miura et al 2001, Uddin et al 1997, Locat et al 1996). Most of
these previous investigations mainly focus on the influence of
the water content and binder content, as well as on the ratio
between them. Based on some of these parameters, Horpibulsuk
et al (2003 and 2011) and Lorenzo and Bergado (2006) have
introduced phenomenological models for predicting laboratory
strength development in cement based stabilized soft soils. This
paper presents a new simple model which aims to predict the
laboratory strength (expressed by the unconfined compression
test) for various combinations of water content and cement
content. This model intents to minimize the number of
laboratory tests needed to specify the quantity of cement and
water to be admixed with the soft soil. Although the model is

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

developed for a particular soft soil, its versatility is


demonstrated for a wide range of soils. A generalized strength
equation is presented, which allows the strength prediction
based, at lower limit, on a single unconfined compression test.
2
2.1

EXPERIMENTAL TESTS
Materials

Table 1 presents the geotechnical and chemical properties of the


soft soil deposit of Baixo Mondego (located near Coimbra
city, Portugal), used in the study. In general, the soil is
predominantly clayey-silt with a high organic matter content,
which has a strong influence on some characteristics of the soil,
namely, low unit weight, high plasticity, high natural water
content, high void ratio, low undrained shear strength and high
compressibility although this fact is not consistent with the
grain size distribution, particularly due to the low clay content,
(Coelho 2000, Venda Oliveira et al. 2010).
Table 1. Principal properties of the soft soil of Baixo Mondego.
80
Natural water content, wnat (%)
Unit weight, sat (kN/m3)
14.6
Natural void ratio, enat (-)
2.1
Clay fraction (%)
8-12
Silt fraction (%)
71
Sand fraction (%)
17-21
Density, G (-)
2.55
Organic matter content, OM (%)
9.3
Liquid limit, wL (%)
71
Plastic limit, wP (%)
43
Undrained shear strength, cu (kPa)
< 25
CaO (%)
0.74
SiO2 (%)
62
Al2O3 (%)
16
Fe2O3 (%)
4.8
MgO (%)
1.1
pH (-)
3.5

the laboratory procedure presented in EuroSoilStab (2001) with


the modifications proposed by Correia (2011). During the
curing time, fixed as 28 days, all samples were subjected to a
vertical pressure of 24 kPa and stayed submerged in a water
tank at a controlled temperature (202C). After this period, the
samples were submitted to the unconfined compression test in
order to evaluate its strength (qu max).
Tabel 3 and Figure 1 summarizes the main results of the
chemical stabilization of the soft soil of Baixo Mondego. The
results show that, as expected, the unconfined compressive
strength increases with the binder content and with the
decreasing of the water content (or liquidity index). As the
binder content increases, more binder is admixed with the soil
allowing the construction of a stronger skeleton matrix. As the
water content increases the void ratio also increases, promoting
the particles spacing with obvious reflects on the fabric of the
stabilized soil and on its strength.
Table 3. Unconfined compressive strength results of the chemical
stabilization of the soft soil of Baixo Mondego.
IL
aw
qu max
(-)
(%)
(kPa)
1.35
9
209
12
644
15
1143
18
1618
21
1831
24
1936
27
1995
1.96
9
118
15
694
21
1266
27
1383
2.49
9
90
15
552
21
965
27
1032
2100

Table 2. Composition and specific surface of the binders.


CEM I 42.5R
CaO (%)
63.02
SiO2 (%)
19.70
Al2O3 (%)
5.23
Fe2O3 (%)
2.99
MgO (%)
2.38
Specific surface, S (m2/kg)
321.5

2.2

SLAG
37.02
38.74
11.59
0.85
6.75
363.0

qu max (kPa)

The binders used in the present study to produce stabilized


Baixo Mondego soft soil samples were a Type I Portland
cement, designated CEM I 42.5 R (EN 197-1 2000), and a blast
furnace granulated slag, here simply designated as SLAG.
These two binders, on a dry weight proportion of 75/25 as
proposed by Correia (2011), were thoroughly mixed to obtain a
uniform binder. The binder added to the soil was defined by the
parameter binder content, aw (ratio of the dry weight of binder
used in the mixture to the dry weight of the soil). The
composition and the specific surface of the binders are
presented in Table 2.

1800

IL = 1.35

1500

IL = 1.96

1200
IL = 2.49

900
600
300
0

10

15

aw (%)

20

25

30

Figure 1. Unconfined compressive strength results of the chemical


stabilization of the soft soil of Baixo Mondego.

Chemical stabilization of the soft soil of Baixo


Mondego

In order to evaluate the influence of the water content and


binder content on the chemical stabilization of the soft soil of
Baixo Mondego, several samples were prepare for various
water contents (equivalent to a liquidity index IL of 1.35, 1.96
and 2.49) and binder contents (from 9 to 27, step 3). The
laboratorial procedure to produce stabilized samples followed

From Figure 1 it can be seen that the curves for different


liquidity index exhibit a similar shape (are homothetic). Thus
the unconfined compressive strength (qu max) can be normalised
by the liquidity index (IL) multiplying both parameters (qIL =
qu max IL). Figure 2 presents these results which are well fitted
by a linear logarithmical regression. This is a simple way to
predict the unconfined compressive strength at 28 days of
curing time for the cement based stabilized softy soil in study.
As it is a linear regression it only requires two test data made
for different binder contents.

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211


th

Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
8000

Ariake clay
7000 Tokyo clay
Chiba clay

3000

6000

2500

5000

2000

qIL (kPa)

qIL = qu max x IL (kPa)

In order to validate this simple method, it will be applied to


other soft soils as presented in the next section.

qIL = 2337.63.ln(aw) - 4854.76


2

1500

(R = 0.97)

4000
3000
2000
1000

1000

500
0

qIL = 3855.12.ln(aw) - 83 27.90 ( R = 0.91)


2
qIL = 4649.59.ln(aw) - 9450.40 (R = 0.95)
2
qIL = 34 41.90.ln(aw) - 5932.30 (R = 0.98)

10

15

aw (%)

20

25

30

8000

Kangawa clay
7000 Hiroshima clay
Aichi clay
Osaka clay
6000

3 DATA FROM OTHER CEMENT BASED STABILIZED


SOFT SOILS
Table 4 presents the main results of 7 other cement based
stabilized soft soils whose geotechnical properties are described
in Horpibulsuk (2001) and Kawasaki et al (1981). Figure 3
presents the results of the unconfined compressive strength
normalized by the liquidity index, from which it can be
concluded that each cement based stabilized soft soil has its
normalization (fitting curve). Thus the method here proposed is
versatile as it is valid for other soft soils.
Table 4. Unconfined compressive strength results of cement based
chemical stabilization of other 7 soft soils (Horpibulsuk 2001, Kawasaki
et al 1981).
aw
qu max
Soft soil
IL
(-)
(%)
(kPa)
Ariake clay
1.0
10
833
15
1798
1.5
10
434
15
1286
20
2343
2.0
15
839
20
1736
Tokyo clay
1.0
10
1085
20
4941
30
6072
Chiba clay
1.0
10
2063
20
4189
30
5894
Kangawa clay
1.0
10
1068
20
3120
30
5047
Aichi clay
1.0
10
887
20
1889
30
2159
Osaka clay
1.0
10
595
20
1707
30
1976
Hiroshima clay
1.0
10
748
20
2436
30
3952

2459

qIL (kPa)

Figure 2. Normalized unconfined compressive strength results of the


chemical stabilization of the soft soil of Baixo Mondego.

10

15

aw (%)

20

25

30 35

qIL = 3550.61.ln(aw) -7217.88 (R = 0.96)


2
q IL = 2864.59.ln(aw) -5928.20 (R = 0.97)
2
qIL = 1188.81.ln(aw) -1802.35 (R = 0.94)
2
qIL = 1294.43.ln(aw) -2327.64 (R = 0.93)

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

10

15

aw (%)

20

25

30 35

Figure 3. Normalized unconfined compressive strength for other cement


based stabilized soft soils.

GENERALIZING THE PROPOSED METHOD

As it was observed in Figures 2 and 3, the method proposed can


be applied satisfactory to a wide range of soft soils. However,
each cement based stabilized soft soil has its own fitting
parameters (see the equations for qIL in Figures 2 and 3),
different for each soil.
In order to find a generalized strength equation, independent
of the soft soil, the qIL data of a particular soft soil was
normalized by the unconfined compressive strength defined for
a liquidity index of 1.0 and for a constant binder content (it was
considered the value 18% for all soft soils), qIL=1 (aw=18%). For
each soft soil, this last value was evaluated from the fitting
curves presented in Figures 2 and 3. All data are presented in
Figure 4, where it can be seen that the values are in a narrow
linear band, fitted relatively well by a linear logarithmical
regression (R2 = 0.94). Thus, the method proposed in this paper
seems to be independent of the soft soil type, being valid for the
prediction of the unconfined compressive strength at 28 days of
curing time of cement based stabilized soft soils, which is
helpful for the laboratory optimization process of the chemical
stabilization. The number of unconfined compression tests
required can be reduced to one if it is applied the generalized
equation and the binder content chosen is 18%.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
th

Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
3,0

qIL / [qIL=1 (aW = 18%)]

2,5

Baixo Mondego clayey-silt


Ariake clay
Tokyo clay
Chiba clay

Kangawa clay
Aichi clay
Osaka clay
Hiroshima clay

2,0
1,5

qIL/[qIL=1(aw=18%)] = -2.26 + 1.12.ln(aw)


2

(R = 0.94)
1,0
0,5
0,0

10

aw (%)

20

30

40

Figure 4. Generalized strength equation for the unconfined compressive


strength of cement based stabilized soft soils.

CONCLUSION

The paper presents a new simple method to predict the


unconfined compressive strength at 28 days of curing time of
cement based stabilized soft soils, whatever be the water content
and binder content. The method was initially developed for the
soft soil of Baixo Mondego chemically stabilized, and then
was sucessfully applied to a wide range of cement based
stabilized soft soils. Thus, this new method seems to be
independent of the soft soil, which allows the definition of a
generalize relationship (presented in Figure 4). At limit, the
number of unconfined compression tests required can be
reduced to one if it is applied the generalized equation and the
binder content chosen is 18%. The method proposed in this
paper is helpful for the laboratory optimization process of the
chemical stabilization at the pre-design stage.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to express their thanks to CIMPOR for


supplying the binders used in the work and to the institutions
that supported the research financially: University of Coimbra,
CIEC and FCT (PTDC/ECM/101875/2008).
7

REFERENCES

hnberg H. 2006. Strength of stabilised soils a laboratory study on


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of the experimental site of Quinta do Foja, MSc Dissertation,
University of Coimbra (in portuguese).
Correia A.A.S. 2011. Applicability of deep mixing technique to the soft
soils of Baixo Mondego, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Coimbra,
Portugal (in Portuguese).
Edil T.B. and Staab D.A. 2005. Practitioners guide for deep-mixed
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EN 197-1 2000. Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and
conformity criteria for common cements. IPQ, Portuguese edition
from April of 2001, 35 p.
EN 14679 2005. Execution of special geotechnical works deep mixing.
CEN, English version, April of 2005, p. 52.
Eurosoilstab 2001. Development of design and construction methods to
stabilise soft organic soils. Design guide soft soil stabilization.
CT97-0351, EC Project No. BE 96-3177, Industrial & Materials

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(BriteEuRam
III),
European
Commission, p. 94.
Hernandez-Martinez F.G. 2006. Ground improvement of organic soils
using wet deep soil mixing. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge,
United Kingdom.
Horpibulsuk S. 2001. Analysis and assessment of engineering behavior
of cement stabilized clays. PhD Dissertation, Saga University, Saga,
Japan.
Horpibulsuk S., Runglawan R. and Suddeepong A. 2011. Assessment of
strength development in blended cement admixed Bangkok clay.
Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, No. 4, p. 1521-1531.
Horpibulsuk S., Miura N. and Bergado D.T. 2004. Undrained shear
behavior of cement admixed clay at high water content. Journal of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130,
No. 10, p. 10961105.
Horpibulsuk S., Miura N. and Nagaraj T.S. 2003. Assessment of
strength development in cement-admixed high water content clays
with Abrams' law as a basis. Gotechnique, Vol. 53, No. 4, p. 439
444.
Kamruzzaman A.H.M. 2002. Physico-chemical and engineering
behavior of cement treated Singapore marine clay. PhD Thesis,
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Kawasaki T., Niina A., Saitoh S. and Honjyo Y. 1981. Deep mixing
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Kitazume M. and Terashi M. 2002. The deep mixing method principle,
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Locat J., Trembley H. and Leroueil S. 1996. Mechanical and hydraulic
behaviour of a soft inorganic clay treated with lime. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 33, p. 654 669.
Lorenzo G.A., and Bergado D.T. 2004. Fundamental parameters of
cement-admixed clay- New approach. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130, No. 10, p. 10421050.
Lorenzo G.A., and Bergado D.T. 2006. Fundamental characteristics of
cement-admixed clay in deep mixing. Journal of Materials in Civil
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 161-174.
Miura N., Horpibulsuk S. and Nagaraj T.S. 2001. Engineering behavior
of Cement stabilized clays at high water content. Soils and
Foundations, Vol. 41, No. 5, p. 33-45.
Uddin K., Balasubramaniam A.S. and Bergado D.T. 1997. Engineering
behavior of cement-treated Bangkok soft clay. Geotechnical
Engineering Journal, Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society, Vol.
28, No. 1, p. 89-119.
Venda Oliveira P.J., Lemos L.J.L., and Coelho P.A.L.P. 2010. Behavior
of an atypical embankment on soft soil: field observations and
numerical
simulation.
Journal
of
Geotechnical
and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 136, No. 1, p. 35-47.

Modlisation numrique du comportement dune colonne de soil-mixing


et confrontation un essai de chargement en vraie grandeur
Numerical modeling of a soil-mixing column behavior and comparison with a full-size load test
Cuira F.

TERRASOL, Paris, France

Costa dAguiar S.

SNCF I&R, Paris, France

Grzyb A., Pellet F.


INSA, Lyon, France

Mosser J.-F.

SOLETANCHE BACHY, Rueil-Malmaison, France

Guimond-Barrett A., Le Kouby A.


IFSTTAR, Paris, France

RSUM : Cet article prsente les rsultats dun travail de modlisation numrique visant simuler un essai de chargement axial sur
une colonne de sol-ciment, ralise par soil-mixing en voie humide. Quatre modles ont t btis dans le cadre de ce travail : trois
modles en lments finis, et un modle semi-analytique simplifi. Les rsultats des quatre modles sont confronts ceux obtenus
par un essai de chargement monotone en vraie grandeur, ralis sur une colonne de soil mixing de 400 mm de diamtre et 5 m de
hauteur, mise en uvre dans un sol limoneux sablo-graveleux. Ces rsultats permettent notamment de reproduire le mode de rupture
observ lors de lexcavation de la colonne, et mettent en vidence la ncessit de modliser correctement le comportement non
linaire du matriau sol-ciment qui influe significativement sur le comportement global, la diffrence des pieux rigides .
ABSTRACT: This article shows the results of a numerical modelling study aiming at simulating an axial load test on a soil-cement
column, carried out using the wet soil-mixing method. Four models were built as part of this study: three finite element models and
one simplified semi-analytical model. The results from the four models were compared with those from a full-size monotonic load
test, performed on a 400 mm diameter and 5m high soil-mixing column, installed in silty to sandy-gravelly soils. These results
allow to reproduce the failure mode observed during the column excavation, by emphasizing the need of an accurate modelling of the
non-linear soil-cement material which has a significant influence on the general behaviour, unlike with rigid piles.
KEYWORDS: Numerical modelling, soil reinforcement, Soil-mixing, load test.
1

INTRODUCTION

La technique du soil mixing permet damliorer les


caractristiques dun sol meuble par mlange mcanique in situ
avec un liant hydraulique. Le sol initialement prsent sur le
chantier est alors valoris comme un matriau de construction,
avec le double intrt de diminuer les dchets (sols excavs) et
de rduire la consommation de matriaux et dnergie.
Le procd Springsol utilise un outil ouvrant, pour raliser des
colonnes de sol-ciment de diamtre variable, ce qui limite au
maximum limpact des travaux sur les existants. Ce procd
offre des perspectives aussi bien dans le domaine de la
maintenance des plateformes ferroviaires (possibilit de
renforcer les structures ferroviaires sans avoir dposer les
voies), que dans celui du renforcement des fondations existantes
(empreinte des forages sur les structures limite au diamtre de
loutil ferm).
Cette souplesse et le caractre conome en dchets et en
matriaux permettent au procd Springsol de rpondre aux
nouvelles exigences environnementales et conomiques des
projets. Cest donc dans le but de dvelopper ces solutions que
Soletanche Bachy, la SNCF et Terrasol collaborent au sein du
projet de recherche RUFEX (Renforcement et rUtilisation des
plateformes et Fondation Existantes) avec lIFSTTAR, lINSA
de Lyon et lEcole des Ponts ParisTech.
Cet article prsente les rsultats dun travail de modlisation
numrique dun essai de chargement monotone conduit jusqu
la rupture sur une colonne de soil mixing ralise sur un
chantier de validation du projet RUFEX.

ESSAI DE CHARGEMENT EN VRAI GRANDEUR

Un essai de chargement sur une colonne de soil-mixing de 400


mm de diamtre et 5 m de hauteur a t ralis sur le site
exprimental du projet Rufex situ sur la commune de
Vernouillet (78). Le contexte gotechnique est caractris par
des remblais en surface suivis dune couche de limon sableux
reposant sur un sable graveleux. Aucune nappe phratique na
t rencontre lors des reconnaissances. Le Tableau 1 rcapitule
les caractristiques go-mcaniques issues des essais raliss.
Tableau 1. Caractristiques gotechniques des sols du site.
Limon
sableux

Sable
graveleux

0,5

3,5

Pression limite nette pl* (MPa)

2,5

Module pressiomtrique Em (MPa)

10

20

Cohsion c (kPa)

Angle de frottement ()

27

37

Nature
Profondeur du toit (m)

La colonne teste a t fore avec loutil Springsol. Le


malaxage du sol avec le liant hydraulique (ciment de type CEM
III) a t effectu in situ par voie humide. La quantit de ciment
injecte dans la colonne sous forme de coulis tait denviron
230 kg / m3.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Lessai de chargement a t ralis 90 jours aprs


linstallation de la colonne, avec des paliers de chargement de
50 kN maintenus pendant 30 min. La courbe de chargement
obtenue est prsente sur la Figure 1. Le chargement a t arrt
pour une charge maximale de 400 kN, lorsque le tassement de la
tte de la colonne a dpass 40 mm (1/10ime du diamtre).
Charge en tte Q (KN)
0

100

200

300

3 MODLISATION DE LESSAI DE CHARGEMENT :


MODLES LMENTS FINIS
Le rsultat de lessai de chargement est utilis comme rfrence
pour lvaluation de quatre modles numriques dont trois bass
sur un traitement complet en lments finis. Ces modles sont
construits selon la coupe schmatique suivante (Figure 3) et sur
la base des paramtres donns dans les Tableaux 1 et 2.
Q

400

Tassement s (mm)

0
10

0,5 m

Remblai

20
30

2,0 m

1,0 m

1,5 m

Limons
sableux

40
50

Transition

Figure 1. Courbe de chargement sur colonne de soil-mixing.

Aprs 180 jours, lexcavation de la colonne teste a permis


de distinguer une partie suprieure (de 0 2,5 m) constitue de
limon trait et une partie infrieure compose de sable trait.
Une zone de transition faite dun mlange de limon et de sable
trait a t observe entre 2,5 et 3,5 m. Des fragments de la
colonne ont t prlevs, carotts en laboratoire, et soumis des
essais mcaniques pour dterminer la rsistance et le module de
dformation du matriau constitutif de la colonne (Tableau 2).
Tableau 2. Rsultats des essais en laboratoire sur les prouvettes
provenant de la colonne excave.
Limon
trait (1)

Transition
(2)

Sable
trait (3)

0,5 - 2,5

2,5 3,5

3,5 - 5,0

3,7

7,6

11,9

Module local E50 (MPa)

1280 Rc

1280 Rc

1280 Rc

Angle de frottement ()

42

42

42

Cohsion (kPa)

700

1700

2800

Nature
Profondeur (m)
Rsistance Rc (MPa)

Vers 1 m de profondeur, la colonne de limon trait apparat


particulirement fissure et fracture (Figure 2), ce qui fait
suggrer que la rupture sest produite au sein du matriau
constitutif de la colonne. Ce constat est confort par le fait que
la portance de la colonne (estime partir des rsultats des
essais pressiomtriques) tait a priori suprieure sa rsistance
interne (estime partir des rsultats des essais sur les
prouvettes carottes).

Sable
graveleux

= 400 mm

Figure 3. Coupe de calcul retenue

3.1

Modle 1 (logiciel GEFDyn)

Ce modle est bti laide du logiciel lments finis GEFDyn.


Il sagit dun modle tridimensionnel o la colonne est
modlise par des lments volumiques 8 nuds formant un
quart de cylindre de 400 mm de diamtre et 5 m de long, noy
dans un milieu continu de 20 m de profondeur. Des lments
dinterface ont t introduits entre la structure de la colonne et
les lments de sol.
Le modle de comportement choisi est un modle linaire
lastique parfaitement plastique avec un critre de rupture de
Mohr Coulomb (not MC par la suite) pour les diffrents
matriaux (sol et colonne). La loi de linterface est celle
dAguiar et al (2011) dont la formulation est base sur les
mmes hypothses de comportement que le modle dit de
Hujeux (1985) qui se rvle trs adapt au comportement non
linaire des sols. La richesse de ce type de modle rside dans la
possibilit, en fonction des paramtres de la surface de charge et
du type dcrouissage, de modliser des comportements qui
peuvent aller du simple lastique parfaitement plastique un
comportement lasto-plastique crouissage dviatorique et
volumique. Pour le prsent calcul, les paramtres de linterface
sont choisis de manire reprsenter une surface de charge de
Mohr Coulomb avec un comportement lastique parfaitement
plastique. Langle de frottement linterface a t choisi gal
celui du sol environnant. Cela est justifi par le mode de
ralisation de la colonne (malaxage local) qui produit une
interface rugueuse mobilisant ainsi un mcanisme de rupture
mettant en jeu la rsistance intrinsque du sol (Figure 4).

Zone de limon
trait fissure et
fracture vers 1 m
de profondeur

Figure 2. Excavation de la colonne aprs lessai de chargement.


Figure 4. Etat de la surface dun tronon de colonne excave

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

Modle 2 (logiciel ABAQUS)

3.2

Le modle 2 est bti sous le logiciel ABAQUS. Il sagit dun


modle axisymtrique qui intgre une loi de comportement
avance de type Drucker-Prager modifie avec cap (DPC).
Ce modle permet de prendre en compte leffet dcrouissage
du sol, lhistorique de contraintes, ainsi que leffet de
compaction en pointe sous la colonne. La surface de charge est
compose de trois parties : une limite de rupture en cisaillement
de type Drucker-Prager, un cap elliptique, et une zone de
transition (Figure 5).

Ce modle permet par ailleurs de tenir compte de la variation


du module de dformation scant E50 ( 50% de la contrainte de
rupture) avec ltat de contraintes. Cette variabilit est contrle
par un paramtre puissance not m, quon prend usuellement
gal m = 0,5 pour le sol en place (le module scant est
proportionnel la racine de la contrainte applique). Pour la
colonne, ce paramtre est pris gal m = 0 (pas de variation du
module scant avec ltat de contraintes). Enfin, cette loi est
combine avec un critre de rupture de type Mohr Coulomb.
Des lments dinterface ont t par ailleurs introduits sur
toute la frontire de la colonne avec une loi de contraintesdformations et un critre de rupture identiques ceux des sols
environnants.
Mise en uvre et rsultats

3.4

Figure 5. Loi de Drucker-Prager modifie avec cap (DPC)

Les paramtres et d sexpriment en fonction de langle de


frottement interne et la cohsion c laide de la relation (1) :

6 sin
3 sin

et d

18c cos
3 sin

Les autres paramtres sont choisis soit par calage, soit dune
manire forfaitaire sur la base dlments bibliographiques. En
particulier, le paramtre pb qui dlimite la surface dcrouissage,
doit en toute rigueur tre cal sur le rsultat dun essai de
consolidation isotrope. Dans le prsent exercice, ce modle
(DPC) a t considr pour caractriser le comportement des
sables graveleux. Pour les autres matriaux (colonne et limons
sableux), il a t retenu une loi linaire lastique parfaitement
plastique avec critre de rupture de Mohr Coulomb (MC). Pour
la dfinition de la loi DPC dans les sables graveleux, les
paramtres suivants ont t considrs : R = 0.10, = 0,01 et pb
fonction de la dformation volumique plastique selon la loi
dcrouissage des sables dOttawa (Helwany 2000). Enfin, des
lments dinterface ont t introduits avec une loi MC.
Modle 3 (logiciel PLAXIS)

3.3

Charge en tte (kN)

(1)

Le 3 modle est un modle axisymtrique bti sous le logiciel


PLAXIS. Les lments utiliss sont des lments triangulaires
15 nuds et 30 degrs de libert. Pour le sol et la colonne, on
choisit une loi de contraintes-dformations de type HSM
(Hardening Soil Model - Figure 6) qui est une loi hyperbolique
tenant compte de lcrouissage en cisaillement et en
compression.

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

5
10

Tassement en tte (mm)

tan

Pour les trois modlisations ralises, les donnes


gotechniques ont t compltes par les valeurs du module de
dformation scant E50h/2 mi-paisseur dans chaque couche :
E50h/2 = 25 MPa pour les limons sableux et E50h/2 = 100 MPa
pour les sables graveleux. La Figure 7 prsente la courbe de
chargement simule laide des trois modles prsents cidessus. Une trs bonne concordance est observe entre la
modlisation et les mesures jusqu 300 kN (75% de la charge
de rupture mesure). Les modles 2 et 3 mettent en vidence un
palier de rupture net situ entre 350 et 400 kN, ce qui
correspond, 10% prs, au palier obtenu par lessai de
chargement sur site.

15
20

Modle 1 (GEFDyn - MC)


Modle 2 (ABAQUS - DPC / MC)
Modle 3 (PLAXIS - HSM)

25

Essai

30

Figure 7. Simulation de la courbe de chargement par modlisation


numrique en lments finis

Dans les modles 2 et 3, le palier de rupture obtenu


correspond au dveloppement dune zone de plastification
conique dans la partie suprieure de la colonne vers 1 m de
profondeur (Figure 8). Ce constat est corrobor par les
observations faites sur site lors de lexcavation de la colonne.

0,5m

1,0m

1,5m

Figure 8. Dveloppement dun mcanisme de rupture localis dans la


colonne (modle 3)

Figure 6. Principe de la loi HSM sous PLAXIS

2463

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

4
4.1

Principe du modle

On utilise prsent un modle semi-analytique simplifi bas


sur la mthode dite t-z : la colonne est assimile une
poutre verticale travaillant en compression axiale, tandis que le
frottement latral et la contrainte en pointe q suivent une loi de
mobilisation de Frank et Zhao (1982), et sont donc fonctions du
dplacement vertical de la colonne w. Chaque loi est
caractrise laide de deux paramtres : un paramtre de pente
(Kt ou Kp) et une contrainte unitaire limite (qs ou qp). Ces lois
sont couramment utilises en France pour estimer le tassement
dun lment de fondation profonde, et se rvlent trs efficaces
dans les exercices de calage par rapport un essai de
chargement en vraie grandeur.
Frottement latral

Rsultats

4.3

MODLE SEMI-ANALYTIQUE SIMPLIFIE

Contrainte en pointe

La Figure 11 prsente les rsultats obtenus (courbe de


chargement). Deux cas ont t tudis : cas dun comportement
linaire lastique de la colonne (E = E50), et cas dun
comportement non linaire (E = f()) selon la loi dcrite dans la
Figure 10. Pour chaque cas, deux situations sont examines :
frottement de type sol/sol (qs = f(v)) et frottement de type
bton/sol (qs = f(pl*)). Les rsultats obtenus confirment la
pertinence dune loi de comportement non linaire pour le
matriau constitutif de la colonne, et montrent que le choix dun
frottement de type sol/sol est plus reprsentatif du
comportement rel observ. Avec ces hypothses, le rsultat du
modle semi-analytique se rvle trs concordant avec celui de
lessai de chargement jusquau palier de rupture. Celui-ci est
obtenu par plastification en tte de la colonne (contrainte
applique proche de la rsistance la compression simple Rc).
Charge en tte (kN)

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

5
10
15

Figure 9. Lois de mobilisation de type Frank et Zhao

Asymptote = Rc

Rc

0,5 Rc
E50

2 E50 Rc

4.2

Mise en uvre

La loi de contrainte-dformation de la Figure 10 est construite


partir des paramtres (E50, Rc) qui Figurent dans le Tableau 2.
Les paramtres de pente des lois de Frank et Zhao (Figure
9) sobtiennent par corrlation avec le module
pressiomtrique EM : Kt = 0,8 EM / B et Kp = 4,8 EM / B, o B
dsigne le diamtre de la colonne. Ensuite, pour le choix du
frottement latral limite qs, deux hypothses enveloppes sont
examines : la premire est celle dun contact bton/sol pour
laquelle la valeur de qs sobtient par corrlation avec la pression
limite pl* ; la deuxime hypothse est celle dun contact sol/sol
pour laquelle la valeur de qs est celle du cisaillement limite de
Mohr Coulomb : qs = tan().K0.v, avec K0 = 0,5 et v la
contrainte verticale effective initiale linterface de la colonne.
Enfin, la contrainte limite en pointe qp est prise gale 4 MPa.

2464

Essai

25
30

E = f() et qs = f(v)

35

E = f() et qs = f(pl*)

40

E = E50 et qs = f(v)

45

E = E50 et qs = f(pl*)

50

Figure 11. Courbe de chargement Modlisation analytique simplifie

CONCLUSION

Les enseignements tirs de lessai de chargement en vraie


grandeur ont permis dorienter le choix des paramtres dentre
des diffrents outils numriques dvelopps dans le cadre du
projet RUFEX. Les rsultats obtenus, tant par les modles
numriques que par le modle semi-analytique, permettent de
bien reproduire le comportement observ lors de lessai, aussi
bien sur le comportement avant rupture que sur le mode de
rupture. Ils mettent en vidence la ncessit de modliser
correctement le comportement non linaire du matriau solciment qui influe significativement sur le comportement global,
la diffrence des pieux rigides .
6

Figure 10. Loi de contrainte-dformation retenue pour la colonne

20

Tassement (mm)

Les courbes de mobilisation ci-dessus sont combines avec


la loi de comportement de la colonne, qui relie la contrainte
applique au taux de dformation axiale de la colonne . A la
diffrence des pieux classiques pour lesquels le contraste de
rigidit pieu/sol est tel que lessentiel des tassements est obtenu
en pointe, la particularit dune colonne de soil-mixing rside
dans un contraste de rigidit colonne/sol plus faible et une
sensibilit notable de la raideur globale en tte vis--vis du
comportement local. Ces lments ont justifi le recours une
loi de contrainte-dformation non linaire pour la colonne : il a
t retenu une loi de forme hyperbolique (Figure 10) construite
laide de deux paramtres : le module scant E50 et la
rsistance la compression simple Rc. Lors du prsent exercice,
cette loi sest rvle apte retranscrire le comportement
observ, la diffrence dune loi linaire lastique.

REMERCIEMENTS

Les auteurs tiennent remercier la DGCIS (Direction Gnrale


de la Comptitivit et des Services) et les Conseils Gnraux de
la Rgion Ile de France et 93 qui cofinancent cette recherche.
7

REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES

DAguiar, S. C., A. Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi, J. A. dos Santos, and


F. Lopez-Caballero (2011). Elastoplastic constitutive modeling of
soil-structure interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading.
Computers and Geotechnics 38(-), 430447.
Frank, R. & Zhao, S. R. (1982), Estimation par les paramtres
pressiomtriques de lenfoncement sous charge axiale des pieux
fors dans les sols fins, Bull. Liaison Labo. P. et Ch. 119 :17-24.
Helwany S. 2000 Applied Soil Mechanics with ABAQUS Applications,
J. WILEY & SONS, INC pp. 61-67
Hujeux, J. C. (1985). Une loi de comportement pour le chargement
cyclique des sols en gnie parasismique, pp. 278302. V.
Davidovici, Presses ENPC.

Design of Deep Soil Mix Structures: considerations on the UCS characteristic value
Dimensionnement des structures en soil mix : considrations sur la valeur caractristique UCS
Denies N., Van Lysebetten G., Huybrechts N.

Belgian Building Research Institute, BBRI, Belgium

De Cock F.

Geotechnical Expert Office Geo.be, Belgium

B.
Lameire
Lameire
B.

Belgian Association of Foundation Contractors ABEF, Belgium

Maertens J.

Jan Maertens bvba & KU Leuven, Belgium

Vervoort A.

KU Leuven, Belgium
ABSTRACT: Since several decades, the deep soil mix (DSM) technique has been used for ground improvement works. But in recent
years, this technique has been increasingly used for structural applications. Standardized guidelines for the execution and the design
of this kind of applications are not currently available. For the purpose of developing such guidelines, mechanical characteristics of
DSM material were investigated. Within the framework of a Flemish regional research program (IWT 080736), DSM material from
38 Belgian construction sites, with various soil conditions and for different execution processes, has been tested. Internationally
QA/QC activities are commonly related to tests on core samples for the determination of the Unconfined Compressive Strength
(UCS) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of the material. Both values allow an approach of the design which takes into account the
bending characteristics (EI), the deformation (E), the arching effect (UCS) and the structural resistance (UCS) of the element. For the
semi-probabilistic design approach presented in Eurocode 7, a characteristic value of the UCS has to be defined as part of the
design of DSM structures. The present paper discusses the definition of this value.
RSUM : Depuis plusieurs dcennies, la technique du soil mix est utilise comme procd damlioration du sol. Mais ces dernires
annes, elle est de plus en plus utilise pour des applications structurelles. Aucune directive nest actuellement disponible pour
lexcution et le dimensionnement de telles applications. De manire dvelopper de telles directives, les caractristiques mcaniques
du matriau soil mix ont t investigues. Dans le cadre dun programme de recherche financ par lIWT, lagence gouvernementale
flamande pour linnovation, des chantillons de soil mix de 38 sites de construction ont t tests pour diffrents types de sol et
diffrents systmes. La qualit du matriau soil mix est gnralement contrle laide dessais, raliss sur des chantillons carotts
in situ, par lesquels sont dtermins la rsistance la compression simple (UCS) et le module dlasticit (E) du matriau. Ces deux
grandeurs permettent une approche du dimensionnement tenant compte de la rigidit flexionnelle (EI), des dformations (E), de leffet
de vote (UCS) et de la rsistance structurelle (UCS) de llment. Au vue de lapproche semi-probabiliste de lEurocode 7, il est
important de dfinir la valeur caractristique de la rsistance du soil mix (UCS) prendre en compte dans le dimensionnement. Le
prsent article discute de la dfinition de cette valeur caractristique.
KEYWORDS: Deep soil mix wall, structural design, ucs characteristic value
1

INTRODUCTION

The Deep Soil Mix (DSM) process was introduced in the 70s
in Japan and in the Scandinavian countries. Since several
decennia, DSM has been known as a ground improvement (GI)
technique. According to the classification of GI methods
adopted by the ISSMGE TC 211, DSM can be classified as
ground improvement with grouting type admixtures. Numerous
reviews and recent progresses of the DSM technique are
referred in Denies and Van Lysebetten (2012). The results of
national and European research programs have also been
published in multiple interesting reports (such as Eurosoilstab
2002), while the European standard for the execution of deep
mixing Execution of special geotechnical works Deep
Mixing (EN 14679) was published in 2005. Most of these
research projects focused on the global stabilization of soft
cohesive soils such as clay, silt, peat and gyttja (result of the
digestion of the peat by bacteria). More recently, DSM is
increasingly being used for structural applications such as soil
mix walls (SMW) for the retaining of soil and water in the case
of excavations.
In the DSM process, the ground is mechanically mixed in
place, while a binder, based on cement, is injected. For SMW
applications, the DSM cylindrical columns or the rectangular

panels are placed next to each other, in a secant way. By


overlapping the different soil mix elements, a continuous SMW
is realized. Steel profiles are inserted into the DSM fresh
material to resist the shear forces and bending moments. The
main structural difference between SMW and the more
traditional secant pile walls is the constitutive DSM material
which consists of a soil cement mixture instead of concrete.
Elements such as piles or diaphragm walls only comprise
standardized components and their characteristic strength can be
defined by the strength class of concrete. The design approach
for the DSM material is very different since the existing soil is
used as an essential component of the final product. Moreover,
the DSM strength depends not only on the soil type, but also on
the DSM technique, the amount and the type of binder, etc.
Within the framework of the BBRI Soil Mix project
initiated in 2009 in collaboration with the KU Leuven and the
Belgian Association of Foundation Contractors (ABEF),
numerous tests on in situ DSM material have been performed. A
good insight has been acquired with regard to mechanical
characteristics that can be obtained with the CVR C-mix, the
TSM and the CSM systems in several Belgian soils as reported
in Denies et al. (2012). BBRI information sheets (BBRI, 2012a
and b) have been published for the purpose of helping
contractors to improve the quality control (QC) of their finished

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

product, but guidance rules for the design of SMW are still
lacking in particular for the determination of a characteristic
value representative of the strength of the soil mix material.
Neither in the Eurocode 7 nor in the European standards for
grouting (EN 12715), jet-grouting (EN 12716) or deep-mixing
(EN 14679), specifications are given for the internal strength of
the material.
In practice, Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control
(QC) activities are commonly related to tests on core samples
for the determination of the Unconfined Compressive Strength
(UCS) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of the material. Both
values allowing an approach of the design taking into account
the bending characteristics (EI), the deformation (E), the
arching effect (UCS) and the structural resistance (UCS) of the
element. For engineering purposes and as part of the semiprobabilistic design approach presented in Eurocode 7, it is thus
essential to define the UCS characteristic value that can be
taken into account in the design of DSM structures. The
following paragraphs discuss the definition of this value.
2 DETERMINATION OF THE UCS CHARACTERISTIC
VALUE OF DSM MATERIAL
On the basis of an X% lower limit value

2.2

Figure 1. a) Distribution of the UCS values of 41 cores of DSM material


from a site in Gent (Belgium) and the corresponding theoretical
Gaussian curve. b) Distribution of the logarithm of the UCS values
increased with = 0.6 from the same site and the corresponding
Gaussian curve. The vertical line indicates the 5% lower limit value,
after Denies et al. (2012).
35
30
25

UCS (MPa)

The first methodology consists in the calculation of the


characteristic strength as the X% lower limit on the basis of a
statistical distribution function. Nevertheless, in practice, the
wrong assumption is often made that the datasets of UCS values
of soil mix material are normally distributed (see Fig. 1a). The
characteristic UCS value is then erroneously calculated as the
X% lower quantile of the normal distribution with parameters
corresponding to the dataset. Moreover, this often results into
negative and thus useless characteristic UCS values. The
mathematically correct solution would be to apply the best
fitting standard distribution function, for example a lognormal
distribution in case the distribution is skewed and/or does not
contain subpopulations. The X% lower limit can then be
calculated on the basis of this theoretical distribution function,
as illustrated in Denies et al. (2012) for a lognormal distribution
(see Fig. 1b). Possibly, a factor has to be added to the values
to obtain an optimal fit with a normal distribution after
transformation. However, this way of working is probably too
complex to apply in practical situations.
The second methodology to determine the X% lower limit is
based on the cumulative frequency curve of the original
experimental dataset and thus independent of any theoretical
distribution function. Note that to apply this method, enough
data points have to be available (for an accurate determination
of the 5% lower limit without extrapolation, at least 20 samples
are necessary). This approach seems rather simple but any other
method probably results in a large uncertainty. Figure 2 presents
the cumulative frequency curve for the UCS values of the
dataset illustrated in Fig. 1.

f c ,k quf

5
0

a.

5 10

50
90
Cumulative percentage

99

5
4
3
2
1
0

b.

5
10
Cumulative percentage

50

Figure 2. Cumulative frequency curve of all UCS values of the dataset


from the site in Gent: a) Full curve. b) Zoom on the part below 50%:
presentation of the construction for the evaluation of the 5% lower limit
value.

(1)

where q uf is the mean UCS value and a factor representing a


certain confidence and safety level ( < 1).
In the formalized design approach (DIN 4093, August 2012)
used in Germany, the UCS characteristic value is defined as the
minimum value of three parameters:

15
10

On the basis of an average value with safety factor

A second approach to determine the UCS characteristic value is


the use of the average value of the dataset in combination with a
safety factor:

20

UCS (MPa)

2.1

f c,k min f m,min ; f m,mittel ; 12 MPa

(2)

where fm,min is the minimum UCS value and fm,mittel the


arithmetic mean UCS value from a series of at least 4 samples.
is determined in function of fc,k: equals 0.6 for fc,k 4 MPa
and 0.75 for fc,k = 12 MPa (linear interpolation is required for
intermediate values). This method is described in more detail by
Topolnicki and Pandrea (2012).

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

If the characteristic value fc,k is smaller than 4 MPa,


additional creep tests have to be conducted with a load of fc,k/2
as described in the annex B of the DIN 4093.
The design strength for calculations with the concept of
partial safety factors is then computed as follows:
f c ,d 0.85

f c ,k

(3)

where 0.85 is a factor to consider permanent situations and m is


the material safety factor as defined in Eurocode 7 (1.5 for
permanent and temporary load cases and 1.3 for accidents). For
temporary situations, the design strength is computed without
the 0.85 coefficient.
As reported in Topolnicki and Pandrea (2012), if
independent and separate design calculations are performed for
compressive and shear stresses (i.e. no 3D stress analysis), the
maximum allowed compressive stress is 0.7 x fc,d and the
maximum allowed shear stress is 0.2 x fc,d.
For comparison with the previous version of the DIN 4093
(published in September 1987), Table 1 presents cumulated
safety factors on material strength (fm,mittel) and equivalent
global safety factors (m x G,Q)/( x 0.85 x (0.7 or 1)) computed
with the new DIN 4093 for permanent design situations. An
increase in the number of test samples has no effect on the
safety factors.

etc.) should depend on the type of the distribution of the dataset.


Second, problems may arise with limited number of samples,
skewed populations and in the presence of subpopulations.
Figure 3 compares the UCS characteristic value computed
with the help of the cumulative frequency curve (CC method) or
with respect to the DIN approach. The ratio of the two
characteristic values is presented as a function of the number of
tested samples for each considered dataset. Minimum 20
samples are necessary in order to conduct the statistical analysis
on the cumulative frequency curve. As observed in Fig. 3, the
UCS characteristic value is always greater when computed with
the help of the cumulative frequency curve (all the values are
larger than 1). In Fig. 3, results are given for two different X%
lower quantiles: X = 5% and 10%. Indeed, for the first category
of approaches (based on the lower limit value), a value for the
X% has to be defined. A more detailed analysis is necessary to
determine if a 5% lower limit, as often stated in Eurocode 7, is a
representative characteristic value for the strength of the soil
mix material. Actually, one major issue is the representativeness
of the core samples with regard to the in situ executed DSM
material.

Table 1. Cumulated safety factors on material strength (fm,mittel) and


equivalent global safety factors in permanent design situation according
to DIN 4093 August 2012 (m = 1.5).
For

With 3D analysis
Cumulated safety factor
Permanent actions (G=1.35)
Equivalent global safety factor
Variable actions (Q=1.50)
Equivalent global safety factor
Without 3D analysis
Cumulated safety factor
Permanent actions (G=1.35)
Equivalent global safety factor
Variable actions (Q=1.50)
Equivalent global safety factor

For

=0.6

=0.75

2.94

2.35

3.97

3.18

4.41

3.53

4.20

3.36

5.67

4.54

6.30

5.04

Figure 3. Ratio of the characteristic values (fc,k (CC) and fc,k (DIN4093))
as a function of the number of tested samples.

For comparison, in the previous version of the DIN 4093


(September 1987), the design value was computed as follows:
f c ,d

f m ,mittel
5

(4)

for samples with UCS values expected larger than 5 MPa and
tested according to the DIN 1048 standard for concrete material,
or with the help of:
f c ,d

q u
3

(5)

for samples with UCS values expected smaller than 5 MPa and
tested according to the DIN 18 136 for soil material. q'u is the
UCS value computed according to the DIN 18136.
Considering the safety factor of 5 and the reduction factor of
0.7 related to the 3D character of the loading, the previous
version of the DIN 4093 resulted in a global safety factor of
7.14.
For this second approach based on an average value with
safety factor, Denies et al. (2012) have remarked that first, the
definition of the most suitable mean (arithmetic mean, median,

INFLUENCE OF THE UNMIXED SOIL INCLUSIONS

There is mainly the question of the influence of unmixed soft


soil inclusions on the mechanical behaviour of the DSM
material. Indeed, as a natural material (i.e. soil) is being mixed,
it is to be expected that the entire wall is not perfectly mixed
and homogeneous: inclusions of unmixed soft soil are present.
As a result, Ganne et al. (2010) have proposed to reject all test
samples with soil inclusions > 1/6 of the sample diameter, on
condition that no more than 15% of the test samples from one
particular site would be rejected. This possibility to reject test
samples results from the reflexion that a soil inclusion of 20 mm
or less does not influence the behaviour of a soil mix structure.
On the other hand, a soil inclusion of 20 mm in a test sample of
100 mm diameter significantly influences the test result. Of
course, this condition is only suitable if one assumes that there
is no soil inclusion larger than 1/6 of the width of the in situ
DSM structure. For the purpose of studying this question, 2D
numerical simulations were performed at KU Leuven with the
aim to quantify the effect of soil inclusions on the DSM strength
and stiffness. The following parameters are being considered:
size, number, relative position and percentage of soil inclusions.
The results of this study are presented in Vervoort et al. (2012)
and Van Lysebetten et al. (2013). As illustrated in Fig. 4, they
confirm that DSM samples with soft soil inclusions larger than
1/6 have a considerable influence on the deduction of the
engineering values. Based on this numerical analysis, the rule
of 1/6 as proposed by Ganne et al. (2010) seems to be justified.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

the determination of the X% lower quantile for DSM


material (in case of statistical calculation),
- the presence of the unmixed soft soil inclusions potentially
considering the rule of 1/6 (Ganne et al. 2010),
- the scale effect (with regard to the full-scale factor of 0.7),
- the possibility of 3D analysis,
- and the time effects (with the help of creep test or based on
experience with similar technique and soil conditions).
The curing and creep phenomena are currently investigated
within the framework of the BBRI Soil Mix project. Indeed,
while SMWs were previously used only for temporary
excavation support, permanent retaining and bearing
applications with soil mix are increasingly applied in Belgium.
For the evolution of the UCS value with time, it is suggested to
consider the value of the UCS at 28 days as the value of
reference for the strength of the DSM material.
-

Figure 4. Influence of the dimensions of the soil inclusions on the UCS


of soil mix material. Results of 2D numerical simulations performed
with the help of the Universal Distinct Element Code UDEC of Itasca.
Details of the model are available in Van Lysebetten et al. (2013). H is
the ratio between the height of the soil inclusion and the sample
diameter.

INFLUENCE OF THE SCALE EFFECT

Apart from traditional core samples (with a diameter around 10


cm), large scale UCS tests were conducted on rectangular
blocks with approximately a square section, with a width
corresponding to the width of the in situ SMW (about half a
meter) and with a height approximately twice the width
(Vervoort et al. 2012). The results of all the tests performed in
KU Leuven are presented in Fig. 5 for various soil conditions
and different execution systems: the CSM and the TSM.
As observed in Fig. 5, a linear relationship is observed
between the test results obtained from the typical core samples
and the large rectangular blocks. Although there is a scatter in
the test results, the UCS of the full-scale blocks is about 70% of
the average UCS of the typical core samples. It is to note that
similar conclusion was observed for DSM columns in Japan
(CDIT 2002).

Figure 5. Scale effect: relationship between the results of UCS tests on


typical cylindrical core samples (10 cm diameter) and on large
rectangular blocks tested in KU Leuven (after Vervoort et al. 2012).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the results of the BBRI Soil Mix project, a Belgian


design methodology for the DSM structures is currently
developed. On the one hand to determine the UCS characteristic
value of the DSM material and on the other hand to design the
SMW as a retaining wall according to the requirements of the
Eurocode 7. According to the results presented in this paper, the
calculation of the UCS characteristic value should consider:
- the number of tested core samples,
- the possibility to use a statistical approach (based on the
cumulative curve) or an approach such as in the DIN,

2468

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research is financially supported by the Agency for


Innovation by Science and Technology of the Flemish Region
IWT (BBRI Soil Mix project, 2009-2013).
7

REFERENCES

BBRI. 2012a. Infofiche. Parois de type Soil mix de type 1 : parois


faites de colonnes. BBRI information sheet 56.5, www.bbri.be, July
2012 (in Dutch and French).
BBRI. 2012b. Infofiche. Parois de type Soil mix de type 2 : parois
faites de panneaux. BBRI information sheet 56.6, www.bbri.be, July
2012 (in Dutch and French).
CDIT. Coastal Development Institute of Technology. 2002. The Deep
Mixing Method Principle, Design and Construction. Edited by
CDIT, Japan. A. A. Balkema Publishers/Lisse/Abingdon/Exton
(PA)/Tokyo.
Denies, N. and Van Lysebetten, G. 2012. General Report Session 4
SOIL MIXING 2 DEEP MIXING. International Symposium of
ISSMGE - TC211. Recent research, advances & execution aspects
of ground improvement works. N. Denies and N. Huybrechts (eds.).
31 May-1 June 2012, Brussels, Belgium, Vol. I, pp. 87-124.
Denies, N., Huybrechts, N., De Cock, F., Lameire, B., Vervoort, A.,
Van Lysebetten, G. and Maertens, J. 2012. Soil Mix walls as
retaining structures mechanical characterization. International
Symposium of ISSMGE - TC211. Recent research, advances &
execution aspects of ground improvement works. 31 May-1 June
2012, Brussels, Belgium, Vol. III, pp. 99-115.
DIN 4093:2012-08. Design of ground improvement Jet grouting, deep
mixing or grouting. August 2012 (in German).
Eurosoilstab. 2002. Development of design and construction methods to
stabilise soft organic soils. Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilisation. EC
project BE 96-3177.
Ganne, P., Huybrechts, N., De Cock, F., Lameire, B. and Maertens, J.
2010. Soil mix walls as retaining structures critical analysis of the
material design parameters, International conference on
geotechnical challenges in megacities, June 07-10, 2010, Moscow,
Russia, pp. 991-998.
Topolnicki, M. and Pandrea, P. 2012. Design of in-situ soil mixing.
International Symposium of ISSMGE - TC211. Recent research,
advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works. 31
May-1 June 2012, Brussels, Belgium, Vol. III, pp. 309-316.
Van Lysebetten G., Vervoort A., Denies, N., Huybrechts, N., Maertens,
J., De Cock, F. and Lameire B. Numerical modeling of fracturing in
soil mix material. International Conference on Installation Effects
in Geotechnical Engineering. March 24 27, 2013. Rotterdam. The
Netherlands.
Vervoort, A., Tavallali, A., Van Lysebetten, G., Maertens, J., Denies,
N., Huybrechts, N., De Cock, F. and Lameire, B. 2012. Mechanical
characterization of large scale soil mix samples and the analysis of
the influence of soil inclusions. International Symposium of
ISSMGE - TC211. Recent research, advances & execution aspects
of ground improvement works. 31 May-1 June 2012, Brussels,
Belgium, Vol. III, pp. 127-135.

Method of improvement of the subsoil under Adora facility Ohrid, Republic Of


Macedonia
Mthode damlioration du sous-sol sous le btiment Adora Ohrid, Rpublique de Macdoine
Dimitrievski L.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

Ilievski D., Dimitrievski D., Bogoevski B., Strasheski A.

GEING Krebs und Kiefer International and others ltd. Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

ABSTRACT: Adora residential building is a 6-storey structure, built nearby Ohrid Lake (Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia). The
foundation depth of the building is approximately 1,5 m (foundation construction foundation slab). The foundation soil consists of
soil materials which have a poor strength properties and low bearing capacity. The ground water table (GWT) on the location is on 1,0
m bellow the ground surface. On such geotechnical conditions a big settlements are expected. Therefore, a project on soil
improvement was prepared. Several preliminary solutions were considered, but most appropriated was the one which involves
geosyntetic reinforcement as subsoil improvement measure. In order to evaluate the settlements, performance of the building, axial
forces developed in the geogrids and stress-strain condition in the subsoil during static and dynamic loads, detailed analyses were
conducted. The software models developed in Plaxis 2D clearly showed the effectiveness on the applied measures for soil
improvement.
RSUM : le btiment de rsidence Adora est-une construction de 6 tages, bti cot du lac dOhrid (Ohrid, Rpublique de
Macdoine). La profondeur des fondations du btiment est denviron 1,5 m (construction de fondation dalle de fondation). Le sol de
fondation est compos de sols de mauvaise qualit et faible capacit portante. La nappe phratique (NP) du site est situe 1,0 m en
dessous de la surface de sol. Avec ces conditions gotechniques des tassements du sol sont attendus. Un projet damlioration des sols
a donc t prpar. Plusieurs solutions prliminaires ont t considres, mais la plus approprie est celle qui implique le
renforcement par gosynthtiques, comme mesure damlioration du sous-sol. Des analyses dtailles ont t menes afin dvaluer
les tassements du sol, la construction du btiment, les forces axiales dveloppes dans le gogrille et la relation contraintedformation dans le sous-sol sous chargements statique et dynamique. Les modles logiciels dvelopps dans Plaxis 2D montrent
clairement lefficacit des mesures appliques pour lamlioration des sols.
KEYWORDS:soil imporovement, geogrid, geotextile
1

INTRODUCTION

Adora residential building is foreseen to be built on a site which


hasvery poor geomechanical properties or in other words the
geotechnical conditions on the site are very unfavorable. In such
casesalways major problems are low bearing capacity of the
subsoil and large differential settlements. The city of Ohrid is
located in active seismic area which is classified in the 9th
seismic zone according to MCS. Moreover, on the site there are
layers of loose uniform sand. Having in mind these two facts a
liquefaction becomes also a serious danger for the structure. In
order to adopt a solution for soil improvement and to check the
liquefaction potential of the soil,comprehensive analyses were
conducted.

According to the geological formations on the site, there are


present sediments from the Quaternary period (Pleistocene
epoch), i.e. lake and swamp sediments, represented with gravel,
sand, sandy clays, silt, different types of clay and clayey-silty
sediments, as well as occasional presence of peat. The
sediments are well sorted, so that they have heterogenic particle
size distribution and heterogenic mineralogy composition, i.e.
they are fine to medium gravels and sands; fine silty sands,
sandy clays and soft lake/swamp clays with low to medium
plasticity. The thickness of these sediments varies between 50.0
80.0 m. According to the hydrogeological properties, they
belong to the group of low permeability sediments with
interparticle porosity. A closed type of springs with free level is
present in the sediments, at depth to 20.0 m with GWT = 5.0
7.0 m, and with permeability k = nx10-4 nx10-5 m/s.
Also there is a closed type of springs under pressure (artesian
springs) at depth from 20.0 60.0 m with discharge of Q = 1.0
5.0 l/sec.
From engineering geological point of view, these sediments
belong to the group of weathered rocks, well placed and sorted
with heterogenic particle size distribution, low compacted, with
smooth surfaces, fully saturated with water. In other words they
present materials with poor physical and mechanical properties
that have different strength and deformability parameters.
3

Figure 1.Excavation pit on a site

GEOLOGICAL SITE PROPERTIES

GEOMECHANICAL SITE PROPERTIES

The site for construction of the new building is located


approximately 200 m from the shore of Ohrid Lake, so, as it
was mentioned before, the soils found on the site are with

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

sediment nature. In order to get precise geotechnical profile of


the ground, extensive geotechnical field investigations were
conducted. On the other hand, soil samples were taken for
laboratory testing. With such extensive scope of field
investigations, clear view of the ground profile was obtained.
Based on the performed field investigation works, it was
concluded that the site is composed of different layers of
sedimentary soils. With foreseen depth of the boreholes, no
bedrock was detected. On this site there is vast variety of soil
materials, from gravels and sands to silts and clays. Because of
the high heterogeneity of the ground profile, layers are grouped
into two extinguishing layers. The surface layers are low
plasticity clays and clayey sands, which are highly compressive
and they are present up to approximately 2.0 m from the
surface. While the next deeper layer is clayey sand with higher
compaction than the previous layer, and they are present up to
10.0 m from the surface. It is supposed that this second layer
continues up to depth for which loading stresses have impact on
the settlements.
According to the conducted field and laboratory tests,
present soil materials are loose and they have very poor strength
properties. In addition, the level of ground water table is very
high, approximately 1.0 m from the ground surface, because of
the nearby Ohrid Lake.
Table 1. Geomechanical properties
Fill Material

CL/SFc

SFc

g (kN/m3)

22.0

18.4

18.5

c(kN/m2)

0.0

15.0

10.0

35.0

10.0

20.0

80000.0

5000.0

10000.0

13

Soil

f (0)
Mv (kPa)
SPT

substructure) is 69.0x41.5 m. The foundation slab under the


superstructure is 0.9 m thick and on the extension parts it is 0.5
m thick.The contact pressure transferred on the subsoil varies in
range between 100 kPa (on cross-sectionsin the middle of the
building) and 20 kPa (on cross-sections in the extensions).

