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# Trigonometric and Exponential Functions

Contents
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Definitions in Trigonometry . . . .
Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Identities . . . . . .
Combining waves . . . . . . . . . .
Definition of Logarithm . . . . . .
Laws of Logarithms . . . . . . . .
The Exponential Function . . . . .
Answers to Exercises . . . . . . . .

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2
4
7
9
11
12
13
17

2.1

Definitions in Trigonometry

Angles can be measured in degrees or radians. A radian is the angle subtented at the centre
of a circle by an arc which has the same length as the radius. In figure 1(a), when r = s
the angle x is 1 radian.
In general, for an angle x radians we have s = rx . Since the complete circumference has
length 2r we have that 360 = 2 radians. Hence 180 = radians and this can be
used to convert between degrees and radians.
If an angle is a simple fraction of 180 , then it can be written in terms of
90 =

2

60 =

3

45 =

4

30 =

6

r
x

(b)

(a)

Figure 1

In a right angled triangle, as shown in figure 1(b), we can define a number of ratios as
follows:
sin x =

BC
AB

cos x =

AC
AB

tan x =

BC
AC

## In addition, there are three reciprocal ratios:

cosec x =

1
sin x

sec x =

1
cos x

cot x =

1
tan x

On your calculator the buttons sin , cos and tan can be used to find the sine, cosine and
tangent of an angle. It is important to be able to use your calculator using either degrees
sin(40 ) = 0.64 ,

cos( ) = 0.5
3

tan(14 ) = 0.25

3
Example 2.1 In figure 1(b), AB = h and the perimeter of the triangle is 6 . Show that
h=
Solution

6
1 + sin x + cos x

## BC = h sin x and AC = h cos x . Since AB + BC + AC = 6 we have that

6 = h + h sin x + h cos x = h(1 + sin x + cos x) .

Hence
h=

## Example 2.2 If sin x =

value of cos x .
Solution

24
25

6
1 + sin x + cos x

## In figure 1(b), BC = 24 and AB = 25 . We first have to find AC .

By Pythagoras AC 2 + BC 2 = AB 2 .
Hence AC 2 = (25)2 (24)2 = 49 so AC = 7 and cos x =

7
25

Exercises 2.1
1. If cos x =
sin x .

2
5

## , find without using a calculator, the exact value of

2.
In figure 2 below, BCDE is a square and ABEF is a rectangle. If BF = 3
and the angle between the lines BF and AF is , show that the area of ACDF is
9(sin cos + cos2 ) .
A

Figure 2

2.2

## Graphs of Trigonometric Functions

The graphs of sine and cosine are shown in figures 3 and 4. Note that
sin(180 x) = sin x

cos(360 x) = cos x

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

sin (x)

0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

270

360

Figure 3

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

cos (x)

0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

90

180
x (degrees)

Figure 4
For the function f (x) = sin x we have that f (x + 2) = f (x) for all x. In general, any
function which repeats itself in this way is called a periodic function, that is if f (x + p) =
f (x) for all x where p is a constant. The smallest such p is called the period.

5
The function f (x) = sin x has a maximum value of 1 and a minimum value of 1. For
g(x) = 7 sin x the corresponding maximum and minimum values are 7 and 7.
Wave motions can be described by periodic functions like sine and cosine. The maximum
value provides a measure of the strengh of the wave and is called the amplitude. The graph
of 5 sin 3x is shown in figure 5.

5sin (3x)

5
0

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

Figure 5
If sin = y then we write = sin1 y . Similarly if cos = y then we write = cos1 y .
On a calculator the buttons are usually denoted by sin1 and cos1 . The reader should
use a calculator to check that:
sin1 (0.5) = 30

## cos1 (0.6) = 126.9

Example 2.3 Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which sin x = 0.35 .
Using a calculator, if sin x = 0.35 then x = 20.5 .

Solution

## From the graph of sin x , another solution is x = 180 20.5 = 159.5 .

Example 2.4 Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which cos x = 0.4 .
Using a calculator, if cos x = 0.4 then x = 66.4 .

Solution

## From the graph of cos x , another solution is x = 360 66.4 = 293.6 .

Example 2.5 Let f (x) = cos(2x + 5 ) . Find the values of x between 0 and 2 for which
f (x) = 0 , leaving your answers in terms of .
Solution
If 2x +

cos A = 0 if A =
=

then x =

3
20

, A=

3
2

, A=

5
2

and A =

## Similarly, other solutions are x =

13
20

, x=

23
20

and x =

33
20

7
2

6
Example 2.6 Sketch the graph of 4 cos(2x) for 0 x 360.
(a) Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which 4 cos(2x) = 2 .
(b) Find the range of values of y for which there is a solution of the equation
4 cos(2x) = y
Solution

4cos (2x)

4
0

(a)

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

## cos A = 0.5 if A = 60 or if A = 360 60 = 300 .

Since cos(A + 360) = cos A for all values of A we have that
cos A = 0.5 if A = 60 , 300 , 420 , and 660 .
The solutions of cos(2x) = 0.5 are x = A/2 = 30, 150, 210, 330 .
(b)

4 cos(2x) = y

## while if y < 4 or y > 4 , there is no solution.

Exercises 2.2
1.

Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which: sin x = 0.42 .

2.

Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which: cos x = 0.8 .

3. Let f (x) = sin(2x 4 ) . Find the values of x between 0 and for which f (x) = 0 ,
4.
Sketch the graph of 5 sin(2x) for 0 x 360. Find the range of values of p
for which there is a solution of the equation 5 sin(2x) = p . Find the solutions with x
between 0 and 180 when p = 3 .

2.3

Trigonometric Identities

1.

sin2 A + cos2 A = 1

2.

3.

4.

5.

Solution

## By identity 1, sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 so ( sin A + cos A )2 = 1 + 2 sin A cos A .

Example 2.8 If x = 3 sin 2 and y = cos , show that (x + 2)2 + 9y 2 = 9 .
Solution

Solution

## Using identity 4 with A = x and B = , we have that

cos(x + ) = cos x cos sin x sin

## Since cos = 1 and sin = 0 we obtain cos(x + ) = cos x .

Example 2.10 Simplify : (a) sin 2x cos xsin x cos 2x ,
Solution
we obtain

## (a) Using sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B with A = 2x , and B = x ,

sin 2x cos x sin x cos 2x = sin(2x x) = sin x .

## (b) Using cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B with A = 2 , and B =

cos 2 cos + sin 2 sin = cos(2 ) .
Example 2.11 Show that sin(A + B) + sin(A B) = 2 sin A cos B .
Solution

By identities 2 and 3

sin(A+B)+sin(AB) = sin A cos B+cos A sin B+sin A cos Bcos A sin B = 2 sin A cos B .

8
Example 2.12 Simplify f (x) = sin 2x cos( 5 ) + cos 2x sin( 5 ) .
Hence find the smallest positive value of x for which f (x) = 1 , leaving your answer in
terms of .
Solution Using sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B with A = 2x , and B =
obtain f (x) = sin(2x + 5 ) .
Since sin C = 1 if C =

we have that 2x +

. Hence x =

3
20

, we

Example 2.13 Find the values of between 0 and 360 for which
sin cos 15 + sin 15 cos = 0.8
Solution
obtain

## Using sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B with A = , and B = 15 , we

sin cos 15 + sin 15 cos = sin( + 15)

## Using a calculator, if sin x = 0.8 then x = 53 (to the nearest degree).

From the graph of sin x , another solution is x = 180 53 = 127 .
Hence = 53 15 = 38 or = 127 15 = 112 .
Exercises 2.3
p
(a sin t)2 + (a cos t)2 occurs in mechanics. Simplify it.

1.

The expression

2.

3.

## ( sin A + cos A )2 + ( sin A cos A )2 = 2 .

4. Let x = 2 sin 1 and y = 3 cos + 2 ., Show that 9(x + 1)2 + 4(y 2)2 = k where
k is a constant and find k .
5.

6.

7.

## Simplify : (a) cos(2x + y) cos x + sin(2x + y) sin x ,

) sin x sin( 10
).
(b) cos x cos( 10

## (b) cos 3 cos sin 3 sin .

8. Simplify f (x) = cos 2x cos( 6 ) + sin 2x sin( 6 ) . Hence find the smallest positive value
of x for which f (x) = 0 , leaving your answer in terms of .
9.

## Find the values of between 0 and 360 for which

sin cos 10 sin 10 cos = 0.326

10.

## Use the result in Example (2.11) to show that

2 cos bt sin(2bt + ) = sin(3bt + ) + sin(bt + ) .