Figure 3. Cross section of the foundation structure

THE SOLUTION

As it was mentioned before, the improvement of the subsoil was


done by means of soil replacement and usage of geosynthetic
materials.
Because of the foundation level of -1.5 m from the ground
surface and the depth of soil replacement of 2.0 m, total of 3.5
m deep foundation pit was excavated. The excavation pit was
done by constructing2:1 slopes. In addition, dry conditions for
execution of the construction works in the excavation pit were
ensured by dewatering the excavation by extraction wells. On
the other hand the excavation pit had greater dimensions in plan
view, 2.0 m greater than the contours of the foundation slab.
Hence the loading stresses can be spread in the fill material by
angle of max 45.
Table 2. Properties of the geotextile
Raw material

PP multicolored/PET

Method of production

Mechanically bonded
300 gr/m2

Weight

Considering all these facts, it is obvious that ground


improvement is necessary under the foundation of the new
construction. Moreover, the problem with the settlements is
inevitable, so the serviceability of the construction is also an
important issue.

Thickness under 2 kPa load


Ultimate tensile strength

Longitudinal 4.0 kN/m


Transversal 7.5 kN/m

Strain
strength

at

ultimate

tensile

1300 N (-300 N)

Opening size O90


Water permeability
normal to the plane

5.1
Fondation slab 0.9 m

Figure 2.Adora building cross section

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

The Adorabuildingis built on the sitewhich is very close to the


Ohrid Lake. The superstructure of the building has 5 floors and
the substructure has 1 floor (see Figure 2). The substructure is
extended out of the superstructure and it is actually a parking
lot. The size of the superstructure in plan view is 52.0x22.0 m,
and the total size of the building (including the extensions of the

Longitudinal 120% (40%)


Transversal 80% (40%)

CBR puncture resistance

Fondation slab 0.5 m

3 mm

0.10 mm (0.02 mm)


index

85 x 10-3 m/s
(-15 x 10-3 m/s)

Geotextile

At the bottom of the excavation pit, geotextile was used to


ensure separation of the fill material from the subsoil. By the
separation, it is meant that the geotextile will prevent mixing of
the different soils, but it will enable complete water
permeability, so with this, complete preservation of the
properties of the later placed fill materials will be ensured. Used
geotextile has the physical and mechanical properties, listed in
the Table 2.
The geotextile was placed all over the bottom of the
excavation pit as well as on the excavation slopes. The overlap
oftwo adjacent panels is 60 cm, and it completely wraps the fill
material up. Used geotextile with the properties given in the
Table 2 has the ability to withstand burst and puncture, and has
enough tensile strength to serve a separation function, without
being destroyed.

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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

5.2

Geogrids and fill material

For increasing the bearing capacity of the subsoil under the


foundation slab, geogrids are inserted as reinforcement. For
reinforcement three layers of geogrids with different properties
are placed in the fill material at different elevations.
The first layer of the geogrids was installed under the
middle section of the building where the contact pressure has
maximummean value up to P=100 kPa.The geogrids installed
on this position give the geotextile anadditional tensile strength,
as well as bursting and puncturing resistance.

bottom of the excavation pit up to the foundation slab.


Furthermore, this geogrid will ensure reaching of the requested
modulus of compressibility of the upperlayers of fill material.
The properties of the second layer of geogrid are shown in the
Table 4.
Table 4. Properties of the geogrid 80/30 (second layer of geogrids)
Raw material

Geogrid 20/20

PET

Coating

Polymer

Weight

~ 350 gr/m2

Ultimate tensile strength

Longitudinal 80 kN/m
Transversal 30 kN/m

Geogrid 80/30

Ultimate tensile strength at


3% strain

Longitudinal 22 kN/m

Ultimate tensile strength at


5% strain

Longitudinal 40 kN/m

Strain
strength

at

nominal

tensile

Transversal < 8.5%

Mesh size
Geotextile

Geogrid 40/40

Figure 4. Cross section of the soil improvement measures

On other hand this first layer provides initial stiffness of the


low lifts of the fill material. The overlap oftwo adjacent panels
is 50 cm and anchoring length of 3.0 m. The properties of the
first layer of geogrid are shown in the Table 3.
Table 3. Properties of the geogrid 40/40 (first layer of geogrids)
Raw material

PP

Coating

Polymer

Weight

~ 330 gr/m2

Ultimate tensile strength

Longitudinal 40 kN/m
Transversal 40 kN/m

Tensile strength at 2% strain

Longitudinal 16 kN/m
Transversal 16 kN/m

Tensile strength at 5% strain


Strain
strength

at

Mesh size

nominal

tensile

Longitudinal < 8.5%


20 x 20 mm

On top of the second geogrid two lifts of fill material are


done with thickness of 30 cm, total of 60 cm. The required
modulus of compressibility on top of these two layers of fill
material should be at least 100 MPa and minimum 98%
compaction after Proctor. The fill material is crushed stone base
aggregate.
On the extended parts of the building where the contact
pressure has maximummean value up to P=20 kPa, also a
geogrids is installed. This geogrid has an ultimate tensile
strength of 20 kN/m in both directions. The overlap of two
adjacent panels is 60 cm and the anchoring length is 1.0 m.
After installation of this geogrid the fill material is placed and
compacted in 30 cm thick lifts. The final layer of the fill
material at the extended parts of the building should reach at
least 80 kPa and minimum 98% compaction after Proctor.
After completion of the earth works ground improvement
measures were completely finished. So the works for hydro
insulation and constructing the structure commenced.
Table 5. Properties of the geogrid 40/40 (first layer of geogrids)
Raw material

Longitudinal 32 kN/m

PP

Transversal 32 kN/m

Coating

Polymer

Longitudinal < 7%

Weight

~ 190 gr/m2

Transversal < 7%

Ultimate tensile strength

40 x 40 mm

Over this geogrid a layer of drainage fill material was


placed with thickness of 50 cm. This material has particlessize
from 16 to 32 mm.
This layer of drainage fill material is foreseen to reduce the
possibility of liquefaction. So in case of earthquake, the
building up of the pore water pressure will be reduced by
draining the water from the subsoil layers into the drainage
layer placed with the subsoil replacement works.
Over this drainage fill material, another geogrid was placed
but this time with higher strength properties. The use of this
geogrid is to reinforce the fill material as well as to ensure
additional stiffness, which is gradually increasing from the

Longitudinal 20 kN/m
Transversal 20 kN/m

Tensile strength at 2% strain

Longitudinal 8 kN/m
Transversal 8 kN/m

Tensile strength at 5% strain

Longitudinal 18 kN/m
Transversal 18 kN/m

Strain
strength

2471

at

Mesh size

nominal

tensile

Longitudinal < 7%
Transversal < 7%
40 x 40 mm

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics


and
Geotechnical
Paris 2013
Figure 6. Plaxis
model
of the AdoraEngineering,
building

Figure 5. Axis forces in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids)


Figure 5. Axis forces in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids)

The Plaxis model was subjected to several load cases which


involves geostatic, hydrostatic and dynamic load. The analyses
are conducted with and without applied geosyntetics under the
7 CONCLUSION
construction. Comparing the results of analyses of both models
CONCLUSION
it7 was
obvious that improvement of the subsoil using
geosyntetics is fully justified.
The maximum total settlements of the subsoil after the
construction of the hotel are estimated at 30 cm. The estimated
differential settlements during the seismic analyses were 0.1 cm.
The maximum axial forces developed in the geogrids for
7 geostatics
CONCLUSION
load case are 13,86 kN/m in the middle geogrid and
10,14 kN/m in the lowest geogrids. When the model is
subjected to dynamic loads (seismic activity) the axial force in
the middle geogrid 35,17 kN/m and in the lowest geogrid the
axial force is 19,12 kN/m.
Additional analyses were carried out in order to estimate a
liquefaction potential of the subsoil. These analyses were
necessary due to the presence of saturated, uniform sand in the
subsoil which has a relative density in the range of Dr=15-40%.
The results showed that the subsoil has a liquefaction potential.

In the last 2,5 years this is the second bigger project of soil
In 7.
theusing
last stresses
2,5
years
this in
is the second
biggerThe
project
improvement
geosyntetics
Ohrid area.
first,of soil
Figure
Shear
distribution
6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES
improvement
using
the Ohrid
area.Hotel
The first,
very similar,
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soilgeosyntetics
improvementin under
the new
6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES
very
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case
was
soil
improvement
under
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Park
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7 apart.
CONCLUSION
detailed analyses
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of soil-structure
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to flowbuildings
Figure
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6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES
For example,
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Figure 5. Axis forces in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids)
8In both
REFFERENCES
cases cost-benefit analyses conducted during the
Brinkgreve.
R. last
&process
Vermeer
P.
1998.
Plaxis
Code
for Soil
In the
2,5 years
this is
the
second
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project
ofusing
soil
designing
showed
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soilElement
improvement
andBrinkgreve.
Rock Analyses.
R.
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1998.
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Finite
Element
Codefirst,
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improvement
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geosyntetics
in
the
Ohrid
area.
The
geosyntetics is most economical method in such geotechnical
6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES
Geing-KuK.
2011.
Geomechanical
report
for construction
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and
Rock
Analyses.
very similar,
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Hotela
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REFFERENCES
net analyses, analyses of soil-structure interaction due to Robert
M.Koerner.1997.
Geosynthetics.
the residentialDesigning
building inwith
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settlements
of Inc.
bothbuildings
are below
the initiallyFourth
estimated
Prentence-Hall,
geostatic
load
as well as analyses of the
Robert M.Koerner.1997.
Designing
with Geosynthetics.
edition.
Figure
6. Plaxis and
modeldynamic
of the Adora
building
Brinkgreve.
R. & Vermeer
settlements.
Prentence-Hall,
Inc.P. 1998. Plaxis Finite Element Code for Soil
liquefaction
potential
theAdora
subsoil.
The ground model was
Figure 6. Plaxis
model of
of the
building
and example,
Rock Analyses.
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Plaxis according
model wastosubjected
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load cases
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For
for monitoring of the settlements of the Hotel
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2011.points
Geomechanical
report for construction
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M.Koerner.1997.
Geosynthetics.
it wasis fully
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geosyntetics
justified.
of Inc.
the elevation of the fixed points was
Prentence-Hall,
Figure 6. Plaxis model of the Adora building
Thegeosyntetics
maximum istotal
fullysettlements
justified. of the subsoil after the
undertaken on 11.07.2011, and the last one on 23.03.2012.
total
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the middle
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the middle
35,17
kN/m andatin30the
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axial
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kN/m.
construction
ofgeogrid
the
hotel
are estimated
cm.lowest
The estimated
Brinkgreve. R. & Vermeer P. 1998. Plaxis Finite Element Code for Soil
analyses
Additional
were
carried
out in order
to estimate
axial force
is 19,12
kN/m.
differential
settlements
during
the seismic
analyses
were 0.1acm.
and Rock Analyses.
analyses
Additional
carried
outininanalyses
order
to were
estimate
liquefaction
potential
of forces
thewere
subsoil.
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developed
the
geogrids
for a
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potential
of
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analyses
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necessary
due load
to thecase
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subsoil
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the potential.
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Robert M.Koerner.1997. Designing with Geosynthetics. Fourth edition.
axial
is 19,12
Prentence-Hall, Inc.
Figureforce
6. Plaxis
modelkN/m.
of the Adora building
Figure 7.
Shear stresses
distribution
analyses
Additional
were carried out in order to estimate a
Figure
7. Shear
stresses
distribution
The Plaxis
model
was
subjected
to several
cases which
liquefaction
potential
of
the subsoil.
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dynamicuniform
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analyses
necessary
due to thehydrostatic
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sand
in the
are conducted
witha relative
and without
applied
under the 2472
subsoil
which has
density
in thegeosyntetics
range of Dr=15-40%.
construction.
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of aanalyses
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models
The
results showed
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it was obvious that improvement of the subsoil using

buildin
Geing-KuK
the resi
Robert M.K
Prenten

Geoencased columns: toward a displacement based design


Colonnes renforce par gotextiles: vers une conception base sur le dplacement
Galli A., Prisco di C.
Politecnico di Milano

ABSTRACT: As is largely testified by the scientific literature, in the last decade geoencased columns have become a quite common
alternative solution to standard stone columns. This is essentially due to the possibility of employing reinforcements to better the
mechanical response of the inclusions without reducing their drainage efficiency. Although GEC are often used to reduce settlements
induced by the construction of large embankments on soft soils, up to now a rational displacement based design approach has not yet
been introduced. This is thus the final objective of this paper, that, by starting from a critical review of the standards presently
available, will illustrate the results of a series of finite difference numerical analyses. The unit cell of an ideal reinforced soil
embankment placed on a soft soil stratum will be accounted for and the effect of the main geometrical/mechanical parameters, as well
as the response of the system during the construction stages, is discussed.
RSUM : Comme il est largement connu dans la littrature de ces vingt dernires annes, les colonnes en matriaux granulaires
renforce par gotextiles (GEC) sont devenues une solution trs utilise par rapport aux colonnes ballastes standard. Cela est
essentiellement d la possibilit d'employer des renforts pour amliorer la rponse mcanique des inclusions sans rduire leur
efficacit de drainage. Bien que les GEC soient souvent utilises pour rduire les tassements induits par la construction de remblais
importants sur sols mous, une approche rationnelle de conception base sur le dplacement n'a, jusqu' prsent, pas encore t mise en
place. Cela est donc l'objectif final de cette tude, qui, en partant d'une analyse critique des normes actuellement disponibles, illustrera
les rsultats danalyses numriques aux diffrences finies. Une cellule lmentaire d'un remblai idal de sol renforc plac sur un sol
mou sera prise en compte et l'effet des principaux paramtres gomtriques et mcaniques et la rponse du systme au cours des
diffrentes tapes de la construction seront discuts.
KEYWORDS: geoencased granular columns, geotextiles, numerical analyses, displacement based design, earth reinforced structures.
1

INTRODUCTION.

As it is well documented in the literature (see e.g. Raithel et


al. 2005), since mid-nineties the use of geoencased granular
columns (GEC) as foundations of earth structures on soft and
very soft soils has been progressively increased. GECs have
both mechanical and hydraulic functions: they work not only as
reinforcement inclusions, capable of preventing the global
collapse of the foundation and reducing differential settlements
within the structure, but they work additionally as vertical
drains, thus reducing the consolidation time of the soft soil.

Figure 1. sketch of an earth embankment on GECs.

The GEC foundation system is composed of an array of


granular columns of length L and diameter D, placed at a
regular spacing S below an embankment of height H (Figure 1).
The columns are encased by a geotextile with the double aim of
reinforcing the column and filtering to prevent the clogging of
the column itself. At the base of the embankment, to redistribute
vertical stresses, several layers of geotextile are also inserted
during the construction. The effectiveness of this foundation
system has been clearly proved both on real scale data (see e.g.

Kempfert 2003, where the response of the system is analyzed


by varying the spacing among columns and of the stiffness of
the encasing geotextile), and by means of numerical and
experimental researches (Murugesan and Rajagopal 2006, di
Prisco and Galli 2011). The fundamentals of the mechanical
behavior of the system is therefore quite well understood.
Nevertheless, common design standards are still based on too
simplified approaches, unable of capturing the actual
mechanical complexity of the system in particular, the
interaction between embankment and columns (this point will
be tackled in further details in the following section by critically
reviewing the most used design standards). Conversely to
traditional deep foundation systems (like reinforced concrete
piles or jet-grouted columns which can be considered axially
rigid with respect to the surrounding soil), GECs are axially
deformable inclusions, whose axial deformability is strictly
coupled with the stiffness of the surrounding soil. Moreover,
since this latter is very often characterized by a very low
permeability and high deformability, its mechanical response
should be modeled by properly taking into account the hydromechanical coupling (for the sake ofbrevity, this aspect will
however be disregarded in the following).
In the present paper the attention will be initially focused on
a critical review of the most common design standards. Then an
engineering displacement based approach will be briefly
introduced, and some numerical analyses, with the particular
aim of studying the distribution of differential settlement at the
top of the embankment, which are generally neglected by the
design approaches, will be presented.

2473

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

REVIEW OF DESIGN STANDARDS

The two most common design standards available for the design
of earth embankment on GECs are the British Standard BS
8006 (1995) and the German Standard EBGEO (Chapter 6.9;
2003). Both of them assume the column to be rigid and,
estimate the vertical stress distribution at the base of the
embankment to be independent of the mechanical interaction
with the foundation (i.e. the GEC and the soft soil). From an
engineering point of view, however, the vertical stress
redistribution at the base of the embankment is the main
parameter governing (i) the design of the reinforcement layers
(see Figure 1) and (ii) the evaluation of the differential
settlements.
According to BS8006, the vertical stress redistribution does
not depend on the mechanical properties of the embankment. In
particular, the average vertical stress acting at the columns top
(in the following this quantity will be called i) is determined
only as a function of the geometry (H, S, D), as was suggested
by the approach proposed by Martson (1913) for buried pipes
(see also Jones et al., 1990). The estimation of the average
vertical stress e acting on the soft soil is instead obtained by
means of empirical expressions, depending on the full or partial
formation of the arch effect, as a function of the ratio between
height H and difference S-D. According to EBGEO, on the
contrary, a rather complex analytical procedure, based on the
work proposed by Zaeske (2001), is employed to describe the
arch effect. This takes into account the geometry (H, S, D) and
the friction angle of the granular material constituting the
embankment, and imposes the equilibrium of one central slice
of a vault shell of the arch that it is supposed to develop within
the embankment. No estimation of the vertical stress i at the
top of the column is provided. For the sake of brevity, the
analytical expressions have not been reported here; for further
details, see BS8006 and EBGEO (Chapter 6.9).
As far as the evaluation of settlements is concerned, the
procedure prescribed by EBGEO follows the work proposed by
Ghionna and Jamiolkowski (1981) and consists in subdividing
the length L of the column in slices (each one of them is then
assimilated to an axisymmetric triaxial soil sample). The
following hypotheses are assumed: (i) the granular soil in the
column is at critical state (i.e. no changes in volume are possible
for the column), (ii) no relative settlement are considered
between the column and the soil. These two hypotheses
introduce very strong simplifications that can lead to unphysical
results. The second one, in particular, makes impossible the
superficial differential settlements to be estimated.
2.1

Parametrical analyses

In this section parametrical analyses on the values of e


obtained by employing BS8006, as well as some results
concerning the evaluation of the settlement and of the tensile
force in the encasing geo-membrane computed according to
EBGEO, are presented. In particular, the effect of the
embankment height H and of the material friction angle is
investigated for increasing values of the relative spacing S/D,
and by taking into account several diameters D of the column
(the authors are aware of the fact that some values of D and S/D
considered are unrealistic, nevertheless they have been chosen
in order to test even the asymptotic trend of the design
approaches).
2.1.1 Stress on the soft soil at the base of the embankment
Figure 2 shows the values of e computed according to BS8006,
and highlights that unphysical results of e<0 are obtained for
low values of the relative spacing S/D, independently of the
embankment height H. This result could in general lead to an
overestimation of the arch effect and thus to an unsafe design of
the georeinforcement layers at the base of the embankment.
The arch effect tends to vanish for increasing values of S/D,
and the value of e tends to the weight H of the embankment.

The corresponding values of i computed according to BS8006


(not reported here for the sake of brevity) are independent of
S/D, and only slightly dependent on H.

a)

b)

Figure 2. Evaluation of the stress e according to BS8006: (a) H=2.5m


and (b) H=10m.

It can be easily demonstrated that e and i (if computed


according to BS8006) do not even satisfy the total equilibrium
along the vertical direction with respect to the weight of the
embankment, and that the values of the tensile force in the
geosynthetic layers at the base of the embankment computed
according to BS8006 are not continuous with increasing H
(Moraci and Gioffr 2010).
2.1.2 Settlements and tensile force in the encasing membrane
With reference to the values of the mechanical parameters
listed in Table 1 (taken from an example of application
proposed by EBGEO), in this paragraph a parametrical analyses
on the values of the settlement is presented, for increasing
values of the embankment weight H and by taking into account
several values of stiffness J of the encasing geomembrane. The
values of the column length L and of the relative spacing S/D
are here considered to be constant and equal to 10 m and 2,
respectively (with D=80 cm and S=1.6m).
Table 1. Values of the mechanical properties of the materials considered
in the analyses.

Unit weight (kN/m3)


Friction Angle ()
Cohesion (kPa)
Young modulus (kPa), at a
reference pressure of 100kPa
Poisson coefficient (-)

Embankment

Column

20

19

Soft
soil
15

35
-

15
10

750

0.4

As it is evident from Figure 3a (where, for the sake of


generality, the value of s has been normalized with respect to
L), the presence of the encasing geomembrane induces a
stiffening effect of the foundation system, thus reducing the
expected value of the total settlement (which is considered,
according to the adopted hypotheses, to be uniform and
coincident with the settlement s at the top of the embankment).
The numerical procedure, however, for low values of H (i.e.
shallow or light embankments) leads to unrealistic results, for

2474

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

which negative settlements (i.e. uplift) are obtained. This


meaningless result is obtained even for a nil value of the
stiffness J of the encasing geomembrane. This essentially
derives from the assumption concerning the soil within the
column which is imposed to be at the critical state along the
entire column (similar results have been observed even for
other values of L and S/D, but they have not been reported here
for the sake of brevity). This is evident when the tensile force Tg
in the encasing geomembrane along depth z of the column is
considered (Figure 3b, where the case of a shallow embankment
is analyzed): at the base of the column the vertical stress is not
sufficient to induce an active state of stress, and the only
possibility for the column to satisfy the hypothesis of critical
state is to reduce its radius, thus inducing a compression (i.e.
Tg<0) in the encasing geomembrane.

activated at GEC-soil interface, and (iii) differential settlements


are expected even at the embankment top.

a)

b)

Figure 4. Mechanical response of the foundation system in case of (a)


rigid and (b) deformable embankment.

From a modeling point of view, by assuming an engineering


approach based on generalized variables, the mechanical
behavior of the embankment can be described by means of a
generalized constitutive relationship between the average
stresses at the base of the embankment and the differential
settlements (assumed to be uniform) between the column and
the soil:

i e f us uc ,

a)

(1)

where the values of i and e must satisfy the equilibrium


with respect to the weight of the embankment on the unit cell

i D2 e S2 D2 H S2 .
b)

Figure 3. EBGEO: evaluation of (a) settlements and (b) tensile force in


the encasing geomembrane.

A DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN APPROACH

In order to overcome the above cited limitations, a consistent


and physically based design would require a fully displacement
based approach. As was theoretically outlined by Galli and di
Prisco (2011), with reference to a single axisymmetric cell (i.e.
to a single column together with the surrounding soft soil), the
foundation system can be assumed to be composed by two
coupled springs, one representing the GEC and the second
representing the surrounding soft soil. The two springs work in
parallel if and only if the base of the embankment can be
considered to be rigid and no differential settlements to arise
(Figure 4a). Under this hypothesis, the vertical stress at the base
of the embankment is thus uniformly distributed (in Figure 4a
stands for the unit weight of the granular material constituting
the embankment), no differential settlement are observed at the
top of the embankment, and no shear stresses develop at GECsoil interface. The values of vertical stress both in the column
and in the soil then can be assumed to depend exclusively on the
axial stiffness of the column (KGEC) and on the vertical
compressibility of the soft soil (represented in Figure 4a by a
global stiffness KS).
Real embankments, however, are characterized by a
deformable base (Figure 4b), and different values of settlement
are expected for the top of the column (uc) and for the soil (us)
at the base of the embankment. Consequently: (i) vertical
stresses are redistributed at the base of the embankment
between the internal zone of the cell (above the column,
characterized by an average stress i) and the external one (a
circular crown above the soil, characterized by an average stress
e) due to the so called arch effect, (ii) shear stresses are

(2)

The constitutive relationship f can be in general assumed to


be described by means of a non-linear curve, whose average
stiffness depends (i) on the geometry of the system (S, D, H),
(ii) on the mechanical properties of the granular material
constituting the embankment and (iii) on the geo-reinforcements
at the base of the embankment. Its limit value corresponds
instead to the activation of a failure mechanism within the
embankment. Depending on the formation of the arch effect,
either a punching failure mechanism, or a dome failure
mechanism, with no (or very limited) superficial differential
settlements, might develop (Figure 5a-b).

a)

b)

Figure 5. Failure within the embankment: (a) punching mechanism and


(b) domed mechanism due to arch effect.

The pattern of superficial differential settlement s=s(r) could


then be formally described by a transfer function, ranging from
a discontinuous function (in case of punching), to a smooth
function (in case of formation of the arch effect).
4

NUMERICAL ANALYSES ON SETTLEMENT PROFILE

In order to investigate the settlement distribution s(r) at the top


of the embankment for increasing values of H, some
preliminary finite difference numerical analyses have been
performed by means of the commercial code FLAC. An
axisymmetric geometry has been chosen in order to model the
cell, and the simplifying hypothesis of rigid column has been

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

assumed; the mechanical behavior of both the materials


constituting the embankment and the soft soil has been modeled
by assuming an elastic perfectly plastic relationship with a nonassociated Mohr-Coulomb failure condition. For the
embankment, two different types of material have been
considered: a loose sand (=20, with no dilatancy) and a
compacted sand (=40, with dilatancy =10). In both cases,
for the sake of simplicity the unit weight is assumed to be
equal to 20 kN/m3, the Young modulus equal to 3 MPa and the
Poisson coefficient equal to 0.25. No friction has been
considered at soil-column interface. For the soft soil, for the
sake of simplicity a dry condition has been assumed (i.e. no
hydro-mechanical coupling has been modeled). The values of
the mechanical parameters are listed in Table 1. Consistently
with the parametrical analyses previously discussed, the length
L of the column is 10 m and its diameter D is 80 cm. Two ratios
S/D have been considered, and the settlement distribution s(r)
has been normalized at each stage for the current value of H.

failure, whilst an increase in and tends to smoothen the


settlement profile.
5

CONCLUSIONS

The paper critically discussed some results obtained according


to the usual Design Standards, and proved that in some cases
these approaches lead to unrealistic results. The codes,
moreover, disregard the estimation of relative settlements at the
top of the embankment, which is actually one of the most
important parameters describing the efficiency of the
foundation. A consistent, displacement based conceptual
framework for describing the behavior of the system has been
formulated, and some preliminary numerical analyses have been
shown. These latter, in particular, showed on the contrary that
the top settlement profile is remarkably affected by both the
geometry and the mechanical properties of the embankment.
6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Authors want to acknowledge TENCATE and ITASCA


Italy for financially supporting the research.
7
a)

b)

Figure 6. Normalized superficial settlements for S/D=2: (a) loose and


(b) dense material.

a)

b)

Figure 7. Normalized superficial settlements for S/D=4: (a) loose and


(b) dense material.

Figures 6 and 7 describe the evolution of s(r) at the top of the


embankment during the construction stages. It appears clearly
that the settlement profile ranges from a well localized punching
failure mechanism to a smooth distribution of settlements for
increasing H (witnessing the progressive mobilization of the
arch effect). The influence of relative spacing S/D and of the
mechanical properties of the embankment (in terms of both
and ) is opposite: an increase in S/D tends to localize the

2476

REFERENCES

British Standard BS 8006. 1995. Code of practice for


strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills. British Standards
Institution, London, UK pp.176.
di Prisco C. and Galli A. 2011. Mechanical behaviour of geo-encased
sand columns: small scale experimental tests and numerical
modeling. Geomechanics and Geoengineering: An International
Journal 6(4), 251263
EBGEO. 2003. Empfehlung 6.9 (2003). Bewehrte Erdkrper auf
punktoder linienfrmigen Traggliedern, Kapitel 6.9 fr die
Empfehlungen fr Bewehrungen aus Geokunststoffen, EBGEO,
DGGT (German Geotechnical Society).
Galli A. and di Prisco C. 2011. Un modello concettuale per la
progettazione di colonne granulari georinforzate a fondazione di
rilevati artificiali (in Italian). XXIV Convegno Nazionale di
Geotecnica, 231 246.
Ghionna V.N. and Jamiolkowski M. 1981. Colonne di ghiaia (in
Italian). X Ciclo di conferenze dedicate ai problemi di meccanica
dei terreni e ingegneria delle fondazioni: Metodi di miglioramento
dei terreni. Politecnico di Torino, Atti dellIstituto di Scienza delle
Costruzioni, n.507, pp.1-63.
Jones C.J.F.P., Lawson C.R., Ayres D.J. 1990. Geotextile reinforced
piled embankments. Geotextiles Geomembranes and Related
Products, Den Hoedt (ed.) 1990 Balkema, Rotterdam, ISBN 90
6191 119 2, pp 155-160.
Kempfert H.G. 2003. Ground improvement methods with special
emphasis on column-type techniques. Int. Workshop on
Geotechnics of Soft Soils-Theory and Practice- SCMEP.
Marston A. and Anderson A.O. 1913. The theory of load on pipes
ditches and tests of cement and clay drain tile and sewer pipes.
Bulletin 31. Iowa Engineering Experiment Station, Iowa State
College, Ames, Iowa.
Moraci N. and Gioffr D. 2010. La progettazione di rilevati su terreni
compressibili rinforzati con geosintetici (in Italian). Rivista Italiana
di Geotecnica, vol. 3/10, 67-100.
Murugesan, S. and Rajagopal, K. 2006. Geosynthetic encased stone
columns: Numerical Evaluation. Geotextiles and Geomembranes,
Vol. 24, 349-358.
Raithel M., Kirchner A., Schade C. and Leusink E. 2005. Foundation of
Constructions on Very Soft Soils with Geotextile Encased Columns
- State of the Art. Proceedings ASCE Geo-Frontiers 2005.
Zaeske D. 2001. Zur Wirkungsweise von unbewehrten und bewehrten
mineralischen
Tragschichten
ber
pfahlartigen
Grndungselementen, Schriftenreihe Geotechnik. Universitt
Kassel, Heft 10.

Design prediction of the strengthened foundation base deformation by field tests


data
La prvision de calcul des dformations de la base des fondements reports partir des
recherches prises en nature
Gotman A., Gotman N.

BashNIIstroy, Ufa, Russia

ABSTRACT: The paper presents the solution of the complicated practical geotechnical problem of the skeleton structure foundation
strengthening. The strengthening was done due to change of the spatial arrangement of a building and essential load increase. The
experience of a foundation strengthening with jet grouted piles is described based on results of the base deformations monitoring. The
main design principles of the foundations under strengthening are given. The results of the deformation design prediction based on jet
grouted piles test and the base deformation measuring are presented.
RSUM : Dans cet article on prsente la solution dun problme gotechnique pratique compliqu du renforcement des souches
dun btiment en carcasse construit sur les sols de fondation dangereux cause du karst, en raison du changement lors de la
construction de la conception de plan et de volume du btiment et de laccroissement signifiant de charge. Lexprience est dcrite du
renforcement des souches par des papillons dinjection de forage sur la base des rsultats du monitoring des dformations des sols de
fondation. Les rsultats sont prsents des pronostiques prvisionnelles des sols de fondation des souches renforces la base des
essais des papillons dinjection de forage et de la mesure des dformations du sol de fondation.

KEYWORDS: foundation strengthening, settlements, pile vertical load test


1

INTRODUCTION

Design prediction of the strengthened foundation base


deformation by field tests data was executed for the new
shopping centre located in Ufa (Russia). The 500x250m
shopping center was designed as a skeleton one-storey building
with column spacing 16x8 m. The building construction was
started in April, 2007, then restarted in June, 2009 and finished
in 2010. Since May, 2008 till August, 2009 the construction at
site has been not performed. In 20072008 the foundations and
the most part of the bearing structures have been constructed.
During construction time, the building part was changed (by
investors demand). The column spacing was increased (8x16m
to 16x16m or 12x16m) and foundation loads to the moment of
construction stoppage 1,21,5 times increased the design ones.
After construction restarting, other changes of building frame
design have taken place. At the significant area the number of
stories and floor loads have been increased. As a result, all these
changes provoked 3070% increase of the foundation loads
and the further foundation strengthening.
2

ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Under the foundation base stiff clays, tough and soft loams
occur underlain with water saturated medium coarse sand and
gravel at the depth of 810 m. (table 3). Maximum predicted
ground water level is 2 m under the foundation base. The
building site applies to the third category of stability about karst
deformations and is divided into sections according to extent of
their risk in accordance with Russian Codes. At this site, areas
are located that are classified according to their karst risk as
potentially not dangerous and potentially dangerous (fig.1) with
the probable design diameter of karst hole 7 m.
Due to site severe engineering-geological conditions
characterized with lack of homogeneity and karst risk, the
following foundations were designed: post- and strip
foundations on the bed; piled foundations with the in-situ raft
(pile groups); strip foundations on the bed and piled foundations

with the strip in-situ raft reinforced considering a karst hole


formation.
Severe engineering-geological conditions of site demanded
foundation settlement observation and expert investigation of
construction.
3 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURAL
CONCEPT ON FOUNDATION STRENGTHENING
When design working out and the way of the foundations
strengthening selecting, the following was taken into attention.
1. To the moment of the strengthening design development,
the building was 1,5 years. In axes 115 the bearing structures
were completely constructed and at the rest part of the area
foundations, columns and floors of the ground floor were built.
2. According to monitoring results (table 1), it was stated
that to the moment of strengthening design development
(August 2009), the settlements on the whole were stabilized.
The settlements of the column foundations with the loads
exceeding the design ones already in the process of construction
were 610cm; the settlements of the rest foundations were
34 cm. The settlements data were used to evaluate the
coefficients of subgrade reaction of strip- and post foundations
bases that demanded strengthening (fig.2, table 2).
Taking into account that the significant part of the structures
was constructed and more than half of the base loads have
already been transferred, when selecting the method of the
foundation strengthening the minimum digging out and
dismantling (drilling, cutting, etc.) of the existing foundation
should have been provided. Method of strengthening with jet
grouted piles was selected with loads transfer from the building
through the connection of the reinforced concrete column with
the in-situ raft rested on piles.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Mark number (fig.1)

Table 1
Dates of measurement (days) and settlements (mm) from the moment of last measuring
Settleme 24.
nt for the 11.
previous 2007
period,

20.

10.

07.

02.

15.

16.

20.

16.

16.

02.

04.

05.

09.

04.

11.

01.

05.

06.

2008

2008

2008

2008

2009

2009

2010

2010

2010

Settleme
nt for Strengthe Foundation
07.
958 days ning
type
2010
of
observati
23
on, mm
09.

mm

88

50

27

118

225

217

63

116

31

1,8

8,0

3,7

0,5

2,1

16,1

post

14

2,6

5,8

0,9

9,7

0,5

1,2

20,7

strip

26

1,9

2,5

2,1

0,7

0,9

9,1

strip

27

5,4

14,0

6,1

5,9

9,2

21,5

17,0

3,3

83,4

strip

29

6,2

11,7

5,2

2,3

10,2

13,8

2,1

1,2

52,7

strip

31

50

1,4

8,5

7,7

21,8

2,0

1,3

92,7

JGP

post

Fig.1. Combined plan of foundations, strengthening constructions and settlement marks

Fig. 2. Monitoring results of foundations settlements

2478

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

Table 2
Settlement Base pressure
Mark
before
before
Foundat
number
ion type construction construction
(fig.1)
restart, mm restart, kH/m2

Coefficient
of subgrade
reaction,
kH/m3

post

13,5

64

4700

14

strip

9,3

114

12200

26

strip

5,4

114

20000

27

strip

25,5

114

4400

29

strip

25,0

114

4500

31

post

60,0

144

2400

S=f(P)
0

100

200

300

400

0,001

500

600
N1

700

800

900

,k
N2

0,002
0,003
0,004
0,005 S1(3,2)
0,006
0,007 S1 (1)
0,008
0,009
0,010 S2(3,2)
0,011
0,012 S2 (1)
0,013
S,m
(test N.3)
(test N.2)
(test N.1)

Fig.3. Diagrams of field investigations


a base pressure-settlement of post- and strip foundations; b loadsettlement of test piles
Table 3

425 mm diameter and 1011 m length jet grouted piles were


deepened into gravel soil to the depth of 1 m and more. To
evaluate the pile design load, the pile vertical load test of trial
piles with the diameter 425 mm, 10,6 m length (pile No. 1),
10,88 m length (pile No. 2) and 11,5 length (pile No. 3) (table
3) have been carried out. The piling was realized with the unit
SBU 100 GA50.The engineering-geological characteristics of
soils are presented in table 3.
Pile vertical load tests have been carried out according to
standard method. The limit resistances while testing reached
980 kH. Figure 3 presents diagrams of pile tests.
Considering different structural concepts of the foundations and
the building, analysis have been carried out according to these
features and four types of the foundations strengthening have
been suggested (see figures 1 and 4).
I. Strengthening of post foundations of a building in axes 15
1. Practically all extra load is taken into account to be
transferred to jet grouted piles, i.e. the load is not transferred to
post foundation, as the construction of the reinforced concrete
raft strengthening is not absolutely stiff.
Thats why only insignificant part of the extra load is
transferred to the foundation base, so the foundation in
combination with the strengthening construction and piles
behaves as combined piled foundation.
II. Strengthening of strip foundations without piles by means of
geometrical dimensions increase with use of technology
HILTI.
III. Strengthening of pile group foundations with increased
loads was carried out by means of jet grouted piling around the
raft and including them into pile group behavior through the
reinforced concrete slab fixed with the column and the raft (with
the anchors HILTI). With such method of strengthening jet
grouted piles start to work in a pile group together with the
driven piles.
IV. Strengthening of foundations without piles in axes 1 29
was carried out by means of insignificant part of load transfer to
the foundation. Jet grouted piling use is based on insufficient
reinforcing with in situ reinforced concrete strip under the
columns, the load of which is more than twice increased
compared to design one. Such strengthening construction
partially loads the existing foundation including it into work.
The jet grouted piles together with the foundation accept the
ultimate design load. Pile strengthening is carried out along the
whole length of the strips, as otherwise the different stiffness of
the strip base will lead to its deterioration.
Irrespective of strengthening type, the main design requirement
is continuation of foundations loading only after completion of
all works on strengthening considering the terms of strength
increase of in-situ concrete of structures.
4

THE MAIN DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Analysis of foundation strengthening has been carried out


considering the deformability of the foundation base and jet
grouted piles. Due to special features of constructions of the
foundations under strengthening and different extent of works
completion on above foundations structures construction, the
following design assumptions were taken.
While the building post foundations strengthening in axes
115, analyses of loads transferred to the foundation after its
strengthening were carried out i.e. when construction restarting
considering the loads after the building starting (fig.5). Analysis
of the column joint and strengthening construction was done for
the total design load. Deformability indices of the foundation
base and jet grouted piles quantitatively evaluated with the
coefficients of subgrade reaction of the foundation base under
strengthening and pile stiffness respectively, were determined

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Fig.4 Types of foundation strengthening with jet grouted piles (technical decision)

by results of pile test at site and monitoring of post foundations


settlement (tables 2, 4). While analysis of the number of jet
grouted piles, the total load was taken to be transferred to those
piles, so the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the foundation
base under strengthening was taken to be equal 0.
When piled foundations strengthening with jet grouted piles,
analyses have been carried out for the total design load. Pile
stiffness was determined by data of pile vertical load test of the
driven- and jet grouted piles.
The authors of the paper made predictions of the foundation
settlement in axes 1 15, P-S due to foundations load
increments, strengthened with the jet grouted piles after the
construction restart. The deformations are calculated with
regard for the different deformability of the post foundation
base and a pile. The coefficient of subgrade reaction in the post
foundation base (settlement marks M7 and M31 in fig.1) was
determined by results of settlements monitoring (table 2, fig.3a)
and stiffness coefficient of jet grouted piles by tests data (table
4, fig. 3b). The design scheme is presented in fig.5. By results
of analysis of the base deformation of the most loaded post
foundations strengthened with the jet grouted piles, the
settlements after the construction restart with regard for the total
load were 13,8 and 12 mm, respectively. At present, when the
construction of the shopping center is completed, but the
building is not put into operation, the measured base
deformations of these foundations are 10,5 and 5 mm,
respectively. Such conformity of predicted and measured
deformations confirms the efficiency of the base strengthening
and high accuracy of the analysis methods based on in-place
tests.
Table 4
Test
number
(table
3)

Pile
(JGP)
length, m

1
2
3

10,6
10,88
11,50

Pile (JGP)
length in
soil, m
10
10,58
11,10

Pile
settlement
according
to test, mm

Stiffness ratio
of pile (JGP)
base, kN/m

13
11
10,35

50000
60000
60000

N 2 N1
S 2 S1

2480

Fig.5. Design diagram of foundation strengthening


(strengthening types 1 and 4)

CONCLUSION

1. The complicated practical geotechnical problem of


strengthening of the skeleton building foundations under
construction, the necessity of which was provoked by change
of space-planning decision in the process of construction is
solved.
Within one 500x250 m building, four types of foundations have
been designed: post foundations on the bed without karst
protection; strip foundations on the bed designed for 7 m
diameter karst hole; piled foundations in kind of pile groups of
driven piles without karst protection and pile group foundations
combined with karst protected reinforced concrete strips on
piles.
2. Four types of foundations strengthening has been developed
with the use of jet grouted piles taking into attention loads
increase compared to design, acting (already imposed) loads
and foundations settlements at the moment of their
strengthening, structural concepts of foundations and the extent
of karst risk of the base.
3. Analysis of strengthening constructions and base
deformations was carried out according to data of jet grouted
piles vertical load test and settlements measurements of the
foundations under strengthening.
4. The results of the strengthened foundations settlements
measurement after the building implementation showed the
good precision with analysis data. This proves the correctness of
the taken structural and design schemes.

Standardization of the molding procedures for stabilized soil specimens as used for
QC/QA in Deep Mixing application
Normalisation des procdures pour la production dprouvettes de sols stabiliss utilises dans les
processus de QC/QA pour des applications de Deep Mixing
Grisolia M., Leder E., Marzano I.P.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), Sapienza University of Rome

ABSTRACT: An international collaborative research has been undertaken to establish common understanding of the key issues
involved in Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) of Deep Mixing technique and propose international standards on design,
execution and execution control. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the laboratory procedures on the mechanical
properties of stabilised soil specimens and develop an innovative method to select the appropriate molding technique. A large
laboratory testing program was carried out on seven types of heterogeneous natural soils, as found in Rome, and on Kawasaki clay
stabilised with Portland cement. Thirty soil-binder mixtures with different workability were prepared using five different molding
techniques, varying initial water content of the soils, water to cement ratio and binder amount. Unconfined compression tests have
been carried out systematically on over 800 specimens. The applicability of different molding techniques in function of the
workability of the mixture has been investigated and from the results it was possible to define an applicability index and therefore
the range of applicability for each technique in function of the mixtures workability.
RSUM: Une tude internationale a t entreprise dans le but de dfinir des orientations communes pour les procdures QC/QA lis
aux travaux effectus par Deep Mixing et proposer des normes internationales relatives la conception, l'excution et le contrle
des oprations. Le but de cette tude est d'tudier l'effet des procdures de laboratoire pour la ralisation des prouvettes de sols
stabiliss et de dvelopper une mthode innovante pour slectionner chaque fois la technique de ralisation approprie. Un vaste
programme d'essais en laboratoire a t ralis en analysant plus de trente mlanges diffrents de ciments et sols partir de huit sols
naturels de Rome et Tokyo. Cinq techniques de ralisation ont t utilises pour la confection dprouvettes testes avec des essais de
compression simple.. L'applicabilit des diffrentes techniques de ralisation a t tudie selon l'usinabilit du mlange. A partir des
rsultats, il a t possible de dfinir un index dapplicabilit et donc un champ d'application de chaque technique en fonction de
lusinabilit du mlange..
KEYWORDS: Deep mixing, workability, laboratory procedures, operational abaci.
1

INTRODUCTION

The Deep Mixing Method is a widely spread in situ ground


improvement technique using different kind of binders to
enhance mechanical and physical properties of soils (Terashi
1997; CDIT 2002).
Laboratory mixing tests are essential to QC/QA processes
and performed to obtain the mechanical and physical properties
of stabilized soil samples. The laboratory test results provide
crucial information for the estimation of the mix design and insitu properties to utilize in the geotechnical design. (Bruce et al.
2000; Larsson 2005; Marzano et al. 2009; Terashi and Kitazume
2011; Filz et al. 2012). At the moment many laboratories
produce and test soil-binder specimens without a standard
procedure, therefore the results for the same soil-binder mixture
could be very different and not usefully compared. In fact
molding techniques have a great influence on the mechanical
and physical properties of the stabilized soil specimens (Grisolia
et al. 2012; Marzano et al. 2012). This influence is strictly
correlated to the workability of the soil-binder mixture defined
as the property of the mixture of being easily mixed in the bowl
and placed in the mold. High workability refers to liquid type
mixtures (easier to place and handle), while low workability to
sticky and stiff type ones.
Workability represents diverse characteristics of fresh
mixture that are difficult to measure quantitatively, because a
soil-binder mixture is a complex material with a wide range of
particle sizes and time-dependent properties. The definition of a
parameter representative of the mixtures workability and an
univocal method for the evaluation of the mixtures workability
are currently not available (Koehler and Fowler, 2003) even if

such parameter could be well related to consistency when


considering mixtures made up of cohesive soils.
A new method for the evaluation of the mixtures
workability was introduced and applied in the study. It is based
on the measure of the torque required to turn an impeller in soilbinder mixture through a commercial device which is applied
directly on the mixer. This method has the advantage to provide
the possibility of measuring the workability for each mixable
mixture, independently on the type of the materials used.
Furthermore, the study develops a procedure to select,
through an applicability index function of the initial mixture
workability, the molding technique that provides densest
specimens with highest strength and results repetitiveness in
order to obtain very useful reference values to set specification
limits to be achieved in field applications (ratio between
laboratory and field target strength is reported for instance by
JGS 0821-2000 and EuroSoilStab 2002).
2

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experimental work consisted in a laboratory investigation


on the effect of different molding techniques on the unconfined
compressive strength, UCS (measured according to the JIS A
1216:2009) and wet density, (defined as the specimens
weight divided by the volume of the mold) of cement stabilised
soil specimens under various mixing conditions.
2.1 Materials
Eight types of natural soils stabilised with Portland cement
added in wet or dry form were used. The tests were performed
on: Kawasaki Clay (KC), manmade Silty Deposit (SD), Silty

2481

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

clayey Sand (SS), Sand and Gravel (SG), Pliocene Clay (PC),
Black Pozzolana (BP), Red Pozzolana (RP) and Argillified Tuff
(AT). For each soil, different mixtures were produced, varying
the initial water content and keeping constant the cement
content, ac (defined as the weight of the introduced dry cement
divided by the dry weight of the soil to be stabilized).
Specimens with 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height were
employed. Each soil was sieved through a 9.5mm sieve, so that
the maximum grain size of the soil sample would be less than
1/5th of the inner diameter of the mold. The properties of the
soil-binder mixtures analyzed are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Soil properties and Testing conditions.
Soil
type

GravelSandSiltClay

KC

0-1442-44

SD

18-2434-24

SS

22-4020-18

SG

33-4014-13

PC

00-0064-36

BP

08-4938-05

RP

11-5824-07

AT

02-4739-12

Water
content,
wn

Cementitious
grout

(%)
72
66
60
60
60
54
54
49
49
20
30
40
35
40
45
6
8
10
50
60
70
25
30
35
20
26
32
44
48
53

w/c = 0
ac = 5%
ac = 20%
ac = 30%
ac = 20%
ac = 30%
ac = 20%
ac = 30%

ac = 10%
w/c = 1

ac = 10%
w/c = 0,5

Workability
parameter,
Torque, Mt
(Nm)
5,32
8,47
17,40
29,00
40,00
61,00
75,00
96,00
120,00
13,55
4,81
2,23
9,08
4,88
3,76
11,28
5,11
3,51
10,16
5,76
2,34
6,97
2,37
0,21
8,34
1,60
1,08
8,22
0,60
0,20

Afterwards the stabilized soil was placed into plastic molds


in three layers and compacted using several molding techniques
(Figure 1):
_ No Compaction (namely N.C.): It simply consisted in
placing the stabilized soil into the mold with a spoon.
_ Tapping, namely (TA.): For each layer, the mold was
tapped against the floor 50 times.
_ Rodding, (namely RO.): It consisted in tamping each layer
with a 8mm diameter steel rod for 30 times and eventually
pushing down the material attached to the rod.
_Static Compaction (namely S.C.25 and S.C.50): Each layer
was statically compressed for 10 seconds by using a heavy rod,
49 mm in diameter. 25 or 50 kPa pressure were applied.
_Dynamic Compaction (namely D.C.): Each layer was
compacted by a falling weight (1.5 kg) using a special
apparatus. Fall height was set at 10 cm, number of blows at 5.
These techniques are those currently used in most of the
laboratory all over the world (JGS 0821, 2000; EuroSoilStab,
2002; Kitazume et al. 2009).

Figure 1. Molding techniques used: a) N.C., b) TA., c) RO.,


d) S.C.25, e) S.C.50, f) D.C.

2.2 Laboratory procedures and testing methods


A Hobart type mixer apparatus was adopted. After placing the
natural soil in the mixer, the water content was adjusted to the
desired value by adding water. Before adding the binder the soil
was homogenised by mixing. The grout made of Portland
cement (PC) and water or the PC in dry form was then added to
the soil and mixed for ten minutes according to JGS 0821
(2000).
Using a commercial device applied directly on the kitchen
mixer apparatus, it was measured the torque required to turn the
impeller in a soil-binder mixture just before the molding phase.
According to the proposed method the workability was
expressed as a torque (Mt) applied to mix certain amount of soilbinder mixture (Vm) with set impeller shape (Sh) and rotational
speed (Rs). In the study were assumed the following parameters:
Vm0 = 3dm3; Sh0 = K shape; Rs0 = 10rpm.
Since the kitchen mixer has a planetary motion, the test was
undertaken continuously on the whole mixture therefore giving
more reliable outputs. For each completed revolution it was
possible to measure the Torque, and for the test it was decided
to set the number or revolution to 10, to obtain more accurate
measures.

To prevent water evaporation from the specimen each mold


was covered with the sealant and stored in special curing tanks
at 95% relative humidity. To reduce the effect of the time of rest
between the hydration of binder and completion of molding on
the specimens properties, according to Kitazume et al. (2009),
all the stabilized soil was molded in less than 45 minutes from
binder hydration. After curing times of 28 days, the specimens
were removed from the molds and then subjected to unconfined
compression tests at a rate of 1.0 mm/min. Unconfined
compression tests were conducted on triplicate samples for each
case (mixture type and molding technique) analyzed.
3

RESULTS

The applicability of a molding technique was evaluated by the


Applicability index, which is related to densest specimens
with the highest strength and results repetitiveness.
For the same mixture a well made specimen has low
cavities/bubbles/voids amount and therefore higher wet density
() if compared to a bad made one. Furthermore it was indeed
observed that the specimens produced by different molding
techniques could have similar wet density but very different
unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values. For that reason
the N-parameter was introduced to condense the indications
given by both parameters, and UCS, into one. N is defined as
the mean of the normalized unconfined compressive strength
(UCSN) and the normalized unit weight (N) as reported in the
Eq. 1. The UCSN and N values for a given molding technique

2482

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

and mixture were calculated by dividing the UCS and by the


maximum values (UCSmax and max) obtained from all the
employed molding techniques. The normalizations are
necessary to allow direct comparison between two parameters
with different unit of measurements. According to the Eq. 1 the
N parameter values range between 0 and 1. In order to define a
criteria for the choice of the applicable techniques, it was set the
acceptable limit of 0.9N considering a variation of 10 % from
the maximum N value.

(1)
The Figure 2 shows as example the N parameters vs. torque
values obtained for all the analyzed soil-binder mixtures molded
by the Rodding technique. From the figure clearly appears that
for all the measured mixtures workability the N values are
above the set limit as an expression of the high quality of the
specimens realized by Rodding.
SD
AT

SS
KC

SG
SD

PC
SS

(3)
According to the Eq. 3 and to the N and E parameters
definitions, also the IA values range between 0 and 1. To obtain
a target value for the choice of the applicable techniques, the
limit values given for the two different parameters N and E were
introduced in the Eq. 3. A target value of IA = 0.82 was then
obtained.
The Figure 3 shows an example of the IA vs. mixtures
workability graph obtained for all the analyzed soil-binder
mixtures molded by the Rodding technique.
KC
BP

BP
SG

1.0
0.9

N parameter
limit = 0.90

N, E parameter

0.8
0.7

SD
RP

SS
AT

SG
limit

PC

1.0

Applicability index, IA

KC
RP

In order to take into account the different aspects of a well


made specimen, expressed by the N and E parameter, an index
of applicability IA defined in Eq. 3 was introduced.

0.6
0.5
0.4

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

0.3

E parameter
limit = 0.10

0.2
0.1

0.0
RODDING

12

18

mixture workability, Torque Mt(Nm)

28 days

Figure 2. Applicability of Rodding technique considering the N and E


parameters.

18.0

28 days

Despite the N-parameter is a good indicator of the


applicability of a molding technique, to take into account that
the applicability should be also related to the repeatability of
the tests results the E-parameter was introduced. Repeatability
means that the results related to the specimens produced by a
specific molding technique should have a low scatter or
relative error. Unconfined compression tests was conducted on
triplicate samples for each case analyzed, therefore it was
possible to evaluate the relative error on the unconfined
compressive strength and wet density values for the different
mixtures types and molding techniques. E is defined as the
mean of the relative error on the UCS and values as reported
from Eq. 2. According to its definition also this parameter
ranges between 0 and 1. To set a criteria to select the applicable
techniques, some literature works were taken into account. For
the accuracy or repeatability of the experiments, Richards and
Reddy (2010) claimed that a standard deviation of 10 % was not
unheard of in geotechnical testing. Al-Tabbaa et al. (2012) also
reported an error of 5 15% for laboratory mixed specimens
tested with unconfined compression tests. Therefore even for
the E parameter the acceptable limit was set equal to 10% of E.

The figure show that Rodding is applicable for all the


measured mixtures workability since IA values are all above the
set target limit. From the results it is possible to see a very good
trend of the IA despite the fact that data were obtained from
mixtures based on different types of soil (cohesive and granular
types), with different grout dosage and water contents. The
results obtained also from other techniques show that the IA is
strictly dependent on the workability of the mixture among
other factors.
The results related to the No Compaction technique are
shown in Figure 4. It clearly appears that this technique is
applicable for Mt < 3Nm and not applicable for Mt > 6Nm. In
the range Mt = 36Nm it is not possible to obtain univocal
indication from the data, therefore this technique have been
considered marginally applicable in this workability interval.
KC
BP

SD
RP

1.0

Applicability index, IA

RODDING

12.0

Figure 3. Applicability index of Rodding technique.

0.0
0

6.0

mixture's workability - Torque, Mt (Nm)

(2)

SS
AT

SG
limit

PC

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0

The results obtained from the specimens molded by the


Rodding technique in terms of E vs. torque values are shown in
Figure 2 as example. It can be clearly seen that also for the E
parameter all the obtained values are below the set limit,
expression once again of the high repeatability of the tests
results obtained from the specimens molded by the Rodding
technique.

6.0

12.0

18.0

mixture's workability - Torque, Mt (Nm)

NO COMPACTION

28 days

Figure 4. Applicability index of No Compaction technique.

Similar graphs to the ones shown in Figures 3 and 4 were


also obtained for the other molding techniques used in the
study. From these graphs it was possible to determine for each
molding technique the ranges of workability in which they are

2483

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

applicable, marginally applicable and not applicable. The results


are summarized in the operational abacus of Figure 5.
Applicable

Marginally Applicable

Not Applicable

3 6

Molding technique

No Compaction
65

75

Tapping

Static
Compaction
25kPa

10 15

Static
Compaction
50kPa

30

Dynamic
Compaction

40

6
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

120
90

...
100

mixture's workability, Torque Mt (Nm)


High
workability,
liquid

Low
workability,
consistent

Figure 5. Ranges of applicability of the different molding techniques.

To allow the standardisation and the use of the method a


calibration curve was elaborated by drawing the torque versus
the water content (w) of an easily available kind of soil such as
kaolin clay using the set of mixer related parameter Vm0, Sh0 and
Rs0 (Figure 6).
calibration curve

experimental data

example curve

100

water content, w [%]

90
80
70
60
50
40
Vm0, Sh0 , Rs0

30

Vm, Sh, Rs

20
10
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120


workability, torque Mt [Nm]

Figure 6. Calibration curve.

By using different set of parameters (Vm, Sh and Rs),


function of the mixer type and torque evaluation procedure,
other curves can be drawn in the same graph. Therefore for each
molding technique the range of applicability (expressed by
torque values) corresponding to the used set of parameter can be
graphically obtained from the calibration curve, as shown in
Figure 6.
By mean of the abaci of Figures 5 and 6, it would be possible
to select for every kind of mixable soil-binder mixture the
molding technique that gives high quality specimens in a very
quick and easy way only by measuring the workability of the
material.
4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Prof. Masaki Kitazume for his help
and suggestions throughout the study. The Soil Stabilization
Group of the Port and Airport Research Institute (JP) is also
acknowledged for the helps during the tests and for providing
part of the data.

Rodding

The results obtained represent a useful data set for the


correct selection of the molding technique for different kind of
soils and mixing conditions headed for the international
standardisation. This study represents a significant step forward
towards the definition of highly required guidelines for the
molding procedures of stabilised soil specimens as used in
QC/QA processes for Deep Mixing applications.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of the large laboratory study performed on eight


types of natural soils confirm that the mixtures workability
has a great influence on the mechanical and physical properties
of the stabilised soil specimens. The results provide very useful
operational abaci to select the molding technique that produces
high quality specimens in function of the soil-binder mixtures
workability.

2484

REFERENCES

Al-Tabbaa. A., Liska, M., McGall, R., Critchlow, C. 2012. Soil Mix
Technology for Integrated Remediation and Ground Improvement:
Field Trials. IS-GI Brussels 2012, Belgium.
Bruce, D.A., Bruce, M.E., Di Millio, A.F. 2000. Deep Mixing: QA/QC
and Verification Methods. Grouting Sol Improvement, Geosystems
Including Reinforcement. 4th Intnl Conf. Ground Improvement
Geosystems. Helsinki, Finland, pp. 11-22.
CDIT, Coastal Development Institute of Technology 2002. The Deep
Mixing Method - principle, design and construction. A.A. Balkema
Publishers, Lisse, Abingdon, Exton (PA), Tokyo, p. 123.
EuroSoilStab, 2002. Development of design and construction methods
to stabilise soft organic soils. Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilization.
EC project BE96-3177, 94p.
Filz, G., Adams, T., Navin, M., Templeton, A.E. 2012. Design of Deep
Mixing for Support of Leeves and Floodwalls. 4th Intnl. Conf. on
Grouting and Deep Mixing, Marriott New Orleans, LA, US.
Grisolia M., Kitazume M., Leder E., Marzano I.P., Morikawa Y. 2012.
Laboratory study on the applicability of molding procedures for the
preparation of cement stabilised specimens. IS-GI Brussels 2012,
Belgium
JGS 0821-00 2000. Practice for Making and Curing Stabilised Soil
Specimens Without Compaction (Translated version). Geotechnical
Test Procedure and Commentary, Japanese Geotechnical Society.
Kitazume, M., Nishimura, S., Terashi, M., Ohishi, K. 2009.
International Collaborative Study Task 1: Investigation into
Practice of Laboratory Mix Tests as Means of QC/QA for Deep
Mixing Method. International Symposium on Deep Mixing &
Admixture Stabilization, Okinawa, Japan.
Koehler, E.P., and Fowler, D.W. 2003. Summary of Concrete
Workability Test Methods. Research Report, International Center
for Aggregates Research The University of Texas at Austin.
Larsson, S. 2005. State of Practice Report Execution, monitoring and
quality control. Intnl. Conf. on Deep Mixing - Recent Advances
and Best practice, Stockholm, Sweden.
Marzano I.P., Al-Tabbaa A., Grisolia M. 2009. Influence of sample
preparation on the strength of cement-stabilised clays. Intnl. Symp.
on Deep Mixing & Admixture Stabilization, Okinawa, Japan.
Marzano I.P., Leder E., Grisolia M., Danisi C. 2012. Laboratory study
on the molding techniques for QC/QA process of a Deep Mixing
work. 3rd International Conference on New Developments in Soil
Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Near East University,
Nicosia, North Cyprus. ISBN 975-8359-28-2.
Richards, K. S., Reddy, K. R., 2010. True triaxial piping test apparatus
for evaluation of piping potential in earth structures. Geotechnical
Testing Journal, 33(1): 1-13.
Terashi, M. 1997. Deep mixing method Brief state of the art. 14th
International. Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
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Terashi, M., and Kitazume, M. 2011. QA/QC for deep-mixed ground:
current practice and future research needs. Proc. of the Institution of
Civil Engineers Ground Improvement 164 (3), 161-177.

Analysis
Analysis of
of Floating
Floating Pile
Pile Capacity
Capacity in
in Improved
Improved Ground
Ground for
for Thi
Thi Vai
Vai Port,
Port, Vietnam
Vietnam
Analyse
Thi Vaidu
Amlioration
deVietnam
Port, Vietnam
Analyse de
de la
la capacit
capacit de
de Pile
pile flottant
flottantedans
dansun
unterrain
sol amlior
port Thi Vai,
Hai
Hai N.M.,
N.M., Tuong
Tuong N.K.
N.K.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thu Dau Mot University, Vietnam


Faculty of Civil Engineering, Thu Dau Mot University, Vietnam

Long
Long P.D.,
P.D., Nhon
Nhon P.V.
P.V.

Vietnamese Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vietnam


Vietnamese Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vietnam

ABSTRACT: A static loading programme was performed to respond to total and effective stress analysis of floating pile capacity in
90 km southeast
of Ho
City, Vietnam.
soil profile
consists
an about
improved ground
at Thi
Vai Port
approximately
ABSTRACT:
A static
loading
programme
was performed
to respond
to Chi
totalMinh
and effective
stress The
analysis
of floating
pile of
capacity
in
15 to 23 ground
m thickatdeposit
soft,
normally consolidated,
compressible
clay
deposited
on denseThe
to soil
compact
Scheme
soil
improved
Thi VaiofPort
approximately
90 km southeast
of Ho Chi
Minh
City, Vietnam.
profilesand.
consists
of anofabout
improvement
was deposit
imposed,ofconsisting
of wick
drains installed
at a spacing
of 1.5
m through
the clay
the sandsand.
and placing
m
15
to 23 m thick
soft, normally
consolidated,
compressible
clay
deposited
on dense
to to
compact
Schemetoof4.7
soil
thick surcharge.
removal
of the surcharge,
two square
precast
concrete
mm diameter,
to placing
depths of
m
improvement
wasAfter
imposed,
consisting
of wick drains
installed
at a spacing
ofpiles,
1.5 m400
through
the clay towere
the driven
sand and
to16
4.7and
22 m surcharge.
and the static
loading
testsofwere
performedtwo
reaching
pile capacities
driven
about 14were
and driven
23 days,
The
thick
After
removal
the surcharge,
squarethe
precast
concrete after
piles,piles
400 mm
diameter,
to respectively.
depths of 16 and
capacity
16 and
22 mtests
pilewere
measured
are about
450 the
andpile
1,100
KN at maximum
5 and
6 mm,
respectively.
22
m and of
thethe
static
loading
performed
reaching
capacities
after piles movements
driven aboutof14about
and 23
days,
respectively.
The
The testsofindicate
a good
between
measurements
and KN
analysis
of total movements
stresses, and
correlation
coefficient,
NKT,
capacity
the 16 and
22 magreement
pile measured
are about
450 and 1,100
at maximum
of the
about
5 and 6 mm,
respectively.
between
porea pressure
adjusted cone
stressmeasurements
and vane shearand
stress
is about
instead
of 12and
through
16 as used for
the Project.
The
testsCPTU
indicate
good agreement
between
analysis
of 18
total
stresses,
the correlation
coefficient,
NKT,
between CPTU pore pressure adjusted cone stress and vane shear stress is about 18 instead of 12 through 16 as used for the Project.
RSUM : Un programme de chargement statique a t ralis pour rpondre l'analyse des contraintes totale et effective de la
capacit du: Unprogramme
pieu flottant dans
sol amlior au port
Vaipourrpondre
environ 90 l'analyse
km au sud-est
de Ho Chi Minh-Ville,
Vietnam. Le
profil
RSUM
de un
chargementstatiquea
tdeThi
ralis
des contraintestotale
et effectivedela
capacit
de pieuflottantdans
sol est constitu un
d'un
dpt de 15
23 deThiVai
m dpaisseur
d'argile
compressible
normalement
consolid,
sur de
unsolest
sable
du
solamlior
au port
environ
90 souple
kmau sud-estde
Ho Chi
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Vietnam.dpos
Leprofil
dense et compact.
Le schma
d'amlioration
des sols a t
impos, compos de drains verticaux
installs
une
de1,5 m
constitud'un
dptde
15 23m
dpaisseurd'argile
souplecompressiblenormalement
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surdistance
un sabledenseet
travers l'argile
au sable
et la mise des
4,7 sols
m d'paisseur
en supplment.
l'limination
de la surcharge,
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a t impos,
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capacit de capacitsde
la pile16 et pieuxaprs
22 m mesure
est denviron
450et 1100
kN aux mouvements
maximum
d'environ 5et
6 mm, respectivement.
atteindreles
ce quedes
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respectivement.
La capacitde
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Les tests montrent
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accord1100KNaux
entre les mesures
et l'analyse des contraintes
querespectivement.
le coefficient deLestests
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22mmesureest
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quele decoefficient
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entrela
pression
utiliss pour le projet.
interstitielleCPTUajustelacontraintecne
et la contrainte de cisaillement est d'environ 18au lieu de 12 16comme utiliss pourle
projet.
KEYWORDS: soil improvement, static loading test, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis.
KEYWORDS: soil improvement, static loading test, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis.

10

15

20

Sleeve Friction, fs (KPa)


0 20 40 60 80 100
0

10

15

20

Pore Pressure (KPa)


0 250 500 750 1,000

10
U2

15

20

DEPT H (m)

5
DEPT H (m)

The Thi Vai Container Port is built on an improved ground over


a 470 m by 600 m area along the Thi Vai River approximately
90 km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City. The soil profile consists
of deltaic sediments of about 15 to 23 m of soft, normally
consolidated, highly compressible clay on a thick layer of dense
to compact sand. The highest water level is at Elev. +4.0 m,
which requires raising the ground elevation by about 2 m to
Elev. +5.0 m to avoid flooding. To reduce settlement after
construction, wick drains were installed with a spacing of 1.5 m
through the clay to the sand and a temporary surcharge was
added raising the surface to Elev. +7.6 m, an additional 2.0 m of
fill height. The surcharge was removed after 80 % to 90 % of
the consolidation settlements had developed and the expected
future ground settlement shall not exceed 200 mm over a period
of 20 years, which included secondary compression. After
removal of surcharge, two 400 mm square precast piles driven
into 16 and 22 m depth to serve for test and design of building
foundations.
This paper presents the methods used for analysis of the
pile capacity based on total and effective stress approaches,
details of the results from the tests on 16 and 22 m piles, and
discusses the merits of each method.
2 SOIL PROFILE
The soil profile is indicated in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 shows
the results of a typical CPTU sounding pushed at the site before
driving test piles.

Cone Resistance, qt (MPa)


0 2 4 6 8 10
0

DEPT H (m)

INTRODUCTION

DEPT H (m)

Friction Ratio, fR(%)


1 2 3 4 5

10

15

20
U0

25

25

25

25

Figure 1. Diagram of CPTU sounding pushed before


construction start
Figure 2 presents distribution of the grain size, water content,
consistency limits, and the distribution of the undrained shear
strength in the clay from a field vane. The field vane
demonstrates the clay to be very soft above 10 m depth and soft
below. Total saturated density is about 1,600 kg/m3 throughout
the clay (from wn = 61 %). The density of the sand above and
below the clay is estimated to 2,100 kg/m3 (from wn = 24 %)
and 1,800 kg/m3 (from wn = 22 %), respectively.

2485

WATER CONTENT (%)


20

40

60

80

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION


100

20

80

100

FIELD VANE STRENGTH


SU (KPa)
0 20 40 60 80 100
0

CLAY
SAND

SILT

wP
15

20

wn wL

SILT

SAND
10

10

DEPTH (m)

10

DEPTH (m)

CLAY

DEPTH (m)

60

+ 4.0 m GWL

wn

20

20
SILT
25

CLAY

SAND GRAVEL
25

Figure 2. Water content and Atterberg Limits, grain size


distribution, and field vane strength
3

200

Temporary
stockpile

150

March 12, 2009 - June 24, 2012

100

SS8

50
0
0

300

300

600
600 (day)
TIME

0.0

15

15

wn
25

40

SETLLEMENT (m)

0
+ 5.0 m
0

FILL STRESS (KPa)

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

900

1,200

900

1,200

0.5
1.0

22 mTest
Pile Driving

SS8

1.5

16 mTest
Pile Driving

2.0
2.5
3.0

SOIL IMPROVEMENT AND MEASUREMENTS

Figure 4. Fill stress versus settlement


+ 5.0 m, Elevation of top sensor
0.0
0.5
1.0
0

SETTLEMENT (m)
1.5

2.0

2.5

5
June 30, 2011
DEPTH (m)

Figure 3 shows the location of SS8 settlement benchmark was


installed on the original ground surface before the placing of
the fill. Pore pressure measurement was performed by
piezometer tips installed at depths of 6.5 m and 15.2 m.
Settlement distribution with elevations was measured by means
of extensometer gages placed at elevations of +5 m, -1.6 m, 5.9 m, -10.3 m and -17 m in the clay. Figure 4 also indicates
location of field soil tests and test piles.

10
August 29, 2009 June 30, 2011

15

Zero Reading was taken on August


29, 2009. Total settlement of top sensor
was about 1.95 m. The dark blue curves
show readings spaced about two
months apart.

20

25

Figure 5. Distribution of settlement versus depth

BHs
Test Piles
Settlement Plates
CPTU and VST
Extensometer, Piezometer, and Standpipe

Figure 4 shows the settlements measured at SS8 plate near


the tested piles. Day 0 is March 12, 2009 and the total
settlement measured after completed removal of surcharge
was about 2.15 m. Removal of surcharge at the 22 and 16 m pile
was completed on August 22, 2011 and September 9, 2011,
respectively. 15 and 60 days after removal of surcharge, the 22
and 16 m test pile was driven on September 6, 2011 and
November 8, 2011, respectively, to serve for test and design of
building foundation.
Figure 5 shows the settlement distribution with depth as
measured at extensometer station, next to the SS8 at 4.6, 8.9,
13.3, and 20 m depths below the original ground surface from
August 29 through June 30, 2011. The extensometer station had
to be removed on June 30, 2011 before the test pile driven. The
four settlements anchors were referenced to the presumed zero
for the fifth anchor point placed at 20 m depth. The settlement
distribution is almost linear from the fill surface to zero at 15 m
depth.

2486

200

Temporary
stockpile

150

SS8

100
50
0
0

250

PORE WATER PRESSURE (KPa)

Figure 3. Locations of test piles, borehole, CPTU, VST, and


field instrumentation

FILL STRESS (KPa)

Figure 6 shows the pore pressures measured at Elev. -1.5 m


and -10.2 m from August 29, 2009, through September 23,
2011. The Piezometer had to be removed before driving the test
piles. As shown in Figure 6, the pore water pressures seem to be
equal to the hydrostatic pressures after removing the surcharge.

200

400

600

800

1,000

August 29, 2009 - September 23, 2011

200

150

-10.2 m

100
-1.5 m
50
0

200

400

600
TIME (Day)

800

1,000

Figure 6. Pore water pressure versus fill stress

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

ANALYSIS OF PILE CAPACITY

4.1

Total stress approach ( Method)

The so-called alpha method is a most common method to


calculate shaft resistance in total stress approach, which
correlates the shaft resistance, rs, to the undrained shear strength
of the clay, Su, via an adhesion reduction coefficient, , as the
undrained shear strength of the soil increased:
rs = Su

The Nkt values in Figure 7 determined correlation between cone


stresses and field vane strengths are used to determine the Su of
CPTU test and calculate the unit shaft resistance according to
Eq. 1 and Eqs. 4 - 6.
The results are plotted in Figure 8 versus the accumulated unit
shaft resistance for the full dissipation of excess pore pressures.
For 5 m thick fill sand layer above the clay layer surface, the
effective stress analysis is applied with a coefficient of 0.3
and indicates the bearing capacity of this layer is about 97 KN.

(1)

SHAFT RESISTANCE (KN)


0

For field CPTU tests, Lunne et al. (1985) proposed a method


to indirectly estimate the Su versus corrected cone resistance
(qt) as:
Su = (qt v0)/Nkt

12

qt

16

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

12

Su (kPa) & Nkt


30
60
90

1.1

Sand
Clay

Eq. 4
Eq. 6

P
I
L
E
1
6
m

2,000
P
I
L
E
2
2
m

20
Eq. 1
Eq. 5
Sandy silt and silt

Effective stress approach ( Method)

The effective stress approach for evaluating the pile capacity,


Burland (1973) developed a simple equation written as:

Su

rs = Ktanv0 = v0

Figure 7. Correlation between cone stress and field vane


strength
To improve total stress approach, Randolph and Murphy
(1985) considered ratio of the undrained strength to the
effective overburden stress, v0 (stress history) and proposed a
reduction coefficient incorporated into the API 1987 edition
(excluding the effects of the pile length) as:
(3a)
(3b)

The effects of the pile slenderness (ratio of the embedment pile


length, L, to the pile width, B) also were considered by Murff
(1980), Kraft et al. (1981), Semple and Rigden(1984), Randolph
and Murphy (1985). The unit shaft resistance proposed from
two alternative combinations of undrained shear strength and
effective stress was refined in the API 1993 edition as shown in
Eq. (4) and (5).
(4)
(5)

Kolk and van der Velde (1996) suggested an updated version


incorporated directly length effects and the unit shaft resistance
was determined in Eq. (6):
rs = 0.55(Su)0.7 (v0)0.3(40B/L)0.2

= 0.3

1,500

Figure 8. The accumulated shaft resistances versus depth

Nkt

20

rs = 0.5(Su)0.50 (v0)0.50
rs = 0.5(Su)0.75 (v0)0.25

15

30

16

= 0.5(Su/v0)-0.50 for (Su/v0) 1


= 0.5(Su/v0)-0.25 for (Su/v0) > 1

10

25

v0
20

DEPTH (m)

Where, Nkt is known as an empirical cone factor and v0 is


the total overburden stress.
The records of undrained shear strength from the field vane test
are substituted to Eq. (2) to determine Nkt as shown in Figure 7.
(kPa)
2,000 4,000 6,000

1,000

(2)

qt & v0

500

(6)

2487

(7)

Where, K is the lateral earth-pressure coefficient, is the


constant volume friction angle, and = Ktan is BjerrumBurland coefficient.
Two direct CPTU methods typical of effective stress
approach are method of Eslami and Fellenius (1997) and
Takesue et al. (1998). In the Eslami and Fellenius CPTU
method, the cone stress is transferred to an apparent effective
cone stress, qE, by subtracting the measured pore pressure, U2,
from the measured total cone stress, qt, the unit shaft and toe
resistance is obtained from:
rs = CsqE

(8)

Where, Cs is the side correlation coefficient determined from


the soil profile chart which uses both cone stress and sleeve
friction.
For method of Takesue et al. (1998), the unit pile shaft
resistance, rs, is estimated from the measured sleeve friction, fs,
which is scaled up or down depending on the magnitude of the
measured excess porewater pressures during penetration, U
(U = U2 U0). The data used to derive the correlation were
obtained from both bored and driven pile foundations in clays,
sands, and mixed ground conditions.
rs = fs(U/1250+0.768) for U<300 kPa
rs = fs(U/200-0.5) for 300<U<1,250 kPa

(9a)
(9b)

The results of the effective stress analysis are presented in


Figure 9. For fill layer above clay surface, the analysis is made
the same as above total stress analysis.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

SHAFT RESISTANCE (KN)


0

500

1,000
= 0.3

1,500
Sand

DEPTH (m)

5
Eq. 9

10

Clay

Eq. 8

15

2,000

P
I
L
E
1
6
m

The total and effective stress analysis on two tested piles driven
in improved ground of Thi Vai Port is performed and
summarized as:
For total stress approach, the analysis indicates the
alpha method with a reduction coefficient
incorporated into the API 1987 edition gave the best
agreement.
For effective stress approach, the analysis shows the
Eslami and Fellenius method (1997) is approximately
the same as the measurements.
For two approaches, the total stress approach is the
better agreement.
Correlation coefficient, NKT, between CPTU pore
pressure adjusted cone stress and vane shear stress is
about 18.

P
I
L
E
2
2
m

Sandy silt and silt

20
25
30

Figure 9. The accumulated shaft resistances versus depth


1.2

Pile test results and evaluation of approaches

The static loading tests for the 22 and 16 m Pile were performed
after piles driven about 23 and 14 days, respectively. The 22
and 16 m were tested on September 29, 2011 and November 22,
2011. The load-movement curves of the two tested piles in
Figure 12 indicate the ultimate loads of the plunging failures at
1,100 and 459 KN, respectively.
1,500

Pile 22 m

LOAD (KN)

1,200

1,100 KN

900
Pile 16
m

600
459 KN

300
0
0

10
15
20
25
MOVEMENT (mm)

30

Figure 10. Pile-head load-movement curves of two static


loading tests performed on 22 and 16 m pile.
Normally, the plunging failures of the test piles are found
when the pile toe is in soft clay as in the subject case and the
pile toe resistance can be disregarded when evaluating the
analysis methods. Performance of two approaches are evaluated
basing on ratio of the estimated capacities, Qp, to the measured
capacities, Qm. Table 1 shows the performance evaluation of
two approaches for the measured pile capacities.
approach for predicting the pile capacity.

Total stress approach


Eq. 1
Eq. 4
Eq. 5
Eq. 6
Effective stress approach
Eq. 8
Eq. 9

Pile 22 m
(Qp/Qm)

0.967
1.422
1.048
1.203

0.949
1.416
1.280
1.423

0.915
0.624

0.884
0.688

REFERENCES

API (1987) Recommended practice for planning, designing, and


constructing fixed offshore platforms, API RP2A, 17th edn.
American Petroleum Institute, Washington.
API (1993) Recommended practice for planning, designing and
constructing fixed offshore platformsworking stress design, API
RP2A, 20th edn. American Petroleum Institute, Washington.
Cai G., Songyu L., Liyun T., Guangyin D. 2009. Assessment of direct
CPT and CPTU methods in predicting the ultimate bearing capacity
of single piles. Eng Geol 104:211222,.
Eslami A., Fellenius B.H. 1997. Pile capacity by direct CPT and CPTu
methods applied to 102 case histories. Can Geotech J 34:886904.
Fellenius B.H. 2008. Effective stress analysis and set-up for shaft
capacity of piles in clay. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication,
GSP180:384-406.
Karlsrud K., Haugen T. 1981. Cyclic loading of piles and pile anchors,
field model tests at Haga. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
Research Report.
Kolk H.J., van der Velde E. 1996. A reliable method to determine the
friction capacity of piles driven into clays. In: Proceedings of the
28th annual offshore technology conference, Houston, pp 337346.
Lunne, T., Christoffersen, H.P. and Tjelta, T.I. 1985. Engineering use of
Piezocone data in North Sea Clays. Proceedings XI ICSMFE, San
Francisco.
Murff D. 1980. Pile capacity in a softening soil. Int J Numer Anal
Methods Geomech 4:185189.
Randolph M.F., Murphy B.S. 1985. Shaft capacity of driven piles in
clay. In: Proceedings of the 17th annual offshore conference,
Houston, pp 371378.
Semple R.M., Rigden W.J. 1984. Shaft capacity of driven pipe piles in
clay. In: Proceedings of the on analysis and design of deep
foundations, San Francisco, pp 5979.
Takesue, K., Sasao, H., Matsumoto, T. 1998. Correlation between
ultimate pile skin friction and CPT data. Geotechnical Site
Characterization (2): 1177-1182. Rotterdam: Balkema.

Table 1. Evaluation on performance of the total and effective


Pile 16 m
(Qp/Qm)

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

2488

Carbonate Cementation via Plant Derived Urease


Cimentation carbonate par lutilisation durase issue de plantes
Hamdan N., Kavazanjian Jr. E., ODonnell S.

School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5306; PH:
(480) 965-3997

ABSTRACT: The use of plant-derived urease enzyme to induce calcium carbonate (CaCO3) cementation has been demonstrated
through laboratory column tests. Benefits of the use of plant-derived urease over the use of microbially-generated urease to induce
carbonate cementation include the small size of the enzyme, which permits penetration into finer grained soils and makes the process
less sensitive to bioplugging, and the availability of 100% of the carbon in the substrate for conversion to CaCO3. The laboratory
column tests employed both Ottawa 20-30 silica sand and finer-grained F-60 silica sand. The laboratory column specimens were
prepared in a variety of manners and showed varying degrees of cementation and carbonate yield. Triaxial tests performed on
cemented specimens showed significant strength increases over non-cemented specimens. These tests confirm the feasibility of using
plant-derived urease to induce carbonate cementation in sand and provide valuable insight into the factors that must be considered in
developing practical applications for ureolytic carbonate precipitation using plant-derived urease enzyme.
RSUM : La cimentation de sable par du carbonate de calcium (CaCO3) produit par lenzyme urase obtenue partir de plantes a
t ralise en laboratoire. Les avantages dutiliser de lurase obtenue de plantes plutt que de lurase produite microbilogiquement
pour produire la cimentation carbonate sont la petite taille de lenzyme qui permet la pntration dans les sols fins et rend le
processus moins sujet au colmatage biologique et la disponibilit 100% du carbone prsent dans le substratum pour conversion en
CaCO3. Des essais en colonnes ont t raliss sur deux sables de silice dits Ottawa 20-30 et F-60 (plus fin). Les chantillons ont t
prpars de diffrentes manires et ont atteint des degrs de cimentation varis et des productions de carbonate diffrentes. Les
rsultats des essais de compression triaxiale sur des chantillons ciments et des chantillons non-ciments indiquent que les premiers
sont beaucoup plus rsistants. Ces essais confirment que lurase obtenue partir de plantes peut tre utilise pour induire une
cimentation carbonate dans les sables. De plus ces essais ont permis de didentifier les facteurs considrer pour dvelopper des
applications pratiques pour lutilisation de la prcipitation carbonate urolytique en utilisant lurase issue de plantes.
KEYWORDS: carbonate, cementation, urease, calcite, soil improvement
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The potential for using plant-derived urease enzyme to cement
sands by inducing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation has
been demonstrated through a series of laboratory column tests
on two different gradations of silica sand. The use of
microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) to cement
cohesionless soils has recently received substantial attention
from geotechnical researchers (Burbank et al. 2012, Chou et al.
2011, Dejong et al. 2010, Harkes et al. 2010, van Paassen et al.
2010). The MICP mechanism most often discussed in the
literature and most advanced in terms of field application is
hydrolysis of urea (ureolytic hydrolysis). MICP via ureolytic
hydrolysis relies on microbes to generate urease enzyme, which
then serves as a catalyst for the precipitation reaction. The use
of plant-derived urease (enzymatic ureolytic hydrolysis) to
induce CaCO3 precipitation eliminates the need for microbes in
the CaCO3 precipitation process.
Besides eliminating the need to nurture urease-producing
microbes, enzymatic ureolytic hydrolysis offers several other
advantages over ureolytic MICP. Applications of ureolytic
MICP on clean sands in laboratory column tests and limited
field tests have encountered significant practical difficulties,
including bioplugging (permeability reduction accompanying
induced mineral precipitation) and generation of a toxic waste
product (ammonium salt) (Harkes et al. 2010, van Paassen et al.
2008). Bioplugging not only limits the distribution of

precipitation agents within the soil but also makes flushing of


the waste product from the soil a difficult, energy intensive task.
Due to these limitations, mass stabilization of soil using
ureolytic MICP remains problematic. Furthermore, the microbes
that produce the urease enzyme cannot readily penetrate the
pores of soils smaller than medium to fine sand, limiting the
minimum grains size of soils amenable to ureolytic MICP to
clean fine sands or coarser graded soils. The small size (on the
order of 12 nm) of the urease enzyme suggests that CaCO3
precipitation by enzymatic ureolytic hydrolysis will be less
susceptible to bio-plugging and will be able to penetrate finer
grained soils, perhaps into the silt-sized particle range,
compared to MICP processes.
1.2 Sustainability of Ground Improvement Practices
Finding effective solutions to ground improvement challenges is
becoming increasingly complex due to sustainability
considerations. Established materials and methods often need
to be either replaced or supplemented by innovative materials
and environmentally-friendly practices to address sustainability
considerations. One example of a common building material
that poses significant sustainability concerns is Portland cement.
Portland cement is widely used in ground improvement
applications. Unfortunately, Portland cement production is
extremely energy intensive and a major source of emissions of
carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as of sulfur and nitrogen oxides.
MICP has been explored recently as an alternative to Portland
cement for ground improvement. Reductions in the use of

2489

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Portland cement through either direct substitution or


complementary use of MICP could contribute considerably
towards reduction in CO2 emissions. Research suggests that
cementation using MICP can address a number of important
geotechnical problems in granular soils, including slope
stability, erosion and scour, under-seepage of levees, the
bearing capacity of shallow foundations, tunneling, and seismic
settlement and liquefaction (Dejong et al. 2010, Harkes et al.
2010, Kavazanjian and Karatas 2008, van Paassen et al. 2010).
1.3 Ureolytic MICP
MICP attempts to create a cemented soil mass by precipitating
calcium carbonate from the pore fluid such to form cementation
bonds at the interparticle contacts (van Paassen et al. 2010,
DeJong et al. 2006). Karatas et al. (2008) have identified several
mechanisms for MICP. The MICP mechanism that has garnered
the most attention and is most advanced in terms of
development is ureolytic hydrolysis, or ureolysis (Chou et al.
2011, DeJong et al. 2006, van Paassen et al. 2010, Whiffin et al.
2007). Ureolytic MICP has typically been accomplished using a
technique best described as biogrouting (Harkes et al. 2010, van
Paassen et al. 2010), wherein bacteria and nutrients are mixed in
a tank ex-situ and then injected into the soil followed by a
fixation fluid to foster microbial attachment to soil particles and,
finally, by a calcium-laden cementation fluid. Ureolytic MICP
by stimulation of indigenous bacteria has also been reported in
the literature (Burbank et al. 2012).
1.4 Agricultural Urease
Urease is a widely occurring hexameric protein found in many
microorganisms, higher order plants, and some invertebrates.
The enzyme is approximately 12 nm in dimension (Blakely &
Zerner 1984). The small size of a solubilized urease enzyme
affords it a distinct advantage over carbonate cementation
methods that employ ureolytic microbes in cases that require
penetration into very small pore spaces as nearly all known
bacteria are greater than 300 nm in diameter, with the majority
in the range of 500-5000 nm. Several families of common
plants are very rich in urease, including some varieties of beans,
melons and squash, and the pine family (Das et al. 2002).
Extraction of urease enzyme from most urease containing plants
has been shown to be very simple (Srivastava et al. 2001) and
the enzyme is readily available from laboratory suppliers.
It is well-established that urease can occur as both an intraand extra-cellular enzyme (Ciurli et al. 1996, Marzadori et al.
1998). Free soil urease (i.e. urease not bound to any living
organism), generally derived from dead and decaying
microorganisms and possibly from plant sources, readily occurs
apart from the host microorganism and, upon absorptive
association with soil particles, can persist for long periods of
time without degradation or loss of function (Pettit et al. 1976).
By contrast, exogenously added urease (i.e. urease added as a
free enzyme) has a limited lifespan and its activity and function
decrease with time (Marzadori et al. 1998, Pettit et al. 1976).
This limited lifespan is potentially advantageous in some
engineering applications as the enzyme can naturally degrade
thereby eliminating long term impacts to the ecosystem.
2. METHODS
2.1 Ottawa 20-30 Sand
Laboratory column tests were conducted using plant derived
urease to induce CaCO3 precipitation in Ottawa 20-30 sand
These tests were carried out in 6x 2 (152 mm x 51 mm)
acrylic tubes and membrane-lined 2.8 x 6 (71 mm x 152 mm)
split molds (for creating specimens for triaxial testing). Three
acrylic tubes and two columns for triaxial testing were filled
with 20-30 Ottawa silica sand (mean grain size 0.6 mm,

2490

coefficient of uniformity 1.1) and treated as follows: tube #1:


the sand was dry pluviated via funnel at 3 (76 mm) drop
height and then received 5 applications of a cementation
solution containing urea and calcium chloride mixed with
1.4g/L enzyme (total solution volume 300 ml); tube #2: sand
was added in same manner as tube #1 and then received 2
applications ( 150 ml total) of the same cementation solution
mixed with 1.4g/L enzyme; tube #3: the lower-third of tube was
filled with sand and dry enzyme ( 3g), the remainder of the
tube contained dry pluviated sand without enzyme, and the tube
then received 2 applications ( 150 ml) of the cementation fluid
with no enzyme added. The cementation fluid composition was
based upon stochiometry and experience with microbial urease
cementation, e.g. DeJong et al. (2007), Whiffin et al. (2008).
Approximately 100 mL of a pH=7.8 solution containing 383
mM urea (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich), 272 mM CaCl2-2H2O
(laboratory grade, Alfa Aesar) was used for the first application
in each acrylic tube. Subsequent applications employed
approximately 50 mL of a pH=7.6 solution containing 416 mM
urea and 289 mM CaCl2-2H2O. Solution concentrations, while
variable, were formulated within a reasonably similar range as a
matter of convenience. In each application, the cementation
fluid was poured into the top of the acrylic tube with the bottom
closed off. The cementation fluid was allowed to stand, loosely
covered, in the acrylic tube for at least 24 hours and then
drained out the bottom of the cylinder. The next application
followed immediately after drainage was complete. Drainage
was accomplished by puncturing the base of the cylinder with a
20-gauge needle. When drainage was complete, the needle was
removed and the puncture was plugged with a dab of silicone.
Occasionally, the needle became plugged and an additional
needle was inserted through the base. The triaxial columns
were filled with sand in the same manner as tube 1 and then
received 2 applications (each application 250 ml) of
cementation solution with 1.4g/L enzyme.
In each application of cementation fluid, the fluid was
added until it rose to approximately -inch (12-mm) above the
soil line. After 2 applications, tubes #2 and #3 were allowed to
air dry for several days and then analyzed. Experimentation
with tube #1 was continued for several more days as three more
batches of cementation fluid were applied. The last 2
applications of cementation fluid were allowed to slowly drain
through the needle in the base immediately after application
rather than sit for 24 hours (drainage rate 10-25ml/hour). The
triaxial columns were allowed to stand for at least a week after
the second cementation fluid application and then drained.
After drainage was complete, the triaxial columns were
moved to a triaxial testing device. After draining the specimens
from the acrylic tubes and after the completion of the triaxial
tests, all samples were triple washed with de-ionized water.
Tubes #2 and #3 were separated in 3 layers, while tube #1 was
separated into six layers (for better resolution). Each layer from
the specimens in the acrylic tubes and the entire mass of the
triaxial specimens were acid washed to determine CaCO3
content by oven drying for 48 hours, weighing, digesting with
warm 1M HCl, washing, drying, and reweighing to determine
carbonate mineral content.
Several of the cemented specimens were analyzed for
mineral identification using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Samples
were ground in an agate mortar and pestle and powdered onto a
standard glass slide for analysis. Scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) imaging was performed on intact cemented chunks of
material with an Agilent 8500 Low-Voltage SEM (LV-SEM). A
LV-SEM is a field emission scanning electron microscope
capable of imaging insulating materials, such as organic and
biological substances without the need for a metal coating and
without causing radiation damage to samples.
2.2 Ottawa F-60 Sand
A triaxial column was prepared using Ottawa F-60 silica sand
(mean grain size 0.275 mm, coefficient of uniformity 1.74) to

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

investigate enzymatic ureolytic CaCO3 precipitation in a finer


grained material. The specimen was prepared in the same
manner as described for the triaxial columns for the Ottawa 2030 sand. The cementation fluid for the first of the two
applications contained approximately 2.0 g/L enzyme, 400 mM
urea (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich), 300 mM CaCl2-2H2O
(laboratory grade, BDH) at pH=7.7. The fluid for the second
application contained 1 M urea-CaCl2-2H2O solution at pH=7.8
without any enzyme. After the test, the triaxial specimen was
washed and subject to acid digestion in the same manner as the
Ottawa 20-30 triaxial specimens.

3 during sample preparation. In the top layer of tube 3, where no


urease was mixed with the sand, carbonate precipitation was
nearly undetectable. There was no visual evidence of
precipitation and practically no measurable change in weight of
this layer after acidification (weight change = 0.23%). In the
bottom layer of tube 3, where 3 g of dry enzyme was mixed
with the soil, there was a weight change of 1.7% following acid
washing. The middle layer of this specimen had a minor change
in weight (0.58%), possibly due to uneven distribution of the
layers during preparation or splitting of the specimen or to
upward migration of urease from the bottom layer.

3. RESULTS

XRD analysis, presented in Figure 1, confirms that calcite is the


mineral phase present in the cemented soil chunks. LV-SEM
images, presented in Figure 2, show silica (quartz) sand
particles cemented with calcium carbonate and various
morphological features associated with the cementation process
on the silica surface.

3.1 Acrylic Tubes


Approximately 100 ml of cementation solution was delivered
per application for the first application in each acrylic tube.
However, the amount of solution the tube would accept was
notably reduced in subsequent applications, when less than 75
ml was typically required to fill the tubes to inch (12 mm)
above soil line. At the conclusion of the experiment,
precipitation was visible along the entire length of tubes 1 and
2. Internally the cementation was variable, with some highly
cemented zones and other zones with little to no cementation.
Tube 1 yielded mostly small, loose chunks of sand with
strong effervescence upon digestion. Most of this column
appeared un-cemented and exhibited unusually viscous behavior
when wet. A fairly large (compared to column diameter) piece
of strongly cemented sand (not breakable without tools) formed
in the deepest layer of tube 1. Tube 2 had many small chunks
of weakly cemented sand with strong effervescence upon
digestion. Tube 3 had little to no precipitation in the top layer
(i.e. this layer did not show any indication of carbonate upon
acid digestion.) The deepest layer of tube 3 contained many
pieces of weakly cemented sand that effervesced strongly upon
digestion. The middle layer of tube 3 contained a few pieces of
cemented sand that effervesced moderately upon digestion. The
results from the acid washing are presented in Table 1.

2
3

Layer

Tube #

Table 1. Results from Experiment Set 1 using 20-30 Ottawa silica sand

1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
1
2
3

Summary of Results
Amt.
Total
Weight
of
Amt.
Change via
CaCO3 CaCO3
Digestion
(g)
(g)
11%
3.57
3.8%
1.67
2.7%
1.73
11.8
2.1%
1.40
2.3%
1.74
2.0%
1.64
0.76%
0.63
2.07
0.65%
0.69
0.49%
0.75
0.23%
0.31
0.58%
0.63
3.57
1.7%
2.63

Figure 1. XRD results from cemented sand sample (top plot). Quartz &
calcite standards (middle & bottom plot, respectively).

Theor.
Max
CaCO3
(g)

14.5

4.35
4.35

The theoretical maximum CaCO3 content is the stoichiometric


maximum balanced on initial concentrations. The primary
experimental differences between the tests are (1) the number of
applications of cementation fluid and (2) the manner in which
the urease was delivered. The results indicate that there is
greater carbonate precipitation with increasing number of
applications, as expected. The data show more precipitation in
(or on) the top layer of tubes 1 and 2 but not in tube 3, as the
enzyme was physically confined to the lower-third layer in tube

2491

Figure 2. LV-SEM images a.) Well-grown and cementing calcite crystals;


b.) Cementing calcite crystals at inter-particle contact; c.) Indention of quartz
surface (blue arrows) and nucleation of calcite crystals (red arrows); d.) Calcite
crystal growing on quartz surface.

3.2 Triaxial Columns


The three triaxial sand columns (2 Ottawa 20-30 sand columns
and 1 Ottawa F-60 sand column) were tested in drained triaxial
compression prior to acid digestion. All three columns were
able to stand upright after removal of the split mold. The results

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

of the triaxial compression tests performed on the 20-30 Ottawa


sand are presented in Figure 3 and the results for the F-60
Ottawa sand are presented in Figure 4. The carbonate cement
content for one of the 20-30 silica sand columns was 2.0%
CaCO3 (by weight). The carbonate content of the other 20-30
Ottawa sand column could not be quantified due to unintended
sample loss. The carbonate cement content for the finer grained
F-60 Ottawa sand was 1.6% CaCO3 (by weight). The results
show substantial strength increase for all 3 sand columns tested.

2.0% CaCO3
CaCO3 not quantified

Figure 3. p-q plot failure envelopes for 20-30 silica sand: Cemented
(Dr = 60%); Uncemented (Dr = 60%)

1.6% CaCO3

Figure 4. p-q plot failure envelopes for F-60 silica sand: Cemented (Dr
= 35%); Uncemented (Dr = 37%);

4. CONCLUSION
Sand column tests at Arizona State University have shown that
agriculturally-derived urease can be used to induce calcium
carbonate precipitation in sand. Sand columns were developed
using Ottawa 20-30 and F-60 sand and three different
preparation methods: dry pluviation followed by percolation of
a calcium-urease-urea cementation solution, pluviation into a
calcium-urease-urea cementation solution, and mixing the sand
with urease prior to pluviation with a calcium-urea solution.
Cementation was observed in all of the columns. XRD and
SEM testing confirmed that calcium carbonate (specifically
calcite) was the cementing agent. Acid digestion showed that
increased applications yielded correspondingly greater

carbonate precipitation. The quality of cementation, as


determined by the effort needed to break apart cemented chunks
of sand, varied depending on the sampling location within the
column. Triaxial test results on cemented columns showed
substantial strength increase over non-cemented columns at the
same relative density.
5. REFERENCES
Baumert, K.A., Herzog, T., Pershing, J., 2005. Navigating the Numbers
Greenhouse Gas Data & International Climate Policy World
Resources Institute
Blakely, R.L. and Zerner, B., 1984. Jack Bean Urease: The First Nickel
Enzyme. Journal of Molecular Catalysis 23, 263292.
Burbank, M., Weaver, T., Lewis, R., Williams, T., Williams, B. and
Crawford, R. 2012. Geotechnical Tests of Sands Following
Bio-Induced Calcite Precipitation Catalysed by Indigenous Bacteria
ASCE JGGE 132, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000781.
Chou, C.W., Seagren, E.A., Aydilek, A.H., and Lai, M. 2011.
Biocalcification of Sand through Ureolysis. JGGE 137, 11791189.
Ciurli S., Marzadori C., Benini S., Deiana S. and Gessa C., 1996.
Urease from the soil bacterium Bacillus pasteurii: Immobilization on
Ca-polygalacturonate. Soil Biol. & Biochem. 28, 811-817.
Das, N., Kayastha, A.M. and Srivastava, P.K., 2002. Purification and
characterization of urease from dehusked pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan
L.) seeds. Phytochemistry 61 (5), 513-521.
DeJong, J.T., Fritzges, M.B., and Nusslein, K. 2006. Microbially
Induced Cementation to Control Sand Response to Undrained
Shear. ASCE JGGE 132, 13811392.
DeJong, J.T., Mortensen, B.M., Martinez, B.C., and Nelson, D.C., 2010.
Bio-mediated soil improvement. Ecological Engineering 197-210.
Harkes, M. P., van Paassen, L. A., Booster, J. L., Whiffin, V. S., and
van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. 2010. Fixation and distribution of
bacterial activity in sand to induce carbonate precipitation for
ground reinforcement. Ecological Engineering 36 (2), 112117.
Karatas, I., 2008. Microbiological Improvement of the Physical
Properties of Soils. PhD. Dissertation, Department of Civil,
Environmental, and Sustainable Engineering Arizona State
University, Tempe, AZ.
Kavazanjian, E. and Karatas, I., 2008. Microbiological Improvement of
the Physical Properties of Soil, 6th International Conference on
Case Histories in Geotech. Eng., Arlington, VA August 11-16.
Krogmeier, M.J., McCarty, G.W. and Bremner, J.M., 1989.
Phytotoxicity of foliar-applied urea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA
86, 81898191.
Marzadori, C., Miletti, S., Gessa, C. and Ciurli, S., 1998.
Immobilization of jack bean urease on hydroxyapatite: urease
immobilization in alkaline soils. Soil Biol. & Biochem. 30 (12),
1485-1490.
Pettit N. M., Smith A. R. J., Freedman R. B. and Burns R. G., 1976.
Soil urease: activity, stability, and kinetic properties. Soil Biol. &
Biochem. 8, 479-484.
Srivastava, P.K. and Kayastha, A.M., 2001. Characterization of gelatinimmobilized pigeon pea urease and preparation of a new urea
biosensor. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 34, 55-62.
van Paassen, L.A., Ghose, R., van der Linden, T.J.M., van der Star,
W.R.L., and van Loosdrecht, M.C., 2010. Quantifying Biomediated
Ground Improvement by Ureolysis: Large-Scale Biogrout
Experiment. ASCE JGGE 136, 17211728.
van Paassen, L.A., Daza, C.M., Staal, M., Sorokin, D.Y. and van
Loosdrecht, M.C., 2008. In situ soil reinforcement by microbial
denitrification. 1st Int. Conf. on Bio-Geo-Civil Engineering,
Netherlands, 124-133, June 23-25.
Whiffin, V.S., van Paassen, L.A., and Harkes, M.P., 2007. Microbial
Carbonate Precipitation a Soil Improvement Technique.
Geomicrobiology 24, 1-7.

2492

Experimental investigation on bearing capacity of geosynthetic encapsulated stone


columns
tude exprimentale sur la capacit portante des colonnes de pierre gosynthtiques encapsules
Hataf N., Nabipour N.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

aBstract: civil engineers have developed different soil improvement techniques in recent decades to improve the bearing
capacity of soft soils loaded by foundations and reduce soil settlement. a method for increasing the bearing capacity of foundation
soil is the use of stone columns. however, one of the major weaknesses in use of stone columns in loose soils is lack of confinement.
Using geosynthetic reinforcement to compensate low confinement pressure in these soils, is a solution to this problem. this paper
presents the results of an experimental study on the improvement of the bearing capacity of stone columns reinforced by
geosynthetics. in this study the influences of three variables have been investigated, including: surrounding soil types (i.e. clay and
sand), stone column aggregate size and length of reinforcement. having mentioned these variables, the results showed that
encapsulating stone column with geosynthetic is more effective in cohesive soil compared to granular soil. the results of the
experiments revealed that the coarser the aggregate the better behavior is expected for the stone column. the results also showed that,
reinforcing half height of stone columns is the optimal encapsulating length.
rsUm: ces dernires dcennies, les ingnieurs civils ont dvelopp diffrentes techniques pour l'amlioration de la capacit
portante du sol mou ainsi que celles des fondations. Une des techniques couramment utilise permettant l'augmentation de la capacit
portante des sols et des fondations est l'utilisation des colonnes de pierre. cependant, l'une des grandes faiblesses de l'utilisation de
colonnes de pierre dans les sols mous est le manque de confinement. l'utilisation de renforts gosynthtiques permet de compenser
pour la faible pression de confinement. cet article prsente les rsultats d'une tude exprimentale sur l'amlioration de la capacit
portante des colonnes de pierre renforces par des mthodes gosynthtiques. dans cette tude, l'influence de trois variables ont t
tudies, notamment: le type de sol environnant (i.e. argile et sable) ainsi que la longueur de l'armature de renforcement. les rsultats
dmontrent que l'emploi de la colonne en pierre avec encapsulation gosynthtique est plus efficace dans un sol consistant compar
aux sols granulaires. de plus, les rsultats de ces expriences ont rvl que plus la rugosit de l'agrgat augmente, plus le
comportement des colonnes de pierres est amlior. finalement, les rsultats indiquent que la longueur d'encapsulation optimale est
atteinte en renforant la hauteur mdiane des colonnes de pierre.
KeYWords: stone column, bearing capacity, geosynthetic, reinforcement.
1

2.1

introdUction.

in recent years with increasing in population density in specific


locations,the value of land has increased signifacntly. this has
made the use of areas with soft soils inevitable.
due to the lack of bearing resistance in these soils, different
methods of soil improvement techniques, including stone
columns as a method of strengthening the loose soil are used.
stone columns behavior has been studied experimentally,
theoretically and numerically by many researchers (Bergado and

teerawattanasuk2008, Guetif et al. 2007, castro and sagaseta2011)

however, one of the major weaknesses in use of


stonecolumns in loose soils is lack of confinement. this lead
researchers and practioners to use geosentitics to increase
confinement of column, compansating the scarcity of studding
around reinforced stone columns (malarvizhi and ilamparuthi2007,
Gniel and Bouazza2009, Gniel and Bouazza2010). in this study the
parameters affecting the behavior of reinforced stone columns
have been investigated. these parameters are reinforced length,
column material and surrounding soil type.
2

laBoratorY settinGs

since the focus of this research was on the laboratory results,


the phyical model, is described, firstly.

Test apparatus

a cylindrical tank (height=1.0 m and dia.=1.0m) filled with soil


was used as the soilenvironment. stone column run in the
middle of the tank.the static loading system consists of a
loading arm and weights were used(razavi and hataf, 2003) to
determine the bearing capacity of a circular foundations resting
on stone column, figure 1.
2.2

Soil tested

to test and evaluate the behavior of reinforced stone columns in


loose soil, two soil types were used, a clay soil as cohesive soil
and a sandy soil as granular soil.
physical properties of the soils are listed in table 1.
2.3

Specimens preparation

to prepare the soil and column, first two 10 cm soil layers has
been poured in the tank and compacted using 20 strokes caused
by dropping a 50 n weight attached to a wooden handle from a
distance of 40 cm as the substrate layer.the next layerswere
compacted with 10 strokes from 10cm distance to provide loose
soil.
toprepare the stone column an open ended hollow
cylindrical pipe with a diameter of a little more than the
diameter of the stone column was used.after that the cylinder
was placed at its position and the surrounding was filled slowly
with soil.

2493

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

figure 1.laboratory setting for model testing.


table 1. physical properties of the soils tested.
parameter

Clay

Sand

friction angle

26.0

35.0

cohesion (Kn/m2)

5.0

0.0

Unit weight(Kn/m3)

15.0

16.0

liquid limit(%)

44.5

plasticity index (%)

20.0

then until reaching up to the surface level the stone column


filled with stone aggregates in 10 cm layers.after filling each
layer the cylinder pulled out about 10 cm and aggregates were
poured in and compacted with 40cm length rod.
three types of aggregates were used to fill the stone
columns. these are shown in figure 2.
stone columns with no reinforcement, half-length
reinforcement and full-length reinforcement were prepared for
testing. a commercially available geogrid was used for
reinforcement.
r3

r2

reinforcementfor optimal strength. this was achieved by


changing the length of reinforcement compared to the column
length as full-length, half-length and non-reinforced.
test results indicated that in both types of surrounding soils
and for all sizes of column aggregate materials, it is enough to
reinforce only half length of the column to achieve desired
bearing improvement. however the improvement ratein
cohesive soils is more noticeable. this can be related to the fact
that the confining pressure in the bottom of the column is higher
than that in the upper parts of the column due to higher
overburden pressure. By increasing the confining pressure in the
upper parts of the column by installing reinforcement, the radial
strain reduces and as the result, it reduces the side contact
pressure between the soil and stone column. this in turn causes
just vertical distribution of the stresses to the layer below the
column and not distributing of stresses to the surrounding soil.
this obviously causes more vertical deflections in the below
layers of soil and less in the upper layers.
in the half-length reinforced column by increasing in
stresses,a small amount of inflation on the side layers are
observed which results in increase in lateral soil friction and so
the stresses spreads over a larger surface of the soil and it results
the deflection not to increase below the column but spread in
larger area homogeneously.

F
Fmax(no)

3-a fine aggregate material

r1

F
Fmax(no)

figure 2. different aggregates used as stone columns materials.

test resUlts

test results as load settlement curves for stone columns


embedded in cohesive and granular soils are illustrated in
figures 3 an 4. in this figures f-ri, h-ri and no-ri stand for
full-length, half-length and no reinforced column, respectively.
loads were normalized to maximum load obtained for
unreinforced column in each case and settlements were
normalized to radius of stone column.
as it can be seen from these figures it is obvious that
reinforcement improve the bearing capacity of stone columns in
both cohesive and granular soils. the reinforcement however is
more effective in cohesive soil than in granular soil.
further numerical studies (not presented here) showed that
the effect of viscosity is reduced with the increase in cohesion
of soil which in turn caused increase in the confining pressure
of surrounding soil. therefore this results in decrease in stone
column material to spread out within the surrounding soil.
the most important variable in this study was to
experimentally and practically examine the optimal lengthof

2494

3-b medium aggregate material

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

F
Fmax(no)

as it was mentioned earlier one of the variables in this study


was the size of the column aggregate materials. the results of
tests on the same stone column conditions but with different
size of stone column materials are illustrated in figure 5 and 6
for cohesive and granular surrounding soils, respectively.it can
be seen that keeping all conditions constant, there was an
increase in bearing resistance of the column with increasing
grain size dimension of column material. however the
improvement due to the use of geosynthetic reinforcement was
the same for all column material sizes.

F
Fmax(no)

3-c coarse aggregate material


figure 3. test results for stone columns embedded in cohesive soil.

F
Fmax(no)

5-a non-reinforced stone column

F
Fmax(no)

4-a fine aggregate material

F
Fmax(no)

5-b half-length reinforced column

F
Fmax(no)

4-b medium aggregate material

F
Fmax(no)

5-c full-length reinforced column


figure 5. test results for different stone columns materials embedded in
cohesive soil.

3-c coarse aggregate material


figure 4.test results for stone columns embedded in granular soil.

2495

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

behavior of stone column encapsulated by geosynthetic in its


entire length was compared to partially encapsulated stone
column behavior. the results showed that, reinforcing half
height of stone columns in both types of soils, especially in
clay, is the optimal encapsulating length. this finding is
significant regarding the economical and efficiency of use of
stone columns as a soil improvement technique.

F
Fmax(no)

Bergado, d.t. and teerawattanasuk, c. 2008. 2d and 3d numerical


simulations of reinforced embankments on soft ground. Geotextiles
and Geomembranes, 26, 3955.
castro, J., sagaseta, c. 2011. consolidation and deformation around
stone columns: numerical evaluation of analytical solution.
Computers and Geotechnics 38,354362.
Guetif, a. Z., Bouassida, m., debats, J. m. 2007.improved soft clay
characteristics due to stone column installation. Computers and
Geotechnics 34,104111.
Gniel, J., and Bouazza, a. 2009. improvement of soft soils using
geogrid encased stone columns. Geotextiles and Geomembranes27,
167175 .
Gniel, J., and Bouazza, a. 2010. construction of geogrid encased stone
columns: a new proposal based on laboratory testing. Computers
and Geotechnics, 28, 108118 .
hataf, n. and razavi, m. r., 2003. model test and finite element
analysis of ring footings on loose sand. Iranian J. of Science &
Technology, 27(B1), transaction B, 1-11.
malarvizhi, s. n. and ilamparuthi, K. 2007. comparative study on the
behaviour of encased stone column and conventional stone
column.Soils and Foundations, 47 (5), 873885.