2.4

Combining waves

## Example 2.14 Express 3 sin x + 4 cos x in the form R cos(x ) .

Solution

Using the identity cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B , we have that
R cos(x ) = R cos x cos + R sin x sin

We require
3 sin x + 4 cos x = R cos x cos + R sin x sin = (R cos ) cos x + (R sin ) sin x
Comparing the sin x terms on both sides of the above:
R sin = 3

(1)

## Comparing the sin x terms on both sides of the above:

R cos = 4

(2)

We need to solve equations (1) and (2) to find R and . Squaring equations (1) and (2)
gives
R2 sin2 = 9
and
R2 cos2 = 16
R2 sin2 + R2 cos2 = 9 + 16 = 25
Using the identity sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 gives
R2 sin2 + R2 cos2 = R2 ( sin2 + cos2 ) = R2 = 25
and so R = 5 .
To find we divide equation (1) by equation (2) to get
tan =

3
4

Since sin and cos are positive we have that = tan1 ( 34 ) = 37 (to the nearest degree).
Hence
3 sin x + 4 cos x = 5 cos(x 37)

Example 2.15 Express sin x + 3 cos x in the form R cos(x ) . Hence find the maximum value of sin x + 3 cos x and the smallest positive x at which this maximum occurs.
Solution

## sin x + 3 cos x = R cos(x ) = R cos x cos + R sin x sin .

Then
R sin = 1
Thus

and

R cos = 3

R2 = 32 + 12 = 10

10
so that R =

10 . Also

1
3
Since sin and cos are positive we have that = tan1 ( 13 ) = 18.4 . Hence
tan =

sin x + 3 cos x =

10 cos(x 18.4)

The
maximum value of cos A is 1 when A = 0 . Hence the maximum of sin x + 3 cos x
is 10 and it occurs when x 18.4 = 0 , that is x = 18.4 .

Exercises 2.4
1.

## Express sin x + 2 cos x in the form R cos(x ) .

2. Express 6 sin 5x + 8 cos 5x in the form R cos(5x ) . Hence find the maximum
value of
6 sin 5x + 8 cos 5x
and the smallest positive x at which this maximum occurs.
3.
of

Express 2 sin x + 5 cos x in the form R cos(x ) . Hence find the minimum value
7 + 2 sin x + 5 cos x

## and the smallest positive x at which this minimum occurs.

4. The current in an electric circuit is given by I = 5 sin 150t + 8 cos 150t . Express I
in the form R cos(150t ) .
5.
of

Express 4 sin x + 7 cos x in the form R cos(x ) . Hence find the minimum value
8 + ( 4 sin x + 7 cos x )2

## and the smallest positive x at which this minimum occurs.

11

2.5

Definition of Logarithm

If a and b are positive numbers we can always find x such that ax = b . For example, if
a = 10 and b = 100 then x = 2 since 102 = 100 . The number x is called the logarithm
of b to base a , and we write x = loga (b) .
If b = ax

then

x = loga (b)

## As an example 1000 = 103 so log10 (1000) = 3 .

If the base of the logarithm of b is 10 then we write log b . On a calculator , logarithms
to base 10 are usually denoted by log . The reader should use a calculator to check that
log(2) = 0.301

log(45) = 1.653

log(0.4) = 0.398

Most calculators have two different logarithm functions: base 10 logarithms and logarithms
to base e The letter e stands for the number 2.718281 . On a calculator , logarithms
to base e are usually denoted by ln .
The reader should use the ln button on a calculator to check that
ln(2) = 0.693

ln(10) = 2.303

ln(0.3) = 1.204

Solution

Exercises 2.5
1.

(a) log(10)

(b) log(1000)

(c) log(0.01) .

2.

## The power gain of an amplifier relates input power P to output power P0 by

P0
Power gain = 10 log
.
P

## Find the power gain if P0 = 28 and P = 0.4 .

3.

Evaluate t =

ln(x/y)
when x = 3 and y = 6 .
10

4.
A measure of sound S (measured in decibels) is related to the intensity of sound
(measured in watts per square meter) by

I
S = 10 log
.
I0
Here I0 is the intensity of a just auidible sound and has the value 1012 W m2 . Calculate
the intensity level S in decibels of a jet aircraft with an intensity of 10 W m2 .

12

2.6

Laws of Logarithms

Below we give the various laws of logarithms and show how to apply them.
Let B and C be positive numbers. Then for any base a :
1.
2.

## loga (BC) = loga (B) + loga (C)

loga B
= loga (B) loga (C)
C

3.

4.

loga (1) = 0

## Example 2.17 Reduce to a single log term :

(a) log(8) + log(3)
(b) 3 log(2) + log(3) log(6)
Solution

83
6

= log(4) .