6-a non-reinforced stone column

F
Fmax(no)

6-b half-length reinforced column

F
Fmax(no)

6-c full-length reinforced column


figure 6. test results for different stone columns materials embedded in
granular soil.

references

conclUsion

one of the recent methods for increasing the bearing capacity of


foundation soil is the use of vertical stone columns. stone
columns consist of a stiffer material or aggregates, compared to
the surrounding soils, which are usually vibrocompacted into
the soil. these columns increase the bearing capacity of the soil
significantly. compared to concrete or steel piles inclusion, for
soil improvement, this technique is more economical and needs
to be studied further. however, one of the major weaknesses in
use of stone columns in loose soils is lack of confinement. this
leads to use reinforcement to compensate low confinement
pressure in these soils. Because of the lack of experimental
studies on the behavior of reinforced stone columns, an
experimental study has been performed. it was shown that the
use of stone columns improves the soil bearing capacity,
significantly. the results showed that encapsulating stone
column with geosynthetic is more effective in cohesive soils
compared to granular soils. three types of stone column
materials were used with different aggregate dimensions. the
results of the experiments revealed that the coarser the
aggregate the better behavior is expected for the stone column.
although the increase in grain size should not be more than two
percent of stone column diameter. on the other hand, the

2496

Performance and Prediction of Vacuum Consolidation Behavior at Port of Brisbane


Avantages et prdictions de comportement due a la consolidation sous vide au port de Brisbane
Indraratna B., Rujikiatkamjorn C., Geng X.

Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong City, NSW Australia, ARC
Centre of Excellence in Geotechnical Science and Engineering, Australia

Ameratunga J.

Coffey Geotechnics, 47 Doggett Street, Newstead, QLD. 4006, Australia

aBstract: due to a projected increase in trade activities at the port of Brisbane, new berths on fisherman islands at the mouth of
the Brisbane river will be constructed in the outer area (235ha) close to the existing port facilities via land reclamation. a vacuum
assisted surcharge load in conjunction with prefabricated vertical drains was choosen to reduce the required consolidation time. the
features of the combined vacuum and surcharge fill system and the construction of the embankment are described in this paper. a
comparison of the performance of the vacuum combined surcharge loading system with a standard surcharge fill emphasizes the
obvious advantages of vacuum consolidation. field data is presented to show how the embankment performed during construction.
an analytical solution for radial consolidation incorporating both time-dependent surcharge loading and vacuum pressure is
employed to calculate the settlements and associated excess pore pressures of the soft holocene clay deposits.
rsUm : laugmentation des activits de commerce au port de Brisbane ncessite la construction, proximit des terminaux
existants, de nouveaux postes de quais dans les iles fisherman a lembouchure de la rivire de Brisbane sur une superficie de 235 ha
gagne sur la mer. Un chargement sous vide contrle, associe a des drains prfabriqus, a t appliqu pour rduire le temps de
consolidation. larticle dcrit les caractristiques de la technique de consolidation sous vide associe au chargement par remblaiement
et la construction du remblai. Une comparaison entre la consolidation sous vide associe au remblaiement et le pr chargement
classique montre clairement les avantages en faveur de la consolidation sous vide. les donnes enregistres sur le site illustrent le
comportement du remblai durant la consolidation. Une solution de consolidation horizontale tenant compte du chargement et de la
pression sous vide est prsente en vue de prdire le tassement et lexcs de la surpression interstitielle du dpt dargile molle de
lholocne.
KeYWords: consolidation, soil improvement, vertical drains, vacuum.
1

introdUction

the port of Brisbane is one of the australias largest


commercial ports located at the entrance of the Brisbane river
at fisherman islands. With demand in commercial activities, a
new outer area (235ha) is being reclaimed for major expansion
to maximise the available land, and to provide the maximum
number of berths suitable for container handling for servicing
regional importers and exporters. in this area, the soil profile
mainly consists of compressible clay deposits over 30m in
thickness with very low undrained shear strength (<15 kpa at
shallow depth). the strength of dredged mud had a much lower
strength depending on the placement time and the thickness of
capping material. Without surcharge preloading, it is estimated
that the consolidation time could be more than 50 years with
overall settlements of 2.5-4.0m. therefore, vacuum
consolidation with prefabricated vertical drains (pVds) was
suggested to accelerate the consolidation process and to
minimise lateral deformation adjacent to the moreton Bay
marine park (indraratna et al. 2011).
the effectiveness of the vacuum preloading assisted by
pVds has been illustrated by chu et al. (2000) and chai et al.
(2005). in this technique, vacuum pressure can propagate to a
greater depth of the subsoil via pVd length. also, extended
consolidation time due to stage construction can be minimized
(indraratna et al. 2005). the surcharge fill height can be reduced
by several metres, if a vacuum pressure (at least 70 kpa) is
applied and sustained (rujikiatkamjorn et al. 2008). the
embankment construction rate can be increased and the number
of construction stages can be reduced (Yan and chu 2003).
once the soil has increased its stiffness and shear strength due
to consolidation, the post-construction settlement will be
significantly less, thereby eliminating any risk of differential
settlement of the overlying infrastructure (shang et al. 1998).
to the authors knowledge, there is no comprehensively

reported case history where both the conventional surcharge


preloading and vacuum technique have been applied in the same
area with distinct variation of drain types and spacing.
in this paper, the performance between the vacuum and
non-vacuum areas has been compared based on the measured
settlements, excess pore pressures and lateral displacements.
the influences of drain spacing, drain types and type of soil
improvement are discussed based on the observed degree of
consolidation. the analytical solutions for radial consolidation
considering both time dependent surcharge loading and vacuum
pressure are proposed to predict the settlement and associated
excess pore pressure.
2

General description of emBanKment


characteristics and site conditions

at the port of Brisbane, to evaluate the performance of the


vacuum consolidation system with the non-vacuum system
(pVd and surcharge load), a trial area (s3a) shown in fig. 1
was partitioned into Wd1-Wd5 (non-vacuum areas) and Vc1Vc2 (Vacuum areas). after placing the dredged fill, the mud
was capped off with a 2-3m layer of dredged sand, which acted
as a working platform for pVd installation machine, whilst
serving as a drainage layer.
the upper holocene sand beneath the reclaimed dredged
mud was about 2m thick, followed by the holocene clay layer
with different in thickness from 6m to 25m. a pleistocene
deposit containing highly over-consolidated clay underlies the
softer holocene clay layer. site investigation techniques
including cone penetration/piezocone tests, dissipation tests,
boreholes, field vane shear tests and oedometer tests were
carried out to assess the relevant consolidation and stability
design parameters. the water contents of the soil layers were
similar to or exceed their liquid limits. the vane tests show that
the undrained shear strength of the reclaimed dredged mud and

2497

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

the holocene clays were from 5 to 60 kpa. the compression


index changed from 0.1 to 1.0. the coefficient of consolidation
in vertical direction is similar to that in horizontal direction (ch)
for the remoulded dredged mud layer, while cv/ch is about 2 for
the holocene clay layer.
70m

WD5A
35m

84.5m

41m

WD5B

MS22-1

WD1 VWP2-WD1

WD5B

70m

MS15-1

WD2

MS19VWP5

WD3
MS18-1
MS27WD3

VWP1-WD2

70m

MS20-VWP5

VC1

VC1-2

interpretation of field resUlts

the embankment performances including settlements and


excess pore pressures together with the staged construction of
the embankments are depicted in fig. 2. it would be observed
that the trends are very comparable where the settlement
occured more quickly at the early stage of consolidation. the
amount of final settlement depends on the clay thickness and
embankment height. the highest settlement was measured in
the Wd4 area having the greatest clay thickness (19-26m),
whereas the lowest settlement was in the Wd5a area in which
the clay layer was relatively thin (8-12m).

VWP4-WD4

MS17-1

155m

WD4
MS16-1

VC2
VC2-1

84.5m

pipes and the pumps that represent the vacuum system. the
horizontally pipes offered the desired uniform distribution of
suction beneath the membrane. the measured suction varied
from 60 kpa to 75 kpa, and no air leaks were observed during
vacuum application that ensured the intact seal provided by the
membrane. a vacuum pressure of 70kpa was applied after 40
days.

50m

MS28-VC1
169m
210m

Embankment Height (m)

Surface settlement plates


Piezometers
Inclinometers

figure 1. site layout for s3a with instrumentation plan

the surcharge preloading system was adopted for the inner


areas (Wd1-Wd5) while, in the outer area (Vc1 and Vc2)
close to the marine park, the technique of vacuum combined
preloading was selected to control lateral displacement in order
to minimise disturbance of the nearby marine habitats. stringent
design criteria were adopted for the design and construction of
emabankment over the soft holocene deposits: (a) service load
of 15-25 kpa, (b) maximum residual settlement less than 250
mm over 20 years after treatment. the surcharge embankment
heights varied from 3.0m to 9.0m. Based on the design criteria,
table 1 presents the pVd characteristics and treatment types
applied to each section. in the non-vacuum areas, both circular
and band shape drains were established in a square pattern at a
spacing in the range of 1.1-1.3m. the length of pVds changed
from 6m to 27.5m across the site as shown in the table 1.

Vertical displacement
(m)
Excess pore pressure (kPa)

drain type
Wd1
Wd2
Wd3
Wd4
Wd5a
Wd5B
Vc1
Vc2

circular
drains
circular
drains
Band drain
type -a
Band drains
type -a
Band drains
type -B
Band drains
type -B
circular
drains
circular
drains

fill height
(m)

treatment
scheme

1.1

5.2

surcharge

1.3

7-7.2

surcharge

1.1

4.3-4.6

surcharge

1.3

6.1

surcharge

1.2

3.3

surcharge

1.1

5.5

surcharge

1.2

3.2

1.2

2.8

4
2
0
100

table 1. pVd characteristics and improvement scheme


drain
spacing

(a)
6

200

300

400

100

200

300

4 00

100

200
300
Time (days)

400

0.5
1
1.5
2

200

(b)

WD3
WD5A
WD5B
VC1
VC2

(c)

100

-100

figure 2. embankment responses (a) staged construction, (b)


settlements and (c) excess pore pressures

the measured lateral displacement normalized to total


change in applied stress (vacuum plus surcharge load) for two
inclinometer locations is shown in fig. 3. for Wd3 area, the
total surcharge height was 90 kpa, whereas for Vc1 area the
reduced surcharge pressure of 40 kpa was complemented with a
vacuum pressure of 65 kpa. the lateral displacements clearly
lessen in the holocene sand due to its greater stiffness. fig. 3
indicates that the lateral movements are effectively controlled to
minimise the disturbance in the adjacent moreton Bay marine
park, due to the isotropic consolidation by vacuum pressure.

surcharge+
vacuum
surcharge+
vacuum

the inevitable variation in drain lengths was attributed to


the non-uniform clay thickness. Wick drains (Band drain typea and Band drain type-B) had dimensions of 100mm x 4mm,
and the circular drains had an internal diameter of 34mm. the
authors have deliberately omitted the commercial brand names
of all pVds used.
to monitor the ground behaviour,
comprehensive instruments were installed e.g. settlement plates,
vibrating wire piezometers, magnetic extensometers, and
inclinometers. in the vacuum area, only circular drains were
employed at a spacing of 1.2m in conjunction with a high
density polyethylene (hdp) membrane, horizontal perforated

2498

settlement and eXcess pore pressUre


predictions

in order to analyse the radial consolidation caused by vertical


drains, the unit cell theory has been employed to predict the
settlement and excess pore pressure. a unit cell theory was
introduced by Barron (1948) and richart (1957) for surcharge
preloading alone. lekha et al. (1998) further extended the radial
consolidation by including time-dependent surcharge loading.
indraratna et al. (2005) introduced the unit cell analysis for
vacuum preloading under instantaneous loading while Geng et
al. (2012) proposed analytical solutions under time-dependent

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

surcharge preloading. during embankment construction, the


surcharge fill is increased at a prescribed rate to reach the
desired height. therefore, the time-dependent loading due to the
filling would be more realistic than an instantaneous loading,
especially during the stages of embankment construction. in this
section, the embankment load is assumed to be a ramp loading:
i.e., the embankment load (t) increases linearly with time up to
a maximum value (within time t0 and is constant thereafter
(fig. 4a). the vacuum is applied at t=tvac. figure 4b shows the
unit cell adopted for analytical solutions with boundary
conditions (fig. 4c).
10

Platform

Platform

4
2

Dredged mud

Holocene sand

HS

-2

Upper Holocene Clay

UHC

-4

Depth (m)

Dredged mud

LHC

-10
-12
-14
-16

Lower Holocene Clay

-18
-20
-22
-24

Section/Plate No.
VC1/MS28
WD3/MS27

-26
-28
-30
0

1
2
Lateral displacement/Total change in applied stress
(mm/kPa)

figure 3. comparison of lateral displacements at the embankment toe in


vacuum and non-vacuum area after 400 days (indraratna et al. 2011)

(a)

(b)
(c)
figure 4. (a) time-dependent surcharge loading, (b) unit cell including
smear zone, and (c) boundary conditions with vacuum distribution (after
indraratna et al. 2011)

the excess pore pressure due to radial consolidation


considering smear effect under time-dependent surcharge can be
expressed by (indraratna et al. 2011):

uL

8ch t
1 exp
2

8ch t0
d e

d e2

for

8ch t t0
8ch t0
exp

uL
1 exp
2
d e2
8ch t0
d e

d e2

0 t t0

for t t0

(1)
(2)

recently, indraratna et al. (2005) proposed that the excess


pore pressure dissipation due to vacuum pressure alone could be
determined from:
(3)
u vac 0,
t t vac
8ch t tvac
u vac p0 exp
d e2

p0 ,

t t vac

(4)

2499

2k
kh
3
lns h l 2
4
3q w
ks

(5)

n de dw

(6)

s ds dw

(7)

where, de = the diameter of soil cylinder dewatered by a drain,


ds= the diameter of the smear zone, dw = the equivalent diameter
of the drain, ks= horizontal soil permeability in the smear zone
and qw = drain discharge capacity.
the excess pore pressure at a given time t can calculated
based on the equations (2) to (7). for normally consolidated
clay, the settlement () can now be determined by the following
equation:
(8)
'
HCc

-6
-8

n
s

ln

1 e0

log
'i

where, = settlement at a given time, Cc = compression index,


and H = compressible soil thickness.
in order to calculate excess pore pressures and associated
settlements, equations (1)-(8) are employed using parameters in
table 2. for the completely remoulded dredged mud that was
reclaimed from the seabed and the Upper holocene sand the
ratio kh/ks was assumed to be unity. for the upper and lower
holocene clay, the ratios of kh/ks and ds/dw were 2 and 3,
respectively, in accordance with the laboratory obsevrvation
decribed by indraratna and redana (1998).
the embankment load was applied according to a staged
construction (unit weight of 20 kn/m3). settlement and
associated excess pore pressure predictions were calculated at
the embankment centreline using eqs. 1-8. it is noted that, at the
beginning of each subsequent stage, the initial in-situ effective
stress was calculated based on the final degree of consolidation
of the previous stage. in vacuum areas, a suction pressure of 65
kpa was employed.
figures 5 and 6 present the predicted settlement and
associated excess pore pressure with the measured data in areas
Wd1 and Vc1, where the total applied load (vacuum and
surcharge =120-130kpa) and clay thickness (20-23m) are
comparable. overall, the comparisons between prediction and
field observation show that the settlement and associated pore
water pressure can be predicted very well. in vacuum areas, the
degree of consolidation was more than 90% after 13 months,
whereas that in the non-vacuum area was less than 85%. this
confirms that, at a given time, the vacuum combined preloading
would speed up consolidation compared to a surcharge
preloading alone. this is because in non-vacuum areas, a staged
embankment construction had to be adopted to avoid any
undrained failure in the remoulded dredged layer.
table 2. soil properties for each layer
Soil
Cc/(1+e0)
layer Soil type
1
dredged mud
0.235
Upper holocene
2
0.01
sand
Upper holocene
3
0.18
clay
lower
4
0.2
holocene clay

ch
(m2/yr)
1

kh/ks
1

s=ds/dw
1

1.9

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

analysed and discussed. the dredged materials from the seabed


were placed in the reclaimed area. a total of 8 areas were
selected to examine the performance of vacuum consolidation,
and the vertical drain spacing varied from 1-1.3m for 3 different
drain types. the vacuum application induces an inward lateral
movement, whereas the conventional surcharge fill creates
outward movement. When the vacuum pressure combined with
surcharge fill is employed, the overall lateral movement is
decreased due to the isotropic consolidation induced by vacuum
pressure. from a stability point of view, vacuum pressure
reduces the ratio of lateral displacement to surcharge fill height
at any given time.
the unit cell theory considering time-dependent surcharge
load and vacuum application was employed to predict the
settlement and associated excess pore pressure, which provided
a good agreement with the field measurements. after 1 year, the
degree of consolidation in the vacuum areas was much higher
than the non-vacuum areas for the same total stress.

Embankment Height (m)

5
(a)

4
3
2
1
00

100

Settlement (m)

0.4

200
300
Time (days)

400

500
(b)
Field
Prediction

0.8
1.2

Excess pore pressure (kPa)

1.6
0

100

80

200
300
Time (days)

400

500

(c)

60
40
20
0

Field
Prediction
0

100

200
300
Time (days)

400

500

figure 5. Wd1 area: (a) stages of loading, (b) surface settlements at the
embankment centreline and (c) excess pore pressures at 9.2m deep

Embankment Height (m)

(a)
3

2
1
Vacuum application of 70 kPa

Settlement (m)

00

Excess pore pressure (kPa)

100

200
300
Time (days)

400

500
(b)
Field
Prediction

0.4

0.8

1.2
80

100

200
300
Time (days)

400

500
(c)
Field
Prediction

40

-40

100

200
300
Time (days)

400

500

figure 6. Vc1 area: (a) stages of loading, (b) surface settlements at the
embankment centreline and (c) excess pore pressures at 14.1m deep
(indraratna et al. 2011)

Writers acknowledge the support of the port of Brisbane


corporation, coffey Geotechnics and austress menard. the
research funding from the australia research council is
acknowledged. the assistance of prof. a.s. Balasubramaniam
of Griffith University, daniel Berthier of austress menard, prof
harry poulos, cynthia de Bok, tine Birkemose and chamari
Bamunawita of coffey Geotechnics is appreciated. most of the
contents reported in this paper are also described in greater
detail in a number of and asce Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental engineering.
7

conclUsions

a system of vertical drains with vacuum preloading is an


effective method for speeding up soil consolidation. the
performance of 2 treatment schemes at the port of Brisbane was

2500

acKnoWledGements

references

Barron, r. a. 1948. the influence of drain wells on the consolidation of


fine-grained soils. diss., providence, U s eng. office.
chai, J.c., carter, J.p., and hayashi, s. 2005. Ground deformation
induced by vacuum consolidation. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131(12):1552-1561.
chu, J. Yan, s.W., and Yang, h. 2000. soil improvement by the
vacuum preloading method for an oil storage station. Geotechnique,
50(6): 625-632.
Geng, X. Y., indraratna, B. and rujikiatkamjorn, c. (2012). analytical
solutions for a single vertical drain with vacuum and timedependent surcharge preloading in membrane and membraneless
systems. International Journal of Geomechanics, asce, 12(1), 2742.
indraratna, B., and redana, i. W. 1998. laboratory determination of
smear zone due to vertical drain installation. J. Geotech. Eng.,
asce, 125(1): 96-99.
indraratna, B., sathananthan, i., rujikiatkamjorn c. and
Balasubramaniam, a. s. 2005. analytical and numerical modelling
of soft soil stabilized by pVd incorporating vacuum preloading.
International Journal of Geomechanics, 5(2). 114-124.
indraratna, B., rujikiatkamjorn, c., ameratunga, J., and Boyle, p. 2011
performance and prediction of Vacuum combined surcharge
consolidation at port of Brisbane. J. of Geotechnical &
Geoenvironmental Engineering, asce, 137 (11), 1009-1018.
richart, f.e. 1957. a review of the theories for sand drains. Journal of
the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, asce, 83(3): 1-38.
rujikiatkamjorn, c., indraratna, B. and chu, J. 2008. 2d and 3d
numerical modeling of combined surcharge and vacuum preloading
with vertical drains. International Journal of Geomechanics, 8(2):
144-156.
shang, J.Q., tang, m., and miao, Z. 1998. Vacuum preloading
consolidation of reclaimed land: a case study. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, 35: 740-749.
Yan, s.W. and chu, J. 2003. soil improvement for a road using a
vacuum preloading method. Ground Improvement, 7(4): 165-172.

Improvement of a Clay Deposit using Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Pre-loading.


A Case Study
Amlioration d'unofmassif
d'argile
l'aide
de drains
verticaux prfabriqus
et de pr-chargement.
Improvement
a Clay
Deposit
using
Prefabricated
Vertical Drains
and Pre-loading
Une
tude
de
cas
- A Case Study

Amlioration
d'unS.J.M.
massif d'argile l'aide de drains verticaux prfabriqus et de pr-chargement
Islam M.S., Yasin
-Bangladesh
Une tude
de casof Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
University
Islam M.S., Yasin S.J.M.

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh


aBstract: construction of a container terminal covering an area of of 153,000 m2 is underway at chittagong sea port in
Bangladesh, situated on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river at its confluence with the Bay of Bengal. the sub-soil at the site
consisted of a 4 to 6 m thick clay layer with random zones of soft to stiff clay (cl). this was underlain by a 10 m thick loose to
medium dense silt/fine sand (sm) layer below which a loose clayey silt layer existed beyond 30 m depth. the unconfined
compressive strength, void ratio and compression index of the soft clay zones varied in the ranges of 12~16 kpa, 0.8~1.2 and 0.2~0.3,
respectively. the targeted use of the land required improvement of the sub-soil. this paper presents the design considerations,
comparison of required time and cost of alternative options, effectiveness of the adopted measure and the achieved improvement of
the engineering properties. actual consolidation settlements were up to 600 mm over a period of about 30 days with pVd and preload. the effectiveness of the available theories of consolidation settlement under vertical and radial drainage, in the design of the
ground improvement measures, has been demonstrated.
rsUm : . la construction d'un terminal conteneurs d'une superficie de 153.000 m2 est en cours en ville portuaire de chittagong
au Bangladesh, situe sur la rive droite de la rivire Karnaphuli sa confluence avec le golfe du Bengale. le sous-sol sur le site se
composait d'une couche de 4 6 m d'paisseur d'argile avec des zones alatoires d'argile molle raide (cl). cela a t superpose
une paisseur de 10 m limon / sable fin (sm) lche dense, une couche en dessous de laquelle une couche limon argileux lche
existait au-del de 30 m de profondeur. la rsistance la compression, lindice des vides et l'indice de compression des zones d'argile
molle varient dans les plages de 12 16 kpa, 0.8 ~ 1.2 ~ 0.3 et 0.2, respectivement. l'utilisation obligatoire de ces terres requiert
l'amlioration du sous-sol. cet article prsente la conception, la comparaison du temps ncessaire et le cot des options alternatives,
l'efficacit de la mesure adopte et de l'amlioration obtenue des proprits mcaniques. les tassements de consolidation rels ont t
de 600 mm sur une priode d'environ 30 jours avec pVd et pr-chargement. dans la conception de l'amlioration des sols, l'efficacit
des thories existantes de tassement de consolidation en vertu de drainage vertical et radial a t dmontr.
KeYWords: clay, Ground improvement, pre-loading, pVd
1

introdUction

chittagong sea port, the largest sea port of Bangladesh is


situated on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river at its
confluence with the Bay of Bengal. the port, that once handled
mostly bulk cargo is gradually shifting its operational mode to
handle increasing volume of container traffic. in this regard,
chittagong port authority (cpa) is implementing a project for
construction of backup facilities at new mooring behind berths
4 and 5. the site is locally known as nct (new-mooring
container terminal). the project area is about 153,000 m2
which is planned to accommodate stacking yard for containers,
passage for truck and trailer movement, tracks for Gantry
crane, electrical substation etc.
a comprehensive geotechnical investigation was carried out
at the site to assess the sub-soil condition, decide on the
necessity of improvement and determine relevant design
parameters for the envisaged improvement methodology. the
soil profile in the project area, consisted of a 4 to 6 m thick soft
to medium stiff clay layer, underlain by a 10 m thick loose to
medium dense silt/fine sand layer below which a loose clayey
silt layer existed to more than 30 m depth.
to keep conformity with the earlier constructed adjacent
yard, it is considered that the area will be paved with
interlocking block (ilB) except the rmG (rail mounted
Gantry) and rtG (rubber tyred Gantry) tracks which will be
pile founded. on the basis of design requirements and
geotechnical characteristics, improvement of the upper soft clay
layer was considered essential to eliminate the possibility of
differential settlement within the yard as well as between pile
founded structures (i.e. jetty and rmG, rtG tracks) and yard.

from an study of several alternatives, prefabricated Vertical


drain (pVd) with pre-loading was adopted as the ground
improvement measure for the site. improvement measures have
been completed on a part of the project area. the settlement
under preloading with pVd has been monitored using
settlement plates. field and laboratory tests have also been
conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted measures
in terms of change of soil properties. this paper presents the
geotechnical characteristics of the sub-soil in the area, the
design considerations and a comparison of cost of several
alternative improvement methods. from the limited data, that
has so far been available, comparison of some engineering
properties before and after preloading has also been made.
2

site location and topoGraphY

the site for the container yard is in a tidal plain at a narrow strip
between chittagong hilly uplands and the Bay of Bengal.
Geologically it is a recent alluvium formed by the material
carried by the river Karnaphuli and its tributaries from the upper
tertiary hills. figure 1 shows the site map with grid lines. about
half of the land, the eastern side (segments marked 1, 2, 3 and 4)
had been used as jetty yard for more than 50 years and housed
storage sheds for general cargo, road and railway tracks. the
other half (western part, segments marked 1a, 2a, 3a and 4a)
contained a city road, a residential area of cpa containing
one/two storey building, ponds, play ground, open land, village
dwellings etc. different parts of this western side had different
elevations with 1~3 m ditches. Because of earlier diverse use of
the land, there was little possibility of homogeneity of the upper
soil layer in the area.

2501

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

sUB-soil characterisctics

a total of 67 exploratory boreholes were drilled in the area to


gather information about sub-soil type and characteristics. the
borehole locations were carefully decided to make them
distributed over the entire area as well as to cover zones of
different land use (i.e. pond, road, houses etc.). the borehole
that are referred here are marked by grid points as shown in
figure 1. the boreholes, approximately 100 mm in diameter,
were drilled using water flush aided by chiselling. twelve
boreholes were of 30.5 m depth and the rest were of 15.0 m
depth below the existing ground level. standard penetration
tests (spt). were made at 1.5 m interval. Undisturbed samples
were retrieved from cohesive layers by pushing conventional 76
mm external diameter thin-walled shelby tubes. disturbed
samples were also collected from the spt spoon (conventional
split spoon) from cohesive and cohesionless soil layers at
different depths for visual-manual identification of the layers as
well as for laboratory testing.
50

SPT N-value (uncorrected)


16
24
32

-8
Fine
sand/silt
8~10 m

-12

-16
Claye silt
16m~

-20

Distance in meter

Grid points

-24

C-0 BL
D-6 BL
F-5 BL
H-7 BL
I-1 BL
L-8 BL
B-9 BL

3
4A

11
12
13

-32

Fine content, %
0

16

LL, PL, PI
24 0

15
16
17
18

20

40

60

LL/BL
PL/BL
PI/BL

-1

14

D-8 BL
E-4 BL
H-9 BL
I-5 BL
J-7 BL
L-6 BL

figure 2 General ground profile and variation of spt with depth.

Reduced Level, m

Jetty deck

2
3A

9
10

-28

KarnafUli riVer

2A

1
2
3
4

7
8

48

Silty clay
4~6 m

-4

100

5
6

40

N
M
1A
L
K
J
I
H
G
F
E
D
C

silt', the field spt-n values ranged between 5 and 27 except in


one borehole where a 'sandy silt' layer existed.

Reduced Level, m

Void ratio, e 0

80 0.4

LL/AL
PL/AL
PI/AL

0.8

1.2
BL

1.6

AL

-2
-3
-4
-5

19

-6

figure 1 site map showing grids and loading blocks.

10

20

MC, %
30

40

0
BL

AL

50 0

qu , kPa

100

BL

200
AL

300 0

Com p. Index, C c
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

0
BL

AL

-1
Reduced Level, m

in general, the sub-soil at the site is found to consist of a


layer of soft to medium stiff silty clay extending from the
ground surface to about 4 to 6 m depth. this layer is underlain
by a 10 m thick loose to medium dense fine sand/silt layer. A
clayey silt layer is encountered below the fine sand/silt layer
which extend beyond the maximum depth of investigation (i.e.,
about 30 m from surface). thus, up to a depth of 30 m the subsoil at the site is idealized to have three distinct layers (top silty
clay layer, intermediate fine sand/silt layer and bottom clayey
silt layer). in a small number of boreholes medium dense sand
was encountered near the ground surface instead of the clay
layer, which was probably a fill during past use of the land.
figure 2 presents the field spt-n values at different depths for
the explored borehole locations and the stratigraphy. in the top
silty clay layer, field spt-n values (not corrected for
overburden) ranged between 2 to 10. spt-n values greater than
10 in the top layer are for locations where pockets of sand/silt
exist. in the second layer (fine sand/silt), field spt-n values
ranged between 5 and 44. in the bottom layer, which is 'clayey

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

figure 3 Variation of index, strength and deformation properties of the


upper clay deposit with rl (Bl=Before loading, al=after loading).

extensive laboratory tests have been conducted on samples


of top silty clay layer (Brtc, BUet report, 2009) and some of
the results are presented in figure 3. the layer may be

2502

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

characterized as having ll=50~60, pl=20~30, pi =20~30,


nmc=20~35%. according to Unified soil classification
system (Uscs), the soil in this layer is mostly plastic-silty clay
of low plasticity (cl), though a few samples were found to be
clay of high plasticity (ch). on the Uscs chart, the data points
lie just above a-line. the dry unit weight varied in the range of
13~15 kn/m3 and the range of void ratio was 0.80~1.20. the
variation of these properties can be seen from figure 3. the
layer also has some organic content is about 1.4~4.0%. the
values of the coefficient of consolidation in the vertical
direction, cv were mostly within 3.1 to 25.2 m2/year and at
some location as low as 0.79 m2/year.
4

desiGn of GroUnd improVement method

it was decided by cpa, that the project will be carried out by


local contractors. therefore, capacity, experience, equipments
etc. of local contractors were to be considered in the design of
the yard. furthermore, ground improvement was to be
completed for the entire project site within one year. hence, the
area was divided into four blocks and time for improvement for
each block was 3 months. an area adjacent to the north
boundary of the site was earlier developed for similar purpose,
by a foreign contractor, where dynamic temping was used for
ground improvement and interlocking block pavement was
made. to keep similarity with the earlier part, interlocking
block pavement was decided for this yard too.
the presence of very soft to medium stiff silty clay at
various locations within the site indicated strong possibility of
substantial total and differential settlement unless effective
measures for improvement of sub-soil are undertaken before the
construction of pavement for the container Yard. therefore,
effective measures for improvement of sub-soil before the
construction of pavement were considered essential in order to
avoid/minimize future problems.
the necessity and extent of the ground improvement
measures are judged with an objective to reduce the differential
settlement and maintenance operations considering the
maximum load from stacking of containers on the entire area
(i.e. p= 52 kn/m2). it should be understood that a solution, for
which there will be no future settlement, will lead to high cost
and time for completion and thus may not be practical. the load
on the rtG tracks from the gantry is estimated to be 77.5
kn/m2. the extent of improvement and design of pavement
system at the site is targeted to keep maintenance option with
minimal disruption. for rtG and rmG tracks and other
facilities, suitable deep/shallow foundations will be considered
so that they do not undergo relative settlement with respect to
jetty top.
five alternatives, that appeared to be feasible for local
contractors, were assessed. these are- (i) preloading (ii) sand
drain with surcharge (iii) pVd with surcharge and (iv) dynamic
Working surface for pVd installation

compacted backfilling. table 1 presents the comparison of cost


and completion time for different methods. Both time and cost
depends to some extent on the number of equipments mobilized
and source of material, particularly the surcharge (max. 5 m of
soil considered). considering the capacity of local contractors
minimal engagement of equipments and dredge sand from the
Karnaphuli river were considered. though dynamic
temping/compaction appeared to be very prospective in terms of
time and cost, it posed the risk of damaging the adjacent yard
and structures. finally, pVd with surcharge was adopted as the
ground improvement measures, mainly because of reduced time
in pVd driving compared to sand drain installation, though
pVd is an imported material. also this method was considered
advantageous over other methods in bringing the clay layer to a
state where differential settlement potential will be reduced as it
will automatically take care of soft zones and bring the soft and
stiff zones to closer soil properties in terms of deformation and
strength.
since, from e~log(p) curves, most of the samples of the
upper clay layer was found to be normally consolidated, the
total consolidation settlement under the working loads (52 kpa)
without improvement was calculated using sc=e.h,
e=cc/(1+e0)log(p+p'0)/p'0 and p'0 ='h where, e0= initial
void ratio, p'0 = effective past maximum overburden pressure,
'=effective unit weight of soil, h=thickness of the compressible
layer. the estimated settlement for different borehole locations
varied from about 140 mm to 570 mm. this variation is due to
difference in e0, cc and layer thickness. in these estimations, p
is calculated as p = 0[1-{1+(r/z)2}-1.5] where 0=intensity of
stress applied on the surface, r = radius of the loaded area,
p=increase in stress at depth z from the centre of the loaded
area. this expression for p is obtained by integration of
Boussinesque's equation that gives the stress at a point within a
semi-infinite, homogeneous, isotropic, weightless, elastic halfspace for a point load on the surface (Bowels,1988). estimated
time to achieve this consolidation (Uav 99%) varied from
about 50 days to more than 700 days for different borehole
locations. the time was determined using terzaghi's one
dimensional consolidation theory with double drainage and
constant initial pore pressure distribution using the equations
(das, 1983):
m 2

U av 1

m 0 m

Ur 1 e

h2

8T r
)
m

where Tr

C vr t

d e2
k
n
n 3 S
m 2
ln 2 h
2
S
4
ks
n S
4n

de
ds
and S
n
dw
dw

200 mm
300 mm
150 mm

n2 S 2

n2

ln S

the equivalent diameter of pVd was calculated following


hansbo (1979) as

5m

figure 4 details of the ground improvement work.

cvt
2

and m 2m 1
e m t v , tv

it was intended to apply a surcharge with pVd such that a


maximum of 25 mm of total settlement remains to occur in
future under the working loads expecting a differential
settlement of not more than 12 mm. estimation of required time
to achieve this level of consolidation was made considering
both vertical and radial drainage (carillo,1942) as U=1-(1Uv)(1-Ur) where Uv and Ur are the average degree of
consolidation respectively for vertical and radial drainage. the
average degree of consolidation for radial drainage was
calculated using the following as

surcharge, 5m of soil

pVd

dw

temping and (v) soft pocket identification, removal and

2(b t )

where, b is the width and t is the thickness of pVd. considering


smear effect s was chosen between 1.0 and 1.2. the effective
diameter of soil column around the pVd was taken as de=1.06s,
s=pVd spacing in triangular pattern.
for all the calculations horizontal permeability is taken as

2503

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

the pVd used were of 100 mm width, 3 mm thick placed 1m


c/c in triangular pattern. other properties - drain: Water
discharge capacity 9010-6 m3/s, and 6010-6 m3/s respectively
at 10 and 350 kpa (i=0.5); core: tensile strength 700 n; filter
jacket: apparent opening size (aos) 90 m, Grab tensile
strength 400 n, elongation at break 50%, puncture resistance
130 n, Burst strength 800 kn/m2, permeability 210-4 m/s.
details of the ground improvement work is shown in figure 4.
5

assessment of GroUnd improVement

monitoring of settlement has been made using settlement


plates placed at 25 m grid as shown in figure 1. after
preloading exploratory boreholes were made at selected
locations with field spt and laboratory tests were conducted on
collected undisturbed samples.
SPT N-value (uncorrected)

16

24

32

40

48

0
E-4 BL
D-8 BL
F-5 BL
L-6 BL
I-8 BL
D-8 AL
F-5 AL
L-6 AL
I-8 AL

-2

-4

Reduced level, m

-6

J-2 BL
D-6 BL
J-7 BL
K-8 BL
I-8 BL
D-6 AL
J-7 AL
K-8 AL
Afte r loading
Data points

600

350

500

300
250
200
150
100

400
300
200
100

(a)

50

(b)

0
0

50

100 150 200 250 300


qu, kPa (Before loading)

350

400

100

200
300
400
500
Estimated settlement, mm

600

figure 6 comparison of (a) unconfined compressive strength and


(b) observed and estimated settlement .

the unconfined compressive strength of the upper clay layer


before and after preloading can be seen on figure 6(a) for
different locations and depths. in general the unconfined
compression strength has increased at most of the spots.
however, the magnitude of increase is not same. a few data
points lie below the 45 degree line, that apparently shows to
have reduction in strength but quite unlikely. the reason for
these discrepancies may be the variation of non-plastic silt
content in the layer.
in figure 6(b) the recorded settlements are plotted against
the estimated settlement for some of the grid points. out of the
six locations (for which estimates were made) four appear to
match reasonably well. for one location the observed settlement
is about five times the estimated value, which may be due to
presence of localized sand lenses. on the other hand for another
location the observed settlement is one-fifth of the estimated
value, which may be due to clogging or disturbance of the clay
during drain installation. conclusive comments regarding the
variation may be made when data from the remaining project
work become available.
6

conclUsions

the following conclusions can be made based on the design and


field monitoring of the ground improvement work:
1) due to the application of the surcharge with pVd the
consolidation settlement could be achieved within the stipulated
time.
2) Both the spt-n value and unconfined compressive strength
were found to increase satisfactorily due to application of
preload with pVd.
3) the available theories of 1-d consolidation and combined
vertical and radial consolidation used in the design of ground
improvement for the project site using pVd and preload
appeared to have been fairly applicable. predicted and observed
settlement matched reasonably.
7

-8

acKnoWledGements

this research work was carried out in connection with the consultancy
services provided to cpa through Brtc, BUet. the authors would
like to express their sincere thanks to cpa and contractor's personnel
involved in the project.

-10

-12

-14

400

Observed settlement, mm

table 1 comparison of estimated cost and completion time for different


ground improvement methods.
method
time
cost comments
(month) (million
Usd)
reliable
Better assessment of improvement
preloading
36
1.96
long time required for
improvement
relatively less reliable
sand drain
installation of drains takes long
20
3.29
with surcharge
time
pVd with
reliable
14
3.24
surcharge
Good control of field operation
Vibration may damage adjacent
facilities
dynamic
high noise pollution
11
2.04
compaction
assessment of improvement
needs lot of field tests
relatively less reliable
soft pocket
assessment of improvement is
identification,
difficult
removal and
12
7.25
highly dependent on field
improvement,
monitoring and control
compacted
backfilling

changed. the field spt-n values are found to increase


significantly in the 'fine sand/silt' layer up to about 12 m.

qu, kPa (After loading)

the same as the vertical permeability. from the calculations it


appeared that for 5 m surcharge and pVd the target settlement
would occur within 10 to 50 days in different locations.

8
Be fore loading
Data points

-16

figure 5. Variation of spt-n value before and after loading.

figure 5. compares the field spt-n values at several spots


before and after preloading. it can be observed that in the upper
silty clay layer the spt-n values has become twice or more up
to about 3m depth. at about 4~5m, which is the boundary
between the clay and sand/silt layer the spt-n values have not

2504

references

Bowels, J.e. (1988) foundation analysis and design, 4th edn.,


mcGraw-hill Book company.
Brtc, BUet report (2009) sub-soil investigation and ground
improvement measures for construction of backup facilities behind
berth 4 & 5 at new mooring container terminal (nct), cpa,
chittagong.
carillo, n.J. (1942) simple two- and three- dimensional cases in the
theory of consolidation of soils.Journ. math. and phy.(21),pp.1-5.
das, B.m. (1983) advanced soil mechanics, international edn.,
mcGraw hill
hansbo, s.(1979) consolidation of clay by band-shaped prefabricated
drains, Ground engineering,(12),5.pp.16-25.

Importance et applications des inclusions de grande inertie


Importance and practical examples of inertial soil improvement
Jeanty J.M., Mathieu F., Benhamou L.

Soletanche-Bachy, Rueil-Malmaison, France.

Berthelot P.

Bureau Veritas, Paris, France.

rsUm : les techniques traditionnelles damlioration des sols par inclusions visent le plus souvent renforcer laptitude du massif
reprendre les charges verticales auxquelles il est soumis, moyennant des dformations acceptables par les ouvrages. elles peuvent
galement avoir pour objectif damliorer la rsistance aux efforts horizontaux, et plus gnralement aux sollicitations dominante
dviatorique, dans le cadre de problmatiques lies aux sismes (traitements anti-liqufaction), la stabilit gnrale (remblais sur
sols compressibles), la rduction des pousses sur des ouvrages de soutnement, au poinonnement du sol sous de fortes surcharges
(effets de bord), la ralisation dinclusions forte inertie, sous forme de tranches parallles ou de rseaux de tranches, est une
rponse particulirement bien adapte ces problmatiques damlioration des sols. Une manire lgante de construire ces inclusions
sans perturber les structures existantes consiste traiter le sol en place en y incorporant un liant hydraulique, par application des
techniques de soil mixing les plus rcentes. aprs une prsentation de ces mthodes, la communication propose met en vidence le
rle fondamental jou par linertie des inclusions, par des considrations fonctionnelles et par divers exemples dapplication.
aBstract: conventional soil reinforcement techniques as rigid inclusions mainly report vertical loadings to the substratum layer
with an induced settlement. they can also improve soil resistance regarding lateral forces as those related to earthquakes (liquefaction
hazard), or slope stability for embankments on soft soil foundation. they can reduce active pressure on retaining walls.
the appropriate design answer to those issues is to create strong inertia inclusions based on a trench geometry with either a parallel or
a crossed frame arrangement. last but not least, an even better technique to build those inclusions with a reduced environment impact
consists in treating in situ soil by adding cement. this article presents different soil mixing projects and explains how strong inertia
trenches are relevant.
mots-cls: amlioration de sols, sol-mixing, sol-ciment, inclusions rigides, inertie, liqufaction, soutnement, pousse des terres,
tassement, tranches de sol-mixing.
KeYWords : soil reinforcement , soil mixing, rigid inclusions, slope stability, retaining wall, liquefaction, seismic, active pressure,
Bouassida approach, settlement, soil mixing caissons, soil mixing trench, crosswalls.
1

introdUction

le soil mixing profond est une technique dveloppe dans les


annes 1970 en europe du nord et au Japon, initialement pour
rsoudre des problmatiques lies au comportement des sols
compressibles. cette technique consiste amliorer les
caractristiques dun sol en le mlangeant en place avec un liant
hydraulique.
la dstructuration des terrains et lincorporation du liant
seffectue par des moyens mcaniques, en utilisant un outil dont
la gomtrie et le mouvement dans le terrain dfinissent les
dimensions des lments de sol trait.
la mise en uvre de cette technique a longtemps fait appel
lutilisation doutillages simples ou multiples, rotatifs axe
vertical, munis de pales latrales de gomtries trs varies. des
outils de type tarire simple ou tarires multiples avec inversion
des sens de rotation entre forage descendant et malaxage /
compactage en remontant sont aussi utiliss. des colonnes
ralises par jet-grouting peuvent aussi tre apparentes au solmixing.
plus rcemment, durant la dernire dcennie, de nouveaux
procds de soil mixing avec des outils axe horizontal ont fait
leur apparition : haveuses et trancheuses. ces procds ont
permis de repousser les limites du soil mixing en largissant la
mthode au traitement dune plus large gamme de sols et
prsentant des atouts en termes de caractristiques et
dhomognit.

le soil mixing se distingue depuis l'origine des autres procds


d'amliorations des sols en ce sens quil permet de raliser,
l'extrme, des rseaux d'inclusions isoles (pour l'excution
desquelles des outillages de type tarire peuvent tre suffisants)
ou des traitements dans la masse (utilisation d'outillages de type
multitarire ou haveuse pour raliser des "pavs" de sol trait),
mais c'est dans la ralisation d'lments linaires de grande
inertie, de type refend ou cran continu (susceptible la fois de
jouer un rle porteur et d'assurer une fonction soutnement
moyennant l'incorporation d'armatures mtalliques), voire de
rseaux orthogonaux, permettant de confiner le sol en place, que
le soil mixing trouve sa vritable originalit et ses
dveloppements les plus prometteurs.
Gnralement apparent aux rseaux d'inclusions plutt qu'aux
traitements dans la masse, il s'en distingue pourtant de faon
fondamentale, non seulement par les aspects gomtriques
prcdemment voqus, mais encore par ses proprits
mcaniques. cela ne permet de le classer ni dans la catgorie
des inclusions souples (colonnes ballastes, dont la rsistance en
compression est nulle en l'absence d'treinte latrale de la part
du sol avoisinant), ni dans la catgorie des inclusions rigides,
dont la rsistance en compression, qu'il s'agisse de mtal, de
bton ou de mortier, est au contraire indpendante de l'treinte
exerce par le sol et pour lesquelles la rsistance en
compression simple est par consquent le paramtre
dterminant pour le dimensionnement.
au contraire, les proprits du soil mixing sont bel et bien celles
d'un sol amlior, mme s'il ne s'agit gnralement pas d'un

2505

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

traitement uniforme de l'ensemble du massif de fondation, dont


le critre de rupture n'est autre que le critre de coulomb, qui
lui permet de bnficier la fois :
.d'une rsistance intrinsque indpendante de l'treinte (terme de
cohsion) ;
.d'une augmentation de rsistance avec la profondeur en
fonction de l'treinte latrale du sol (terme de frottement).
en termes de dformations, ses proprits sont galement
intermdiaires entre celles gnralement attribues aux
inclusions rigides et souples ce qui conduit naturellement le
ranger dans la catgorie indite des "inclusions semi-rigides".
le tableau qui suit rsume les ordres de grandeurs usuels de la
rsistance la compression fc et du module de dformation ey.
renforcement

inclusion
rigide

inclusion
semi-rigide

inclusion
souple

fc (mpa)

5 500

0.5 5

ey (Gpa)

3 200

0.2 3

0.04 0.08

1.1

Mlange par haveuse

le procd met en uvre un outillage appel cutter soil


mixing (csm), driv de la technologie utilises sur des
machines de type haveuse ou hydrofraise. deux tambours
spcialement conus pour cette application et entrains en
rotation par des moteurs hydrauliques de fort couple, sont
utiliss pour dstructurer et mlanger le sol en place. Une buse
dinjection situe entre ces moteurs permet lincorporation dun
fluide. le mlange ainsi ralis est ensuite dplac soit au
dessus des tambours dans le sens descente ; soit au dessous dans
le sens remonte.
les inclusions construites avec cet outillage jusqu des
profondeurs de quelques dizaines de mtres, sont de section
rectangulaire (longueur courante 2,80 m ; paisseurs 500 1000
mm). elles peuvent tre utilises unitairement (on parle alors de
barrettes) ou disposes de manire contiges afin de constituer
des parois continues (figure 1).
certains outillages plus perfectionns sont munis dun dispositif
de mesure inclinomtrique, permettant de mesurer et de corriger
en temps rel la position de loutil lors de la construction dune
inclusion.
le fluide inject peut tre de diffrents types : il peut sagir dun
fluide facilitant le forage, remplac en phase remonte par un
mlange eau-ciment (appel aussi coulis de ciment). il est
galement possible dinjecter directement un coulis pendant le
forage, la phase de remonte tant alors utilise pour parfaire le
mlange.
le type et la quantit de liant utilise permettent datteindre une
large gamme de caractristiques (rsistance, permabilit,
cohsion, module de dformation), en fonction de la nature des
sols en place.
pour les outillages les plus perfectionns, les volumes injects
ainsi que les nergies de malaxage sont contrls et ajusts en
temps rel grce un systme informatique embarqu dans la
cabine de la machine. tous les paramtres opratoires sont
enregistrs afin dtre restitus sous forme de rapports.

figure 1 : principe de construction de parois avec le procd csm.

enfin, divers types darmatures peuvent tre mis en place dans


le matriau encore frais, permettant ainsi de raliser des
ouvrages de soutnement provisoire ou caractre permanent.
1.2

Mlange par trancheuse

les machines de type trancheuse mettent en uvre une chaine


avec outils de coupe et de malaxage. la chaine est guide par
une lame travaillant dans un plan vertical dans le sol.
lensemble de loutillage prsente une certaine similitude
visuelle avec une trononneuse. laction de cette lame,
combine lincorporation dun fluide, permet de construire des
tranches de sol trait en place (figure 2).
suivant les cas, le liant hydraulique peut tre inject sous la
forme dun coulis ou incorpor au mlange sous forme
pulvrulente, auquel cas une adjonction deau est gnralement
ralise afin de faciliter laction des outils.
les tranches construites de cette manire sont continues, et
toutes les couches de sol sont uniformment mlanges.
lpaisseur de linclusion est de lordre de 0.3 0.5 m pour une
profondeur maximale denviron 10 mtres.
de manire analogue au procd par havage, le procd par
trancheuse saccompagne dun dispositif de contrle-qualit
embarqu, permettant le pilotage de la machine, le respect des
paramtres de traitement ainsi que les enregistrements
ncessaires pour lmission de rapports.

figure 2. principe de construction dune tranche.

2506

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

domaines dapplication

les tranches de sol trait en place peuvent tre parallles une


seule direction ou constituer une trame selon deux directions en
gnral perpendiculaires. le premier cas correspond une
problmatique avec une direction privilgie de sollicitation, le
second avec deux directions de sollicitation dgales
probabilits.
diffrents domaines dapplication selon le type de renforcement
recherch mritent dtre distingus.
.domaine 1 : reprise de charges surfaciques, permettant un
traitement plus rparti qu'avec des inclusions rigides (ce qui
permet de limiter fortement l'effet de "point dur" qui
conditionne sinon le ferraillage du dallage ou du radier susjacent et l'paisseur du matelas de rpartition).
a noter que le caractre "2d" du procd permet en outre de
procder des calculs plus rigoureux que les approches
traditionnelles, utilisant par exemple les coefficients de capacit
portante de Bouassida (Bouassida, 2002) (qui permettent de
traiter le cas d'une semelle de fondation sur sol renforc par une
tranche), ainsi que des modles de calcul numrique en
dformation plane pour le calcul du tassement (ce qui ne serait
pas acceptable pour un rseau d'inclusions isoles).
Un exemple d'application rcent est donn par le chantier de
saint-roch (06), consistant renforcer le sol sous un remblai
sncf par un rseau de tranches longitudinales.

figure 3. coupe type sncf st roch (06).

.domaine 2 : renforcement du sol dans les zones o le champ


de contraintes est dominante dviatorique.
la justification des rseaux d'inclusions repose en gnral sur
des justifications de portance effectues en partie courante de la
surface charge, l o le risque de rupture du massif de sol est
insignifiant dans la mesure o le champ de contraintes est
gnralement de type plutt oedomtrique. le plus souvent,
aucune justification particulire n'est demande dans les zones
soumises de fortes contraintes dviatoires mobilisant de faon
significative la rsistance au cisaillement du sol (priphrie des
zones de stockage par exemple), et corrlativement susceptibles
de mobiliser les inclusions en flexion.
Un exemple de ce type est donn par les zones latrales des
remblais de forte hauteur reposant sur des sols compressibles.
alors, une combinaison judicieuse d'inclusions isoles en partie
centrale et de refends sous la partie latrale a pu tre prconise
et mise en uvre par diffrents auteurs (rf. filz G. & al,
Kitazume m.).

.domaine 3 : rduction des pousses exerces sur les crans de


soutnement.
les inclusions isoles agissent par limitation du tassement
derrire le soutnement et allgement des contraintes verticales
dans le massif de sol par transfert partiel sur les inclusions,
tandis que les inclusions de forte inertie ajoutent cet effet celui
d'une diminution "directe" des contraintes de pousse par
mobilisation du frottement sur les refends autostables.
Un exemple d'application significatif est celui du rempitement
du quai poste 7 du transmanche (calais), pour lequel le premier
mode de comportement s'avrait inefficace en raison d'un
contraste de rigidits verticales insuffisant entre le sol en place
et les inclusions, et o seul l'effet inertiel permettait donc de
rduire la pousse de faon significative (cf chapitre 3.1).
.domaine 4 : traitement anti-liqufaction des sols sous
sollicitation sismiques.
il a t montr (rf. seed) que certaines mthodes de
justification des rseaux d'inclusions disjointes reposaient tort
sur un effet de transfert sur ces dernires des contraintes de
cisaillement induites par le sisme.
ces mthodes reliaient en effet l'efficacit des inclusions leur
module de cisaillement, en ignorant le fait que leur lancement
induit en gnral un mode de dformation en flexion largement
prpondrant par rapport au mode de dformation par
cisaillement, l'instar des poutres sur appuis lastiques de la
rsistance des matriaux.
c'est donc bien l'inertie et non la rigidit qui constitue le facteur
cl dans l'efficacit de ce type de traitement, ce qui conduit l
encore privilgier les rseaux d'inclusions de forte inertie. le
traitement de type "quadrillage" est souvent qualifi tort de
"confinement", alors que c'est bien l'effet "inertiel" qui est
recherch, le double rseau d'crans orthogonaux permettant
avant tout de raliser un traitement isotrope dont l'efficacit est
ainsi rendue indpendante de la direction des ondes sismiques.
Un exemple particulirement reprsentatif est donn par le
chantier de l'extension de la prfecture de fort-de-france, pour
lequel s'ajoutait, la problmatique du traitement de terrains
fortement liqufiables sur une grande hauteur, celle de
l'coulement post-liqufaction induit par le pendage significatif
du substratum, ce qui rendait ncessaire la mise en uvre d'un
rseau autostable (cf chapitre 3.2).

Ntan

figure 5. stabilit. principaux efforts dans le plan dun refend.

3
3.1

figure 4. diagramme de grand glissement.

pp

eXemples dapplication
Renforcement de sol derrire un soutnement

la mise en place de tranches de soil-mixing de grande inertie


larrire dun cran de soutnement permet la rduction des
pousses du terrain sur lcran lui-mme.
Une optimisation de la reprise des efforts de pousse conduit
installer des lments dinertie maximale (concentration des
efforts pour des dplacements limits). des lments isols sont
bien moins efficaces en terme dinertie globale.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

cest ce principe qui a t propos et retenu pour les travaux de


reconstruction du poste transmanche n7 calais.
la mise en place de refends de Geomix (mthode par havage
spcifique lentreprise) perpendiculairement laxe du quai
(figure 6) a permis de rduire la section des palplanches
mettre en uvre dans le cadre des travaux dapprofondissement
du quai.

longueur de seulement 40 m). les inclusions isoles de faible


inertie ne peuvent rsister ce phnomne.
cette premire technique, mise en uvre entre octobre 2010 et
janvier 2011 reprsente un vrai pas en avant dans lapproche des
fondations pour les dpartements doutre mer.
plus largement, il s'agit d'une solution technique innovante,
reposant sur un procd propre soltanche Bachy et qui
rpond efficacement aux problmatiques des clients en sites
sismiques.

figure 6. Vue 3d du renforcement derrire le rideau du quai existant.

le massif de sol trait reprend la pousse des terres et les


palplanches lavant ne reprennent plus que la pousse deau.
la stabilit du massif renforc par les perons de soil mixing est
vrifie vis--vis du non-basculement, du non-glissement, et de
la non extrusion entre tranches.
lautre partie des vrifications a consist tablir la cohsion
homognise du massif de sol, variable de 45 85 kpa pour ce
projet.
la solution de base en barrettes isoles apportait une cohsion
homognise moyenne de lordre de 24 kpa, attestant la bien
moindre performance des renforcements disjoints par rapport
la disposition en refends de grande inertie.
3.2

Traitement anti-liqufaction

les dgts engendrs par le dernier sisme significatif de


novembre 2007 en martinique ont ncessit la reconstruction de
la prfecture de fort de france (btiments type r+4).
le contexte gotechnique du site montre un fort potentiel de
liqufaction des alluvions dominante sablo-limoneuse de
faible caractristique (pl*~0,3 mpa, em~2,2 mpa), sur une
paisseur variable de 9 18 m correspondant la pente du
substratum.
en rponse lappel doffres, lentreprise a propos une
solution variante pour rpondre la fois aux problmatiques de
liqufaction et d'coulement post-liqufaction des sols sur la
pente du substratum.
Un nouveau type de fondations bas sur un quadrillage en sol
mixing sous lemprise totale des btiments (environ 36 m x 40
m) a t conu (figure 7).
les tranches Geomix, dpaisseur 0,50 m, sont espaces
denviron 4.5 m entre axes. par leur forte inertie (par
comparaison aux inclusions rigides) et leur gomtrie, les
dformations des panneaux sont limites pendant lpisode
sismique. le cisaillement additionnel du sol et les efforts
horizontaux provenant de la structure se concentrent sur les
bandes Geomix. le traitement de confinement permet ainsi de
limiter le cisaillement et le dveloppement de pressions
interstitielles dans le sol confin non trait. le risque de
liqufaction est vit.
les caissons anti-liqufaction servent galement en phase
service de fondation aux btiments par lintermdiaire dune
dalle de transfert. ils ont donc aussi le rle de rduction des
tassements sous la structure en situation statique.
le phnomne d'coulement post-liqufaction a provoqu de
nombreux dgts lors du sisme de Kob au Japon en 1995. sur
le site de la prfecture de fort-de-france, ce risque est accru par
une pente importante du substratum (dnivel de 9 m sur une

figure 7. Vue en 3d des fondations en caisson.

conclUsion

les quelques exemples prsents dans l'article, reprsentatifs de


diffrents domaines d'application, ont permis de mettre en
vidence la ncessit de privilgier non pas tant la rigidit que
l'inertie des rseaux d'inclusions : la mise en uvre de refends,
de parois continues ou de caissons "semi-rigides", raliss au
moyen de techniques rcemment dveloppes pour tendre le
domaine d'application du procd "soil mixing", permet ainsi
dans bien des cas d'apporter des problmes complexes une
rponse particulirement pertinente.
5

references

the deep mixing method. Coastal Development Institute Tokyo, June


2002.
lebon s.p.. new methods in european deep mixing a contractors
perspective on the developing challenges of execution. Deep
Mixing 2005, Stockholm.
Benhamou l. and mathieu f.. Geomix caissons against liquefaction.
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground
Improvement IS-GI Brussels, 2012.
Bouassida mounir et Belgacem Jellali. capacit portante ultime dun sol
renforc par une tranche. revue franaise de gnie civil volume 6.
no 7 8/2002.
corneille s. and r a.. trenchmix : une technique damlioration de
sols qui contribut au dveloppement durable. Revue Travaux n854,
Juillet 2008.
filz G and al.. design of deep mixing for support of levees and
floodwalls. 4th International Conference of Grouting and Deep
Mixing, New Orleans, 2012.
Kitazume m. application of physical modelling for investigating
ground failure pattern. physical modelling in Geotechnics 6th
icpmG 2006. london isBn 0-415-41586-1.
Gueguin m and al. a homogenization approach for evaluating the
longitudinal shear stiffness of reinforced soils: column vs. cross
trench configuration. International Journal of Solids and
Structures, November 8th 2011.
r B seed & al. recent advances in soil liquefaction engineeering : a
unified and consistent framework. 26th annual asce los angeles
Geotechnical spring seminar. Queen mary presentation 2003.
shinkawa n. and Bessho n. application examples of deep mixing
method as aseismic measures. International Symposium on Deep
Mixing & Admixture Stabilization, Okinawa 2009..

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Assessment of Carillos Theory for Improved Tunis Soft Soil by Geodrains

Assessment of Carillos theory for improved tunis soft soil by geodrains

valuation de la thorie de Carillo pour les sols mous de Tunis amliors par godrains
halima Jebali1, Wissem frikha2 & mounir Bouassida3
Jebali
H., Prikha
Bouassida
M.
Universit
TunisW.,
El Manar;
Geotechnical
Engineering Research Team, Ecole Nationale dIngnieurs de

Universit Tunis El Manar, Geotechnical Engineering Research Team, cole nationale dingnieurs de Tunis (ENIT)

tunis, enit, Bp 37 le Belvdre 1002, tunis. tunisia.

email: (1) hlm.jebali@gmail.com; (2) frikha_wissem@yahoo.fr; (3) mounir.bouassida@fulbrightmail.org

aBstract: this paper presents an experimental study carried out on undisturbed cored samples of tunis soft soil extracted
at 17.25 m depth at the lagoon of sejoumi. three types of oedometer tests had been performed: first type was a standard test
on tunis soft soil, the second was an oedometer test on the same soil improved by a prefabricated vertical drain mebradrain
88 (mb88) type and the third test is similar to the second test in which vertical drainage was prevented. then, the assessment
of Carrillos theory is studied by quantifying the effect of radial and vertical consolidation from the observed global degree of
consolidation of improved tunis soft soil specimens by geodrains.

rsum: ce papier prsente une tude exprimentale ralise sur des chantillons intacts du sol mou de tunis prlevs
17,25 m de profondeur de la marcage de Sjoumi. Trois types dessais oedomtriques ont t effectus : le premier est un
test standard sur le sol mou de tunis, le second tait un essai oedomtrique sur le mme sol amlior par un drain vertical de
type mebradrain 88 (mB88); le troisime test est similaire au deuxime test dans lequel seulement le drainage radial a t
favoris . ensuite, l'valuation de la thorie de carrillo est tudie en quantifiant l'effet de la consolidation radiale et verticale
sur le degr de consolidation global.

1.

introdUction

does not occur in 1D condition. Carrillos theoretical


solution (1942) is used to combine the vertical and radial
drainage effects to predict the global degree of
consolidation U:

considerable attention has been recently devoted


worldwide to the problem of building structures on highly
compressible saturated soils and to the development of soil
improvement techniques for increasing stability, reducing
settlements, and accelerating consolidation of soft soils.
prefabricated verticals drains (pVd) with preloading
method was considered the most used improvement
technique to accelerate the consolidation of soft soils and,
consequently, to increase their bearing capacity.
the commonly used consolidation theory for designing
PVDs is the unit cell model, e.g., Barron (1948), hansbo
(1981) and terzaghi (1943). Because the solutions
considering both vertical and radial drainage are
complicated, those most used in practice ignore the effect
of vertical drainage, such as Barrons theory. Barron
(1948) developed solutions for two types of boundary
conditions at the surface of improved soil such as: (i) free
vertical strain, resulting from a uniform distribution of
vertical load, and (ii) equal vertical strain, which results
from imposing the same vertical deformation. however, in
some cases, the vertical drainage by pdV has a
considerable effect on the degree of consolidation of
improved soil; terzaghi (1943) suggested the well known
simple method for one-dimensional (1d) vertical
consolidation condition.
furthermore, for most cases in practice, the soil is not
homogeneous, and the deformation of pVd improved soil

(1 U) = (1 Ur) (1 Uv)

(1)

Ur and Uv are respectively the radial and the vertical


average degree of consolidation.
Theoretically speaking, Carillos formula (Eq 1) is only
valid for instantaneously applied loading.
the consolidation of soft soil is related to the dissipation
of excess pore pressure generated by the surcharge load.
for radial consolidation problem with centered vertical
drain in oedometer cell, the governing differential
equation of excess pore pressure is (parakash et al, 1996):

2 u r 1 u r
u r
c r

2
t
r r
r

(2)

cr is the coefficient of radial consolidation of soft soil


r

and (u ) =u(r, t) is the excess of pore pressure at


radius r and time t.
solution of equation (2) that uses the condition of equal
vertical strain without smear effect is given by (Barron,
1948):

8t

U r 1 exp r
fn

1
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(3)

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

The smear zone is defined as the remolded zone of soil


immediately adjacent to the drain. F(n) is a Barrons
function given by :
n
3n 1
Fn
ln n

n 1
4n

with dimension less than 80 m, it also includes a high


fraction of silt.

(4)

n is the drain spacing ratio given by:


(5)

D and dw denote the equivalent diameters of unit cell and


of PVD, respectively.
Tr is the dimensionless time factor of consolidation due to
radial drainage is written in function of time t:
Cr t
D

(6)

.
For vertical consolidation problem, the differential
equation of one-dimensional consolidation for the excess
pore pressure is written (Terzaghi, 1943):

2 u z
u z

CV
z2
t

- Uv < 50 %:
TV

(8)

- Uv > 50%:
U
V 1

T
8
exp V

(9)

Tv denotes the time factor of vertical drainage:


Cv t
H

60
50
40
30

(10)

H is the drainage distance that is equal half of the


thickness of specimen.

STUDIED SOIL

Tunis soft soil specimens used in this study were obtained


from the Sejoumis lagoon at depth of 17.25 m. The
extracted sample is grey coloured, it has a characteristic
smell and contains shell debris. From grain size analysis
performed by hydrometer and sieving in accordance with
standards NFP 94-056 and NFP 94-057, (AFNOR, 1995),
it was found that Tunis soft soil presents 85 % of particles

0,1

0,01

1E-3

sieve's diameter (mm)

(7)

Cv is the coefficient of vertical consolidation.


Solution of the differential equation (7) is the vertical
degree of consolidation U v as follows:

2.

Clay

70

10

Figure 1. Gradation curve of Tunis soft soil

3.

depending of the depth z and time t;

Tr

Silt

20

(u z ) = u (z, t) is the excess of pore pressure

UV 2

Fine sand

80

D
dw

Tr

Coarse sand

90

Percentage passing, (%)

Gravel

100

CONSOLIDATION TESTS

Three series of consolidation tests were carried out on the


Tunis soft soil in oedometer cells . These tests involved
applied increments of vertical load to the specimen and
measurements of the settlement. For each increment of
loading, the decrease of the thickness of the sample versus
time is recorded. Duration of the applied increment of load
depends on the soil and its consolidation characteristics.
The range of applied stress depends on the range of
effective stress which is needed in the consolidation
analysis of the studied. When the primary consolidation at
prescribed load level is completed (200 kPa) the sample is
unloaded in one or several steps until the increment
(9) of
load of 25 kPa is dismounted and the swelling of specimen
can be measured. The applied vertical load is doubled at
each increment until reaching the maximum required load
(50, 100, 200,400,800 kPa). The specimen is again
unloaded. At the end of the test, the sample is careful
removed and its thickness and water content are measured.
Series 1 (VD): It corresponds to a standard oedometer test
performed according to NF P94-90-1 standard (French
Standard, 1997). This test is carried out on a cylindrical
sample of saturated soil with 70 mm diameter and 19 mm
thickness. The soil sample is enclosed in a metal ring and
is placed on a porous stone. The loading cap has also a
porous stone, so the sample is sandwiched between two
porous stones at the top and bottom of the sample to allow
vertical drainage (VD).When preparing the sample, filter
papers are placed between the soil and the porous stones.
The sample is then placed in the consolidation cell and the
unit cell. Water is added into the cell around the sample,
so the sample remains saturated during the test.
Series 2 (RD): It corresponds to an oedometer test
performed on Tunis soft soil improved by a single
geodrain (Mebradrain 88) of sizes (thickness = 0.5 cm,
width = 1cm and length= 19 mm). In these tests only

2
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Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211


th

Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

radial drainage (rd) is allowed, vertical drainage is


prevented by mean of an impervious membrane which
covers the porous stone at the top and the bottom levels of
the specimen.
series 3 (V&rd): it corresponds to an oedometer test
performed on tunis soft soil improved by a single of
geodrain (mebradrain 88) type sized as that used in series
2. in these tests the vertical drainage radial drainage are
allowed.
results of the three series of tests presented in figure 2
show the variation of void ratio e in function of the
effective stress plotted in the logarithmic scale for loadingunloading reloading sequences for three series of tests.

Cs(Serie 3)

1,0

Cs(Serie 2)

0,9

Cs(Serie 1)

0,8

void ratio,e

4.2
coefficient of permeability
Vertical
and
radial
hydraulic
conductivities
(permeability coefficients kv and kr) are determined by
the variable head permeability test. in fact, oedometer
apparatus (in series 1 and 2) is equipped with a
conventional measuring device (tubes connected to the
base of the specimen). the measurements are performed
for different levels of applied load form 100 kpa to 800
kpa (100, 200, 400 and 800 kpa).
figure 9 shows opposite variations of the ratios cr/cv
and kr/kv when the consolidation stress varies from 100
to 800 kpa. in this range, ratio cr/cv varies from 36 to
12 and ratio kr/kv varies from 4 to 12. obtained results
show that the assumption made e.g. cr/cv = kr/kv is
only valid at high levels of consolidation stress (Jia and
chai, 2010).

0,7

Cc

0,6

40

Cc
Cc

0,5
Serie 1

Serie 2

35

Serie 3

0,4
1

10

100

Variation of Cr/Cv and Kr/Kv

log(kPa)

figure 2. oedometer curves obtained from three


experimental series

compression cc and the swelling cs indices, obtained


from the three series of tests (Vd, rd and Vr&d) were
determined from oedometer curves and summarized in
table 1. notice that the compression index obtained from
series 3 (Vr&d) is roughly the double of that recoded in
series 1 (Vd) and 2 (rd). this can be explained by the
allowed vertical and radial drainage paths from which
follows enhanced consolidation of the compressible soil.
from table 1, it is understood the swelling is only
attributed to vertical infiltration of water with sample
unloaded.

25
20
15
10

coefficients of consolidation:

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

figure 3. ratios kr/kv and cr/cv versus consolidation stress

degree of consolidation:

in this paper, the global degree of consolidation U(t) is


predicted by two methods. the first one uses the
measured settlement at different levels of applied load in
series 3 (case of vertical and radial drainage, Vr&d):

s( t )
(11)
s
s(t) and s denote respectively the settlements at given time
and at the end of consolidation.
the second method consists in calculating U by the
Carillos equation (1). The radial degree of consolidation
Ur is estimated from the experimental results of series 2
(case of radial consolidation rc) and equations (7) and
(9). the vertical consolidation Uv is obtained from
recorded results in series 1 (case of vertical
consolidation Vc) by using equation (2).
figures 4a and 4b illustrate the variation of global
degree of consolidation U in function of time for vertical
consolidation stress of 400kpa and 800 kpa.
U( t )

4.1

100

verical consolidation stress (kPa)

4.3

stUdY of three dimensional


consolidation:

kr/Kv

table 1: Values of compression and swelling indices


serie of
1 : Vd
2 : rd
3 : V&rd
tests
cc
0.16
0.16
0.30
cs
0.022
0.022
0.023

4.

Cr/Cv

30

coefficients of vertical and radial consolidation cv


and cr are determined from the evolution in time of
settlement for each increment of loading (from 50 to
800 kpa). from the results obtained for series 1 and 2:
cv and cr were determined by the logarithmic
method; which use the plot of thickness of sample
versus the logarithmic of time: log (t) (casagrande,
1938).

3
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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

from the observed global consolidation of improved


tunis soft soils was discussed.

1,0

Degree of consolidation

0,8

(400 kPa)

Ucarillo

0,6

Acknowledgement:
authors gratefully appreciate the help provided by mrs.
s. Boussetta during the experimental work carried out at
the soil mechanics laboratory of the national
engineering school of tunis.

0,4

0,2

0,0
-200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

time (min)

References

(a)

1,0

Degree of consolidation

0,8

(800 kPa)

Carillo

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0
-200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

time (min)

(b)
figure 4. Variation of global degree of consolidation

for applied loads (100, 200, 400 and 800 kpa), it is


noted that the degree of consolidation as predicted by
the Carillos theory reaches 100% for a time less than 24
hours, while the degree of consolidation U, estimated
from equation (11) by using measurements of serie 3
results, reaches 100% in 24 hours.
one can also remarks that by using the Carillos theory a
lower degree of consolidation which starts from 10% is
obtained, however when using measurements of in series
3 simple approximate methods, higher degrees of
consolidation starting from 70% are obtained.
comparing between recorded and predicted global
degree of consolidation U, it follows that the evolution
of U predicted by the Carrillos theory are overestimated
with respect to that deduced from recorded settlement
from series 3. the final global consolidation degree U is
identical by using the two methods.
conclUsion
this paper presented an experimental study conducted
on tunis soft clay, in which three types of oedometer
tests were executed: a standard oedometer test; an
oedometer test on specimen soil improved by an element
of geodrain and test a similar test to the second one by
preventing the vertical drainage. from measurements
coefficients of permeability kv and kr were determined
by the variable head permeability test. in addition,
coefficients of vertical and radial consolidation cv and
cr were determined from the evolution in time of
settlement at different levels of consolidation stress.
comparison between the ratios kr/ kv
and cr/cv
demonstrated that equality between the two ratios only
happens at high level of stress consolidation, contrarily
to the common assumption made in previous studies.
predictions of the global degree of consolidation showed
that the Carillos theory leads to overestimated results
with respect to predictions from recorded settlements.
further, the effect of vertical and radial consolidations

Barron a., (1948). consolidation of fine grained soils


by drains wells, american society of civil engineers,
Journal of soil mechanics, Volume 73, pp 718-743.
carillo n., (1942). simple two-and three-dimensional
cases in the theory of consolidation of soils, Journal of
mathematics and physics, Volume, n1, pp 1-5.
casagrande a. (1938) notes on soil mechanics-first
semester. harvard University 1-29.
Guofu.Z and Jian-Hua, (2001). Design charts for
vertical drains considering construction time. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal. 38: 11421148.
hansbo, s. (1981). consolidation of fine-grained soils
by prefabricated drains. proceedings of 10th
international conference on soil mechanics and
foundation
engineering,
stockholm,
Balkema,
rotterdam, 3, pp. 677-682.
indraratna. B, and rujikiatkamjorn .c. (2006)
Predictions and Performances of prefabricated Vertical
drain stabilized Soft Clay Foundations. proceedings
of the symposium on rigid inclusions in difficult soft
soil conditions international society for soil mechanics
and Geotechnical engineering (issmGe tc36).
Jia, r. and chai, J. c. (2010). effect of strain
distribution pattern on interpreting crs consolidation
test results. proceedings of the fourth Japan-china
Geotechnical symposium, okinawa, Japan, 29-36.
Kjellman W. (1948). accelerating construction of finegrained soils by means of card board wicks. in
proceedings of the 2nd international conference on soil
mechanics and foundation engineering,rotterdam. Vol.
2, pp. 302305.
Kjellman W. (1948). Discussion: Consolidation of finegrained soils by drain wells by R.A. Barron.
transactions, asce,113 (2346): 748751.
parakash ,.K, sridharan . a and asha, sr (1996).
consolidation behavior of clayey soils under radial
drainage. Geotech.test. J, astm, 19 (4), 421-431.
sridhar, G and robinson, G (2011) determination of
radial coefficient of consolidation using log t method.
international Journal of Geotechnical engineering (373381).
terzaghi, K. 1943. theoretical soil mechanics. Wiley,
new York.
tyn myint-U. 1980. partial differential equations of
mathematical physics. elsevier, north holland.

4
2512

Improvement of soft fat clay using rigid inclusions and vertical drains
Amlioration dune argile plastique molle par inclusions rigides et drains verticaux
Kirstein J.F.

BVT DYNIV GmbH; Germany

Wittorf N.

Ingenieurbro Dr. Lehners und Wittorf; Germany

ABSTRACT: In the case of a new road crossing in Germany with 1.5 to 7.0 m high embankments nearby the Danish border
particularly soft clays were found 13 to 20 m deep below sea level. The undrained shear strength of the clay varied between 7 and 20
kN/m. The water content was almost 100 % and the organic matter below 6 %. The consolidation coefficient Cv < 0.3 m/year is
characteristics of a fat clay which requires a long time or tight spacing of vertical drains to consolidate. Due to stability risks, vertical
wick drains were installed at a 0.5 m spacing in the part of the highest embankments, which were built in three load steps, each time
waiting for 60 to 80 % consolidation degree before loading the next step. Even using 600 kN/m woven geotextiles, a total vertical
settlement of around 1.5 m and up to 27 cm horizontal deformation were measured throughout one year of monitoring. These
deformations were too high for the existing and running highway in the middle of the new projects. Therefore, full displacement
concrete columns (rigid inclusions system CMC) were installed up to 22 m deep with load transfer platforms installed on top the
inlcusions. In order to improve the installation process of the rigid inclusions, additional vertical drains were installed in the soft soil
before the inclusions. Within the first two years, the area supported by the rigid inclusion experienced less than 2 cm of deformation, a
proportionally small amount compared to the deformations recorded in the wick drain consolidation parts of the project.
RSUM : Pour un projet dune nouvelle route sur des remblais de 1,5 7,0 m de hauteur en Allemagne prs de la frontire danoise,
des argiles particulirement molles ont t trouvs de 13 20 m de profondeur sous le niveau de la mer. La rsistance au cisaillement
de l'argile varie entre 7 et 20 kN / m. La teneur en eau est proche de 100% et la matire organique infrieure 6%. Le coefficient de
consolidation Cv <0,3 m / an montre une argile plastique qui ncessite un long temps ou un rseau de drains verticaux trs serre
pour la consolidation. En raison de calculs de stabilit, les drains verticaux ont t installs avec un espacement de 50 cm dans la
partie des remblais les plus hauts, qui ont t construits en trois tapes de chargement, avec pour chaque tape des priodes d'attente
de 60 80% degr de consolidation avant de la prochaine tape de chargement. Mme avec lutilisation de geotextiles de 600 kN/m,
des tassements verticaux de 1.5 m et des dformations horizontales jusqu 27 cm ont t mesurs pendant une anne de surveillance.
Ces dformations sont trop importantes pour l'autoroute existante en exploitation prs du nouveau projet. Des inclusions rigides
(systeme CMC) ont t installes jusqu' 22 m de profondeur avec diffrents matelas de rpartition placs au dessus des colonnes.
Afin damliorer le processus d'installation des inclusions rigides supplmentaires, des drains verticaux ont t installs dans le sol
mou avant linstallation des colonnes. Au cours des deux premires annes de construction, la zone supporte par les inclusions
rigides a eu moins de 2 cm de dformation, une dformation relativement petite compar avec celles enregistres dans des zones du
projet consolides par des drains verticaux.
KEYWORDS: soil improvement, Controlled modulus columns (CMC), vertical drains
1
INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE
PROJECT
Large areas nearby the northern sea are nearly flat with
elevations slightly above or under the sea level. Soft soil of silt,
clay, mud and peat reach between five and twenty meters from
the surface, before glacial sands are encountered.
The existing west coast highway B5 near the German city of
Husum will be widened from two to three lanes in the future in
order to improve traffic. The crossing between B5 and B202
was designed as a bridge project with high embankments
located on the unconsolidated soft soils, typical at the flat costal
region near the North Sea.
All traffic constructions bring new loads in form of deadand live-loads to these soft soils. Without soil improvement
methods large long-time settlements will occur, which often
causes damages to the road during the construction or later on.
The traffic on the highways B5 and B202 in the site had to
be maintained during the construction period and the existing
road could not tolerate additional stability risks or settlements,
especially when the 1.5 to 7 m high embankments are built
directly beside the traffic. There are different stages to look at,
but we will focus only on the western part with the highest dam
nearby the bridge.

Figure 1. detail of the highest embankment west with the bridge


abutment over the highway B5 (CMC close to bridge and coloured areas
with vertical drains and preloading)

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Due to stability and settlement calculations the foundation


works took place according to the following sequence of works
and according to the figure 2 below:
1. Installation of vertical drains in different spacings from
a one meter thick sand working platform.
2. Preloading with three load steps with a distance of 30 m
security and working space from the bridge and
existing highway B5. (A)
3. The measured consolidation settlements shown in figure
8 fit with the given predictions according to figure 7.
An additional strong woven geotextile layer of 600
kN/m tensile strength between the embankment and
vertical drains had very little influence on the vertical
inclinometer results with 27 cm of deformation as
shown in figure 9.
4. After waiting for 1.3 m settlement (figure 8) a part of
the embankment and preload was temporarily rebuilt
in order to install the controlled modulus Columns
CMC. (B)
5. The preload was brought back to the edge of the
foundation systems between CMC and vertical drains
area in order to optimize the settlement behaviour.(C)
6. Installtion of deep foundations for the bridge took place
on driven concrete piles with additional sleeves
sockets in the soft soils.
7. The CMC were installed between the driven piles
afterwards, free of vibrations.

4094-4, Part 4 (Deutsche Institut fr Normung 2002). In additon


to borings, several laboratory testing ( water content, organic
matter and plasticity index ) as well as several load-settlement
tests were performed.

F
igure 3. boring, cone penetration test and shear vane test in the detail
area bridge west

The vane tests showed an undrained shear strength of cu = 6


to 8 kN/m near the bridge and an undrained shear strength of cu
= 12 to 20 kN/m in other parts of the project. This was one
more reason to select a CMC foundation nearby the bridge in
the area of the lowest undrained shear strength.
Following this decision and the results of soil investigation
and laboratory the geotechnical engineers assumed an undrained
shear strength of cu = 12 kN/m in vertical drain areas. The
representative soil parameters for the calculation of
consolidation and stability in the project are given in the
following table.
Table 1 . soil parameters for the calculation of consolidation and
stability in the coloured drain areas
density
k/k
[kN/m3
]

shear
strenght
k
[grade]

fill sand

18/10

30,0

---

soft soil, clay


[top level]

14/4

17,5

15

soft soil, silt


top level

15/5

20,0

10

sand

18/10

27,5

---

soft soil, silt


(Bottom
level)

16/6

20,0

10

soil
properties /
soil

Cohesion
C,k Cu,k
[kN/m]

50-100
kN/m

Figure 2. steps of consolidation and construction

The working sequence with different steps was necessary


because of stability calculations and the wide influence of the
settlements during the consolidation. The CMC brought the
following advantages:
- short installation period to complete the project on time
- the vibration free technique allows to work close to the
piles of the bridge
- The settlements of the embankment support on CMC
with a stiff load transfer platform are compatible with
the bridge abutment
2

SOIL-PARAMETERS

After the first part of the soil investigations with several borings
(BS) and cone penetration tests (CPT) it was clear that there
was a problem of stability and consolidation time due to the
presence of fat clay in the upper soft soil layer. The project can
be modelled with two layers of soft soils divided by a loose
sand layer in between. This reaches 13 m up to 22 m in the
deepest parts from the surface.
The undrained shear strength cu in the soft soil from the
results of shear vane tests multiplied with factors of 0.5 to 0.65
are linked to the plasticity according to Bjerum standard DIN

2514

3
3.1

Modulus
Es,k
[MN/m]

Consolidation
coefficient
cv [m/s]

60

6,0*10-1

12

0,8

8,0*10-9

12

0,8

2,0*10-8

25

2,5*10-3

2,0

1,0*10-7

20

SOILIMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES
Vertical drains

Prefabricated vertical drains were installed in different spacings


with lengths between 15 m (corresponding to the conditions in
figure 3) and 22 m in other parts of the project. It was necessary

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

to pass the intermediate sandlayer in order to place the vertical


drains in the glacial sand below the second layer of soft soil.
The small spacings in this project were justified by the step
loading and the presence of fat clay in the upper layer of soft
soil with special low permeability and corresponding primary
consolidation coefficient.
3.2

Controlled Modulus Columns CMC

The controlled modulus columns CMC are well adapted to


installation in soft soils. The full displacement auger acts as a
casing and maitain the right borehole diameter over more than
two meter length. Concrete pressure and adequate volume are
monitored and maintained throughout the concreting phase,
which is very critical in very soft soils. The typical piling
standards give a minimum limit of 15 kN/m undrained shear
strength to use for cast-in-place-concrete.
By the standard DIN EN 12699 (Deutsche Institut fr
Normung 2001) above cu = 15 kN/m the minimal distance
between full displacing elements is linked to the undrained
shear strength of the soils. Critical distance is only relevant
during the concrete curing period.
Compared to vibrating techniques, CMC are usually faster to
install and can be performed in softer soils with lower undrained
shear strength. There are several references with CMCinstallation directly adjacent to freshly grouted CMC under
cu < 15 kN/m conditions. In this project the CMC have been
first successfully checked under conditions with the lowest cuvalues by integrity tests and dynamic pile tests. Loads larger
than 500 kN could be tested with a factor of safety larger than 2
FOS on the CMC, drilled into the glacial sand layer.
On part of the project, the process of installing additional
CMCs close to nearby fresh CMC was improved through the
installation of vertical drains in-between the CMC. Immediately
after the CMC installation the water starts to flow out of the
vertical drain even at the top of the sandy working platform. A
continuous flow for several hours up to one day and the volume
of water collected show an efficient fast additional
consolidation.
Compared with other CMC areas the heave of the working
platform and the excessive over-consumption of concrete,
normally increasing with the thickness of softsoil, could be
reduced by the additional intermediate vertical drains.

Figure 5. 129 cm of settlements within year of primary consolidation


with vertical drains spacing of 0.75 m

The stability calculations are based on undrained shear


strength cu and required to build the embankment in three steps
of loading with berms and twice waiting for the sufficient
degree of consolidation necessary. According to (Chaumeny,
Kirstein and Varaksin 2008) the shear strength was calculated
using the following relation to the degree of consolidation:
= U ( tan '+c) + (1-U) cu
U:
:
':
c:
cu:

(1)

degree of consolidation
total load at a given depth
internal friction angle
final drained cohesion
undrained shear strength

Figure 6. stability calculation of three loading steps and control


calculation of the final situation

For this project c = cu in formula (1) as improvement cu


was added to the basic c u value in the stability calculations.
cu = U tan '

(2)

Figure 7. settlement calculations with the three load steps

Figure 4. installation of CMC combined with vertical drains and porewater on the platform

Field measurements and the stability analysis in final


configuration based on ', c and porewater pressure were in
good agreement with the calculations using the improved
undrained shear strength.

4.2

4.1

CALCULATIONS AND PREDICTIONS


Consolidation and stability calculations in the areas
receiving vertical drains

Initially, a total settlement of 1.29 m was calculated in the area


west of the bridge. The time-settlement curves for both primary
and secondary consolidation are shown below on figure 5.

Controlled Modulus Columns CMC

Due to the presence of very soft soils, the CMC are designed to
take the full load of the embankment, neglecting the small load
bearing capacity of the soil in between the inclusions. With
500 kN characteristic load per CMC, the calculated settlement
at the top of each CMC is very similar to the settlement of the
piles under the bridge.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Nevertheless, below the embankment, there is no concrete slab


or rigid structure like for the foundation of the bridge.
Reinforced earth with galvanized steel was designed to hold the
large horizontal forces of active earth pressure. Because of the
large geotextile deformations during the consolidation period, as
shown in the following monitoring results, the decision was
made to use a stronger more rigid construction with nearly no
deformation. Compared with plastic geotextiles, the steel grid
material has only very small elastic deformations, and as a
result limiting the horizontal deformations of the embankment.
Through the addition of some gravel in parts of the sandy load
transfer platform LTP, the friction between LTP and CMC was
greatly increase and nearly no deformation was necessary to
mobilize the friction of the LTP.
5
5.1

5.2

Controlled Modulus Columns CMC

Several measurement systems were installed between the CMC


and the reinforced earth in the load transfer platform. The
instruments show an almost perfect full stress concentration of
the load on the CMC and less than one centimetre of horizontal
deformation. Figure 10 shows the cross section and the 5
vertical deformation measurements over a period of 2 years.
The horizontal inclinometer was laid across six marked CMCcolumns (figure 1 and figure 9). A settlement of one centimetre
of the top of the CMCs and two centimetres in-between CMC in
the reinforced earth steel construction were measured. There
was a good agreement between the calculated values of the
settlement and the results of the monitoring.

MONITORING RESULTS
Wick drains

F
igure 10. horizontal inclinometer results with arround 1 cm of CMC
settlements and 2 cm of reinforced earth settlements
Figure 8. measurement at the settlement plates SP 9 und SP10.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Soft and fat clay were found at the B5 / B202 road crossing.
Additional soil investigations and laboratory tests were
performed to be able to complete a proper design, regarding
stability and consolidation time.
Oedometer consolidation tests allowed to precisely predict the
movements during the consolidation processes that were
accelerated by the use of vertical drains at different spacings.
Large deformations of up to 1.5 m of settlements and 27 cm of
horizontal displacement were experience and closely match the
calculations and show that it was the right decision not to place
the highest embankment directly on the softest soil beside the
bridge over the running traffic on the highway B5.
Vibration free CMC in combination with reinforced earth
allowed to construct this high embankment with less than two
centimetre differential settlements to the piled bridge.
With a careful planning of the work within the overall
construction schedule, detailed design combined with an
extensive monitoring program, economic soil improvement
techniques can be combined with deep foundations in one
project even on very soft soil can be treated successfully.
7

igure 9. vertical inclinometer results at the 7 m high damm with drains


and 600 kN/m vowen geotextile

The measured settlements during the consolidation process in


figure 8 follow very closely the predictions shown in figure 7.
An additional strong geotextile layer of 600 kN/m tensile
strength between the embankment and the vertical drains had
27 cm of deformation measured with vertical inclinometers.

REFERENCES

DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung, 2002, DIN 4094-4: Subsoil


field testing part 4 : Field vane test.
DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung, 2001, DIN EN 12699: Execution
of special geotechnical work - Displacement piles; German version
J-L Chaumeny, J.F.Kirstein, S. Varaksin, 2008, An experience of
consolidation of extremly soft mud for one of Europes largest
projects The AIRBUS A-380 factory in Hamburg, Glasgow.

2516

Interaction of stone column and surrounding soil during its construction: 3D


numerical analysis
Interaction dune colonne ballaste et du sol environnant pendant sa construction : analyse
numrique 3D
Klimis N.S.

Civil Engineering Department, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh), Xanthi, Greece

Sarigiannis D.D.
AUTh, MSc DIC

ABSTRACT: This work deals with a simulation of a construction sequence of a stone column in two distinct stages: a) a one stage
excavation and b) a multi-stage backfilling of the column stone excavation with crushed gravel at ascending steps of 1m. Simulation
of this procedure is attempted using a 3D model which represents the stone column and the surrounding soil. Analysis is carried out
using a numerical code, called FLAC3D, based on finite differences. The mathematical model incorporates geometry and boundary
conditions of the problem, profile of soil layers with their physical, deformational and mechanical properties and their constitutive
laws, as well as, initial conditions of stresses and deformations of subsoil stratums of the examined area. Special emphasis is given to
simulation of an harmonically imposed vertical loading of the vibrating column, into an equivalent static vertical loading and
subsequently into an equivalent radial pressure against internal wall of the cylindrical excavation of the constructed stone column.
Results clearly denote that there is a strong interaction of the complex system in the kinematical and stress field, which satisfactorily
justifies modification of the final diameter of the constructed stone column compared to the theoretical proposed diameter.
RSUM : Ce travail se rfre une simulation numrique de la squence de construction dune colonne ballaste, en deux tapes
spares : a) une tape unique dexcavation, et b) plusieurs pas successifs de remblayage de lexcavation cylindrique de la colonne
ballaste, avec du matriau granulaire cras, des pas montants de 1m. La simulation est effectue laide dun modle 3D qui
reprsente la colonne ballaste et le sol environnant. Le code numrique utilis est FLAC3D et il est bas sur le modle des
diffrences finies. Le modle mathmatique intgre la gometrie et les conditions limites du problme, le profil du sol avec leurs
proprits physiques, mcaniques et de dformation, ainsi que leurs lois de comportement et les conditions initiales de la rgion
examine. Une attention particulire est donne la simulation dun chargement harmonique vertical impos la colonne vibrante,
un chargement quivalent vertical statique, et par la suite, une pression quivalente radiale exerce sur lintrieur de lexcavation
cylindrique de la colonne ballaste construite. Les rsultats dmontrent clairement linteraction prononce du systme complexe, qui
justifie aisment le grossissement du diamtre construit par rapport au diamtre thorique conu lors du dimensionnement du projet.
KEYWORDS: stone column, excavation, multi-stage backfilling, Flac3D, interaction, complex system, diameter.
5

INTRODUCTION SCOPE OF THE WORK

The present work focuses on the investigation of kinematic and


strain interaction of a complex system consisting of a single
column stone and the surrounding soil, during the excavation
stage and the backfilling stage with crushed gravel.
The scope of this work is the investigation and a possible
explanation of the problem concerning modification of the
constructed stone column diameter, versus the theoretical
(design) one, taking into account the procedure of the stone
column construction, its geometrical characteristics and the
geotechnical model representing the surrounding soil and its
physical, deformational and mechanical properties.
In the framework of this work, a summary of geological,
geophysical, geotechnical and seismological data are presented
in a succinct way in the following chapters, for the examined
area, based on a number of corresponding projects performed in
the recent past. After a short technical description of the stone
column constructing procedure adopted for this project, the
numerical model is determined and numerical analyses results
are presented, in an attempt to explain the deduced discrepancy
between constructed and designed stone column diameter.
The examined area is located in the wide bed of a river in
northern Greece, prone to liquefy, where a bridge is founded.
2. GEOLOGICAL AND SEISMOLOGICAL
2. GeoloGical and seismioloGical
DESCRIPTION OF THE SITE
description of the ste
According to geological and geotechnical data, resulting from
preceding investigation projects on this area, the surface is

covered by deposits that belong to the Quaternary and is


subdivided into: a) river deposits (RD) consisting of silty sands,
clay-silty sands, gravels and locally cobbles of gneiss or marble,
and b) alluvial deposits (AL), consisting mainly of sands with a
largely fluctuating percentage of clays, silts and gravels, of a
thickness ranging from 12 to almost 55m.
The geological bedrock of the examined site consists of
rocks of the alpic age and belongs to the Rodopic Mass,
consisting mainly of biotitic gneisses (gn) interpolated by
amphibolites and marbles green-gray coloured. The upper part
of the gneissic rockmass appears intensively weathered to
totally weathered, consisting thus the weathering zone of 2 to
4m of thickness. The permeability of different geological
formations is quite heterogeneous: the riverbed deposits, mainly
gravel consisting (RDg) are a rather permeable soil formation
(k 10 3 m / sec ), whilst alluvial deposits present a rather low
permeability ( 10 7 k 10 5 m / sec).
As for the seismological data, the examined site belongs to
zone I of low seismic hazard, with a horizontal free-field peak
ground acceleration value: amax=0.16g, according to the most
recent Hellenic map of seismic zones, valid from 1/1/2004.
3.

GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION

According to the entity of the geotechnical and geophysical


investigation programs performed on the broad area
(geotechnical boreholes, CPTs and Cross-Hole tests), it results
that the prevailing soil formation are alluvial deposits consisting

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

of sands to silty sands, with a high degree of heterogeneity,


characterized by USCS as SP, SW, SM, SM-SP, SM-SW. In
some cases they appear as clayey sand (SC) to sandy clay (CL),
whereas in other cases, they turn out to be gravel layers, such
as: GP, GW, GM, GP-GM. According to the almost 200 SPTs
performed, the mean value of blows was calculated about 23,
with a standard deviation of +11. The whole area, where the
bridge is founded, has been initially divided into three subregions represented each by a different geotechnical design
section (ITSAK & Gazetas 2003), and finally a design
geotechnical section has been attributed to each bridge pier
(Edafomichaniki 2007) used for dynamic analyses purposes.
From various simplified design geotechnical sections, each
per bridge pier, it has been chosen one, for the needs of the
present project, corresponding to a precise pier of the bridge, as
being the most representative of the area, but not the most
conservative one. The soil profile used in the present work, can
be described as follows:
Layer S1A (0 2m): loose to medium dense gravels with sand
and sand or silty sand with local presence of gravels (GP,
SW-SM, SP): NSPT 22, =20.5kN/m3, =360, c=3kPa,
Es=10MPa, =0.33
Layer S1B (2 to 5m): medium dense gravels with sand and sand
to silty sand with local presence of gravels (GP, SW-SM, SP):
NSPT 23, =20.5kN/m3, =370, c=5kPa, Es=12MPa, =0.32
Layer S2A (5 to 12m): medium dense gravels with silt and sand
to silty sand with presence of gravels (GM-GP, SP-SM, SM):
NSPT 25, =21.0kN/m3, =390, c=6kPa, Es=16MPa, =0.31
Layer S2B (12 to 19m): medium dense silty gravels, silty sand
with presence of gravels to silty sand (GM-GP, SP-SM, SM):
NSPT 28, =21.0kN/m3, =400, c=8kPa, Es=20MPa, =0.30
Layer S3A (19 to 23m) and layer S3B (23 to 35m): medium dense
clayey sand-gravels mixture to sandy clay with gravels, or silty
sand-gravels mixture (GC-GM, SM, CL): NSPT 26,
=21.2kN/m3, =370, c=12kPa, Es=15MPa, =0.31.
From 35 to almost 48m the weathering zone of the gneissic
bedrock or highly weathered gneiss is met.
4.

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

The analysis was carried out with FLAC 3D numerical code of


finite differences.
4.1

Modeling Procedure

By considering the construction of a stone column in the above


soil profile, simulation of two distinct stages of the construction
of a stone column is attempted using a three-dimensional (3D)
model which represents the stone column and the surrounding
soil. Simulation of soil materials is realized by a 3-diamensional
polyhedral grid with use of the finite difference method. The
mathematical model adopted, incorporates geometry and
boundary conditions of the problem, the profile of soil layers,
physical, deformational and mechanical properties, constitutive
laws for the geomaterials, as well as, initial conditions of
stresses and deformations of the subsoil stratums of the area
under study.
Geometry of the problem is simplified to axial symmetry. A
vertical plane through stone column axis is a plane of symmetry
for the analysis. Model grid is shown in figure (1). Coordinate
axes are located with origin at the base of the grid, whereas yaxis is oriented along vertical column axis and upward. The
initial grid is assigned by 5.0m and 50 units in x-direction, by
5.0m and 50 units in z-direction and by 28.0m and 56 units of in
y-direction. A Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model elastoplastic
behavior is assigned to all zones of soil surrounding stone
column, whilst linear elastic one is assigned to stone column
backfilling crushed material. Boundary conditions consist of
roller boundaries along the external grid sides of column axis
and a fixed base. Equilibrium conditions for initial stresses are

based on earth pressure coefficient at rest Ko=v/(1-), where :


Poissons ratio.
The modeling sequence consists of the following stages:
Stage I
: Initial stresses
Establish equilibrium conditions to initialize stresses
Stage II
: Excavation
Stone column excavation at full penetration depth was decided
to be numerically simulated in one and only stage, since in
reality, excavation was accomplished in about 30 min for a
typical stone column of the project, and also, because no steps
of excavation during its construction, could be discretized.
Stage III : Stone Column Construction
In reality, construction of cylindrical stone columns of the
project with a theoretical diameter D=0.8m and a length
L=23.0m, is realized by ascending steps of 0.5m; at each step,
the crushed geomaterials are driven through the top of the stone
column downwards (top feed method), and then, the vibrational
torpedo is sinked into the excavated cyclic area, reaches the top
of the crushed material and starts vibrating harmonically at a
frequence of 30Hz, in order to achieve an harmonically applied
normal stress of 30 to 35MPa. However, our choice of
computational ascending steps to simulate stone column
construction was of 1.0m, since an initial comparative study
between 0.5m and 1.0m ascending steps, revealed no significant
differences, whereas computational time difference was
important. Therefore, Stage III is sub-divided in two distinct
calculation steps, ever after named as Sub-stage IIIa and IIIb
Sub-stage IIIa : Simulation of Vibration and Compaction
Based on the construction procedure concerning the one stage
of excavation of the stone column to be realized, which affects
significantly the mechanical properties of the surrounding zone,
a weak zone boundary has been created, by reducing & c, in
a distance of 0.60m surrounding column lateral sides, in order to
simulate relaxation due to excavation. The width of the weak
zone, the reduced values of the mechanical parameters and the
elastic deformation modulus, resulted from a trial and error
back calculating procedure, based on the quantity of the crushed
material measured in situ, during the construction of a stone
column of the project. Namely, we tried to match the increase of
the as built diameter of the examined stone column, in
agreement with the quantity of the crushed material used for the
construction of the stone column, by adjusting the values of
mechanical and deformational parameters of the disturbed zone.
Vertical normal stress, harmonically applied on top of filling
crushed material in order to compact the crushed fill material,
per numerical ascending step of the stone column construction,
is transferred as a lateral pressure p to simulate subjected
compressive lateral loads of material due to gravel compaction,
in terms of an equivalent static lateral (radial) pressure, as
explained in the following paragraph.
Sub-stage IIIb : Simulation of Crushed Stone Material filling
This sub-stage simulates filling of the stone column crushed
material taking under consideration the preceding compaction
procedure. In order to maintain the shape of the deformed
diameter per constructed step of the stone column, crushed fill
material, considered as a linear elastic one, it has been attributed
a very high modulus of elasticity, avoiding thus a rebound of
the plastic lateral displacements obtained from sub-stage IIIa.
4.2

Assessment of equivalent lateral static loading

It is widely known in Mechanics, that a dynamic system


responds to an harmonic external loading, according to the
following equation:
u f ust

1
2

1 f / f 2 4 2
1

(1)

where, u(f): dynamic displacement, ust : equivalent static


displacement (=P/K), : frequency of the input motion, 1:

2518

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

predominant frequency of the system (herein: the soil column


overlying gneissic bedrock), and : damping ratio of the system.
FLAC3D 3.10

Pcyclic qcyclic

2006 Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Settings: Model Perspective
13:40:35 Sat Sep 27 2008
Center:
X: 6.836e+000
Y: 9.322e+000
Z: 5.757e+000
Dist: 7.957e+001

column of a diameter d=0.40m. The vertical harmonic loading,


is calculated, as follows:

Rotation:
X: 140.000
Y: 130.000
Z: 360.000
Mag.: 1.25
Ang.: 22.500

Magfac = 0.000e+000
Live & unassigned mech zones shown

Axes

z ,st

Linestyle

Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Minneapolis, MN USA

Figure 1. Model grid used for 3D numerical analyses.

From equation (1), it results that ratio u(f)/ust is greater than


1.0 when f/f1<1.0, and vice versa, when f/f1>>1.0. In this last
case, it results:

f / f1

2 1

(2)

Based on the aforementioned, in order to use an equivalent


static loading instead of a dynamic or harmonic one, we need
to use a coefficient b(f), defined as in equation 2. As b(f) is
proportional to u(f)/ust, it is evident that it will be inversely
proportional to loadings, i.e. the ratio Pst/P(f). Therefore:

b f

P f
Pst

2
1 f / f 2 4 2
1

(3)

In the present problem, it can be assumed approximatively, that:


f1

VLa

4H

3VS

8H

(4)

where, VLa: wave velocity according to Lysmer (VLa1.5VS),


VS: shear wave velocity, and H: depth of the soil column
overlying the gneissic bedrock.
Consequently, for the examined case , where a mean depth of
the soil column is admitted as: H=30m and VS30250m/sec, the
predominant frequency of the system for vertically induced
harmonic external loading, can be roughly approximated, as:

f1

30 x

3.14 x0.4 2
3.768MN
4

(6)

providing thus an equivalent static vertical loading


Pst30%Pcyclic=0.3 x 3.7681.13MN, and an equivalent vertical
normal stress that is estimated to compact vertically the crushed
fill material of the stone column at every step of construction:

Surface

u ( f ) / u st 1

d 2

3 250m / s

3 Hz
8 30m

(5)

For input motion frequencies ranging from 20 to 35Hz (mean


estimated value of 30Hz) and mean estimated value of damping
ratio =20% (Mylonakis et al 2006), equation (3) results b0.15,
which represents a reductional coefficient due to the frequency
of the input motion. It is estimated that due to a large number of
uncertainties of the system, and also because the examined
system is not a single degree freedom oscillator, it would be
wiser to impose a factor of safety of 2.0, resulting thus to a
design coefficient bdesign=b x 2 = 0.3. Accordingly, it results that
Pst30%Pcyclic.
Based on the above, vertical harmonic loading imposed by a
hydraulic vibrating torpedo, can be calculated via cyclic normal
stress (30 to 35MPa) applied through the edge of the vibrating

1130 x 4
1777 kPa
3.14 x 0.8 2

(7)

According to linear elastic theory, earth pressure coefficient at


rest, equals to: k0 = /(1-) = 0.3/(1.0-0.3)0.429, and then the
equivalent radial (horizontal) static normal stress is estimated
h = 0.429 x 1777762kPa.
For the numerical analyses performed, for the deeper part of the
stone column it was adopted a radial pressure of 750 to 800kPa,
whereas, it has been progressively reduced as ascending steps of
stone column construction were getting close to the head of the
stone column at free surface until it has almost been nullified in
the last step.
5.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION &


RESULTS

Developing a step by step simulation of a stone column


construction (excavation, filling & compaction), analysis results
are mainly concentrated to the plasticity limits of soil strength
and to the outwards lateral displacement of the stone column
excavated sides due to gravel compaction. Plasticity indicators
for shear or tension are divided at a present plastic yield
indicator with symbol (n) or a past plastic yield indicator with
symbol (p). Outwards lateral displacement are being recorded
at every depth level of the stone column, in different grid points
with distance of 0, 30cm, 60cm and 100cm of the excavated
sides of the stone column.
Figure (2) shows plasticity indicators generated due to the
excavation at full penetration depth. It can be seen that one step
column excavation, has no remarkable effect at inwards
horizontal displacements. At this case, plasticity limits of soil
strength developed in a distance of 0.20-0.40m surrounded
excavated sides. Inwards horizontal displacements of the
excavation are limited in a range of 4-5mm with maximum
values appearing at deeper levels of excavation.
Sub-stages IIIa & IIIb simulate the compaction/filling of
crushed stone material and interaction of the above to
surrounding soil. Figures (3) and (4) exhibit plasticity indicators
for two different construction depths from 16m to 15m and from
1m up to the head of the stone column (free soil surface)
respectively. Although, most of plastic indicators, reveal a past
plastic yield (indicator p) in shear or tension, plasticity
disturbance of the soil is generated in a remarkable distance of
1.0 to 1.2m surrounding column sides for the first example and
in almost the entire surface area of the surrounding soil at the
second one. Low initial stress state at free soil surface, leads to a
remarkable plastic yield over limit close to the stone column
head, even though equivalent static normal radial stress is very
low. Concerning lateral outwards displacement of stone column
excavated sides, due to gravel compaction/filling, shows that
values between 10 and 20cm keep well at a distance of 100cm
of the excavated sides. Indicatively, outwards radial
displacement values (at excavated sides) for depths at 22.5m,
11.0m and 1.0m are in a size of 23cm, 12cm and 20cm
respectively. In general terms, outwards horizontal
displacements are eliminated at distances more than 60cm of
excavated sides.

2519

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

FLAC3D 3.10

2006 Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Step 3676 Model Perspective
10:49:27 Mon Sep 29 2008
Center:
X: 1.126e+001
Y: 2.046e+001
Z: 9.320e+000
Dist: 7.957e+001

Rotation:
X: 110.000
Y: 130.000
Z: 360.000
Mag.: 3.05
Ang.: 22.500

1716
13
11
1007
1006
1003
1001

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000
Exaggerated Grid Distortion
Live mech zones shown

2726
23
21

Axes

37
36
33
31

Linestyle

Block State

Live mech zones shown


None
shear-n shear-p
shear-p
shear-p tension-p
tension-p

47
46
43
41
57
56
53
51

History Location

67
66
63
61
77
76
73
71

Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Minneapolis, MN USA

Figure 2. Plasticity zones during the one stage excavation of the


examined stone column
126
123
121

FLAC3D 3.10

2006 Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Step 42971 Model Perspective
07:52:29 Fri Sep 26 2008
Center:
X: 6.840e+000
Y: 8.394e+000
Z: 5.784e+000
Dist: 7.957e+001

Rotation:
X: 120.000
Y: 130.000
Z: 360.000
Mag.: 5.96
Ang.: 22.500

137
136
133
131

147
146
143
141

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000
Exaggerated Grid Distortion
Live mech zones shown

Axes

Linestyle

Block State

Live mech zones shown


None
shear-n shear-p
shear-n shear-p tension-p
shear-n tension-n shear-p tension-p
shear-p
shear-p tension-p
tension-n shear-p tension-p

History Location
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.
Minneapolis, MN USA

157
156
153
151

167
166
163
161

177
176
173
171

187

Figure 3. Plasticity zones during multi-stage filling of the stone column


with crushed geomaterial at depth of 16 to 15m simulated by an
equivalent static radial pressure (sub-stage IIIa, 8th ascending step of
construction of the examined stone column)

and the surrounding soil is numerically analyzed with FLAC3D


numerical code based on finite differences.
The numerical code used considered the procedure of
construction, as well as, its effects on the surrounding soil, and
simulated at its best, the physical procedure of the stone column
construction, in a rational and well documented way.
Excavation stage is simulated in one and unique stage,
whereas, construction of a stone column is simulated by a multistage complex procedure divided in two distinct calculating
steps. Those are identified as two sub-stages per ascending step
of construction: a) vibration and compaction, materialized by
application of an equivalent radial pressure against the internal
wall of the cylindrical excavation and b) stone column filling
with a linear elastic geomaterial assigned a high elastic modulus
of compressibility, due to the compaction procedure, preventing
a rebound of the induced radial displacements of the first substage.
Commenting the outcome of numerical analyses performed,
the following points can be outlined:
1. after completion of excavation stage, the plastic zones
developed around the cylidrical excavation are limited,
same as horizontal displacements, ranging from some
millimeters to only a few centimeters,
2. once excavation procedure is completed, it has been
documented via a trial and error back calculating
procedure, that a zone of about 60cm is seriously disturbed,
affecting notably the mechanical and deformational
parameters of the surrounding soil,
3. the stage of constuction of the stone column has been
simulated by a multi-stage procedure of ascending steps of
1m and application of an equivalent static radial pressure,
as defined in 4.2, progressively reduced as ascending
construction steps approached the head of the stone column
at the free surface,
4. horizontal inelastic displacements in the limit of the side
wall of the cylidrical excavation range between 10 and
20cm, resulting thus in an expansion of the constructed
diameter, compared to the theoretical one as designed.

FLAC3D 3.10

Rotation:
X: 120.000
Y: 120.000
Z: 360.000
Mag.: 4.77
Ang.: 22.500

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000
Exaggerated Grid Distortion
Live mech zones shown

17
16
13
11

Axes

Linestyle

Block State

Live mech zones shown


None
shear-n shear-p tension-p
shear-p
shear-p tension-p
tension-p

History Location

1007
1006
1003
1001
27
26
23
21
37

Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Minneapolis, MN USA

36
33
31

Figure 4. Plasticity zones during multi-stage filling of the stone column


with crushed geomaterial at depth of 1m to head of the stone column,
simulated by an equivalent static radial pressure (sub-stage IIIa, 23rd
final ascending step of construction of the examined stone column)

6.

REFERENCES

Edafomichaniki s.a. 2007. Egnatia Odos s.a., section of Nestos bridge


and road access on it (14.1.2/14.2.1). Geotechnical Final Design
Study (boreholes GT1 to GT5).
Itasca Consulting Group Inc. FLAC3D v3.10 : Fast Lagrangian
Analysis of Continua. Users Manual version 3.10.
Itsak and Gazetas G. 2003. Study of seismic response and evaluation of
liquefaction risk. Issue 1, pp 73.
Mylonakis G., Nikolaou S. and Gazetas G. 2006. Footings under
seismic loading: Analysis and design issues with emphasis on
bridge foundations. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 26(9), 824-853.

2006 Itasca Consulting Group, Inc.


Step 115079 Model Perspective
20:07:50 Sat Sep 27 2008
Center:
X: 1.265e+001
Y: 1.964e+001
Z: 7.970e+000
Dist: 7.957e+001

7.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

For the needs of the present project it has been decided to adopt
a rather simple, yet representative, soil profile corresponding to
a bridge pier, where typical stone columns of 0.8m diameter and
23m length are constructed, in order to improve foundation soil
behaviour. The complex system consisting of a stone column

2520

Laboratory tests and numerical modeling for embankment foundation on soft chalky
silt using deep-mixing
Essais au laboratoire et modlisation numrique de la fondation dun remblai sur un limon crayeux
mou des sols amliors par malaxage en profondeur
Koch E., Szepeshzi R.

Szchenyi Istvn University, Gyr, Hungary

ABSTRACT: The deep-mixing is nowadays world-wide accepted method as a ground treatment technology to improve the
permeability, strength and deformation properties of soils. Binders, such as lime or cement are mixed in-situ with the soil by rotating
mixing tools. The method is undergoing rapid development, particularly with regard to its range of applicability, cost effectiveness
and environmental advantages. The paper describes the results of laboratory tests on chalky silt samples mixed with cement of
different content. The influence of the different mixing parameters on the unconfined compression strength and deformation modulus
is shown and evaluated. Typical results of the laboratory tests were used in numerical modeling with PLAXIS 3D as input parameters
to study the behavior of a 4 m high embankment constructed on this soil improved by deep mixed columns with different spacing and
diameters. The parameters of the soil improvement technique were analyzed to study their influence on the settlement and the stability
of the embankment. The trends of the calculation outputs are shown and evaluated.
RSUM : Pour lamlioration de la prmabilit, de la rsistance et des caractristiques de dformation des sols mous la malaxage
est considr comme une technique courante, prconise partout. La procdure consiste malaxer, par rotation, les liants: la chaux
ou/et le ciment et le sol in-situ laide de loutil de malaxage par rotation. Grace la diversit technique et aux possibilits
dapplication de lappareillage, ainsi que ses avantages conomiques, tout en respectant les intrts de lenvironnement, cette
technologie approuve un dveloppement continu mme dans nos jours. Ltude a pour but de faire connaitre las rsultats des essais au
laboratoire raliss sur des prauvettes prleves du sol trait avec les liants: la chaux et le ciment, dont la teneur par prouvettes tait
variable. Lanalyse des rsultats de ces essais a mis lvidence linfluence des divers paramtres de malaxage sur la rsistance la
compression simple et sur le modul de dformation du sol trait. Ces rsultats nous ont rendu possible dappliquer le programme
dlments finis PLAXIS 3D, en vue dtudiar une digue de 4m de hauteur, reposant sur des colonnes de sol trait, ayant une
disposition variable et des diamtres diffrents. Le but de cette tude tait de fournir un moyen de calcul qui permat le suivi des
tassements et la stabilit de la digue, en fonction de la variation des paramtres de malaxage.
KEYWORDS: deep mixing, laboratory test, numerical modeling
1

INTRODUCTION

Road and railway embankments have often been constructed on


soft, saturated, organic subsoil. In the future this type of
construction is suspected to increase, due to environmental and
land management considerations. The low strength and the high
compressibility together with the low permeability and the high
creep potential result in stability problems, extremely large
settlements with prolonged consolidation times, and long term
secondary compression. One of the solutions to avoid these
problems is deep-mixing stabilization of the subsoil.
The development of deep-mixing was started in Sweden and
Japan in the late 1960s with the application of a single mixing
tool to produce column-type elements (Figure 1.). Since then,
new technologies using different mixing tools or binder types
have been introduced. Lately, another technology; mass
stabilization, based on Finnish research is gaining acceptance,
where the whole soil mass is treated normally to a depths of 2 to
4 m (Figure 2.).
The goal of deep-mixing is to improve the soil
characteristics, e.g. increase the shear strength and/or reduce the
compressibility, by mixing the soil with some type of chemical
additives that react with the soil. The improvement occurs due
to ion exchange at the clay surface, bonding of soil particles
and/or filling of voids by chemical reaction products.
Mass stabilization is preferred if the subsoil is very poor e.g.
peat, organic clay or soft clay deposits, and the thickness of the
mass to treat is less than 5 m, the height of the embankment is
low, and the main purpose of the treatment is to increase
stability (Allu Stabilisation System). If the main purpose is to
reduce settlements and the weak soil is thicker than 5 m;

approximately 60 cm diameter single columns are used. With


this technology the treated depths can be increased up to 40 m
(Moseley and Kirsch, 2004, Logar, 2012).
Recently, the use of deep-mixing technology has been
planned on several Hungarian railway projects. The Srrt
railway line rehabilitation is one of these projects; the railroad
crosses an area where the subsoil is soft chalky silt. Both deepmixing technologies could be applied on this site. This paper
describes the preparation of their use at this project. Firstly, the
mechanical properties of the improved soil were investigated in
the laboratory, then, the effectiveness of the technology as
embankment foundation was evaluated with the PLAXIS 3D
finite element program using the laboratory test results.

2521

Figure 1.
Column-type deep-mixing

Figure 2.
Mass stabilization

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

LABORATORY TEST RESULTS

2.1

Parameters of deep-mixing technologies

The quality of the mixed depends on the applied binder type and
quantity as well as the ratio of water to binder in the mixture.
These quantites can be expressed by volume or weight. It is
essential that the water content of the original soil is considered
when calculating the water content of the slurry.
The binder quantity is described with the cement factor (
and the in-place cement factor (inpl):
= mcement / Vsoil = binder weight / soil volume [kg/m3],
inpl = mcement / Vmix = binder weight / mixture volume [kg/m3].
The water content of the soil is described with
wT / c = mw,mix / mcement = the total water-cement ratio [-].
The quality of the mixture is generally described with two
parameters:
qu = the unconfined compressive strength [MPa],
E = the Youngs modulus [MPa]).
These mechanical properties are generally measured at 7, 14,
28, 42 and 90 days after mixing, because the stregthening of the
improved soft fine grained soils is a long process, but the qualifying parameter is generally the 28 day unconfined compression strength [Filz et. al., 2003].
2.2

the 28-day unconfined compressive strength of mixtures 2, 3


and 8 (cement content = 150-175 kg/m3 ) was about 330 kPa,
and for 90 days it increased to 500 kPa (50 %). These
mixtures could be accepted for mass stabilization,
the 28-day unconfined compressive strength of the rest of the
samples with cement contents of 200-300 kg/m3 were 5002000 kPa with a 90-day to 1000-3000 kPa (50-100 %).
These would be acceptable for column-type deep-mixing.
Table 2. Parameters of the mixtures

mix- wT / c
ture
kg/m3
P1
6.8
102
P2 13.5
51
P3
3.4
204
1
5.3
127
2
4.4
153
3
3.8
178
4
2.7
254
5
2.2
305
6
6.8
108
7
5.5
134
8
4.5
162
9
3.4
214
10
2.7
268

Properties of the chalky silt soil before treatment

Based on the laboratory tests, the main parameters of the


original chalky silt are listed in Table 1.
The soil changes its color if its water content changes: the
in-situ moist soil is pale yellow, while it turns light grey when
drying. It has high lime content; the texture has small roots and
organic threads, and high sensitivity. Based on laboratory tests,
it is classified as highly plastic silt (MH).

unconfined compressive strength qu [kPa]

IP
%
17.7

w
%
71.1

e
Es Es,ur
c
*
MPa MPa
2.08 2.1 15 0.0015 0.038

Data of chalky silt mixtures

In the testing program the use of both deep-mixing


technologies was investigated. Thirteen different mixtures were
prepared by varying and wT / c parameters (Table 2).
Mixtures P1-P3 were made with low water contents and with
slightly-varying cement contents. Mixtures 1-5 were prepared
with lower water contents but highly varying cement contents.
The mixtures 6-10 were made with a little bit greater water
contents and with cement contents varied in the similar range.
Since the water content of the original soil was high the
addition of water was less significant in comparison to cement.
The cement content dominated the behavior of the mixture.
2.4

70
12
303
58
196
301
655
1037
81
81
196
370
508

day
70
11
567
92
343
312
1351
2125
94
165
334
910
1162

80
17
418
69
235
297
878
1487
71
92
231
542
670

93
18
727
88
334
380
1384
2853
82
174
424
1024
1458

90
104
17
980
93
430
598
1900
2991
117
246
508
1559
1952

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

P1

20
P2

P3

40
1

60

80
100
hardening time t [days]
6

10

Figure 4 shows the relationship between the 28-day


unconfined compressive strength (qu) and in-place cement
factor (inpl). The exponential trendline fits the points well with
R2=0.97. The chalky silt responded well to cement addition.

Evaluation of stabilized soil parameters

In Figure 3, the increase of unconfined compressive strength


with time is shown. As expected, the strength increases with
time, but the hardening/strengthening rate is different from that
of the concrete. The strength is less than 2.0 MPa for cement
content of 50-300 kg/m3. Generally, 0.5-2.0 MPa 28-day
unconfined compressive strength is required for column-type
deep-mixing, and somewhat lower strength for mass
stabilization (Moseley and Kirsch, 2004). The data presented in
figure three indicate that:
4 tested mixtures (P2, 1, 6 and 7) which have a cement content of 125 kg/m3 or less did not reach 200 kPa unconfined
compressive strength, but 3 of them would be acceptable for
a mass stabilization, only P2 with a cement content of 50
kg/m3 should be considered as too weak,

kg/m3
96
49
187
120
144
166
231
274
97
120
144
188
231

qu kPa
28
42

14

Figure 3. Measured hardening/strengthening of chalky silt mixtures

28 days unconfined compressive strength q u [kPa]

2.3

wP
%
54.4

3000

Table 1. Soil properties of the chalky silt soil in Srrt

wL
%
72.1

inpl

2500
wT/c total water-cement ratio

2000

1500

2,22

2,67

2,74

3,37

3,43

3,81

4,43

4,54

5,33

5,48

6,75

6,81

13,47

q u = 4.810-5 inpl3.1

1000

R = 0.97

500

50

100

150

200

250

300

cement factor in-place inpl [kg/m3]

Figure 4. Measured relationship between qu inpl

Figure 5 shows how the 28-day unconfined strength depends


on total water-cement ratio. Samples with high water content

2522

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

show very low strength, and improvement of soil with wT / c > 8


is not possible. When wT / c < 4 the strength increased rapidly
with decreasing water-cement ratio, but this also means the soil
is very sensitive to changes in its properties. Since the total
water-cement ratio hardly changes, it is clear that the role of
cement factor is significant.

model partial mass stabilization, 1.8-m diameter equivalent


columns were placed in 2.42.4-m, 3.63.6-m and 5.45.4-m
square grids (Figure 9.). Total mass stabilization has been
analyzed by modeling the treated soil as a homogeneous
composite of mixed and in-situ soils with averaged strength
properties.

28 days unconfined compressive strength q u [kPa]

railtrack

inpl cement factor in-place

49

2000

1500

96

97

144

144

166

231

231

274

120
187

0.6

120

embankment = 20 kN/m
2
E = 50 MN/m = 40 = 10

3.4

188

5.0

q u = 24000/(w T /c) 3.0

1000

R = 0.97

soft soil

Es = 2000 kN/m

gravel

E = 25 kN/m

10

cref = 10 kN/m

unsat=15 kN/m3

= 6 = 22 kN/m3

= 36

distance of equivalent columns


L = 2.4; 3.6 and 5.4 m

column distance

L = 2.0 and 3.0 m


0

1:1.5

Figure 7. The model geometry and soil properties

500

3.0

3.0

3.0

2500

12

14

16

total water-cement ratio wT/c [-]

Figure 5. Measured relationship between qu wT/c


column diameter
d = 0.6 m

Figure 6 shows the relationship between the unconfined


strength and the Youngs modulus. It can be seen that the trendline fits very well. In this respect, the chalky silt of Srrt
behaves as expected: the modulus is proportional to unconfined
strength. The equation from the figure can be simplified to
Eu = 70qu

Young modulus E u [MPa]

250
200

Eu = 0.068 qu
R 2 = 0,97

MohrCoulomb

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

unconfined compressive strength q u [kPa]

Figure 6. Measured relationship between qu E

3.1

Eref
qu
cref

50

Figure 9.
Partial mass stabilization

Table 2. Mechanical parameters of the mixtures

100

Figure 8.
Column-type deep-mixing

The unconfined compressive strength of the 5 mixtures was


used for modeling as base parameters (Table 2). Strength
assigned to the column material in the analysis was assumed to
be half of the unconfined compressive strength measured in the
laboratory. In PLAXIS, this strength is represented by the
cohesion (cref). Based on laboratory tests, Youngs modulus for
the columns was 70 times the unconfined compressive strength.
The value of Poissons ratio was = 0.2 .

(1)

where the units are both in kPa.

150

diameter of equivalent diameter of single


column d = 0.6 m
column d = 1.8 m

MODELING OF DEEP-MIXING TECHNOLOGIES


Site evaluation

The second part of our research program was to apply a


calculation method and give some guidelines for design. Both
technologies (column-type and mass stabilization) were studied
for expected design conditions at the Srrt site. Variation in
soil layering, soil strength and compression parameters, and
embankment height will dictate the choice of technology. The
PLAXIS 3D program was used to assess the effect of
stabilization on stability and settlement.
The geometry of the embankment and the parameters of the
untreated soil are shown in figure 7. Groundwater level was
assumed to be even with the ground surface. Sandy-gravel,
suitable for structural fill, was used for embankment material. A
3-m wide, 52.5 kPa distributed load was placed on top of the
ballast during the stability analysis.
Column diameters were 60 cm, with a 5.0-m uniform length
extending into the gravel layer. The columns were placed in
2.02.0-m and 3.03.0-m square grids (Figure 8). In order to

kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2

1.
7000
100
50

2.
1500
200
100

mixture
3.
20000
300
150

4.
40000
600
300

5.
70000
1000
500

The analysis modeled the construction and load stages in


five steps:
placement of deep-mixing soil material,
construction of initial 2-m high embankment in 30 days,
construction of final embankment height in 30 days,
final state (consolidation up to 5 kPa pore pressure).
stability analysis considering traffic load.
3.2

Analysis of settlement reduction

The results were evaluated by plotting the calculated settlements


versus the unconfined strength of improved soil elements
(Figure 10.). The following conclusions can be drawn:
with increasing strength all technologies reduce settlement,
but the effectiveness depends significantly on column
diameter and spacing,
there is a relation between column spacing and qu. If qu is too
small, the column spacing is no longer effective, no matter
how close. At a higher qu, the column spacing scheme is
efficient,
for partial and total mass stabilization settlements reduce
rapidly as qu, increases, up to 0.4 MPa. Beyond this value,
the improvement is much less significant,

2523

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

60-cm diameter column-type improvements reduce the


settlements linearly with increasing unconfined strength, but
not very markedly,
60-cm diameter columns are more effective in 2.02.0-m
grid spacing than in 3.03.0-m, although the settlements are
halved at qu = 1 MPa for the larger grid as well,
there is little difference between the reduction curves of the
60-cm diameter columns in 2.02.0-m grid spacing and of
the 1,8-m diameter equivalent columns made in 5.45.4-m
grid spacing,
the improvement with 1,8 m diameter equivalent columns in
3.63.6 m grid spacing is dramatic, the settlements are
halved at about qu = 0,2 MPa,
total mass stabilization can be the most effective technology. Even for very small unconfined strengths (qu = 0.1
MPa) the settlements are reduced to one-fourth.
40

settlement s [cm]

35
30

without treatment

mass stabilization

5.45.4 m square grid - d=1.8 m

3.63.6 m square grid - d=1.8 m

3.03.0 m square grid - d=0.6 m

2.02.0 m square grid - d=0.6 m

25

E 70 qu

20
15
10
5
0

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
unconfined compressive strength q u [MPa]

Figure 10. Calculated relationship between s - qu

3.3

Stability analysis

The influence on sliding stability was evaluated by plotting


safety factor as a function of unconfined strength (Figure 11.).
For untreated soil, SF = 1.18 and it could be significantly
increased with even a slight amount of treatment.

strength values, but quickly reaches a plateau. Beyond this


point the mechanics of the stability failure changes with the
failure surface travelling through the embankment slope
only.
4

For road and rail embankment foundations, soil improvement is


a frequently-used technique. Column-type deep-mixing and
mass stabilization are effective soil improvement technologies
to reduce settlements increase safety against slope failure. To
prepare new railway rehabilitation projects the usability of both
methods was investigated on a special soil type: chalky silt in
Srrt (Hungary).
While the underlying chemistry may be complex, the
performance of the mixed material can be evaluated by standard
laboratory and field tests. Laboratory tests have clearly
demonstrated that the Srrt chalky silt is suitable for
improvement by cement. While it cures relatively slowly, an
adequate strength is reached in about 40 days. Unconfined
strengths up to 1,0 MPa can be reached by adding relatively
small amounts of cement. Its uniform and predictable response
to treatment allows the engineer to design the field
improvement. For example, the relationship between
unconfined strength and total water-cement ratio can be
described with simple equations. The Youngs modulus of the
chalky silt can be calculated as 70 times the unconfined
strength.
Finite element modeling was used to study the effectiveness of
the mixing improvement. Column-type and mass stabilization
scenarios were analyzed using strength and compressibility
values from laboratory test results. Both technologies showed
reductions in settlement and increase in stability. Based on the
figures presented, the effectiveness of various solutions can be
evaluated at the first design stages easily and rapidly. Using the
trends from the figures, an optimal solution can then be arrived at
during the detailed design phase by making only some
calculations with PLAXIS for the actual design conditions.
In the future, a further refinement of the proposed method can
be achieved by assessing and involving the cost-effectiveness of
the alternatives in the design.
5

3,0

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

safety factor SF [-]

2,8
2,6

without treatment

mass stabilization

2,4

5.45.4 m square grid - d=1.8 m

3.63.6 m square grid - d=1.8 m

2,2

3.03.0 m square grid - d=0.6 m

2.02.0 m square grid - d=0.6 m

2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0

E 70 qu
0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
unconfined compressive strength q u [MPa]

Figure 11. Calculated relationship between SF qu

The results can be summarized in the following:


the lines for different diameters and grid spacing are very
similar (except for mass stabilization),
the four lines show that for qu > 0.5 MPa, improvement is not
necessary,
the 0.6-m diameter columns with 3-m grid spacing is the
least effective just reaching SF = 1.4 value with the
maximum strength investigated,
the most effective technology to insure stability is the partial
mass stabilization. With 1.8-m diameter equivalent columns
and 3.6-m grid spacing, the required SF = 1.35 value can be
achieved with even small unconfined strength,
the line for total mass stabilization shows a very different
behavior. It generates a high safety factor even for small

Allu Stabilisation System, http://www.allu.net/products/stabilisationsystem


Brinkgreve R.B.J., Vermeer P.A. (2010): PLAXIS-Finite element code for
soil and rock analyses, Plaxis 3D. Manuals, Delft University of Technology Plaxis bv, The Netherlands.
Dumas, C. et. al. (2003): Innovative Technology for Accelerated Const-ruction of Bridge and Embankment Foundations in Europe, FHWAPL-03-014, 2003, pp. 6-13.
Filz, G.M., Hodges, D.K., Weatherby, D.E. and Marr, W.A. (2005):
Standardized Definitions and Laboratory Procedures for Soil-Cement
Specimens Applicable to the Wet Method of Deep Mixing, GSP 136
Innovations in Grouting and Soil Improvement, ASCE Geo-frontiers,
Reston, Virginia, pp.1-13.
Hayward Baker, (2010) Geotechnical Construction, Construction Techniques, http://www.haywardbaker.com/WhatWeDo/Techniques/default.aspx
Logar, J. (2012), Ground Improvement State of the Art in South Eastern
Europe, 2. Symposium Baugrundverbesserung in der Geotechnik am
13. und 14. September 2012 an der TU Wien, pp. 19-46.
Moseley, M.P., Kirsch, K. (2004): Ground Improvement, Taylor and
Francis, London, pp. 57-92, 331-428.

2524

Assessment of bio-mechanical reinforcement materials influencing slope stability,


based on numerical analyses
valuation des matriaux de renforcement bio-mcaniques qui influencent la stabilit des pentes
par des analyses numriques
Koda E., Osinski P.

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland

ABSTRACT: The article is an answer proposal for the conclusion stated in European regulations regarding the environment friendly
and more sustainable development, which among others includes utilising secondary and recycled material in order to obtain durable
and stable cuttings and embankments. Bearing in mind that the slope stability and erosion control on embankments are the issues
rising the nowadays geotechnics awareness through all around the world, the paper content provides the alternative engineering
solutions to such problems. The techniques proposed in the paper mainly consist of the proper vegetation cover implementation on
embankment slopes, the reinforcement of earth structures by utilising geotextiles and a combination of those two. Additionally, it is
presented how secondary materials could be used as a vegetation development accelerating and enhancing material. In order to prove
the reliability and efficiency of such activities the laboratory material tests and numerical modeling of slope failures were conducted.
RSUM : L'article est une proposition de rponse la conclusion nonce dans les rglements europens concernant
l'environnement de dveloppement favorable et plus durable, ce qui comprend entre autres l'utilisation des matriaux de rcupration
et de recyclage afin d'obtenir des dblais et remblais stables et durables. Il est admis que la stabilit des pentes et le contrle de
lrosion sur les remblais sont des problmes qui apparaisse comme des priorits pour la gotechnique actuelle. Le papier propose des
solutions dingnierie ces problmes. Les techniques proposes dans le document se composent principalement de la mise en uvre
de couverture vgtale sur les talus, le renforcement des structures en terre en utilisant par gotextiles et une combinaison des deux.
En outre, il est prsent comment les matriaux secondaires pourraient tre utiliss comme un dveloppement de la vgtation
acclrant et en amliorant le matriau. Afin de prouver la fiabilit et l'efficacit de telles activits, les essais de matriaux en
laboratoire et la modlisation numrique des ruptures de pente ont t effectues
KEYWORDS: slope stability, reinforcement, vegetation cover, recycled materials, landfill.

The most significant element of the embankment type landfill


reclamation process is the reinforcement and biological
stabilisation of slopes, which are very sensitive to several
destabilisation processes like i.e surface erosion. The landfill
stability improvement activities are divided into phase 1 technical reclamation (implementation of civil engineering
techniques), and phase 2 - biological restoration (establishment
of the vegetation cover). For both of them it is highly
recommended to use such recyclable materials as sewage sludge
and fly ash as a landfill reinforcement filling (CEN/BT, 2009).
In 2012, in Poland the production of fly-ashes from the coal
combustion was 18.5 mln tones. The amount of slag and ashes
disposed on Polish landfills and usable for the road
embankment construction and land reclamation is 261.8 mln
tons. Furthermore, the annual production of sewage sludge in
Poland is also significant - 500 000 tones, and could be
successfully utilised in landfill reclamation process, as a rich in
nutrients fertilizer (Koda et al 2012). The combination of
carefully selected types of fly-ash, sewage sludge, soil and
vegetation cover can be excellent alternative for the heavy
engineering activities for the landfill slopes reinforcement. All
the presented solutions are based on the analyses conducted at
the Radiowo landfill site located near Warsaw.

The municipal solid waste was disposed there up to the early


90s. The local landslides treatment, changes in further
exploitation, and the reinforcement treatment were required.
Since 1993 only non-composted waste from the compostory
plant has been disposed there (approximately 300 tons/day).
The remediation works on the landfill have been carried out
since 1994. They include: slopes forming and planting, stability
improvement solution, mineral capping, bentonite cut-off wall
as a limitation of the groundwater pollution and a peripheral
drainage.
The in situ and laboratory tests for Radiowo landfill has been
performed since 1993. The field investigation consists of
settlement measurements, geotechnical tests of waste, back
analysis (as well as slope failure tests), quality tests of sealing
(capping layer and vertical barrier) and filter materials. In the
Radiowo landfill case, the morphological composition of waste
creates an additional factor influencing the mechanical
parameters. The organic matter content for non-composted
waste is ca. 5 %. A location map involving cross sections
selected for slope stability analyses is presented in Figure 1.
Nowadays, the landfill site is planning to be adopted as a
winter sports activity complex. The construction plan has
already been accomplished and accepted by a legal body, which
is a requirement when considering new development plan for
contaminated sites (for more detail please refer to Koda 2012).

INTRODUCTION.

SITE DESCRIPTION

The Radiowo landfill (embankment type) was established in


1962. It covers approximately 15 ha and the altitude is 60 m
high. No protection system against the environmental pollution
was introduced into the surrounding area at the start of the
landfill operation.

UTILISATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC MATERIALS

One of the elements of the landfill reclamation process is the


construction of capping system. It is a landfill surface cover
protecting against the rainfall infiltration (limitation of leachate
penetration). It provides good establishment conditions for the
vegetation cover, and significantly enhances slopes stability.

2525

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

I
II
II

III
III

retaining wall

Legend:
designed ski slope

I- slope with grass carpets


II- designed slope with grass
III- slope with trees

Figure 1. Current development plan of Radiowo landfill, and location of cross-section for slope stability analyses.

Because of its appropriate geotechnical properties like


impermeability and good compaction conditions, flay-ashes
mixed with cohesive soil are a great material for the capping
system. Recently it was recommended to use geomembrane
instead of mineral barriers to insulate the surface of the landfill,
however there are lots of disadvantages like decreasing slope
stability or slowing down the bio-chemical decomposition of
waste. Applying mineral capping systems (made of ashes and
sewage sludge), in many cases resulted in enhanced
fermentation processes (Koda 2011).
The flay-ash is basically a by product of the coal combustion
process in power plants. The mineral and chemical composition
is determined by mineral elements present in coal. These
minerals are: iron oxides, carbonates and clayey minerals. The
properties of the flay-ash mainly depend on shape and size
distribution of its particles. The bulk density of ashes contains
in the range of 2000-2500 kg/m3.

2526

The reason for this is some of the particles are filled with
gas. The chemical reactions proceeding during the coal
combustion process produce mineral phases stated in Table 1.
Table 1. Mineral phases of the fly-ash (Koda and Osinski 2011).

Mineral phases
Glass
Millite
Quartz
Hematite
Magnetite
Coke

% content of total mass


60-83
4-25
4-18
0.5-2
1-7
0.5-5

The additional anthropogenic component which also


presents high usability in terms of slope surface reinforcement
is sewage sludge (Katsumi et al. 2010). The mineral elements of

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

G E O T E X T IL E

G E O G R ID

w i d th 2 .0 m

2 .0m

2 .0 m

w id th 1 .3 m

2.0m

2 .0 m

1 .3 m

1 .3 m

1 .3 m

1. 3 m

1.3m

1.3m

1 .3m

1 2 .5 m

1 2 /2
5 /3

1 3 /2
1 5.0 m

4 /2

MP

1 4 /1

2 1.0 m

3 /2

MT
1 4 /2

4 8 . 0m

2 /2

1 2 .5 m

1 /2

1 5 .0 m

2 1.0 m

2 5 .0 m

5 /4

2.0m

1 .3 m

1 2 .5 m

2 .0 m

5 /2

1 2 .5 m

2 5 .0 m

the sewage sludge are developing slowly and are not exposed to
the erosion processes. This kind of material is hazardous when
disposed but when treated by vegetation and additives it is
safely absorbed and utilized by plants. Additionally it has to be
mentioned that sewage sludge supply is free of charge. The
mixture is applied by hydraulic seeders supplied with high
pressure pumps, which enables spraying on different
soil/material types. The advantage of using sewage sludge is
that seeds are protected from the erosion and excessive drying.
The viscosity of the sludge and its mixing ability with other
components, assure even and smooth protection cover, and
moreover, high adhesion to the sprayed surface. The most
significant advantage of using the sewage sludge is the nutrition
content, essential for the vegetation cover establishment.
Especially the undrained sludge is rich in microelement,
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter. Some of
them are highly valuable for plants (Koda 2011), however
cannot exceed normative values of dry mass. The usability of
ashes and sewage sludge for the geotechnical purpose is
determined by several physical and mechanical properties such
as: capacity index in saturated conditions, grain-size
distribution, maximum dry bulk density, swelling, internal
friction angle, and passive capillarity.

1 /1
MT

2 /1
MT

3 /1

4 /1

5 /1

MP

MP

1 P /1 K /1

10

11

MT

MT

MT

MT

MP

MP

1 2 /1

1 3 /1

V o lu m e tric c o n te n t o f su b s tra te :
1 s a n d m e a s u re
1 , 2 c o m p o st m e a su re
1 ,2 l a y e rs o f s u b s tra te

K /2

1 P /1 K /2

M T - L a w n t yp e m ix tu re

1 P /2 K /1

M P - P a stu re ty p e m ix tu re

1 P /2 K /2

G - G a z o n t y p e m ix tu re

1 P / 1 K /1
1 P / 2 K /2

1 /1 1 /2 3 /2 8 1 1 1 4 /2 - N u m b e rs o f v a ria n ts

Figure 2. Scheme of the experimental plot established at Radiowo


landfill slopes (Koda 2011).

4
VEGETATION COVER AS A RELIABLE METHOD
OF SLOPE STABILITY IMPROVEMENT
Beyond described activities for the slope stability and erosion
control improvement purpose on the Radiowo landfill, there
were also bio-engineering techniques applied with additional
use of geosythetics. Due to the usability assessment of the
compost, from organic waste as an enhancing material for the
grass carpets, an experimental plot was established within the
compostory plant area (Koda, 2012). A composite (grass carpet)
consisting of three elements was constructed: reinforcing
material, substrate and grass seeds mixture was prepared. As a
reinforcing material the geotextile (G) and geogrid (Gs) was
used. A reinforcing material task was to connect particular
elements of the carpet, improving the shear strength and
hydraulics conditions, and also an increase of erosion control on
landfill slopes. A porous structure of geotextile and geogrid
enhances establishment of the root zone deeper into the surface.
During the selection of reinforcing material the mechanical
properties and the stock was considered. The polypropylene
materials guarantee long term durability and resistance to
aggressive environmental conditions. A seeding suspension
consisted of a mixture of three types of grass seeds: lawn type
(MT), pasture type (MP) and gazon type grass seeds (G). A
substrate consisted of sand and compost mixture in three
different volumetric proportions: 1P/1K- 1:1 (1 measure of sand
+ 1 measure of compost), 1P/2K- 1:2 (1 measure of sand + 2
measures of compost), and K- pure substrate (100% compost).
The scheme of experimental plot is presented in Figure 2.
Additionally an application of already described fly-ash and
sewage sludge suspension on such slopes to accelerate the
establishment of a green cover was also provided. The grass
carpets were introduced in order to maintain the observation and
to conduct further research on how does such solution influence
conditions of slopes. The assessment of the effectiveness of bioengineering activity on landfill slopes were undertaken after 1,
2, 6, and 10 years of the experiment duration. The result of the
observation confirms the reinforcing purpose of the method, as
even after 10 years of grass carpets establishment the slopes are
evenly covered with plants, while on the slopes where only
traditional method of planting was applied, the slope conditions
are significantly worse. Additionally, the numerical analyses
involving the influence of reinforcing layer also proved the
correctness of applied method on slope of section I-I marked on
Figure 1 where location map is provided. For the results please
refer to Table 3.

The additional solution improving the slope stability is a


proper establishment of high trees and shrubs on slopes (Coppin
and Richards 1990, Norris and Greenwood 2003, Clark et al.
2003). Such activity was also conducted for Radiowo landfill
site. Comprehensively analysed plant species were selected in
terms of root system characteristics and assimilation ability in
such specific ecosystem as contaminated land (Coppin and
Richards 1990, Greenwood 2006).
In the present study, slopes where the vegetation cover was
applied, have been assessed to see whether implementation of
plants affected the resulting stability significantly. Firstly,
however the geotechnical parameters of waste had to be
determined. For such purpose back analyses, CPT and WST
tests were conducted on site. The back-stability analysis by the
Bishops', Swedish (GEO-SLOPE program) and FEM (Z-SOIL
numerical program) methods were performed for three chosen
cross-sections of Radiowo landfill slopes and were applied for
the shear strength parameters verification. The results are listed
in Table 2.
Table 2. Shear strength parameters for municipal solid waste (Koda,
2011)

Material
non-composted
waste
non-composted
waste + sand
old municipal
waste

[kN/m3]

[]

11.0

20

12.0

25

14.0

26

c
[kPa]

Method

failure tests,
CPT, WST
failure tests,
23
CPT, WST
back-analysis
20
CPT, WST
25

The computations of factor of safety including vegetation


cover influencing slope stability were conducted with use of
General Greenwood Method. Greenwood (2006) developed an
equation, based on the limit equilibrium method, where
parameters of plants existing on the slope are considered. These
parameters are: root reinforcement forces, wind forces, or the
mass of vegetation, or related to these, changes in the pore
water pressure. In Slip4EX the Factor of Safety can be
calculated by using several equations developed by Greenwood
(2006), however in this study the Greenwood General Method
was used, as it presents similar characteristics to other methods
used in this study. A powerful equation of FOS concerning a
vegetation influence, proposed by Greenwood is as follows:

2527

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

(c cv )l (W Wv ) cos (U U v )l (U 2 U 2 v) (U1 U1v ) sin Dw sin ( ) T sin tan


F

(W
) T cos

(c cv )l (W Wv ) cos (U
(U 2D
U v)W
l v )sin
Uw2cos(
v) (U 1 U 1v ) sin Dw sin ( ) T sin tan
F
(W Wv ) sin Dw cos( ) T cos

(1)

(1)

1.32
1.32

Figure
includingthe
theinfluence
influenceofofvegetation
vegetationcover
cover
(cross-section
III-III
please
refer
to Figure
Figure3.3.Numerical
Numericalanalysis
analysis of
of slope
slope stability
stability including
(cross-section
III-III
please
refer
to Figure
1). 1).

where
with vv mean
mean changes
changes
where all
all the
the parameters
parameters indexed
indexed with
according
suchparameters
parameters
accordingtotovegetation
vegetation influence.
influence. Additionally
Additionally such
like
strength) are
arealso
alsoincluded
included
likeDDww(wind
(windforce),
force), TT (tensile
(tensile rooth
rooth strength)
ininthe
basically developed
developedtotoassess
assess
theequation.
equation.This
This method
method was
was basically
the
soil reinforcement
reinforcement by
by
thestability
stability of
of slope
slope according
according to the soil
anchors
effects. By
By using
using the
the
anchors oror geotextiles,
geotextiles, or
or vegetation effects.
Slip4Exspreadsheet
spreadsheet (Greenwood
(Greenwood 2006), itit is
Slip4Ex
is possible
possible totoassess
assess
howthe
thedistribution
distribution and
and type
type of vegetation
vegetation can
how
can influences
influencesthe
the
FactorofofSafety.
Safety. After
After full
full establishment
establishment and
Factor
and grow
growof
ofproposed
proposed
plantsthe
thenumerical
numerical analyses
analyses of
of slope
slope stability
plants
stability were
wereconducted.
conducted.
distribution of
of high
high vegetation
vegetation cover
AA distribution
cover on
on analysed
analysed slope
slope
(cross-sectionIII-III)
III-III)isis presented
presented in
in Figure
Figure 3.
(cross-section
3.
Firstly the
the numerical
numerical analyses
analyses were
Firstly
were conducted
conducted for
for bare
bare
slopes.
The
computations
were
based
on
Bishop
method
slopes. The computations were based on Bishop methodwhich
which
wasemployed
employed during
during analyses
analyses performed
performed in
was
in GeoStudio2007
GeoStudio2007
software.
The
second
step
was
to
determine
software. The second step was to determine factor
factor ofof safety
safety
influenced by plants.
influenced
by plants.
The results obtained proved that the factor of safety for the
The results obtained proved that the factor of safety for the
slopes covered with plant was improved as much as 20%. The
slopes
covered with plant was improved as much as 20%. The
initial results of numerical modeling for bare slopes has
initial
results
of numerical
for term
bare monitoring
slopes has
presented
unstable
condition, modeling
however long
presented
unstable
long The
termonly
monitoring
proved that
no singscondition,
of failure however
were noticed.
reliable
proved
that no
of failure
noticed.ofThe
reliable
explanation
forsings
such state
could were
be a presence
wellonly
developed
explanation
stateThe
could
be a presence
of well
developed
vegetation for
on such
slopes.
example
of results
of numerical
vegetation
on slope
slopes.
The example
of results
of slopes
numerical
analyses for
stability
for bare and
vegetated
is
analyses
slope 3.stability for bare and vegetated slopes is
presentedfor
in Table
presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Comparison of numerical analyses of factor of safety for bare
and vegetated
slopes of numerical analyses of factor of safety for bare
Table
3. Comparison
and vegetated slopes

Factor of safety
Factor of Vegetated
safety
Cross Section
Bare slope
slope
Cross Section
Bishop
method
Greenwood
Bare slope
Vegetatedmethod
slope
I-I
1.30 Greenwood method
1.38
Bishop method
1.35
1.42
I-III-II
1.30
1.38
III-III
1.15
1.32
II-II
1.35
1.42
III-III
1.15
1.32
5 CONCLUSIONS
5
CONCLUSIONS
The instability of slopes is one of the most significant problem
concerning
reclamation
of landfill
sites. Theproblem
partial
The instability
of slopes processes
is one of the
most significant
solution forreclamation
this issue processes
is presented
in the paper.
Therepartial
are
concerning
of landfill
sites. The
availableformethods,
which
relatively
efficient,
solution
this issue
is are
presented
in simple,
the paper.
Thereand
are
available methods, which are relatively simple, efficient, and
cost effective. The use of fly ash and sewage sludge for the
reclamation of the surface of landfill is an alternative.. It also
solves the problem of the ash storage which, from the
economical and environmental point of view, is very positive.
4

The reinforcement
doessewage
not require
heavy
cost effective.
The use ofofflyslope
ash and
sludge only
for the
engineeringofmethods,
basic
solutionis as
proper selection
reclamation
the surface
of landfill
an aalternative..
It also and
implementation
of plants
always
worthwhich,
consideration.
solves
the problem
of theis ash
storage
from theIt is
definitely and
costenvironmental
effective, environment
friendly
reasonable
economical
point of view,
is veryand
positive.
technique
acceleratingoflandfill
works.only
Furthermore,
The reinforcement
slope reclamation
does not require
heavy
other wastemethods,
material basic
like compost
be a great
substitute
engineering
solution could
as a proper
selection
and of
implementation
plants isreclamation
always worth
consideration.
It is The
humus for theofsurface
layer
establishment.
definitely
and reasonable
compost cost
couldeffective,
be used environment
for reinforcedfriendly
grass carpets
production,
technique
accelerating
landfill reclamation
Furthermore,
which positively
influences
the erosionworks.
control
on slopes, a
other
waste
material
like compostprocesses
could be of
a great
factor
which
often determines
slopesubstitute
failure. of
humus for the surface reclamation layer establishment. The
compost
could be used for reinforced grass carpets production,
6
REFERENCES
which positively influences the erosion control on slopes, a
CEN/BT
2009. Earthworks.
Final
Feb. 2009.
factor
whichWG2003
often determines
processes of
slopereport
failure.
Clark L.J., Whalley1 W.R, and Barraclough P.B. 2003. How do
roots penetrate strong soil? Plant and Soil , 255, 93104.
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Coppin, N. J., and Richards, I. G. 1990. Use of vegetation in
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Greenwood,
J.R. 2006.
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A P.B.
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L.J., Whalley1
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Barraclough
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do
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penetrate
strongAnalysis
soil? PlanttoandInclude
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N. J., and Reinforcement
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Use of vegetation
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Butterworths,
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Koda E. 2012. Development plan of Radiowo landfill site, a ski
Koda slope
E. 2011.
StabilityX Conf.
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construction.
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erosion
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KodaofE. fly-ash
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a ski Life
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sludge.
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waste management issues, Warsaw, 110-117 [In Polish].
KodaE.E.,
Gaewski
M. 2012.
Usewith
of fly-ash
Koda
andOsiski
OsinskiP.,
P.and
2011.
Slope erosion
control
the use and
for thesludge.
erosionAnn.
control
on sanitary
landfill
ofsewage
fly-ashsludge
and sewage
Warsaw
Univ. Life
slopes.
GeoCongress
- State
Scien.,
Land
Reclam. No.2012,
43 (1),
1-12.of the Art and Practice in
ASCE
GSPUse
No of
225,
3873-and
3890.
Koda Geotechnical
E., Osiski P.,Engineering.
and Gaewski
M. 2012.
fly-ash
Norris,
J.E.sludge
and Greenwood,
J.R.control
2003 Root
reinforcement
sewage
for the erosion
on sanitary
landfill on
unstable
slopes in Northern
Greece
Italy. in
Inter.
slopes.
GeoCongress
2012, - State
of theand
ArtCentral
and Practice
Conf. on Problematic
Soils,
Nottingham,
414-418.
Geotechnical
Engineering.
ASCE
GSP No 225,
3873- 3890.
Norris, J.E. and Greenwood, J.R. 2003 Root reinforcement on
unstable slopes in Northern Greece and Central Italy. Inter.
Conf. on Problematic Soils, Nottingham, 414-418.

2528

Evaluation of Vertical Drain-enhanced Radial Consolidation with Modified Analytical


Solution
valuation de la consolidation radiale amliore par des drains verticaux par une solution
analytique modifie
Lee C., Choi Y., Lee W.

School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University

Hong S.J.

Technology Research & Development Institute, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd.


aBstract: the installation of vertical drains accelerates the consolidation process by reducing the drainage path and
predominating horizontal flow within the soft deposits. however, the radial consolidation of the vertical drain installed into the soft
ground is governed by the permeability of a smear zone. modification of hansbo's analysis is proposed to analyze the degree of
consolidation on a horizontal plane by considering the properties of the soil within the smear zone in this study. a parametric study is
carried out to investigate the effects of the soil properties on the proposed analysis. the proposed equation is observed to be relatively
insensitive to the uncertainty of the horizontal permeability ratio between the undisturbed and smear zones. the validity of the
proposed analysis is examined by comparison with the settlement data from a field measurement. it is revealed that the proposed
analysis provides a reliable prediction on the consolidation rate of soft ground installed pVd.
rsUm : l'installation de drains verticaux acclre le processus de consolidation en rduisant les chemins de drainage et
d'coulements horizontaux prdominant dans les dpts mous. toutefois, la permabilit de la zone dinfluence dtermine le degr de
la consolidation radiale induite par les drains verticaux installs dans les sols mous. Une modification de l'analyse de hansbo est
propose dans cette tude pour analyser le degr de consolidation dans un plan horizontal en considrant les proprits du sol dans la
zone dinfluence. Une tude paramtrique est notamment mene pour tudier les effets des proprits du sol sur l'analyse propose.
l'observation montre que lquation propose est relativement insensible l'incertitude du rapport entre permabilits horizontales
entre les zones non perturbes et les zones dinfluence. la validit de l'analyse propose est examine par comparaison avec les
donnes de tassement d'une mesure sur site. il sest rvl que l'analyse propose fournit une prvision fiable sur le taux de
consolidation des drains verticaux installs dans les sols mous.
KeYWords: permeability, radial consolidation, smear zone, Vertical drain
1

introdUction

the radial consolidation flow into the vertical drain induces


a reduction in the flow channel and an increase in flow rate
approaching the drain. it causes that the hydraulic head is
dramatically decreased as the distance to the drain decreases.
therefore, the permeability of drain and soil near the drain
control the rate of consolidation by the vertical drain. since the
permeability of drain is generally designed to be larger enough
than that of soil, it is known that the well resistance is negligible
if the discharge capacity exceeds the required discharge
capacity (holtz et al. 1987, lo 1991). on the other hand, the
installation of vertical drains induces a soil disturbance in the
vicinity of the mandrel. the disturbed zone, called smear zone,
is an area where has reduced permeability and increased
compressibility comparing with an undisturbed soil. reduced
permeability in the disturbed zone governs the rate of
consolidation, because the hydraulic head loss in soil near the
drain further increases when the permeability decreases.
many researchers insisted that the soil adjacent to the drain
is remolded, and several researches were investigated the smear
effect by obtaining the permeability of the distrubed zone from
the permeability of remolded clay (tavenas et al. 1983, Bergado
et al. 1991, hird and moseley 2000, sathananthan and
indraratna 2006). in this study, modification of hansbos
solution is proposed to evaluate the degree of radial
consolidation, considering the consolidation characteristics of
remolded clay. characterisitcs of the modified solution are
discussed, in comparison with hansbos solution. and the
consolidation settlement predicted by the modified solution is
comprared with measured settlement data in the field.

modified analYtical solUtion

hansbos (1981) solution has been widely used to evaluate the


consolidation behavior with vertical drain. it is simple and
accurate as compared with other rigorous solutions and
numerical analysis (onoue 1988, lo 1991). according to
hansbo (1981), the average degree of radial consolidation ( U r )
by vertical drain is
U r 1 exp(8Th / s )

(1)

where, s = ln(de/dw)+(kh/ks-1)ln(ds/dw)+z(2l-z)(kh/qw)-0.75,
th is a time factor (= cht/de2), ch is the coefficient of horizontal
consolidation in the field, de is the circular diameter influenced
by the drain, dw is the drain diameter, kh is the coefficient of
horizontal permeability in the undisturbed zone, ks is the
coefficient of horizontal permeability in the disturbed zone, ds is
the disturbed zone diameter, l is the drainage path length, and
qw is the drain discharge capacity.
hansbos analysis is based on the horizontal flow
characteristics of the undisturbed zone (kh or ch) to evaluate the
radial consolidation. however, it is difficult to obtain due to the
anisotropy of permeability and difference between laboratory
and field measurement values (Bergardo et al. 1991, chai and
miura 1999).
the consolidation characteristics of the disturbed zone are
homogeneous and isotropic due to the disturbance (lo 1991).
to analyze the radial consolidation based on the consolidation
characteristics of disturbed zone, hansbos solution is modified
in this study. since hansbos solution assumes an equal vertical
strain, the ratio of horizontal permeability between the
undisturbed and disturbed zones (kh/ks).

2529

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

table 1. Void ratio and compression index of each clay layer


property

layer 1
U

el
kh/ks=1
kh/ks=2

layer 2

1.81

r
2.22

kh/ks=20

r
1.35

e0

1.65

1.32

1.95

1.46

0.94

0.78

cc

0.84

0.46

1.04

0.57

0.57

0.34

4.8

22.0

5.0

cv
7.1
3.8
13.0
(10-4 cm2/sec)
note. U: undisturbed clay, r: remolded clay

kh/ks=5
kh/ks=10

layer 3
U

2
40
60
0

kh/ks=1
kh/ks=2
kh/ks=5

kh/ks=10
kh/ks=20

figure 2. profiles of soil properties


figure 1. effect of kh/ks on the degree of consolidation: (a) hansbos
method, (b) proposed method

is the same as the consolidation coefficients ratio between the


undisturbed and disturbed zones (ch/chs). By using this
condition, rearranged the average degree of radial consolidation
( U ' r ) is
U ' r 1 exp(8Ths / ' s )

(2)

where, s = ln(ds/dw)+[ln(de/ds)+z(2l-z)(kh/qw)-0.75]/(kh/ks),
ths is a time factor based on chs.
the permeability reduction in the disturbed zone, frequently
represented as kh/ks, is important factor for the vertical drainenhanced consolidation. the effect of kh/ks on the analysis
results is investigated both hansbos solution and modified
solution. figure 1 shows the effect of kh/ks on U r Th and
U 'r Ths curves. other factors are maintained as a constant
value (de/dw=25, ds/dw=5), and well resistance is ignored.
as shown in figure 1(a), the rate of consolidation by
hansbos method is continuously retarded with increasing in
kh/ks. however, the consolidation rate by proposed method
(figure 1(b)) is slightly speeded up and finally converged with
increasing in kh/ks, because the rate of vertical drain-enhanced
consolidation is governed by the permeability of disturbed zone
(Basu and prezzi 2007).
3

application (BUsan neW-port site)

the consolidation behavior in Busan new-port site is analyzed


to verify the proposed analysis. the rate of consolidation
settlement is evaluated by hansbos solution and modified
solution, and these results are compared with observed
settlements in field.
3.1

Soil properties of clay layers

the profiles of clay layer properties (Busan new-port) are


shown in figure 2. the natural water content (wn) and liquid
limit (wl) vary 35~75% and 40~80%, respectively. the plastic
limit (wp) exists in relatively narrow range from 20 to 30%.

2530

although ocr at shallow depth is slightly larger than 1, the


clay layers can be presumed normally consolidated. Busan clay
can be divided into upper and lower clay layers based on el 30m.
3.2

Consolidation properties of each clay layer

in this study, the clay layers of Busan new-port are divided into
3 layers for the consolidation analysis based on the soil
properties. the consolidation tests were carried out for 50
samples for the natural clay and 3 samples for the remolded clay
to figure out the consolidation characteristics of clay layers.
table 1 shows the void ratio, compression index (cc) and
coefficient of consolidation (cv) representing the each clay
layer.
3.3

Extent of the disturbed zone

in this study, several assumptions are made to evaluate the


extent of the disturbed zone: 1) the soil adjacent to the drain is
completely remolded. therefore, the void ratio of the clay
adjacent to the drain is the same as that of the remolded clay at
the same effective stress level; 2) the void ratio reduction due to
the disturbance around the drains occurs faster than the
consolidation settlement under a surcharge load. therefore,
ground settlement that occurred without applying the surcharge
load is mainly caused by the void ratio reduction due to the
disturbance; 3) the extent of the disturbed zone and the variation
of the void ratio within the disturbed zone are a invariable
property with depth; 4) the shape of disturbed zone is a circular
cross section. With these assumptions, the extent of the
disturbed zone is evaluated from measured ground settlement,
which occurred in the interval between pVd installation and a
surcharge loading.
Burland (1990) suggested that the e-log 'v relation for the
remolded clay:
e r e L ( A B log ' v )

(3)

where, er is the void ratio of the remolded clay, el is the void


ratio at the liquid limit, 'v is a vertical effective stress (kpa),
and a and B are constants. for Busan clay, the values of a and
B are 1.224 and 0.256, respectively (hong 2011). therefore, the

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

void ratio reduction (e) due to the disturbance can be


evaluated from the liquid limit and the natural water content.

table 2. analysis conditions


case
1
2
3
4
5

figure 3. Variations of void ratio in disturbed zone

figure 3 shows two possible variations of the void ratio with


radial distance from the center of the drain. case a assumes a
constant permeability or void ratio within the disturbed zone
(rs). however, most studies (onoue et al. 1991, indraratna and
redana 1998, shin et al. 2009) were consistently insisted a
decrease in the permeability or the void ratio within the
disturbed zone, although there are some differences in shape of
variation (e.g. linear, bilinear, and parabolic). to consider
variation of the permeability or the void ratio within the
disturbed zone, case b assumes that the void ratio linearly
increases from the value equal to er at the outer boundary of the
fully disturbed zone (rf) to the initial void ratio (e0) of the
undisturbed soil at the outer boundary of the transition zone (rt).
for cases a and b, the volume changes due to the disturbance
induced by pVd installation can be expressed as:

V rs 2 H e /(1 e0 )
V [(r f

Case a (4)

r f rt rt ) / 3] H e /(1 e0 ) Case b (5)

where, e is the void ratio reduction due to the disturbance, and


h is the thickness of the target clay layer.
figure 4 shows the ground elevation and total ground
settlement during the entire period of the improvement. the
measured settlement that occurred between the pVd installation
and surcharge loading is 85.6 cm. this ground settlement could
be occurred by the two reasons: 1) void ratio reduction within
the disturbed zone; and 2) consolidation settlement in the
undisturbed zone due to the sand mat. the consolidation
settlement in the undisturbed zone is calculated as 13.8 cm by
using Zeng and Xie's solution (1989). therefore, the ground
settlement caused by the void reduction within the disturbed
zone is 71.8 cm.

figure 4. Ground level and settlement of Busan new-port site

2531

analytical condition
hansbos method

proposed method

no disturbance, ch = cv

no disturbance, ch = cv

ch = cv in disturbed zone,
ch = 2cv in undisturbed zone

no disturbance, ch = chs

ch = cv in undisturbed zone,

ch = chs in disturbed zone,

kh/ks = 2.5

kh/ks or kh/kf = 2.5

ch = cv in undisturbed zone,

ch = chs in disturbed zone,

kh/ks = 5.0

kh/ks or kh/kf = 5.0

ch = cv in undisturbed zone,

ch = chs in disturbed zone,

kh/ks = 10.0

kh/ks or kh/kf = 10.0

the extent of the disturbed zone (rs) for case a is easily


calculated as 21.6 cm based on 71.8 cm of the ground
settlement. however, it is hard to calculate the values of rf and rt
for case b because both rf and rt values are variables. for the
linear spatial variation, previous studies suggested that the rf is
approximately 1.0~1.6rm (onoue et al. 1991, hird and moseley
2000, sharma and Xiao 2000), where rm is the equivalent radius
of the mandrel. in this study, since the rf is assumed to be 1.0rm
(8.0 cm), calculated value of rt is 4.1rm.
3.4

Consolidation analysis

the consolidation rate of Busan new-port is predicted using


both hansbos method and proposed method. to evaluate effect
of consolidation properties, parametric study is performed for a
set of different conditions, as shown in table 2. in case of
proposed method, two possible permeability variations within
disturbed zone are considered. Based on the pVd property,
dw=6, de=135cm, and qw=15cm3/sec are used for analysis.
figure 5 shows the rate of consolidation settlement predicted
by both hansbo's method and proposed method, and the
measured settlement for the layer located above el -30 m. the
average degree of consolidation ( U ) is calculated by using
carillo's suggestion (1942), and then the consolidation
settlement is calculated by considering the non-linear
relationship between the consolidation settlement and the
degree of consolidation.
as shown in figure 5(a), hansbo's analysis for cases 1 and 2
overestimate the settlement rate compared with the measured
one because the coefficient of horizontal consolidation in the
disturbed zone is assumed to be the same as cv. all cases do not
fit well with the measured settlement. to obtain the best result
by hansbo's analysis, it is necessary to know proper values of ch
and kh/ks. however, the suitable kh/ks ratio appears to vary with
the assumed ch value.
proposed analysis (case a) results show in figure 5(b). the
settlement rate at a certain time is underestimated to compare
with the measured settlement, since the extent of disturbed zone
is evaluated relatively large compared with the real condition
due to an assumption for a constant permeability or void ratio
within the disturbed zone. Basu et al. (2006) suggested the
simplified s for the linear spatial variation in disturbed zone
(case b). Using this suggestion, the settlement rate for case b is
calculated by the proposed method, as shown in figure 5(c).
case 4 (kh/kf = 5.0) is well matched with measured settlement
within 100 days, and then case 3 (kh/kf = 2.5) shows good
agreement with the measured settlement after 100 days. since
the typical value of ch/cv could be larger than 1.0 in nature, the
kh/kf is presumed larger than 3.0, based on the consolidation test
results. the slightly underestimation of the settlement rate
predicted with the presumed kh/kf value may occur due to the
difference in the surcharge schedule. in the analytical solution,

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

within the disturbed zone. the proposed method has advantages


to evaluate the extent of disturbed zone and it is less influenced
by the disturbance effect than hansbos method.
5

figure 5. measured and predicted settlement rate for the layer above el
-30m: (a) hansbos method, (b) proposed method with case a, (c)
proposed method with case b

the surcharge load is assumed to be applied all at once, while, in


the field, the surcharge load is applied incrementally.
4

conclUsion

in this study, the radial consolidation enhanced by the vertical


drain is discussed with the analytical method existed, and the
modified solution is suggested. through parametric study and
comparison between the calculated and measured settlement
rates, the results are summarized as follows.
as the degree of disturbance increases, hansbos analysis
shows that the time factor th increases for a certain degree of
radial consolidation. however, the time factor for proposed
analysis (ths), which corresponds to a certain degree of radial
consolidation, slightly decreases as the degree of disturbance
increases. furthermore, proposed analysis gives the almost
identical U 'r Ths curves when the kh/ks value becomes larger
than 20.
for Busan new-port site, the extent of the disturbed zone is
evaluated using two possible void ratio variations within the
disturbed zone. When a constant permeability or void ratio
within the disturbed zone is assumed, the extent of the disturbed
zone rs is estimated to be 2.7rm. for the linear spatial variation
within the disturbed zone, the extent of the transition zone rt is
estimated to be 4.1rm with the same equivalent radius between
fully disturbed zone and mandrel (rf = 1.0rm).
the settlement rate predicted by the proposed analysis is
well matched with the measured field settlement when the kh/kf
ratio is 2.5 with a linear spatial distribution of the permeability

2532

references

Basu d., Basu p., and prezzi m. 2006. analytical solutions for
consolidation aided by vertical drains. Geomechanics and
Geoengineering: An International Journal 1(1), 63-71.
Basu d. and prezzi m. 2007. effect of the smear and transition zones
around prefabricated vertical drains installed in a triangular pattern
on the rate of soil consolidation. Journal of Geomechanics 7(1), 3443.
Bergado d.t., asakami h., alfaro m.c., and Balasubramaniam a.s.
1991. smear effects of vertical drains on soft Bangkok clay.
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 117(10), 1509-1530.
Burland J.G. 1990. on compressibility and shear strength of natural
clay. Geotechnique 40(3), 329-378.
carillo n. 1942. simple two and three dimensional cases in the theory
of consolidation of soils. Journal of Mathematics and Physics
21(1), 11-18.
chai J.c. and miura n. 1999. investigation of factors affecting vertical
drain behavior. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental
Engineering 125(3), 216-226.
hansbo s. 1981. consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated
drains. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, stockholm,sweden,
Vol.3, 677-682.
hird c.c. and moseley V.J. 2000. model study of seepage in smear
zones around vertical drains in layered soil. Geotechnique 50(1),
89-97.
holtz r.d., Jamiolkowski m.B., lancellotta r., and pedroni s. 1987.
Performance of prefabricated band-shaped drains. construction
industry research and information association (ciria) report,
research project 364.
hong s.J. 2011. Evaluation of geotechnical properties of Busan
Newport clay, doctoral thesis, Korea University.
indraratna B. and redana i.W. 1998. laboratory determination of smear
zone due to vertical drain installation. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering 124(2), 180-184.
lo d.o.K. 1991. Soil improvement by vertical drains, doctoral thesis,
University of illinois at Urbana-champaign.
onoue a. 1988. consolidation by vertical drains taking well resistance
and smear into consideration. Soils and Foundation 28(4), 165-174.
onoue a., ting n.h., Germaine, J.t., and Whitman, r.V. 1991.
permeability of disturbed zone around vertical drains. Proceedings
of 1991 ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Congress, Boulder,
colorado, Vol. 2, 879-890.
sathananthan i. and indraratna B. 2006. laboratory evaluation of smear
zone and correlation between permeability and moisture content.
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
132(7), 942-945.
sharma J.s. and Xiao d. 2000. characterization of a smear zone around
vertical drains by large-scale laboratory tests. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal 37(6),1265-1271.
shin d.h., lee c., lee J.s., and lee W. 2009. detection of smear zone
using micro-cone and electrical resistance probe. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal 46(6),719-726.
tavenas f., Jean p., leblond p., and leroueil s. 1983. the permeability
of natural soft clays. part ii: permeability characteristics. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal 20(4), 645-660.
Zeng G.X. and Xie K.h. 1989. new development of the vertical drain
theories. Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
Vol.2, 1435-1438.

Adjusting the soil stiffness with stabilisation to minimize vibration at Maxlab IV


Asynchrotron radiation facility in Sweden
Ajustement de la rigidit du sol par stabilisation pour minimiser les vibrations Maxlab IV, un
centre de rayonnement synchrotron en Sude
Lindh P.

Peab Anlggning AB, Sweden

Rydn N.

Lund University, Sweden

aBstract: in lund a new next-generation synchrotron radiation facility are under construction, maX iV. this facility requires
extraordinary techniques for the earthworks at site. the vibration requirements are very stringent compared to traditional earthwork
standard. the tolerance is 26 nm (1 s rms above 5 hz) and this requires a very good damping from external and internal vibrations.
different solutions were discussed and simulated during the design phase and the best performance was achieved with a four meter
thick layer of stabilised soil below the concrete foundation. the soil consists of clay till with high clay content. during the design
phase many different binder combinations were tested to meet the design criteria regarding seismic modulus. in order to achieve a
monolith the binders setting time was critical since the soil is stabilised in 0.35 meter layers were the next layer are mixed into the
layer below. the binder to best meet both design and construction requirements were a combination of quicklime and ground
granulated blast furnace slag (GGBfs).
rsUm : Un nouveau centre de rayonnement synchrotron de dernire gnration, maX iV, est en cours de construction lund. ce
centre ncessite des techniques exceptionnelles pour les travaux de terrassement sur le chantier. les exigences de vibrations sont trs
strictes par rapport la norme de terrassement traditionnel. la tolrance est de 26 nm (valeur efficace 1 s rms au-dessus de 5 hz), ce
qui ncessite un trs bon amortissement des vibrations internes et externes. des solutions diffrentes ont t discutes et simules au
cours de la phase de conception et la meilleure performance a t ralise avec une couche paisse de quatre mtres de sol stabilis en
dessous de la fondation en bton. le sol se compose de till argileux forte teneur en argile. au cours de la phase de conception, de
nombreuses combinaisons de liants diffrents ont t testes pour rpondre aux critres de conception concernant le module sismique.
en raison de la ralisation d'un monolithe, le temps de durcissememt tait critique puisque le sol est stabilis en couches de 0,35 mtre
dont la couche suivante est mlange dans la couche de dessous. le liant qui rpondait le mieux aux exigences la fois de conception
et de construction tait une combinaison de chaux vive et de laitier granul de haut fourneau (slGhf).
KeYWords:soil stabilisation, sesmic testing, vibration, p-wave.
1

introdUction

max-lab is a swedish facility for materials research based on


synchrotron radiation. the new version, max iV, will be 100
times more efficient than any now existing comparable
synchrotron radiation facility in the world. the location of the
new max-lab is placed just outside the city of lund in southern
sweden. the geology consists of 12 to 16 meters of soil (clay
till) on top of the bedrock. close to max iV runs a major
highway which will introduce ground vibrations. since the
facilitiesare sensitive to vibrations an extensive measurmet
program of background vibrations vere executed.
several foundation alternatives vere discussed and some of
them were tested with fem-simulations to determine which
alternative that fullfilled the requrement of damping both
external and internal vibrations. the alternative that best
fullfilled external and internal damping was a 4 meter thick
stabilised layer underneath the concrete slab.
1.1

Geotechnical testing

the pre-investigation of the geology included geotechnical


sounding as well as geophysical measurements as well as core
drilling through the soil layers down into the bedrock. after the
in-situ investigation and evaluation a geological model for the
site was developed. from this model minor excavations were
performed for soil sampling. the soils were classified and an
extensive testing was performed to evaluate which binder or
binder combination that was optimal for the soils. the major
parts of the soils were clay till with layers of silty sand till.

three different binders were tested, lime; cement and slag.


the slag was ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBfs).
the clay till contained up to 40% clay and the sandy silt till has
low clay content. the high clay content indicated that lime
should be used to break up the clay. however, lime alone would
not work with the sandy silt till. the clay till from this area have
been tested in a earlier study and the combination of lime and
slag was discovered to be efficient in this type of soil (lindh,
2004).two different binder recipes were chosen from the initial
laboratory testing;
cement/slag (80/20)
lime/slag (50/50)
during the construction phase of the mock-up, cement and
slag were chosen due to the current weather conditions and the
time schedule for the mock-up. during the seismic testing of the
mock-up cracks were found in the stabilized material. the
results indicated that the cracks were introduced during
construction of the stabilised layers. the layer in question was
milled 50 mm down into the layer below to ensure interaction
between layers. the binders working period was not sufficient
to guarantee that the next layer could be milled into the
stabilised bottom layer without causing cracks. this resulted in
a change of binder to a combination of lime and slag (50/50).
fe-calculations as well as seismic measurements performed
on the mock-up showed that a shear wave velocity needed to be
at least 900 m/s in the stabilised soil.in this case it corresponds
to a compression wave velocity (p-wave) of 1430 m/s. the
seismic velocity testing was performed according to a
methodology developed at lund University and tested on

2533

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

cement stabilised soils (rydnet al., 2006).new samples were


prepared to measure the early strength development, see
figure 1.after more than 1200 hours the samples were removed
from the plastic mould that supported the samples during
compaction and in the beginning of the curingperiod of the
samples. this resulted in a small drop in p-wave velocity.

in order to study the development of p-wave at different


temperatures two pairs of specimens were manufactured. one
pair was stored in room temperature and the other pair was
stored at outside temperature. the difference in p-wave
development is shown in figure 3. the different samples are
denoted ps9 and ps11 in the figure. the sample ps 9 was
stored at room temperature and the sample ps 11 was stored at
outside air temperature.

1800

1600

P-wave velocity (m/s)

the causes of this variation were a combination of different


parameters such as;
Variation in water content
Variation in density
Variation in grading (clay content)
Variation in the degree of pulverization

1400

figure 3.development of compressive wave velocity with time for

1200

1000

2200

Sample 1
Sample 2
Limit

800

2000
1800

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Curing time (h)

figure 1.the figure shows the development of compressive wave


velocity with time. the drop in velocity after 1240 hours is caused by
removing the samples from the plastic mould.

the seismic measurements of the prepared samples were


performed several times every 24 hours for the first 400 hours.
in figure 2 the measured frequency is shown together with
higher frequency modes.

P-wave velocity (m/s)

600

1600
PS 6
PS 5

1400

800

PS 6
PS 5

PS 6
PS 5

PSPS
11

PS 2
PSPS
22

PS 1

1200
1000

PS 6
PS 6 PS 5
PS 5

PS 6
PS 5
PS 1

PS 6
PS 5

PS 6
PS 5

PS 6 PS 1
PSPS
15
PS 6
PS 5
PS 2

PS 2

PS 9
PS 9
PS 11
PS 9 PS 11
600 PS 1 PS 9
PS 11
11
PSPS
2 PS
9
PS 11

PS 9

PS 9

PS 9
PS 11

PS 9

PS 9

PS 9

PS 11
PS 11 PS 11

PS 9
PS 9PS 9

PS 9PS 9
PS 9
PS 11
PS 11
PS 11

PS 11
PS 11
PS 11

PS 11
PS 11

400 PS 9

PS 11

200
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Curing time (h)

reference and production samples.

figure 2.different frequency modes for sample number 2 after 56


hourscuring. the lowest frequency peak corresponds to a fundamental
mode longitudinal resonance frequency of 2074 hz which corresponds
to a p-wave velocity of 1043 m/s.

the production sample denoted ps9 required more than


2400 hours achieving the limit value of 1430 m/s and the
sample ps 11 did not achieve the required limit. however,
storing a specimen in an outside air temperature is not fully
correct compared to the in situ conditions due to larger volume
of stabilised soil and in the in-situ case the heat transfer is one
dimensional. it does however give an idea of how low
temperature will affect the stabilised soil in-situ.
an example of the in situ seismic measurements is shown in
figure 4.

the longitudinal resonance frequency of 2074


hzcorresponds to a p-wave velocity of 1043 m/s for sample 2.
the samples needed approximately 500 hours of curing in 20
degree celsius to meet the requirements regarding p-wave
velocity.
2

in-sitU measUrements

the quality testing in-situ was done both as ordinary testing


with binder content, mcV, pulverization and evib measurement
with the compaction roller. the testing procedure also included
sampling from the stabilised soil when the mixer had made two
mixing passes. the stabilised soil that would be tested was
excavated and transported to a field laboratory for compaction
in plastic moulds. after compaction the p-wave velocity was
measured and compared with the laboratory mixed samples.
most of the production samples (ps) were stored in room
temperature to ensure the same conditions compared with the
laboratory compacted samples.
there was a great variation in the development of p-wave
velocity versus curing time for different samples, see figure 3.

figure 4.a result from seismic in-situ measurement along the surface of
the stabilised layer is presented in the figure. the top layer has almost
reached a surface wave velocity (~0.92Vs) of 800 m/s at the time for
measurement. the target shear wave velocity after curing is 900 m/s.

the in-situ measurement of the stabilised soil is performed


with the same equipment as used for sample testing. however,
the in-situ testing involves the whole volume and gives a true
value of the stabilised soils performance. the seismic testing
will be followed up in future with testing on the concrete slab.

2534

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

conclUsions

soil stabilisation with binders increases the stiffness (emodulus) of the soil and thereby changes the resonance
frecuency of the soil. in this project the soilstabilisation has
been a key issue to meet the requrements regarding vibrationsin
a cost effective way.it has been proven that it is possible to
achieve a homogenius stabilised monolitic ring with a
circumference on 528 meters and a depth of 4 meters.
the homogenity of the stabilised material is a result of an
extensive testing program in both laboratory and full scale. the
binders working period has also been an important issue to
ensure a crac-proof construkton.
it has also been shown that seismic testing works very well
for both laboratory and in-situ testing of stabilised soils.

acKnoWledGements

the authors acknowledgepeabanlggning


opportunity to publish this data.
5

aB

for

the

references

lindh p. 2004. compaction- and strength properties of stabilised and


unstabilised fine-grained tills.lund University. department of
Building and environmental technology. division of soil
mechanics and foundation engineering. lUtVdG/tVGt-1013 /
swedish Geotechnical institute, sGi. report 66
rydn n., ekdahl U. and lindh p. 2006. Quality control of cement
stabilised soil Using non-destructive seismic tests. advanced
testing of fresh cementitious materials, stuttgart, august 3-4, 2006 /
dGZfp - proceedings BB102-cd (deutsche Gesellschaft fr
Zerstrungsfreie prfung e.V.) lecture 34.

2535

Construction and Performance of Containment Bund Using Geotextile Tubes Filled


With Cement Mixed Soil in Singapore
La construction et la performance de la digue de confinement utilisant des tubes gotextiles remplis
de terre mlange au ciment Singapour
Loh C.K.

Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA), Singapore

Chew S.H., Tan C.Y.

Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore

Lim S.K.

Housing and Development Board (HDB), Singapore

Lam J.P.W.

Surbana Corporation Pte Ltd, Singapore


ABSTRACT: In a major port development project in Singapore, a containment bund using modified geotextile tubes (M-GT) filled
with cement mixed soil has been constructed. The main purpose of this bund is to create a containment area to contain any sediment
plumes due to construction activities (i.e. dredging activities, dumping activities and sand-filling activities). The containment bund
also serves as a retaining structure to retain dredged materials during the sand-key construction and other port expansion works. This
paper presents the key consideration in the innovative design and construction of a geotextile containment bund. In addition, instead
of usual sand fill, the dredged soil mixed with cement was used as the fill material in this bund. Among the challenges faced in this
project were the great water depth of this containment bund location (>25m) and high traffic volume in Singapore water course as the
site is next to the existing operating port terminal. Extensive field instrumentation and monitoring were carried out during and post
construction phase to verify the design, as well as ascertain the performance of the geotextiles containment bund system.
RSUM : Dans un important projet de dveloppement portuaire Singapour, une digue de confinement utilisant des tubes
gotextiles modifis (M-GT) et remplis de terre mlange au ciment, a t construite. Le but principal de cette digue est de crer une
zone de confinement afin de contenir les dblais de sdiments provenant des travaux de construction (cest--dire travaux de dragage,
de dversement et de remplissage au sable). La digue de confinement sert galement de structure de retenue pour retenir les matriaux
de dragage lors de la construction de la tranche d'tanchit et d'autres travaux d'extension de port. Cette tude prsente le facteur cl
dans la conception innovatrice et la construction d'une digue de confinement en gotextiles. En outre, au lieu du remplissage au sable
habituel, le sol dragu est mlang avec du ciment avant dtre utilis comme matire de remplissage dans cette digue. Parmi les dfis
relevs durant ce projet taient la grande profondeur des eaux lemplacement de la digue de confinement (> 25m) et le volume du
trafic maritime dans les eaux de Singapour vue que le site se trouve proximit du terminal portuaire existant. Des instrumentations et
mesures approfondies ont t menes pendant et aprs la phase de construction pour vrifier la conception, de mme que la
performance du systme de digue de confinement en gotextiles.
KEYWORDS: Geotextile tubes, containment bund, cement mixed soil.
1

INTRODUCTION

A containment bund consisting of modified geotextile tubes (MGT) filled with cement mixed soil has been constructed for a
major port development project in Singapore. This containment
bund forms part of the Pasir Panjang Terminal Phase 3 & 4
Expansion Project, which is located at the Southern part of
Singapore water (Figure 1). During the project construction
phase, this bund serves as a retaining structure to retain dredged
materials and at the same time contains any sediment plumes
arises from construction activities from being transported
towards the nearby forest reserve area by currents. This
containment bund, termed as a geotextile containment bund, is
being constructed by systematically stacking of modified
geotextile tubes (M-GT) and filling of cement mixed dredged
soil. A typical cross section of the geotextile containment bund
is shown in Figure 2.
A geotextile tube is a tubular container (diameter 1m to
10m) that is formed in-situ, on land or in water, by hydraulically
filling the tube with sand or dredged material (Pilarcyzk, 2000)
and Lawson, 2006). On the other hand, geotextile container is
made of geotextile sheet laid onto a split-bottom barge, filled
mechanically with sand or other fill material, and sewn the top
opening to form into a closed container. The barge will then

move to the desired position, and the bottom of the barge will
open allowing the containers to sink into the sea at the intended
location. The volume of these containers can range from 100m3
to 800m3.

Figure 1 Location of project site in Singapore (Google image)

2537

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

The modified geotextile tube (M-GT) introduced in this


paper is an innovative application, which combines the structure
/ shape of a geotextile tube and the method of installation of a
geotextile container. The diameter of M-GT is 5m and the
length is 25m (limited by barge length). The theoretical
maximum volume of M-GT is 490m3. However, for practical
reasons, the filled volume is only about 290m3 or 60% filled in
this project.

Figure 2 Typical cross section of geotextile containment bund

3) Free-falling of M-GTs onto the seabed Air pockets


inside the tube or container during free-falling would exert
certain forces onto the geotextile and cause higher strain
(Pilarcyzk 2000). Tensions are generated in the tube due to the
balancing of these forces, fill weight, buoyancy, drag, etc.
(Lawson, 2006).
4) Impacting onto the seabed At the point of impact, the
kinetic energy of the falling tube is converted to elastic energy,
which will reshape the tube, from a cone shape into a
transitional cylindrical shape and eventually into a semi-oval
shape or rectangular shape (Pilarcyzk, 2000).
5) Stabilized phase of the M-GTs The final shape of the
tube attained depends on a number of interrelated factors such
as the volume of fill, internal shear resistance of the fill material
and the stiffness of the geotextile material (Lawson, 2006).
There are a number of equations and formulas available for
the determination of the tension development in some of the
stages mentioned above. The equations used in the design of MGT in this project can be found in Chew et al. (2010).
The construction sequence of the bund is illustrated in five
steps (Figure 4(a) to (e)).
a)

Two geotextile containment bunds were constructed in this


project. The length of bund 1 is 500 m and bund 2 is 1800 m.
Bund 1 was constructed first in order to provide a staging
ground for other construction activities at the site. The layout
and length of the bunds are shown in Figure 3.

d)

b)

e)
c)

Figure 4 (a) to (e) Construction sequence of geotextile containment


bund (cross-section view)

Figure 3 Length of geotextile containment bund 1 and 2 (Plan view)

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF GEOTEXTILE


CONTAINMENT BUND

In the design of this bund, there are a few stability criteria that
have to be fulfilled: Stability against hydraulic force of waves
and current, local stability against sliding failure, local stability
against slip failure, settlement and deformation. The tensile
strength of the geotextile material is one of the major design
parameters. This is because the installation of the tubes at water
depth of 25m is deemed to be extreme in the field installation
of geotextile tubes and containers.
The installation process of the M-GT consists of five (5)
main phases, namely:1) Filling of the M-GT The dredged material mixed with
cement, known as cement mixed soil, is being pumped into the
modified geotextile tube via the inlet ports that are available at
the top face of the M-GTs.
2) Opening of split-hopper barge the bottom of the splithopper barge opens slowly to allow the exit of the filled M-GTs
through its opening. High tension in geotextile is expected to be
experienced at this stage.

2538

USE OF CEMENT MIXED SOIL (CMS) AS IN-FILL


MATERIAL

Discarded soil from other excavation projects on land or sea in


Singapore, and dredged materials from port extension works
have been mixed with cement to form into Cement Mixed Soil
(CMS), and was used as in-fill material in the M-GTs and as the
core of the geotextile containment bund as shown in Figure 2. In
order to satisfy the stability criteria of the geotextile
containment bund, the cement mixed soil has to achieve a
design value of unconfined compressive strength qu of
200kN/m2. After taking into account of soil variability and the
factor between the laboratory test result and in-situ achieved
results, the targeted in-situ unconfined compressive strength is
state as 1.3x200, which is 260kN/m2.
4

PERFORMANCE OF CONTAINMENT BUND

The performance of the bund has been monitored during and


after the construction through an extensive instrumentation plan.

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

A total of 28 numbers of M-GTs were instrumented and


monitoring at various stages of the installation process. One of
the key parameters was that monitored closely is the strain
development of the M-GT at different stages. The results of the
monitoring during the installation process were presented by
Chew et al. (2011) and it showed that high tensile forces of
about 180kN/m were recorded at the bottom of M-GT during
the impact onto the seabed.
Hydrographic survey was used to monitor the shape of the
installed M-GTs, which is one of the performance indicators of
this design. The accuracy of the installation was determined by
using survey results conducted before and after the dumping of
the instrumented M-GTs. The overall construction progress of
the bund was also tracked using hydrographic surveys that were
conducted every 5 days. The profile of the bund can be plotted
using the survey results as shown in Figure 5, which shows one
of the completed bund.

Figure 5 Profile of completed bund 1

After the completion of the bund, a total of 11 instrument


clusters have been installed to monitor the performance of the
containment bund during other construction activities such as
the filling of dredged soil behind the containment bund and soil
improvement works for the dumped material within the
containment bund.
Out of the 11 instrumented clusters, 6 of them were placed at
the top of the bund and the remaining was installed to monitor
the slope of the bund by using a staging. The cross section of
the instrument clusters is given in Figure 6.

Figure 7 Location of inclinometers at CH. 1370 of the bund (Plan view)

The inclinometer readings show that the maximum


deformation of the bund centre is 10mm at elevation of -8.5m
(Figure 8a). The measurement was taken at 911 days after the
completion of the bund at that location. This shows that the
containment bund has remained stable throughout the period of
other construction activities that occurred during this period.
Figure 8b shows the lateral deformation at the sides of the
bund, which was also found to be within 10mm, where the
maximum deflection occurred close to the bottom of the bund.
Higher lateral deformation of up to 30mm was also recorded by
the inclinometer at elevation above the bund (i.e. -5m to +10m).
The lateral movement above the surface of the bund (side
inclinometer) indicates that the dredged filled material has been
placed onto the sides of the bund and at the same time being
treated.
The settlement measured by extensometers installed on the
top and side instrumentation clusters and settlement plates at the
top of the bund are given in Table 1. The settlement readings
showed that the geotextile containment bund filled with cement
mixed soil has remained stable and performed as expected
throughout the construction period of this project.
Table 1 Settlement of containment bund

Figure 6 Instrumentation cluster installed in the containment bund

The results from the inclinometers installed at the top and


side faces of the bund are discussed here. The location of the
inclinometer is at CH. 1370 (Figure 7). The lateral deformation
in the section perpendicular to the centre line of the bund is
plotted in Figure 8 for both top and side inclinometer.

2539

Settlement(mm)

Elevation

Extensometer

Extensometer

(Center)

(Side)

Settlement
plate

Top

11

3.0CD

24

6.0CD

26

40

9.0CD

25

29

12.0CD

17

23

15.0CD

18

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

(b)

(a)

Figure 8 Lateral deformations measured from inclinometer at: (a) top of the bund. (b) side of the bund

CONCLUSION

The construction of the geotextile containment bund using


modified geotextile tubes (M-GT) filled with cement mixed soil
(CMS) has been completed successfully over a total length of
2.3 kilometres in Singapore. Field measurements of lateral
deformations and settlements showed that the bund has
performed well within the design limits and expectations. The
innovative use of discarded soil from other excavation projects
on land or sea via mixing with cement is proven to be a good fill
material. This CMS material was shown to be able to achieve
highly uniform and well controlled properties, and deemed to be
suitable as in-fill material for geotextile tubes and the core
portion of a containment bund.

2540

REFERENCES

Chew, S.H., Tan, C.Y., Loh, C.K., Lim, S.K., Lam, J.P.W. 2011. Design
and Construction of Containment Bund using Geotextile Tubes in
Singapore. The 14th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics
and Geotechnical Engineering, Hong Kong
Chew, S.H., Tan, C.Y., and Tan, H.W.A. 2010. Application of
Geotextile Containment System in Coastal, Beach and River
Restoration Projects. The 1st International GSI-Asia Geosynthetics
Conference, Taiwan.
Lawson, C. 2006. Geotextile containment for hydraulic and
environmental engineering. The 8th International Conference on
Geosynthetics, Yokohama, Japan.
Pilarczyk, K.W 2000. Geosynthetics and Geosystems in Hydraulic and
Coastal Engineering. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Reinforcement of completely decomposed granite with discrete fibres


Renforcement de granite compltement dcompos avec des morceaux fibres
Madhusudhan B.N., Baudet B.A.

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong


ABSTRACT :The use of discrete fibres as reinforcing material for soils has been researched by many, e.g. Gray and Al-Refeai
(1986), Maher and Ho (1994), Crockford et al. (1993), Santoni et al. (2001), Consoli et al. (2009a), but these studies have been
generally done independently and have not always been consistent. Silva dos Santos et al. (2010) used data gathered through many
years of study to develop a framework of behaviour for a poorly graded quartzitic sand reinforced with polypropylene fibres. In Hong
Kong, the construction industry has used reinforcement with continuous fibres for some time, but it is mainly applied to landscaping
of otherwise stabilised slopes, for example as a green cover on an existing shotcreted slope. Using randomly distributed short discrete
fibres in Hong Kong completely decomposed granite (CDG) could help stabilise the soil while keeping the density low enough to
allow growth of vegetation. It is not guaranteed, however, that a well graded residual soil like CDG would behave in the same way as
sands used by previous researchers. Laboratory tests have been carried out on completely decomposed granite using short discrete
polypropylene fibres as a reinforcing material. The fibres are randomly distributed in the soil. It was found that the fibres increase the
unconfined compressive strength of the CDG prepared at its maximum dry density by up to tenfold for fibre contents less than 1%.
The behaviour of the fibre-CDG mixture during drained triaxial compression changed from dilative to compressive, with more effects
at low confining pressures. These tests seem to indicate that discrete fibres could be considered for improving the performance of
CDG.
RSUM : Lutilisation de fibres pour renforcer les sols ont dj fait lobjet de nombreux travaux de recherche e.g. Gray and AlRefeai (1986), Maher and Ho (1994), Crockford et al. (1993), Santoni et al. (2001), Consoli et al. (2009a), mais ces tudes ont t
gnralement faites indpendamment et elles nont pas toujours t synthtises. Silva dos Santos et al. (2010) ont utilis les donnes
obtenues au cours dannes de recherche pour dvelopper un modle de comportement pour un sable quartzitique uniforme renforc
avec des fibres en polypropylne. A Hong Kong, lindustrie de la construction a utilis des fibres continues comme moyen de
renforcement depuis longtemps, mais lapplication se limite laspect paysager de pentes dj stabilises, par exemple pour la
plantation de surfaces de pentes recouvertes de bton projet. Lutilisation de fibres courtes distribues de faon alatoire dans le
granite compltement dcompos de Hong Kong (CDG) pourrait aider stabiliser le sol tout en gardant sa densit assez basse pour
permettre la vgtation de pousser. Il nest pas garanti cependant quun sol rsiduel a la distribution granulomtrique bien calibre
comme le CDG se comportera de la mme faon que les sables utilises par les chercheurs prcdents. Des essais de laboratoire ont t
faits sur du granite compltement dcompos en utilisant du bton projet et des fibres courtes en polypropylne comme matriau de
renforcement. Les fibres sont distribues de faon alatoire dans le sol. On a trouv que les fibres ont pour effet de multiplier par
presque dix fois la rsistance en compression simple du CDG prpar sa densit sche optimale, pour une teneur en fibres de moins
de 1%. Le comportement du mlange CDG-fibres lors de lessai triaxial drain en compression es tpass de dilatant a contractant avec
plus deffet aux pressions faibles. Les essais paraissent indiquer que lutilisation de fibres courtes pourrait tre considre pour
amliorer la performance du CDG.
KEYWORDS: laboratory tests ; reinforced soils ; residual soil

INTRODUCTION

Adding fibres to soil can be an effective way of strengthening it,


by providing tensile strength at high strains. The factors
influencing the effectiveness of the fibre-reinforced soils are a)
the type of soil and its deformation behaviour; b) the type of
fibre and its specifications (fibre length, fibre content and its
aspect ratio). A careful study of the mechanics of the fibrereinforced soil will help practising and design engineers to
understand better its behaviour under different loading
conditions.
Hong Kong is a modern city with growing population, so
that engineers are pressed to optimise land utilisation. The
topology of Hong Kong has led to urban development on
natural or man-made slopes. Conventional methods of
stabilising slopes such as shotcreting the whole face of the slope
(current practice) are neither cost effective nor environmentally
friendly and alternative sustainable methods are being sought
after.
Many researchers have produced a large body of research
on the performance of discrete fibres with soils (Gray and AlRefeai, 1986; Maher and Ho, 1994; Crockford et al., 1993;
Santoni et al., 2001; Consoli et al., 2009a), but these studies

have been generally done independently and they have not


always been consistent (Silva dos Santos et al., 2010). This
paper presents initial results from laboratory tests performed on
completely decomposed soil reinforced with discrete fibres.
2

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Completely decomposed granite was used as the host soil. It


originates from in-situ weathering of the parent igneous rock,
and is one of the most common geo-materials in Hong Kong.
The short discrete fibres used in the tests presented here were
similar to those used by Silva dos Santos et al. (2010).
2.1

Materials tested

The completely decomposed granite (CDG) host soil was


obtained from a construction site near Beacon Hill, Hong Kong.
Completely decomposed residual soils are well-graded in nature
as the tropical climate has weathered the parent rock to a
material comprising gravel and sand grains down to silt and
clay-sized particles. Coarser particles are usually of quartz
origin owing to its high chemical resistance while finer particles
are most likely other primary hydrous minerals, such as

2541

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

kaolinite and feldspar (Yan and Li, 2012). The grain size
distribution (shown in figure 1) reflects that the soil has 16%
particles finer than 63. The specific gravity of the soil was
found to be 2.65. From Standard Proctor compaction tests, the
maximum dry density of the soil was determined as 1.93Mg/m3
with an optimum moisture content of 12.3%. Tests on particles
finer than 425 indicated the plastic and liquid limits to be
25.6% and 35.6% respectively. Using the Unified Soil
Classification System (USCS) the soil can be classified as
clayey sand of low plasticity (SC-CL).
The fibres used are short filaments made of polypropylene
similar to those used by Silva dos Santos et al. (2010). They are
chemically inert and have uniform characteristics, with a
relative density of 0.91, a tensile resistance of 120MPa, an
elastic modulus of 3GPa and a range of linear deformation at
rupture between 80% and 170%. The dimensions of the fibres
used in the tests were 0.023mm in diameter and 24mm long
(Silva dos Santos et al., 2010). After performing a series of
unconfined compression tests on CDG reinforced with a range
of fibre contents (0.3 1%), it was decided to continue the
study with 0.3% of fibre per weight in the triaxial tests.

3
3.1

TEST RESULTS
Unconfined compressive strength

Representative unconfined compression test results on pure


CDG and CDG + 0.5% fibre are presented in figure 2. The plot
clearly shows that the specimens of reinforced CDG yielded at
very high strain, contributing an additional tenfold strength to
the soil. On the other hand unreinforced CDG yielded at very
low strength (131kPa) and low strain.

Figure 2. Unconfined compression of CDG and fibre-reinforced


CDG.

Figure 1. Particle size distribution of CDG.


2.2

axial strain rate of 0.01% per minute to ensure no excess pore


pressure development within the sample (this was checked by
measurement at the opposite end of specimen). The membrane
and area corrections were made as per the recommendations
proposed by La Rochelle et al. (1988). The void ratios are
calculated averaging from that obtained by the initial density of
the sample and the final moisture content, taking account of the
measured volume change in all the stages. In all tests the
difference in specific volume compiled was less than 0.02.

Testing apparatus, methods and sample preparation

3.2

2.2.1 Uniaxial Compression Test


Unconfined compression tests on CDG and CDG+fibre soils
were performed in a uniaxial compressive testing machine. The
particle sizes passing 2mm diameter sieve were used for
preparing specimens in a 38mm diameter; 76mm height mould
at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. The
compression tests were performed at 0.5mm/min in all cases.
2.2.2 Triaxial Testing
Drained triaxial tests were performed using a conventional
triaxial apparatus with a computer controlled GDS cell and back
pressure controllers. The shearing tests were performed with a
constant effective stress on specimens of both unreinforced and
reinforced (with polypropylene fibres) CDG soil.
The soil was first soaked in water with a deflocculating
agent and left for air drying, then it was sieved to constituent
particle sizes so that the samples could be prepared in exact
proportion as shown in figure 1, discarding particles above
5mm. Loose specimens were prepared, avoiding macro-voids
and taking care of minimising membrane penetration. The
specimens of 76mm diameter and 152mm height were prepared
in a sample preparation mould.
The samples were saturated under back pressure and the
effective confining pressures ranged from 100 to 500kPa.
Saturation was monitored in each test, ensuring Skempton B
values of at least 0.92 throughout the testing programme. The
axial strains were measured outside the cell using a standard
displacement transducer. The triaxial tests were run at a low

2542

Triaxial shearing

Triaxial drained tests were performed on isotropically


consolidated specimens of pure CDG and reinforced CDG
(Table 1). Some specimens were over-consolidated by a ratio of
OCR=5 before being sheared. Details of the tests are shown in
Table 1 (UR and R refer to unreinforced and reinforced
specimens respectively).
Table 1. Summary of the triaxial tests.
Test
v0
vc
UR 100
1.42
1.32
UR 200
1.42
1.37
UR 500
1.48
1.32
R 100
1.58
1.36
R 200
1.43
1.32
R 500
1.58
1.41

pc'(kPa)
112.0
210.4
499.6
98.9
202.9
499.4

OCR
5
1
1
5
1
1

The void ratios determined after consolidation (before shearing)


were found to vary between 0.32 and 0.37 for pure CDG
specimens and 0.32 and 0.42 for CDG-fibre specimens. Only
dense specimens were prepared for the test programme. Looser
specimens were difficult to prepare due to the presence of
macro-voids which caused an initial collapse of the specimen,
resulting in void ratios after consolidation within the same range
as those for the dense specimens.
The stress-strain and volumetric responses during shearing
are shown in figure 3. The stress-strain response (figure 3a)
shows that the reinforced specimens generally have higher

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

strength and higher initial stiffness at the beginning of shearing,


when compared to their unreinforced counterparts. However the
reinforced specimens that mobilised their full strength only did
so at shear strains in excess of 20%. The unreinforced
specimens on the other hand either reached a constant stress by
20% strain or they showed strain-softening, depending on their
consolidation history. Unlike the other reinforced specimens,
R100 kept gaining strength and never reached critical state even
at large strains (about 50%). This may be due to the overconsolidation history of the specimen, which may have released
some of the tension in the fibres prior to shearing. The peak
strengths of reinforced CDG were calculated to be 1.76
(100kPa), 1.29 (200kPa) and 1.26 (500kPa) times that of the
pure CDG.
Similar behaviour on fibre-reinforced sands is reported by
Consoli et al., 2007, Consoli et. al (2005) and Silva dos Santos
et al. (2010). For example Silva dos Santos et al. (2010) found
that the effect of fibres depends on the effective stress at which
they are sheared, reducing marginally with increasing effective
stress. For sands, it is already reported that at low effective
stress, adding fibres contributes to reducing the degree of
dilation in the reinforced specimens (Silva dos Santos et al.,
2010). The persistent strain hardening behaviour (figure 3a,
R100) was also observed by Consoli et. al (2005) on Botucatu
residual soil, however their data were limited to strains of about
25%. In the present study, the specimens were sheared to strains
up to 50% and it is clear that the strain hardening behaviour of
specimens R200 and R500 stopped beyond s>35% to reach a
critical state. The governing mechanism for the strain hardening
behaviour of R100 specimen might therefore be due either to
the effect of low effective stress or to the effect of overconsolidation, or a combined effect.
The effect of the fibres on the volumetric response of the
reinforced CDG in comparison seems to be that of restricting
the degree of dilation in the specimen sheared at lower effective
stresses, while at higher effective stress this effect is not so
evident (figure 3b). The over-consolidated specimen of
reinforced CDG shows a different volumetric response i.e. it
tends to dilate after 20% shear strain even though it is expected
that reinforcement will impede dilation. This behaviour is again
either due to over-consolidation or to low effective confining
stress. Previous findings on Botucatu residual soils (Consoli et.
al, 2005) and other pure sands may be extrapolated to normally
consolidated CDG, but the effect of over-consolidation is new
and more test results are required to explain it within the critical
state framework.
The stress-dilatancy behaviour of CDG (black symbols) and
reinforced CDG (grey symbols) samples tested at different
effective stress are shown in figure 4. All normally consolidated
specimens, reinforced and unreinforced, show a typical
frictional behaviour. The pure CDG specimens converge to a
unique critical state stress ratio ranging from M=1.57 to
M=1.61. The reinforced CDG specimens tested at effective
stresses of 200 and 500kPa converged to a critical stress ratio of
M = 1.83. For the lower effective stress of 100kPa (R100), the
specimen reached a higher stress ratio of M = 2.14, which is
similar to what was found by Silva dos Santos et al. (2010) on
fibre-reinforced sand. The over-consolidated specimens, UR100
and R100, did not follow the frictional trend but showed much
less volumetric deformation up to critical state, which was also
observed in the stress-strain behaviour. This may have been
caused by locking of the fibres during compression and swelling
prior to shearing.

(a)

(b)
Figure 3. Stress-strain-volumetric response of CDG and fibrereinforced CDG sheared at different effective confining stresses.

Figure 4. Stress-dilatancy response of CDG and fibre-reinforced


CDG.
The deviatoric stress and corresponding mean effective
stress in the test that reached a stable critical state are plotted in
a q-p' plane in figure 5. These points form a critical state
envelope for the pure CDG with a critical state gradient
M=1.57. This is found to be consistent with critical stress ratio
M = 1.57 - 1.61, obtained from the stress-dilatancy plot (figure
4). The end of test points are also plotted for the reinforced
specimens but no attempt has been made in this paper to define
the critical state envelop for fibre-reinforced CDG because at
low stresses, the deviatoric stress does not stabilise (figure 3a).
More tests are required over a larger range of stresses to do so,
as was done by Silva dos Santos et al. (2010) who found that
the critical state lines of the unreinforced and reinforced
specimens converge at large stresses of the order of 5MPa.

2543

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

REFERENCES

Altuhafi F.N. and Coop M.R. (2011). Changes to particle


characteristics associated with the compression of sands.
Gtechnique 61, No. 6, 459471.

Figure 5. Critical states and end of test points for CDG and
fibre-reinforced CDG in q-p' plane.
4

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The results presented indicate that using discrete fibres can be


an effective means of reinforcing CDG, specifically at low
effective stresses. The unconfined compressive strength tests
showed a tenfold increase in strength with 0.5% fibres content
in the soil prepared at maximum dry density and optimum
moisture content. In triaxial drained tests, adding fibres seems
to increase the shear strength by up to two times the strength of
the unreinforced specimens, as well as its initial stiffness.
Dilation was also found to be reduced. Unique critical states
were reached for the unreinforced CDG and reinforced CDG
tested at high effective stress. The stress-dilatancy was found to
be frictional for all normally consolidated specimens, but with
different critical state stress ratios (M) for the fibre-reinforced
specimens depending on their effective confining stress. Initial
results also seem to indicate that the over-consolidation ratio
affects the performance of the reinforced CDG, noticeably in
the stress-dilatancy response, but more work is needed to
confirm it.
5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge Ku Hei Man, Gloria (final


year project student 2012, The University of Hong Kong) for
providing the Unconfined compressive test results. The
financial support provided by Hong Kong Research Grant
Council GRF No.70211 is gratefully acknowledged.

2544

BS 1377:1990. Methods of test for soils for civil engineering


purposes. British Standards Institution, London
Consoli N.C., Casagrande M.D.T. and Coop M.R. (2005).
Effect of fiber reinforcement on the isotropic compression
behavior of a sand. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Engng, ASCE
131, No. 11, 14341436.
Consoli N.C., Heineck K.S., Casagrande M.D.T. and Coop
M.R. (2007). Shear strength behavior of fiber-reinforced sand
considering triaxial tests under distinct stress paths. J.
Geotech Geoenviron. Engng , ASCE 133, No. 11, 14661469.
Consoli N.C., Casagrande M.D.T., Thom A., Dalla Rosa F.
and Fahey M. (2009a). Effect of relative density on plate tests
on fibre-reinforced sand. Gotechnique, 59, No. 5, 471476.
Consoli N.C., Festugato L. and Heineck K.S. (2009b).
Strainhardening behaviour of fibre-reinforced sand in view of
filament geometry. Geosynthetics Int. 16, No. 2, 109115.
Crockford W.W., Grogan W.P. and Chill D.S. (1993). Strength
and life of stabilized pavement layers containing fibrillated
polypropylene. Transpn Res. Rec. 1418, 6066.
Gray D.H. and Al-Refeai T. (1986). Behavior of fabric versus
fiber reinforced sand. J. Geotech. Engng, ASCE 112, No. 8,
804826.
Lee I.K. and Coop M.R. (1995). The intrinsic behaviour of a
decomposed granite soil. Geotechnique 45 (1), 117130.
Maher M.H. and Ho Y.C. (1994). Mechanical properties of
kaolinite/fiber soil composite. J. Geotech. Engng, ASCE 120,
No. 8, 13811393.
Santoni R.L., Tingle J.S. and Webster S.L. (2001). Engineering
properties of sandfiber mixtures for road construction. J.
Geotech. Geoenviron. Engng, ASCE 127, No. 3, 258268.
Silva Dos Santos A.P., Consoli N.C. and Baudet B.A. (2010).
The mechanics of fiber-reinforced sand. Gotechnique, 60,
No. 10, 791799.
Yan W.M. and Li X.S. (2012). Mechanical response of
medium-fine-grained decomposed granite in Hong Kong.
Engineering Geology 129-130 (2012) 18.

Hybrid Application of Deep Mixing Columns Combined with Walls as a Soft Ground
Improvement Method Under Embankments
Application hybride de la mthode de Deep Mixing sur des colonnes combines des murs en
tant que mthode damlioration des sols mous sous remblais
Matsui H., Ishii H., Horikoshi K.

Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, Yokohama, JAPAN

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we introduce theconcepts and general functions of a hybrid application of deep mixing columns combined
with walls. This newmethod for improving the soft ground under embankments helps control ground deformation. We brieflydescribe
a case in which the method was applied under an embankment 7m in height. The method effectively restricted the induced
deformation of the ground surface to a target level, not only under the embankment but also adjacent to the embankment toes. Twodimensional finite element analysis was adopted to the case and foundeffective for simulating the performance. Also proposed is a
design flow for the new methodto efficiently determine the best arrangement of deep mixing columns and walls. Numerical
parametric studies were carried out to compare the new method with conventional methods.
RSUM : Dans cet article, nous prsentons les concepts et les fonctions gnrales de lapplication hybride de mthode de Deep
Mixing sur des colonnes combines des murs. Cette nouvelle mthode damlioration de sols mous sous remblais aide contrler
la dformation du terrain. Nous dcrivons brivement un cas dans lequel la mthode a t applique sous un remblai dune hauteur de
7 m. La mthode a permis de limiter efficacement la dformation induite de la surface du sol un niveau cible, non seulement sous le
remblai, mais aussi dans les zones adjacentes aux pieds de talus. Une analyse par lments finis en deux dimensions a t applique
ce cas et sest avre efficace pour simuler les performances. Une mthode doptimisation est galement propose en vue de
dterminer de manire efficiente la meilleure disposition des colonnes et des murs. Des tudes paramtriques numriques ont t
menes pour comparer la nouvelle mthode avec les mthodes classiques.
KEYWORDS:soft ground improvement method, finite element analysis, deep mixing method
12.0m

2 CONCEPTS AND GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF A


HYBRID APPLICATION OF DEEP MIXING COLUMNS
COMBINED WITH WALLS

1:1.8

Ac1- 2
As2

Dvc

5.2m

Inside piles

Ac2- 3

Walls

Dvs

9.8m

39.2m

Ac2- 2

36.2m

1.9m

37.2m

Section view

6.7m 4.5m

7.0m

Deep mixing methods have been widely used in Japan for the
foundation systems of embankments constructed on soft clayey
ground, and various low improvement ratio arrangements have
been proposed (Miki and Nozu 2004, Ishikura et al. 2009, Miki
et al. 2011). Typical of recent applications is to achieve limited
soil improvement around 10-20%through an arrangement
of soil improvement columns. This reduces the volume of soil
that must be improved and limits the ground settlement under
the embankments. Moreover, embankment construction in
urban areas requires strict control of ground deformation,
especially in the areas adjacent to the embankment toes.
The authors propose a new hybrid application of deep
mixing columns combined with walls (Tsutsumi et al. 2009) as
a method of improving the soft ground under embankments to
control ground deformation. In this paper, the concepts and
general functions of the method are introduced. The paper then
describes a case in which the method was applied under a tall
embankment 7 m in height. Two-dimensional finite element
analysis was adopted to simulate the performance. Also
proposed is a design flow for the new method that efficiently
determines the best arrangement of deep mixing columns and
walls. Finally, numerical parametric studies were carried out to
compare the new method with conventional methods.

10.0m

INTRODUCTION

21.2m

Outside piles
16.48m

2.6m 1.76m
3.0m 3.0m

Plain view

2.5m

2.5m

1.76m 2.6m
3.0m 3.0m

2.81@8=22.48m
37.2m

The basic concept of this method is to place deep mixing walls


in the ground directly under the embankment slopes, which

Figure 1.Geological profile and arrangement of the deep mixing


columns and walls at theconstruction site where the method was applied.

2545

Heightof
embankment (m)

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Out l i ne of embankment

Settlementof
embankment(mm)

I nsi de pi l es

Out si de pi l es
Wal l s

8
6
4

500

1500

3.2

Notreatment

2546

1000

Settlementafterconstruction
ofembankment(mm)

100
Walls
200
300

Improvement

400

Notreatment

500
0

10
20
30
40
50
Distancefromcenterlineofembankment(m)

60

Figure 4.Distribution of ground surface settlement after construction of


the embankment.

3000
300

Table 1.Material properties used for numerical model

800

Limitvalue 20mm

10m

Embankment

7000

Figure 3 shows the settlement history of the ground surface at


the center of the embankment. The same figure also shows a
similar settlement history, observed at a trial embankment
nearby with no subsoil treatment. In the improvement case,
200mm of settlement occurred one year after embankment
construction. Subsequently, settlement converged in both cases.

400
600
Elapsed days(day)

100

18600
6000
12600
4@2810 2600 3000
1:1 1760
.8

Steelwire
Hsteel
Geotextile
Ac12
Outsidepiles

21200

Work outline

Result of construction

200

Figure 3.History of ground surface settlement in at the center of the


embankment.

TRIAL EMBANKMENT

The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in a road


construction project along the Ariake Sea in Kumamoto
Prefecture. The soft clay at the construction site was about 40 m
thick, so a large volume of settlement could be expected after
constructingan embankment 7m in height. Some parts of the
proposed road were close to residential buildings. Therefore, a
limit value for deformation was set not only for the
embankment but also for the area adjacent to the embankment,
as described below.
Embankment: Settlement sincethe start of service is equal to
or lower than 300 mm.
Adjacent area: Lateral and horizontal displacement since the
start of construction is equal to or lower than 20 mm.
During the design stage, many of the arrangements were
compared using two- and three-dimensional effective stress
analysis. After considering all of the above, the arrangement
shown in Fig. 1 was determinedto be optimal. Each column had
a design strength of 1.0MN/m2, and the arrangement hadan
improvement ratio of 18.5%.
Before the embankment was constructed, settlement plates
and pressure gauges were installedfor the purpose of taking
measurements. The ground surface after soil improvement is
shown in Fig. 2.

Startingdateof
service

2000

GL1.90m
GL4.50m

As2
GL11.20m

Insidepiles

39200

3.1

Improvement

1000

bear the embankment loads as well as the lateral movement of


the soft ground. Deep mixing piles are placed inside and outside
the walls to restrict vertical and horizontal deformation caused
by the embankment.
Figure 1 shows an example of the arrangement of deep
mixing columns and walls at a site. The function and placement
of each pile and wall are explained below.
Inside piles: Columns placed in the ground directly under
the crown of the embankment. This part transfers the load from
the center part of the embankment to the deep layer.
Walls: Walls are placed in the ground under the edges of the
embankment crown. This part bears a large part of the
embankment load and prevents the soil from moving.
Outside piles: Columns placed in the ground directly under
the embankment slopes. This part transfers the load of the
embankment slopes.
This method is designed to economically satisfy the limit
value of settlement by optimizing and minimizing these parts in
the design.

Starting dateof
service

Improvement

0
0

Figure 2.Ground surface after soil improvement.

Notreatment

Ac22
GL21.20m

Walls

Ac23
GL31.00m
Dvc
GL36.20m
Dvs

GL41.60m

Figure 5.Section view of the numerical model.

Figure 4 shows the settlement history fora one-year period


after the construction road was removed.In the improvement
case, large the walls prevented deformation under the
embankment, keeping the settlement around the embankment
below the limit value. The vertical strain measured in the walls
is shown in Fig. 7; this, too, was kept below the fracture strain
value.
3.3

Back-analysis

To investigate the applicability of two-dimensional effective


stress analysisunder actual construction conditions, the
geological profile and mechanical properties of the deep mixing
columns were analyzed using Plaxis 2D Ver.9.02.
The numerical model is shown in Fig. 5. Due to the
symmetry of the embankment, only half of the geometry was
considered for the model. The distance from the embankment

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

=H/quck

(1)

Settlementof
Embankment (mm)

6
4
2
0
0

50
100

Measurement

150
200
250

Analysis

300
100

200

300
400
500
Elapseddays(day)

600

700

Figure 6.Settlement history of ground surface in center of the


embankment
100

Embankment

Limit value
20mm

10m

100
Walls

Measurement
Analysis

200
0

10
20
30
40
50
Distancefromcenterlineofembankment(m)

60

Figure 7.Distribution of ground surface settlement after construction of


the embankment
Horizontaldisplacementofwalls after
constructionofembankment(mm)
40 20
0
20
40
0
(a)

4 DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM ARRANGEMENT OF


DEEP MIXING COLUMNS

Verticalstrainofwalls after
constructionofembankment()
500
0
500 1000 1500
(b)

10
Depth(m)

In this method, the piles and walls are effectively arranged


according to the limit values of deformation in the embankment
and the adjacent area. Due to the countless combinations of
planar arrangements and improvement depths, arbitrary
parametric studies require considerable time to identify
optimum arrangement. Therefore,the following3-step method is
proposed fordetermining the optimum arrangement.
1) Determine the planar arrangement: First, walls are placed
in the ground under the edges of the embankment crown. Next,
inside and outside piles are arrangedequidistantly by an amount
not less than the necessary improvement ratio , defined as

Settlement afterconstruction
ofembankment(mm)

toe to the lateral boundary is 80m. As a boundary condition of


deformation, the bottom surface was fixed. The side surface was
free verticallyand fixed horizontally.As a drainage condition,
excess pore water pressures at the ground surface and bottom
surface were set to zero.
The soil layer is modeled as an elasto-plastic material using
the Sekiguchi-Ohta model (Sekiguchi and Ohta 1977). The sand
layers and deep mixing columns are modeled as a linear elastic
material. The embankment is modeled as an elasto-plastic
material using the Mohr-Coulomb model. Table 1 lists the
model parameters used for the analysis.
The history of the embankment construction was modeled
bybuilding up the elements. In converting from actual threedimensional ground to the two-dimensional numerical model,
the deformation modulus of the deep mixing columns was
reduced according tothe improvement ratio and the coefficient
on permeability for deep mixing columns was set to thevalue for
each layer of ground.
The following figures are for the sake of comparison and
analysis: Figure 6 shows the history of ground-surface
settlement at the center of the embankment; Fig.7 shows the
distribution of ground-surface settlement after construction of
the embankment; Fig. 8 shows the horizontal displacement and
vertical strain of the walls. The settlement history and
displacement of the ground surface and walls are quantitatively
evaluated using two-dimensional analysis. However, a clear
difference in the vertical strain exists at greater depths. In the
numerical models, the deformation modulus of wallsless than 21
m in height is lower than that of walls greater than 21m in
heightas perthe arrangement of the deep mixing columns. This
is thought to be the cause of the difference in vertical strain.
Individual material propertiesare effective for evaluating the
strain distribution of walls.

Heightof
Embankment (m)

Effective
Coefficient
Unit Effective
Critical
Deformation Initial Consolidation
Compression Expansion
angle of
Poissons
of
weight cohesion
void
yield stress
state
modulus
friction
permeability
index
index
ratio
t
c'
ratio
pc
parameter
E

'

k
e0
M
(kN/m2)
(kN/m3) (kN/m2)
(kN/m2)
(deg.)
(cm/sec)
Embankment 19.0
10.0
35.0
28,000

0.25
1.0010-3
Ac1-2
14.6
10.0
36.4
1,720 2.13
36.8
0.289
0.029
1.48
0.35
1.3010-6
As2
18.7

28,000

0.25
1.0010-3
Ac2-2
14.3
10.0
36.2
6,380 2.53
146.1
0.665
0.067
1.47
0.35
3.0010-7
Ac2-3
15.1
10.0
33.0
7,130 2.00
178.5
0.408
0.041
1.33
0.35
2.3010-7
Dvc
15.8
10.0
33.0
6,510 1.21
215.7
0.149
0.015
1.33
0.35
1.4010-9
Dvs
19.0

70,000

0.35
1.0010-3
1.4010-9
367,000

0.20
Columns
19.0

1.0010-3*2
718,000*1
*1 The deformation modulus of thedeep mixing columns was derived from quality verification tests, which reduced dependence on the improvement
ratio.
*2 The coefficients of permeability of the deep mixing columns are same as those for each layer.

Measurement
20

Analysis

Analysis

Measurement
30

40

Figure 8.(a) Horizontal displacement of walls (b) Vertical strain


in walls

2547

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Optimumarrangement

Floating

1000

Result forSaga(Example)
ResultforKumamoto
:Optimumarrangement

200

150
Walls reached
bearinglayer

100

(a)

Settlementofembankment(mm)

250

Allcolumnsreached
bearinglayer

600
Newtechnique
400
200

0
100
200
300
400
500
Improvementvolumeperonemeterinalongitudinaldirection(m3/m)

100
0

Limitvalue

Settlementofapoint10maway
fromembankmenttoes(mm)

Confinedrange

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Improvementvolumeperonemeterinalongitudinaldirection(m3/m)

Figure 9.Example of confining the range of consideration and the result


of the consideration for in-situ construction in Kumamoto

in which is the unit weight of the embankment, H is the height


of the embankment and quck is the design strength of the deep
mixing columns.
2) Confine the range of consideration: For the planar
arrangement noted above, the deformation of three
arrangements with different improvement depths(as shown in
Fig.9) is calculated. The relation between the improvement
volume and the deformation of the three arrangements is
illustrated in Fig. 9. The range of consideration is narrowed by
comparing with the limit value of deformation in the adjacent
area.
3) Identify the optimum arrangement: The optimum
arrangement in the range noted above is the arrangement with
the lowest improvement volume that satisfies the limit value.
Figure 9 shows the results of a search for the optimum
arrangement in areas along the Ariake Sea in Saga Prefecture.
Figure 9 also showsthe results of a search in Kumamoto as an
example of an arbitrary parametric study. The positional relation
between both cases is fitted and the results indicate the
effectiveness of the search method.
COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL METHODS

To confirm the effect of displacement suppression, a hybrid


arrangement is compared with conventional columns
arrangements as well asan arrangement in which the columns
are equidistant and narrowly spaced.
Under the same geological conditions and embankment
height as in the Kumamoto case, the settlement of the
embankment and at a point 10 m from the embankment toes of
each arrangement were calculated using two-dimensional
analysis.
Figure 10 shows the relation between individual settlement
values and improvement volumes per meter in the longitudinal
direction. Regarding settlement of the embankment, the
settlement of the hybrid arrangement and the equidistant
arrangement are lower than the arrangement under the slopes,
confirming the effect of displacement suppression. For the
settlement ata point 10m from the embankment toes, the hybrid
arrangement is the lowest among same improvement volumes.
When the limit value of settlement in the adjacent area is 20mm,
the hybrid arrangement is more effective than conventional
methods in reducing the improvement volume.
6

Equallyarrenged
inlowratio

50

Arrangement
underslopes

800

CONCLUSIONS

On-site measurements confirmed the methods effectiveness in


suppressing displacement. The validity of deformational
estimation using two-dimensional effective stress analysis also

(b)

80

Equallyarrenged
inlowratio

Arrangement
underslopes

60
40
20
Newtechnique

Limitvalue

0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Improvementvolumeperonemeterinalongitudinaldirection(m3/m)

Figure 10.(a) Settlement of embankment (b) Settlement at a point 10


meters from the embankment toes.

was confirmed. However, little difference was seen in the


estimation of stress and strain distribution in the walls.Using
individual material properties for the walls, however, is
effective.The two examples of searching for the optimum
arrangement using the method proposed in this paper confirmed
the methods effectiveness. Analytical comparison ofthe new
method with conventional methods also confirmed the
economic efficiency of the new method.
7

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The development of this column link method is the result of


collaborative research involvingthe Public Works Research
Institute, Japan, and thirteen private corporations in Japan. The
authors are particularly gratefulfor the kind assistance of
ShouichiTsutsumi (PWRI), Hirotaka Kawasaki (Shimizu Corp.),
ShouichiTsukuni (Takenaka Civil Eng. & Const. Co., Ltd.), and
NaotoshiShinkawa (Fudo Corp.).
8

REFERENCES

Miki, H. and Nozu, M. 2004. Design and numerical analysis of road


embankment with low improvement ratio Deep Mixing
method,Geotechnical Engineering for Transportation Projects, Vol.
2,1935-1402.
Ishikura, R. Ochiai, H. and Matsui, H. 2009. Estimation of settlement of
in-situ improved ground using shallow stabilization and floatingtype columns, Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2394-2398.
Miki, H. Okochi, Y. and Makino, M. 2011. Evaluation of constraint
effect of DMM with varied shape and arrangement of stabilized
bodies using centrifuge model test, Proceedings of Indian
Geotechnical Conference, 501-504.
Tsutsumi, S. Sawamatsu, T. Iso, Y. and Oshita, T. 2009. Centrifuge
model experiment of new improvement type in deep mixing method
with steel tied by cable for lateral flow, Deep mixing 2009 Okinawa
symposium.
Sekiguchi, H. and Ohta, H. 1977. Induced anisotropy and time
dependency in clays, Constitutive equations of soils, Proceedings of,
9th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering, 229-238.

2548

Application of cement deep mixing method for underpinning


Application de colonnes de sol-ciment pour travaux de reprise en sous uvre
Melentijevic S., Arcos J.L.

Grupo Rodio-Kronsa, Madrid, Spain

Oteo C.

Universidad de A Corua, A Corua, Spain

aBstract: this paper presents a case history of the application of wet deep soil mixing columns for underpinning of the existing
floor slab of an industrial building, which settled due to different encountered post-constructive pathologies related to ground
conditions. the soil-cement columns were constructed with the application of the new developed springsol tool that permits the
underpinning of existing foundations, infrastructure transport platforms and embankments, as well as working in limited spaces and
under low headroom conditions. the quality control regarding laboratory testing of core and wet grab samples is reported. design
procedure and the finite element analysis that verify settlement calculations are described. the fem is focused on the axisymmetric
numerical modeling in plaxis.
rsUm : cet article prsente une tude de cas de ralisation de colonnes de soil mixing par voie humide pour la reprise en sous
uvre du dallage dun btiment industriel, ayant tass aprs sa construction cause de pathologies du sol. les colonnes de sol-ciment
ont t ralises avec la mthode springsol, qui permet la reprise en sous oeuvre de fondations existantes, dinfrastructures de
transports et de remblais, partir demprises troites et sous faible gabarit. les contrles le qualit raliss en laboratoire sur des
prouvettes carottes et sur des prlvements frais y sont prsents. le mode de dimensionnement ainsi que les analyses par lments
finis pour estimer les tassements sont galement dcrits. les calculs ef ont t raliss avec le code plaxis en axi-symtriei.
KeYWords: deep mixing, soil-cement columns, springsol, underpinning, fem.
1

introdUction

in order to reduce settlements, increase bearing capacity of


natural ground and improve the overall stability, different
ground improvement techniques can be put into practice, but not
all of them can be applied for underpinning projects. the
limitations for the applications are mainly related to capacity of
the machinery to pass existing foundation structures as
reinforced slabs or footings, and insufficient working spaces
and/or low headroom conditions.
the soil-cement deep mixed columns for ground
improvement of soft soils have an extensive application for
different geotechnical projects due to their higher strength and
lower compressibility than the untreated natural soft soil. the
application of traditional deep mixing methods, both wet and
dry, was very restricted for the underpinning of existing
foundations, improvement of existing embankments and
infrastructure platforms, due to the form and dimensions of the
mixing tool.
With objective to present new wet deep soil mixing system
called springsol a case history with its application in
underpinning project is reported in this paper. to prevent
further settlements and guarantee bearing capacity of the
foundation of the industrial building that presented various postconstructive pathologies, the springsol deep mixing columns
were proposed as an alternative method to basic project
underpinning solution comprising jet-grouting, traditional tubea-manchette grouting and micropiles for different areas of the
building. due to its technical, economic and environmental
advantages, soil-cement columns were accepted and executed as
a global solution. in the following chapters the main
characteristics of the springsol system will be described as
well as the analysis of the solution adopted and performed for
this project. some recent applications of the springsol
technique are given in melentijevic et al., 2012.

sprinGsol soil cement colUmns

springsol device was originally developed for improvement of


soils under existing railways due to its spreadable form
(innotrack 2009, le couby 2010). the folded tool is introduced
through the casing to the required depth at the beginning of the
column head. once it reaches the end of the casing and
penetrates the underlying soft soil, the blades spread out
forming the soil-cement column down to the required depth.

figure 1. the springsol spreadable tool: (a) original and (b) modified.

at present, springsol columns permit an application in


ground improvement for underpinning of existing foundations
(both slabs and footings), paving, embankments and subbase
below infrastructures (both highways and railways). originally
it was developed to form columns of 400 mm diameter. due to
continuous necessity for construction of soil-cement columns of
larger diameters the springsol soil mixing tool has technically
evolved into the new modified version, permitting achievement
of different column diameters ranging from 400 to 700 mm. the
modified tool also includes the automatic system for opening
and closing blades thus having the possibility to form variable

2549

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

diameter along the column depth. figure 1 shows the nowadays


available original and modified improved springsol tool. the
folded tool is of a diameter of 150 and 165 mm for the original
and modified version respectively.
some of the advantages of the method are:
no pollution of the subgrade layer with the cement
slurry, due to insertion of the casing that enables the
recovery of spoil.
the spoil collection with the system installed at the
base of the mast of the drilling rig, connected to the
peristaltic pump drawing the spoil directly to the
container.
the high production rate.
Working under difficult execution conditions and
limitations, i.e. under low headroom conditions and
within reduced spaces.
execution with small batching plants and small drilling
rigs in reduced limited spaces, etc.
the quality of soil-cement columns regarding their
homogeneity and strength is influenced by two parameters:
im (rev/m) - blade rotation number determining the
mixing efficiency defined as a total number of mixing
blades passing along one meter of tool penetration, and
ii (kg/m3) - cement quantity introduced per m3 of the
treated soil.
table 1. springsol columns performance and geo-mechnaical
parameters.
parameter
diameter (mm)
Water / cement ratio
penetration velocity (cm/min)

0.6-1.2
15-50
min 350

ii (kg/m3)

150-350

Ucs (mpa)
e50
shear strength
Bending strength

Grouting gap slab-fill


Slab

see Figure 3

Man made fill

Springsol columns 400mm


Length = 5.508.00m
Grid=1.50x1.50m 2.00x2.00m
Natural soil-clays with
gravel and boulders

figure 2. cross section of the ground treatment solution.

400-700

im (rev/m)

same material for construction of a fill without its appropriate


compaction.
the affected area included more than 8000 m2 with the
installation of more than 2500 soil-cement columns. the length
of soil-cement columns ranged from 5.50 m to 8.00 m in
function of the thickness of the man-made fill, with the total
length of columns of more than 15000 meters. due to the form
of the springsol tool, the columns were embedded
approximately 20 cm in the natural ground. the columns of a
400 mm diameter, performed with the originally developed tool,
were distributed in a square grid pattern ranging from 1.50 m to
2.00 m in function of the surcharge to be transmitted from the
slab. the performed solution is schematically presented in
figure 2.

0.5-6.0
(50-500) Ucs
20-40% Ucs
8-15% Ucs

the general execution parameters and geo-mechanical


characteristics (unconfined compressive strength - Ucs,
stiffness modulus e50, shear and bending strength) of the soilcement columns executed by the springsol device are given in
table 1. these data are established on experiences gained on
different projects and field tests carried out recently in spain
(melentijevic et al 2012, melentijevic et al 2013). these
findings on geo-material properties are in agreement with
worldwide published information on deep mixed columns
(Bruce 2001, cdit 2002, etc.).

the post pathology site investigation consisted of 46


dynamic penetration tests and 5 drilled boreholes with standard
penetration tests, executed from the working platform, i.e. the
existing floor slab level. the natural ground, detected at the
depth of 5.50 to 8.00 m from the surface, consisted of clays of
high consistency with gravels and boulders, with the n20>40
(dpsh). the overlaying treated loose man made fill was
formed of clays with gravels (n20<10) proceeding from the
natural ground after a massive excavation for the foundation of
the main structure elements.
the soil treatment solution included following steps:
coring of the existing slab (diameter = 62 mm) for
grouting of the gap between slabs and fill.
contact grouting between the slab and the fill in order
to fill gaps due to settlement of badly compacted man
made fill.
coring of the existing slab and contact grouted gap
(diameter = 182 mm) for the passage of the spreadable
tool.
execution of springsol columns (diameter = 400 mm).
filing the gaps of coring the existing slab.
Visual description of the executed steps previously
mentioned is shown in figure 3.
Coring 182 mm

Coring 62 mm

Grouting gap slab-fill

3 proJect details and adopted GroUnd


improVement solUtion
in this chapter an example of application of the springsol
technique for underpinning is presented. the industrial building
in the central spain presented different post-constructive
pathologies regarding differential settlements of floor slabs and
pavements as a consequence of poorly compacted anthropic fill
material. the main structure (walls and columns) were founded
on a natural ground, and due to its adequate geotechnical
characteristics did not present any pathology. the shallow
foundation on a natural ground was performed after a massive
excavation of superficial layers of natural soil, applying the

2550

Springsol columns 400 mm

figure 3. Visual control of the excavated treatment area.

Slab

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

4 Geomaterial soil-cement colUmn


characteriZation
the cement used for the construction of soil-cement columns
was of the portland type cem i 52.5 sr. the slurry mix was of
a cement / Water type with the relation 1/1. the average
penetration rate for the construction of columns was 30 cm/min
with the rotation velocity of 50 to 55 rpm and the average
cement consumption of 350 kg/m3.
the unconfined compressive strength tests (Ucs) were
performed both on drilled core samples and wet grab samples
(cylinder dimensions height / diameter > 2), both of them
usually being the main mean of the quality control of wet deep
mixing methods. three core samples were taken from different
soil-cement trial test columns, 21 days after the completion of
the soil-cement columns. the samples were cored at a distance
of 110 mm to 120 mm from the centre of columns. the overall
average total core recovery was more than 97% for all soilcement columns. Wet grab samples were taken in the half an
hour after execution of columns and were tested at same age as
core samples. the Ucs tests were also used to determine the
stiffness modulus e50 (secant value of Youngs modulus of
elasticity determined at 50% of Ucs).
the Ucs values of wet grab samples after 7 days varied
from 1.4 to 3.9 mpa, while Ucs values for drilled core samples
on 28 days ranged from 2.2 to 4.4 mpa and axial failure strain
values varied from 1 to 1.2 %. stiffness modulus values
determined from Ucs tests varied from 270 to 330 mpa, with
the average relationship between e50 and Ucs resulting in
approximately 100.
some of the drilled core samples extracted from soil-cement
trial test columns is presented in figure 4. it can be observed
uniformly treated springsol columns.

by the elastic law. the load transfer layer formed by grouting


the gap within the contact gravel layer below the existing slab
of the approximate thickness of 20 cm is modelled by the mohrcoulomb law. Geotechnical parameters of each material (ltlload transfer layer, cU-upper clay layer, cm-medium clay
layer, nsc-natural soil clay layer, sc-soil cement column) used
in the numerical analysis are given in table 2.
the cross section of the fe model is presented in figure 6
showing the geometry and soil layers used in analysis, as well
as the finite element mesh.
table 2. material parameters.
parameter

LTL

CU

CM

NSC

thickness
(m)

0.2

4.06.5

1.5

>4.5

density
(kn/m2)

22

16

17

18

20

500

10

20

500

40

18

20

22

35

300

2.5

5.0

50

300

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

cohesion
(kpa)
friction
angle ()
Youngs
modulus (mpa)
poisson ratio

5.2

SC

Results

figure 6 present the employed mesh in the fem model, and the
results regarding vertical displacements and axial stresses for
the case of the grid spacing of 1.50 m corresponding to the
surcharge of 20 kn/m2.
Req

LTL
5-8
mm

CU
figure 4. drilled core samples of soil-cement columns.

5
5.1

SC

nUmerical model

2-5
mm

max 385.6 kN/m 2

NSC

0-2
mm

4.5m

(1)

where: req is the radius of the unit cell and s is the grid
spacing.
in this project different square grid patterns (grid spacing
varying from 1.50 to 2.00 m) depending on the surcharge of the
slab (ranging from 10.00 to 20.00 kn/m2) are taken into
account.
in this study the commercial finite element code used for 2d
modelling is plaxis (version 8.6). Both the soft soil and the soilcement column behaviour are modelled by the elastic-plastic
mohr-coulomb failure criterion, while the slab is characterized

50-150
kN/m 2

1.5m

When using finite element analysis to model deep mixed


columns installed in a periodic pattern, the problem is usually
modelled in a 2d axisymmetric model, referred as a unit cell
model. the homogenization equivalent model is usually not
used due to lack of access to column stresses.
the radius of the unit cell depends on the grid spacing:

Req s

4.0m
6.5m max 7.85 mm

CM

General data

0-50
kN/m 2

150-200
kN/m 2

figure 6. numerical modeling results for reinforced soil. (a) Geometry


of the unit cell mesh and model dimensions. (b) Vertical
displacements. (c) axial stresses.

the homogenized settlements as well as negligible


differential settlements due to high rigidity of the load transfer
layer, formed by grouting the layer of gravel below the slab, and
soil-cement columns can be observed in figure 6-b.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

the maximum allowable axial stresses in soil-cement


columns defined by the Ucs value and verified by the fem
analysis was not exceeded for different cases of grid spacing,
surcharge and column lengths taken into consideration in the
project.
the comparative study of the maximum vertical
displacement, in cases without and with the soil improvement
for different grid meshes is shown in figure 7. the significant
settlement reduction with the applied soil improvement can be
observed in function of grid spacing and for different
thicknesses of the soft soil layer.
50
45

Settlements (cm)

40
35
30

25
20
15

10

5
0
1,5

1,6

1,7

1,8

Grid spacing (m)

1,9

With improvement SC col length 5.5m

With improvement SC col length 8m

Without improvement thickness 5.5m

Without improvement thickness 8m

figure 7. maximum vertical displacements.

the numerical calculations were also analyzed in terms of


load and settlement efficiency (asiri 2012) in order to
determine the effectiveness of the soil improvement method.
the load efficiency (el) is defined as a ratio of a transmitted
load to the head of a soil-cement column and the total load
acting on the unit cell. the settlement efficiency (eset)
represents the reduction of a settlement by a soil-cement column
compared to the settlement of the unit grid without ground
improvement. they are represented by the following equations:

EL

QP

W Q

E
set 1

SM

(2)

where: Qp is the load acting on the head of soil-cement


column, W is the dead load of the load transfer platform and Q
is the force of the surcharge applied to the slab. sm is the
settlement of the soil reinforced by soil-cement columns
measured at the surface of the load transfer platform and s0 is
the settlement of the natural soil without ground improvement.
80
75

Efficiency (%)

70

65
60
55
50

45

40
35
1,5

1,6

1,7

1,8

1,9

Grid spacing (m)


2

Load efficiency - SC col length 5.5m

Settlement efficiency - SC col length 5.5m 4

Load efficiency - SC col length 8m


Settlement efficiency - SC col length 8m

figure 8. load and settlement efficiency.

the results of the load and settlement efficiency are given in


figure 8 in terms of different grids adopted in the project for
different surcharge loads and for different column length in
function of the thickness of the soft layer. Both terms of

2552

conclUsions

the general application of the wet deep mixing method by the


springsol system for ground improvement of existing paving,
embankments and subbase below railways and roads, and
underpinning of existing structures is presented. the case
history of underpinning of existing industrial building, which
settled due to poorly compacted antrophic fill, with the use of
the springsol system is reported.
the design procedure and the estimation of settlements by
the finite element method (plaxis commercial code) based on
axisymmetric model is in concordance with the monitored
settlements. the general homogenized nature of settlements, as
well as insignificant differential settlements are achieved by the
good interaction of the performed soil-cement column and load
transfer layer formed by grouting of the layer of gravel below
the slab. the evaluation of efficiency of the soil treatment by
soil-cement columns, in terms of load and stress efficiency, is
determined confirming its effectiveness.
7

acKnoWledGements

the authors wish to thank to the personnel of Grupo rodioKronsa for their technical assistance, especially to Juan ignacio
lpez, Juan manuel dimas, francisco martn and esteban
casado. also, the collaboration and provision of all necessary
information by the proprietary of the industrial building is
highly appreciated.
8

(3)

S0

efficiency have the same tendency. the load efficiency ranges


from 36 to 50 %, while the settlement efficiency varies between
64 and 78 %. the difference of approximately 25 to 30 %
between load and settlement efficacy relationships is observed.
it is important to emphasize that the estimated settlements
obtained by the analysis by fem were in accordance with the
observed settlements after ground improvement by the
performance of soil-cement columns and re-loading of the slab
of the industrial building.

references

asiri national project 2012. recommendations for the design,


construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements.
Bruce d.a. 2001. an introduction to deep mixing methods as used in
geotechnical applications, Volume iii: the verification and
properties of treated ground. U.s. department of transportation,
federal highway administration, report fhWa rd-99-167.
cdit (coastal development institute of technology), Japan. 2002. the
deep mixing method, a.a. Balkema.
innotrack. project n tip5-ct-2006-031415. 2009 subgrade
reinforceemnt with columns. part 1 Vertical columns, part 2
inclined columns.
le Kouby a., Bourgeois e. & rocher-lacoste f. 2010. subgrade
improvement method for existing railway lines an
experimental and numerical study. EJGE Vol. 15: 461-494
melentijevic s., martin f. & prieto l. 2013. execution of springsol
deep mixed columns: field trials. International Conference
Installation Effects in Geotechnical Engineering. Rotterdam. The
Netherlands. 24-27 March 2013: accepted for publishing.
melentijevic s., prieto l. & arcos J.l. 2012. aplicaciones de columnas
suelo-cemento tipo springsol. 9 Simposio Nacional de Ingenieria
Geotcnica. Cimentaciones y Excavaciones Profundas. Proc. Symp.
Sevilla. 17-19 October 2012: 255-268.
plaxis BV. 2008. plaxis 2d manual - version 8. www.plaxis.nl.

Lime Remediation of Reactivated Landslides


Traitement la chaux pour la stabilisation des glissements ractivs
Mesri G.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, U.S.A.

Moridzadeh M.

Montgomery Watson Harza, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A


ABSTRACT: Lime improvement of frictional resistance was examined using samples of Brenna Clay Formation from North Dakota.
The montmorillonitic stiff clay samples had a natural water content, plastic limit, liquid limit, clay size fraction, fully softened friction
angle, and residual friction angle, respectively, in the range of 42 to 85%, 20 to 40%, 62 to 154%, 60 to 95%, 14 to 24, and 7 to 9.
Immediately after introduction of hydrated lime, pH increased to a range of 12.2 to 12.7; within hours, however, pH began to
decrease. Whereas there was a large increase in plastic limit, the liquid limit response to lime treatment was dependent on the
effective confining pressure. Lime treatment increased fully softened friction angle by 5 to 10 at effective normal stress of 100 kPa
and by 3 to 5 at 300 kPa. Lime treatment increased the residual friction angle by 3 to 6 at both 100 kPa and 300 kPa.
RSUM: Lamlioration par addition de chaux de la rsistance en frottement est examine sur des chantillons de la formation
dargile de Brenna dans le Dakota du Nord. Les chantillons dargile raide montmorillonitique ont une teneur en eau, une limite
plastique, une limite liquide, une fraction de dimension argileuse, un angle de frottement aprs remaniement et un angle de frottement
rsiduel respectivement de lordre de 42 85%, de 20 40%, de 62 154%, de 60 95%, de 14 24, et de 7 9. Immdiatement
aprs laddition de chaux hydrate, le pH augmente des valeurs de 12,2 12,7 mais commence ensuite dcrotre dans les heures
qui suivent. Laugmentation de la limite de plasticit suite au traitement la chaux est importante, laugmentation de la limite de
liquidit dpend cependant de la pression de confinement. Le traitement la chaux augmente langle de frottement aprs
remaniement de 5 10 sous une contrainte effective normale de 100 kPa et de 3 5 sous 300 kPa. Le traitement la chaux
augmente langle de frottement rsiduel de 3 6% autant sous une pression de 300 kPa plutt que de 100 kPa.
KEYWORDS: Brenna clay, frictional resistance, lime treatment, landslides.
1

INTRODUCTION

The effectiveness of lime treatment of soils has been commonly


evaluated in terms of improved workability and increased
undrained unconfined stiffness and compressive strength, in
connection to road and airfield construction (Bell 1996). Soil
improvement is expected to result from the flocculation of clay
minerals and cementing action of lime-soil chemical reactions.
On the other hand if the objective of lime treatment is to
improve long-term stability of first-time or reactivated
landslides in stiff clays and shales, permanent changes in the
size and shape of clay particles must be realized to increase
drained frictional resistance. Lime-soil interactions that may
produce less platey and larger soil particles begin and continue
with time under the highly alkaline pH environment. For
Brenna clay samples treated with lime, measurements of pH as
an indicator of chemical environment, Atterberg plastic limit
and liquid limit as indirect measures of changes in particle size
and shape, and fully softened friction angle and residual friction
angle, were used to examine possible mechanisms of lime-soil
interactions. The main variables, in addition to soil mineralogy,
are soil water content, lime content, and duration of lime-soil
interactions.
2

LIME-SOIL INTERACTION

When dry hydrated lime is thoroughly mixed with a wet soil,


lime is consumed, in the absence of carbonation, through two
mechanisms: (a) part of the lime particles is adsorbed on soil
particles during the mixing process, and (b) part of the
remaining lime is dissolved in the soil porewater. The solubility
of calcium hydroxide in water is rather small (0.75 g/).
Therefore, the maximum lime content as percent of dry weight

of soil that can dissolve in the porewater during the mixing


process is quite small and a function of soil water content (only
1.5% of lime for 5% lime content at soil water content of
100%). Dissociation of hydrated lime to (OH)- and Ca2+ leads
to a rise in the pH. If enough lime is left, after satisfying the
adsorption, soil porewater becomes saturated and pH increases
to approximately 12.3 to 12.4. Under the strong alkaline
condition, soil mineral particle surfaces become unstable and
begin to dissolve in the porewater. Simultaneously, under the
elevated pH condition, adsorbed lime particles begin to attack
the soil particle surfaces at the points of contact.
Dissolved silica and alumina react with the dissociated
calcium hydroxide and form new compounds. As the dissolved
hydrated lime is used up in the chemical reactions with silica
and alumina, the remaining free lime, if any, dissolves in the
porewater and pH is maintained at 12.3-12.4. The dissolution of
soil particles and local attack of adsorbed lime on the particle
surfaces continue at the initial rate until all free lime is
completely consumed. Thereafter, pH begins to decrease as the
dissociated calcium hydroxide is used up in the chemical
reactions with dissolved silica and alumina. This has been
confirmed by pH measurements and chemical analyses
conducted by Clare and Cruchley (1957) and Diamond et al.
(1964). Dissolution of soil particle surfaces continues at a
decreasing rate, becoming insignificant as pH drops to values
probably less than around 9 (Eades and Grim 1960, Eades et al.
1962, Hunter 1988). The reaction products begin to harden or
crystallize as pH decreases. A calcium hydroxide particle is
attached to more than one soil particle, connecting them
together and producing silt- and sand-sized flocs and
agglomerates (Diamond et al. 1964, Verhasselt 1990). The
Atterberg plastic limit increases, often dramatically, because
large amount of water is enclosed within the flocs and

2553

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

agglomerates. In other words, only part of the porewater


contributes to plasticity. This is similar to diatoms with
poriferous particles in soils such as the Mexico City clay, and
andosols containing allophane in which water is trapped within
soil aggregates (Mesri et al. 1975, Terzaghi et al. 1996). Both
soils display unusually high plastic limits. In summary, total
lime content, lc, is used up through adsorption, lca, and
dissolution, lcd.
The time-dependent manifestation of adsorbed lime is a
gradual chemical reaction of calcium hydroxide with soil
particle surfaces. As the reaction products continue to form and
later harden or crystallize at the reaction sites of adsorbed lime
particles, they improve soil particle connections within the flocs
and agglomerates that may mature into porous soil aggregates
(Baver 1956). The proposed concept of lime particle adsorption
on soil particles is somewhat similar to physical adsorption of
calcium hydroxide molecules proposed by Diamond and Kinter
(1965). However, considering that a clay-sized hydrated lime
particle may contain 1011 molecules of Ca(OH)2, a more
significant time-dependent chemical reaction of adsorbed lime
with soil particle surfaces is expected for adsorbed lime particles
than for adsorbed lime molecules. Richardson et al. (1994) have
mentioned layers of Ca(OH)2 sandwiched between silicate
layers.
140
130
120

Untreated

110

Liquid Limit

Water Content, %

100
80
Lime Content, %

60

0
6.6

Plastic Limit

Untreated

20
100
Untreated
80
60
40
20

Plasticity Index
0

Figure 1.
pressure

10

20

30

40

50

BRENNA FORMATION

The highly plastic lacustrine clays of Lake Agassiz lead to slope


instability along the banks of the Red River that separates Grand
Forks, North Dakota from East Grand Forks, Minnesota, as it
flows north to Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada (Mesri and
Huvaj 2004). The clays of the Red River slopes are the glaciolacustrine deposits of glacial Lake Agassiz that is believed to
have existed from 13,000 to 8,500 years before present, during
the Late Wisconsin Glacial Episode of the Pleistocene Epoch
(Quigley 1980).
The Brenna Formation, which is characterized as a uniform,
soft to firm, dark grey, glacio-lacustrine clay with little or no
visible stratification, is full of slickensided surfaces. The major
source of sediment for the Brenna Formation was the highly
plastic montmorillonitic Pierre Shale bedrock (Quigley 1968,
Baracos 1977). The clay size fraction of Brenna Formation
ranges from 60 to 95% (Arndt 1977). This unit is divided into
Lower Brenna and Upper Brenna members. The natural water
content, plastic limit and liquid limit of Lower Brenna are in the
range of 42 to 69%, 20 to 40%, and 62 to 103%, respectively,
and the corresponding range for Upper Brenna are 60 to 85%,
27 to 38%, and 107 to 154%, respectively. Samples of both
Lower Brenna and Upper Brenna were used in the present
investigation.

100

40

particle size decreases and therefore, surface area increases, lca


increases. Lime content consumed through adsorption is
probably also related to the soil water content as it influences
dispersion of soil particles and facilitates thorough mixing to
allow full distribution and intimate contact between lime and
soil particles, degree of pulverization of hydrated lime, and the
intensity of mixing.
Because the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is very
small, for typical soil water contents a very small lime content is
required to saturate the porewater. However, experience
indicates that pH remains below 12.3-12.4 for lime contents far
in excess of that required for the saturation of porewater. This
behavior appears to suggest that lime adsorption must be
satisfied before lime is dissolved in the porewater to increase the
pH. Zolkov (1962) considered it as remarkable that in spite of
the very small solubility of lime in water, large amount of lime
was required "to bring the pH of the soil slurry to 12.6."
Most of the chemical reaction products have a layer
structure, have high surface area, and a particle morphology that
has been described as thin plates, foils, and rolled up sheets
(Diamond et al. 1964; however sometimes fibers or laths occur
which could contribute to particle interlocking, Richardson et al.
1994). On the other hand, adequate but not excessive lime attack
may improve morphology of existing soil particles by producing
ragged, irregular, frosted or serrated particles and following
proper compaction connect them by the new reaction products.
These features are expected to improve mechanical behavior of
soils.
Because some of the reaction products during the
stabilization process are amorphous and hydrated, drying of
lime-treated soils during stabilization is likely to result in some
irreversible dehydration as well as irreversible aggregation.

60

Curing Time, days

Lime-Brenna clay interaction under effective confining

The lime content required to fully satisfy adsorption is


mainly related to soil particle size and shape and therefore, the
mineralogy of soil solids (Goldberg and Klein 1952, Eades and
Grim 1960) and degree of dispersion or aggregation. As soil

TESTS ON LIME-TREATED BRENNA CLAY

Drained direct shear tests on lime-treated Brenna clay were


performed using reconstituted specimens. Drained multiple
reversal direct shear tests on precut specimens were used to
measure residual shear strength, and drained direct shear tests
on uncut specimens were used to measure fully softened shear
strength. Air dry Brenna clay was pulverized until all of a
representative sample passed the no. 200 US standard sieve.

2554

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

the range of 100 to 450 kPa in the direct shear tests, there is a
minor increase in liquid limit (Fig. 1). The interpretation of this
significant observed behavior appears to be that when
aluminosilicates form in unconfined condition, they hydrate
fully, thus holding significant amount of water that contributes
to the high liquid limit. On the other hand when lime-clay
reaction products form under effective confining pressure, either
the resulting aluminosilicates do not hydrate much or they
experience irreversible dehydration through consolidation, thus
resulting in little change in the liquid limit. The implication of
this behavior, which is under more detailed examination, is
significant for both laboratory study of lime-soil interaction to
improve frictional resistance as well as field application of lime
to remediate reactivated landslides.
13
12
11
PH

The pulverized clay was mixed with dry hydrated lime, and was
thoroughly rehydrated using distilled water. Two halves of the
pre-cut specimen were formed by remolding or compaction and
separately consolidated inside the top and bottom halves of the
shear box using the procedure described by Mesri and CepedaDiaz (1986) and Mesri and Huvaj-Sarihan (2012). The
consolidation pressure ranged from 100 to 450 kPa, and shear
displacement rate was in the range of 3.3x10-4 to 5x10-4
mm/min.
Lime content as a percent of dry weight of clay ranged from
0 to 10%, and water content was in the range of 30 to 274%. In
a few direct shear tests, dry hydrated lime was sprinkled on the
exposed shear surface or on the top and bottom, of the direct
shear specimen to examine lime diffusion.
For one series of direct shear specimens with lime content
of 6.6%, liquid limit and plastic limit were determined at the end
of the test. These data are shown in Fig. 1. For another series
of lime-treated Brenna clay samples with lime content of 2, 5
and 9% and water content of 80, 100, 150 and 230%, pH and
Atterberg limits were measured as a function of time. These
samples were sealed; however, they were not subjected to
confining pressure. The pH measurements are shown in Fig. 2,
and the liquid limit and plastic limit at lime content of 5% and
water contents of 80 and 100% are shown in Fig. 3.
The data on residual friction angle and fully softened
friction angle from drained direct shear tests are summarized in
Table 1. All index tests and direct shear tests reported here were
performed at laboratory temperature of 20 2C.

10
9
8

Untreated

7
140
130

13

120

12

110
100

10
Lime Content, %
2
5
9

9
8
7

Untreated

80
100

Untreated

90

10

20

30
40
50
Curing Time, days

60

70

Figure 2. pH measurements of lime-Brenna clay


5

Liquid Limit

90

Water Content, %

PH

11

INTERPRETATION OF THE MEASUREMENTS

The pH measurements on lime-treated Brenna clay, such as


those in Fig. 2 as well as others, show that immediately after
introduction of lime, pH increases to a range of 12.2 to 12.7;
shortly thereafter, however, pH begins to decrease. This
observed behavior suggests that either within hours no free lime
is left to dissociate to maintain pH above 12, or dissociated
(OH)- is simultaneously consumed by the silica and alumina
dissolved from Brenna minerals. Nevertheless, during the 60
day observation period, pH remained above 9 suggesting
continued lime-clay chemical reactions.
The rather immediate large increase in plastic limit above
that of the untreated Brenna clay, such as observed in Figs. 1
and 3 results from flocculation and agglomeration of limetreated clay, especially as the water content is reduced during
the plastic limit measurements. Rapid chemical attack of
adsorbed lime on clay particles contributes to the production of
porous flocs and agglomerates that entrap water.
When the curing of lime-Brenna clay takes place
unconfined, liquid limit dramatically increases above the liquid
limit of untreated clay (Fig. 3); whereas when curing takes place
under an imposed effective stress condition, such as the n in

80
70
60

Plastic Limit

50

Untreated

40
30
50

Untreated
40

30

Lime Content, %

20

10

0
5

Plasticity Index
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Curing Time, days

Figure 3. Lime-Brenna clay interaction under unconfined condition

The fully softened friction angle and residual friction angle


of stiff clays and shales decrease with the increase in effective
normal stress (Mesri and Shahien 2003, Mesri and HuvajSarihan 2012 ). The secant friction angles of Brenna clay in

2555

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Table 1 correspond to effective normal stresses of 100 kPa and


300 kPa. Lime treatment of Brenna clay increased fully
softened friction angle by 5 to 10 at effective normal stress of
100 kPa, and by 3 to 5 at 300 kPa. Lime treatment increased
the residual friction angle by 3 to 6 at both 100 kPa and 300
kPa. These results suggest formation of stable clay aggregates
through the lime-clay chemical reactions. These increases in
frictional resistance were realized with lime contents in the
range of 3 to 8% and treatment periods of 2 to 8 weeks. The
detailed correlation between improvement in frictional
resistance of Brenna clay as well as other stiff clays and shales,
with lime content and with duration of treatment, is under
further investigation with additional index and direct shear tests,
including scanning electron observations of reaction products.

effective normal stress range of 100 to 300 kPa. The increase in


drained frictional resistance suggests formation of stable clay
aggregates through lime-clay chemical reactions under the
highly alkaline pH 12.5 to 9.8 environment measured over a
period of 8 weeks. The measurements of liquid limit as an
indicator of changes in particle size and shape resulting from
lime treatment must be carried out on samples cured under an
effective stress condition rather than sealed but unconfined.
Unconfined lime treatment results in a significant increase in
liquid limit, thus underestimating the decrease in plasticity
index and associated increase in frictional resistance resulting
from lime remediation.
7

Table 1. Frictional resistance of lime-treated Brenna clay


Sample Ic (%)
1
2a
3b
4
5a
6b
7c
8
9a
10 a,d
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19 c
20 a

0.0
0.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
8.0
10.0

Curing
(days)
0
0
7
11
28
54
1
11
7
120
40
56
3
8
14
26
26
0.4
180

w0 (%) [fs]s100 [fs]s300 [r]s100 [r]s300


67
111
74
98
30
74
74
109
111
111
274
274
75
97
75
64
77
105
74
111

15
24
17
-

14
-

20
29
34
20
18
20
36

17
18
21
18
-

9
9
11
11
11
11
15
13
12
13
15
13
11
16
-

7
6
7
9
8
9
11
10
12
12
13
13
11
16
-

Notes:
a- Lower Brenna was used for these specimens.
b- Lime was sprinkled on top and bottom of the sample to
investigate the treatment caused by lime diffusion.
c- Lime was sprinkled on the shear surface.
d- Lime-treated sample was stored for 120 days before being
placed in the shear box.
For the 27th Avenue slide in Grand Forks, North Dakota
(Mesri and Huvaj 2004), with entire slip surface in Brenna clay
at residual condition, 5% lime content treatment of fifty percent
of the slip surface increases computed factor of safety from 1.00
to the range of 1.26 to 1.37 (r = 7 to 8 increases to r = 12).
This level of lime remediation effort is expected to have a
significant effect on rate of movement of the slide.
A combination of horizontal directional drilling (HDD),
mechanical deep mixing (MDM) with augers and paddles, and
dry jet mixing (DJM), together with signal receivers at the
ground surface, is being investigated for introducing lime into
clay along a pre-existing slip surface. The longest crossing of
HDD to date has been 2000 m and borehole diameter of up to
160 mm.
6 CONCLUSIONS
Remediation of the montmorillonitic Brenna clay from North
Dakota using lime contents of 3 to 8% and treatment periods of
2 to 8 weeks increased drained fully softened friction angle by 3
to 10 and drained residual friction angle by 3 to 6, in the

2556

REFERENCES

Arndt B.M. 1977. Stratigraphy of offshore sediment Lake AgassizNorth Dakota, Report of Investigation No. 60. North Dakota
Geological Survey.
Baracos A. 1977.
Compositional and structural anisotropy of
Winnipeg soils a study based on scanning electron microscopy
and X-ray diffraction analysis. Can. Geotech. .J., 14 (1), 125-143.
Baver L.D. 1956. Soil Physics, 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons,
London.
Bell F.G. 1996. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils.
Engineering Geology 42, 223-237.
Clare K.E. and Cruchley A.E. 1957. Laboratory experiments in the
stabilization of clays with hydrated lime. Gotechnique 7 (2), 97111.
Diamond S. and Kinter E.B. 1965. Mechanisms of soil-lime
stabilization: an interpretive review. Highway Research Record
92, 83-102.
Diamond A, White J.L. and Dolch W.L. 1964. Transformation of clay
minerals by calcium hydroxide attack. In: Bradley, W.F.(Ed.),
Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Clays and Clay Minerals. Pergamon Press,
New York, 359-379.
Eades J.L. and Grim R.E. 1960. Reaction of hydrate lime with pure
clay minerals in soil stabilization. Highway Research Record 262,
51-63.
Eades J.L., Nichols F.P. and Grim R.E. 1962. Formation of new
minerals with lime stabilization as proven by field experiments in
Virginia. Highway Research Board 335, 31,-39.
Goldberg I. and Klein A. 1952. Some effects of treating expansive
clays with calcium hydroxide. ASTM Special Publication 142,
Symp. on Exchange Phenomenon in Soils, 112-128.
Hunter D. 1988. Lime-induced heave in sulphate-bearing clay soils. J.
Geotech. Engrg. 1114 (2), 150-167.
Mesri G. and Cepeda-Diaz A.F. 1986. Residual shear strength of clays
and shales. Gotechnique 36 (2), 269-274.
Mesri G. and Huvaj N. 2004. Residual shear strength mobilized in Red
River slope failures. Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Landslides, Brazil,
925-931.
Mesri G. and Huvaj-Sarihan N. 2012. Residual shear strength
measured by laboratory tests and mobilized in landslides. J.
Geotech. and Geoenviron. Engrg. 138 (5), 585-593.
Mesri G., Rokhsar A. and Bohor B.F. 1975. Composition and
compressibility of typical samples of Mexico City clay.
Gotechnique 25 (3), 527-554.
Mesri G. and Shahien M. 2003. Residual shear strength mobilized in
first-time slope failures. J. Geotech. and Geoenviron. Engrg. 129
(1), 12-31.
Quigley R.M. 1968. Soil mineralogy, Winnipeg swelling clays.
Can.Geotech. J., 5 (2), 120-122.
Richardson I.G., Brough A.R., Groves G.W. and Dobson C.M. 1994.
The characterization of hardened alkali-activated blast-furnace
slag pastes and the nature of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)
phase. Cement Concrete Res. 24 (5), 813-829.
Terzaghi K., Peck R.B. and Mesri G. 1996. Soil Mechanics in
Engineering Practice, 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York,
549 p.
Verhasselt A. 1990. Lime-cement stabilization of wet cohesive soils.
Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Concrete Roads, Madrid, 67-76.
Zolkov E. 1962. Influence of chlorides and hydroxides of calcium and
sodium on consistency limits of fat clay. Highway Research
Record 309, 109-115.

Improvement of the Soil under the Concrete Pavement of a Plants Hall


Amlioration du terrain dassise sous la dalle en bton dune halle dusine
Mihova L.

University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Sofia, Bulgaria,

Kolev Ch.

Todor Kableshkov University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria,

aBstract: the geological profile of the ground for the construction of a hall of the stilmet plant in sofia includes soft saturated
soils. the improvement is developed of the natural ground by constructing a geosynthetic reinforced pad of crushed stone. to
determine the mechanical parameters of the improved soil ground, in situ tests have been performed and settlement/load relationships
and e modulus values have been obtained. a numerical model is made of the ground by the finite element method. the undrained
short term stability and the consolidation long term stress-strain process of the improved soil ground are investigated.
rsUm : le profil gologique du terrain dassise, prvu pour la construction dune halle de lusine stilmet sofia, contient des
sols peu solides, imbibs deau. on a effectu une amlioration du terrain dassise naturel par la mise en place dune semelle en
pierres concasses, arme de matriaux gosynthtiques. pour dfinir les paramtres mcaniques de la fondation consolide, on a
excut des essais in situ et lon a obtenu la relation affaissement-charge, ainsi que le module e. on a tabli un modle numrique
suivant la mthode des lments finis. la stabilit court terme (non drain) et lvolution des contraintes et dformations
(consolidation) des sols amliors sont tudis.
KeYWords: soft saturated soil, geosynthetics, reinforced foundation pad, fem

introdUction

the design of reinforced earth structures to replace natural soft


soils is a modern practice in geotechnical engineering of
improving the foundation ground. high bearing capacity and
low ground deformation values are obtained by applying a
foundation pad constructed of layers of hard soil, like
compacted crushed stone, and of geosynthetic reinforcement.
the required thickness of the reinforced pad is much smaller
compared to unreinforced soil replacements. some projects
based on this way of soil improvement are realized in Bulgaria
in the recent years (mihov Y. and mihova l. 2012, Kolev ch.
and mihova l. 2012).
this paper presents some investigations of the improvement
of soft saturated ground under the hall of the stilmet plant in
sofia, which specializes in producing aluminum elements. the
geological profile includes uncompacted non-homogeneous
fillings at a depth of up to 4 m and soft clays at a depth of up to
10 m. the design of the ground improvement by the reinforced
pad involves the following steps: (1) choosing the thickness of
the pad and the number of reinforced layers, based on fe
analysis of various configurations of reinforced soil
replacement; (2) construction of an experimental improved
ground area and realization of in situ settlement/load tests,
using a circular steel plate with a diameter of 300 mm; (3) fe
modeling using the actual mechanical parameters, and analyzing
the stress-strain behavior and the stability of the improved
ground; (4) realization of the improvement of the halls ground,
and verifications of its deformation behavior using plate
settlement/load tests.

deep strip excavation in three longitudinal axes. the pavement


of the hall is made of fibre concrete with a thickness of 20 cm.
the equipment of the hall is composed of steel shelves, each
being supported at 8 points, and each being 12 m high and
weighing 12 tons. longitudinal beams on the concrete
pavement of the hall transform the point loading into striped.
the seismic loads on the pavement are obtained by performing
a dynamic analysis of the shelf structures.

(a)

(b)

figure 1. steel hall structure (a) and equipment shelf (b).

2.1 Geological profile


2

Geotechnical considerations

the stilmet plant hall, whose area is 3000 m2, is being


constructed near halls of the same kind (fig. 1). it has a frame
steel structure with spread footings constructed after a 4-meter-

the geological profile is shown in figure 2, and the properties of


the different layers are summarized in table 1. the water level is
1.5 m under the surface. the high water level requires analysis
of both the undrained short-term stability and the consolidated
long-term stress-strain behavior of the soil ground. the ground

2557

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

is being examined at a depth of up to 10 m, where solid clay


lies.

900/600 kn/m at 0.5% strain and coefficient of friction


soil/geogrid 1.2 (www.tenax.net).
3

to determine the e-modulus of the improved ground, a field


test program is performed. it includes the construction of the
reinforced pad of area 150 m2 and an application of a static
loading by rigid plate of dimension 30 cm at the following four
stages of construction: (1) after compaction of the natural
ground; (2) after building the first layer of crushed stone with a
thickness of 30 cm; (3) after placing the first geogrid layer and
building the second crushed stone layer with a thickness of 50
cm; (4) at the end of the pad construction. at each stage three
loading/unloading cycles are applied by steps of 0.05 mpa and
settlement/load curves are obtained. the E-modulus of total
settlement and the Ee-modulus of their elastic part are estimated,
and the results are shown in table 2. the settlement/load curves
for the first and the last stage of pad construction are shown in
figure 6. the moduli values increase more than five times after
the soil ground improvement.

figure 2. Geological profile


table 1. average values of the soil layers characteristics.
no.

soil type

e
-

kn/m3

c'
kpa

'
deg

E
mpa

top soil

1,35

1,45

11,0

8,0

3,5

Black clay

1,30

1,62

15,0

5,0

3,5

Brown clay

0,95

1,86

32,5

7,0

8,5

silty clay

1,41

1,70

11,0

5,0

6,0

sandy clay

0,82

1,89

32,5

18,5

15,0

field testinG procedUre

2.2 Structure of the reinforced crushed stone pad


investigations about the stress-strain behavior of the improved
soil ground with various thickness values of the crushed stone
pad, various numbers and various stiffness values of the
geosynthetic layers have been carried out in advance by fem
models. the optimal structure of reinforced pad with regard to
mechanical behavior of improved soil is obtained (fig. 3).

figure 5. construction of the experimental reinforced crushed stone pad

figure 3. structure of the reinforced crushed stone pad


figure 6. settlement/load curves for the plate loading tests
table 2. Values of the E-moduli of the soil ground at field testing
no.

figure 4. tenaX 3d Geogrid Xl (www.tenax.net)

the pad should be built of stone particles sized 085 mm,


and should be 1.3 m thick. the reinforcement is composed of
two polypropylene tenaX 3d geogrid Xl layers which have
particularly large concaved shaped ribs that enhance the
interaction mechanism between grids and stone particles by
restricting the horizontal movement of particles (fig. 4).
technical characteristics of the geogrids are: bi-axial stiffness

2558

stage of the pad construction

E
mpa

Ee
mpa

compaction of the natural ground

10,0

33,0

the first 30-cm-thick stone layer

25,7

60,0

the first geogrid layer and the second 50cm-thick stone layer

44,3

121,0

the end of the pad construction

57,7

181,0

Technical Committee 211 / Comit technique 211

nUmerical analYses

4.1 Finite element model


plane-strain finite element model of the improved ground is
made (fig. 7). the behavior of soil is modeled as mohrcoulomb material. linear bar elements that only have tensile
strength are used for the geogrids. the concrete pavement is
modeled by using linear beam elements. interface elements are
included for modeling the interaction between the soil and the
structure elements.
the loading of the pavement is assumed as uniformly
distributed with a value of 30 kpa for combination of dead and
live static loads and with a value of 45 kpa for seismic load
combination. Before the pavement loading calculations, the
initial condition of gravity loading is formed by the k0procedure. the construction stages of consecutive excavation
and the replacement of the soil are simulated by means of
phases of calculation with various fe meshes. an impermeable
bottom boundary of the fe model is assumed in consolidation
analysis.

the maximum pore pressure values are obtained


immediately after the load application, and its distribution is
represented in figure 9. it is evident that in all clayed soils under
the pavement the pore pressure increases up to the value of the
applied load. the 29.6 kpa maximum value of pore pressure is
calculated at point B situated at the bottom of the field. the
consolidation curves pore pressure vs. distance at 18 time steps
are shown in figure 10 for the cross section a B. step number
6 is related to the loading completion.

figure 10. the curves pore pressure vs. distance

the membrane forces of geogrids, caused by vertical


loading, reduce the normal stresses under it. the maximum
value of the normal stresses on the soft subsoil at the bottom of
the crushed pad is 52.3 kpa. figure 11 presents the tensile
forces in geogrids.

figure 7. finite element model

4.2 Results from FE analyses


4.2.1 Consolidation of the ground at dead and live loads
the consolidation process is investigated, and 3 years and 4
months is the time of the pore pressure dissipation. the
maximum value of the pavement settlement is 2.62 cm at point
a (fig. 7) and this value corresponds to the end of the
consolidation process. the distribution of the vertical
displacements is shown in figure 8.

( i layer )

( ii layer )

figure 11. the forces in geogrids at time moments: (a) at a pavement


loading; (b) at the end of consolidation

4.2.2 Stability of the ground at seismic load combination


the undrained analysis is performed and the lateral
displacements are estimated. the vectors of the total
displacements are shown in figure 12. the maximum horizontal
displacement is 1.4 cm and it occurs at depth of 4 m under the
crushed stone filling of the foundation excavation. the zones of
lateral displacements are located, as shown in figure 13, and the
stability of the ground is provided.
figure 8. the vertical displacements

figure 12. the vectors of the total displacements

figure 9. pore pressure distribution

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

6 references
mihov Y. and mihova l. 2012. finite element analysis of reinforced
foundation soil. proc. 2nd international scientific meeting, tuzla.
Kolev ch. and mihova l. 2012. project for improvement of a soft soil
under the foundation slab of a building in haskovo. (unpublished).
tenaX 3d Geogrid Xl, www.tenax.net.

figure 13. the horizontal displacements

the stability of the ground has been estimated using the

, c -reduction method. the coefficient of stability has a value

fs = 3.42 for deep slide surface.


5 conclUsion

the required thickness of reinforced crushed stone pad is about


two times smaller compared to the unreinforced pad. the
improvement of the ground by replacing of the soft foundation
soil by the reinforced crushed stone pad is an effective modern
technology which decreases excavation works and increases the
heartedness of the foundation soil.

2560

Effect of Smear on Strength Behavior of SCP-Reinforced Soft Ground


Effet de comportement de ltalement de force du SCP- Sol mou renforc
Mir B.A.

Deptt. of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Srinagar- 190006, Kashmir, India

Juneja A.

Deptt. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai-400076, MH, India

ABSTRACT: Sand columns traditionally known as sand compaction piles-(SCPs) have been used to increase the load carrying
capacity of soft clays and accentuate consolidation during preloading. Installation of SCPs is known to cause disturbance due to
smear in a limited zone of the soil surrounding the SCP. In this study, conventional triaxial tests have been performed on 200mm
long and 100mm-diameter clay samples installed with SCP to simulate the strength behaviour of composite ground under different
confining pressures ranging from 50kpa to 575kpa. The SCPs were prepared using area replacement ratio of 6.25 to 64% and
compacted using pneumatic compactor. The smear zone was created by using a rough casing to drill the hole. The results seem to
suggest that the stress-strain behaviour of the clay was influenced by the presence of smear zone. The effect of smear zone on SCP
was investigated by observing the change in pore pressure during undrained shear strength of the composite ground. The natural
fabric of the soil was destroyed adjacent to the SCPs and the shear-induced pore pressures were less in composite specimens with
smear-effect. In addition, as the area replacement ratio was increased, both the stiffness and the strength of the specimen increased.
RSUM : Des colonnes de sable traditionnellement connues comme piles de compactage (SCPs) de sable ont t utilises pour
augmenter la capacit portante des argiles molles et accentuer la consolidation au cours du prchargement. Linstallation de MCS est
connue pour causer des perturbations dues au frottis dans une zone limite du sol entourant le SCP. Dans cette tude, les essais
triaxiaux conventionnels ont t raliss sur les chantillons dargile, de 100 mm de long et de 200 mm de diamtre, installs avec
SCP pour simuler le comportement de la rsistance du terrain composite sous diffrentes pressions de confinement allant de 50 kPa
575 kPa. Les MCS ont t prpars laide du coefficient de remplacement de 6,25 64 %, et compactes au pneumatique. La zone
de souillure a t cre en utilisant une enveloppe rugueuse pour percer le trou. Les rsultats donnent penser que le comportement de
contrainte-dformation de largile a t influence par la prsence de la zone de souillure. Leffet de zone de souillure sur SCP a t
examin en observant le changement de pression interstitielle au cours de la consolidation et de la rsistance au cisaillement du sol
composite. Le tissu naturel du sol a t dtruit adjacent la SCP et les pressions interstitielles induites par cisaillement taient
infrieures dans les chantillons composites avec un effet de maculage. En outre, lorsquon augmente le ratio de remplacement du
frottis, la rigidit et la rsistance de lchantillon augmentent.
KEYWORDS: Sand compaction pile, installation effects, smear, soft ground
MOTS-CLS : Sable tas de compactage, les effets de l'installation, les frottis, sol mou
1

INTRODUCTION

Soft ground is widely distributed especially along the coastal


area, having large potential for settlement with low inherent
shear strength. In the recent years, improvement of soft soils
has been extensively implemented for the various development
projects all over the world due to extremely limited stable
construction sites. Granular piles such as sand compaction piles
(SCPs) are considered as cost-effective and alternative solution
to the problem of stability and settlement posed by construction
on soft ground. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has been
shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of
the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater
shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the
unreinforced clay. Sand compaction pile (SCP) is a method of
constructing large diameter sand column in the ground. This
method of ground improvement has been widely used for rapid
improvement of soft ground, and also in near-shore regions for
land reclamation works (e.g. Aboshi and Suematsu 1985,
Bergado and Balasubramniam 1994). In India, the granular
columns have been used to improve ground for container freight
station at Navi Mumbai and the construction of dry dock at
Pipavav shipyard (Raj and Dikshith 2009). Many researchers
(e.g. Bergado et al. 1991, Juneja and Mir 2011) have
investigated the effect of SCP installation on disturbance to the
surrounding soil. The extent of the disturbed or smear zone can

affect the engineering behaviour of the composite ground. The


disturbance in this zone depends upon the column diameter and
the tools used in the installation (e.g. Singh and Hattab 1979,
Madhav et al. 1993). Shear induced pore pressures were found
to be less in specimens which had the smear zone surrounding
the sand column. However, pore pressures began to increase
close to failure due to rearrangement of soil particles (Mir
2010). Laboratory and field tests previously conducted to
determine the extent of the disturbance caused by pile driving
into soft clay deposits have demonstrated that the natural
structure of the clay around the pile is excessively disturbed
(Randolph et al. 1979, Xu et al. 2006). It was observed that the
diameter of the severely disturbed or remoulded ground around
a driven closed-ended casing was about 1.4 times the diameter
of the casing. Recently, Weber et al. (2010) compared the
smear zone around model SCPs to that observed around driven
piles. It was observed that the smear zone around SCPs
installed on the centrifuge extended up to 1.2 to 1.4 times the
SCP diameter. Dissipation of the excess pore pressures often
results in increase in the shear strength. Aboshi et al. (1979)
observed up to 50% increase in the undrained strength in about
one month after the SCP installation at test sites in Japan.
Matsuda et al. (1997) also reported an increase in strength of the
composite SCP ground within three months of the SCPs
installation.

2561

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

In this study, the effect of smear zone on strength of model


SCP installed in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay
specimens is investigated using conventional triaxial
compression tests under different confining pressures ranging
from 50kPa to 575kPa. The composite specimen were prepared
by driving a small diameter PVC casing into the sample and
then backfilling the cavity with sand column after removing the
casing. The casing was roughened using sand glued to its outer
walls prior to insertion to replicate the smearing effect. The
SCPs were prepared using area replacement ratio of 6.25 to
64% and compacted using pneumatic compactor. SCPs of
different diameters (25-80mm) were used to investigate the
improvement in the load-carrying capacity of the specimens.
The effect of smear zone on SCP was investigated by observing
the change in pore pressure during consolidation and undrained
shear strength of the composite ground. The test results suggest
that, tress-strain behavior of the clay was influenced by the
presence of smear zone. The natural fabric of the soil was
destroyed adjacent to the SCPs with smear zone which in turn
affected pore pressure response of the composite soil sample.
Shear induced pore pressures were less in soil specimens with
smear-effect, but this difference was not apparent when 80mm
diameter SCP with smear zone was used. In addition, as the
reinforcement area ratio increased, both the stiffness and the
shear strength of the specimen increased. Thus, sand
compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and
practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of
soft clays.
2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK
2.1. Materials and methods of sample preparation

Soil
specimen

The test specimens were prepared in 450mm long and 250mm


diameter stainless steel cylindrical mould. Deaired clay slurry
was consolidated on the laboratory floor, first under its own
self-weight and later under surcharge of 211- to 404 kN/m2
applied in stages on top of the clay surface using a custom
designed pneumatic load frame (Fig.1).

Slurry consolidation Specimen trimming Final specimen size


Figure 1. Consolidation set-up on the laboratory floor

PVC casing
pushed into
the sample

Pneumatic
compactor

Table 1 Properties of kaolin clay


Clay
Silt
Liquid
(%)
(%)
limit (%)
75
25
49

Plastic
limit (%)
23

Shrinkage
limit (%)
16

Gs
2.64

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Consolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed on 200mm
long and 100mm diameter cylindrical samples prepared from
remoulded and reconsolidated commercially available kaolin
clay installed with SCP