## (c) ln(x2 y) ln(y) + 3 ln(x) = ln(x2 ) + ln(y) ln(y) + ln(x3 ) = ln(x5 ) .

Example 2.18 Find the value of x which satisfies 4x = 2500 .
Solution

## Taking logarithms to base 10 of each side of 4x = 2500 gives

log(4x ) = log(2500) .

x=

3.398
log(2500)
=
= 5.64
log(4)
0.602

## Note that we could have taken logarithms to base e to obtain

x=

7.824
ln(2500)
=
= 5.64
ln(4)
1.386

Exercises 2.6
1. Reduce to a single log term :
(a) log(6) log(3) + 3 log(2)
(b) 12 log(x) + log(2)
2.
3.
4.

## Express 3 ln(x2 + 1) 2 ln(x 7) in the form ln A .

1
= 0.
Show that ln(x) + ln
x
Solve for x :

(b) 6x = 2683

13

2.7

## We begin by looking at the graph of y = ex

x
ex

-2
-1 0
1
2
3
4
0.14 0.37 1 2.72 7.39 20.1 54.6

ex

0
2

1.5

0.5

0
x

0.5

1.5

Figure 5
The function y = ex is called the exponential function. On a calculator , the exponential
function is usually written as ex . The reader should use the ex button on a calculator to
check that the above table.
The laws of indices apply to ex so that e0 = 1 , (ex )2 = e2x and ex ey = ex+y .
An alternative notation for ex is exp(x) . This is useful for complicated expressions like
exp(5x2 + 3x) .
If y = ex then taking taken logarithms to base e of each side gives
ln(y) = ln(ex ) = x ln(e) = x since ln(e) = 1 . This result is worth remembering:
if y = ex

then x = ln y

Solution

## When t = 0.2 , 10t2 = 0.4 . Using a calculator f (0.2) = 2e0.4 = 1.34 .

14
Example 2.20 Simplify (e3x + e3x )2 .
Solution

Solution
(b)

(a)

(a) 5ex = 20

## e5x = 0.2 so 5x = ln(0.2) = 1.6094 . Hence x = 0.322 .

Example 2.22 In an experiment to test the relationship between two quantities y and x
it is found that y = 200 when x = 10 . The theory is that y = 4ekx where k is a constant.
Find the value of k .
Solution

## 10k = ln(50) = 3.912 so that k = 0.3912

Example 2.23 A radioactive material decays according to m(t) = m0 ekt where t is the
time (in years), m0 is the initial mass (in grammes), and m(t) is the mass at time t .
A block of material with a mass of 100g is reduced to 80g after 20 years. Find the time
taken for half of its mass to decay.
Solution

## Then e20k = 0.8 so that 20k = ln(0.8) = 0.223 and k = 0.0112 .

To find the time taken for half of its mass to decay we have to find t such that
100ekt = 50
with k = 0.0112 . Then ekt = 0.5 so
kt = ln(0.5) = 0.693
and t = 62 years.
Example 2.24 In a capacitive circuit the instantaneous voltage v across the capacitor at
time t is given by v = a(1 ebt ) where a and b are constants. Express t in terms of
the other letters.
Solution

Hence

av
av
bt
e =
and
bt = ln
a
a
1
t = ln
b

av
a

15

## Example 2.25 Express t in terms of y when y =

et

et 1

et
so that y(et 1) = et .
et 1
Hence yet y = et so that et (y 1) = y . Then
Solution

y=

y
e =
y1
t

and

t = ln

y
y1

28

1 + 3 e2 x

## (a) Find the value of y when x = 0.

(b) Express x in terms of y.
Solution

(a)

Using e0 = 1 , when x = 0 ,
y=

28
=7
1+3

y(1 + 3 e2 x ) = 28 so that 1 + 3 e2 x =

(b)

3 e2 x =
Hence
2 x

28 1

=
3y 3

and

28
and
y

28
1
y
1
x = ln
2

28 1

3y 3

Exercises 2.7
1.

## Let f (t) = 10 exp(2t2 ) . Find f (0) and f (0.5) .

2.
The instantaneous current i at time t in a circuit is given by i = 3ebt where
b = 0.5 . Find i when t = 4 .
20
. Find f (0) and f (0.5).
1 + 4 e2 t

3.

Let f (t) =

4.

Solve for x :

5.

6.

(a) 2ex = 30

## (b) e2x = 0.6 .

7. A piece of metal loses heat according to the formula y = 100ekt where y is the
temperature difference (in C) between the metal and the surrounding air after time t
minutes and k is a constant. If y = 67 C after 20 minutes, find k .

16
8.

## The atmospheric pressure p (mm of mercury) at height h (km) is given by

p = 760 ekh

where k is a constant. The pressure at 2 kilometers is 590. Find k and hence find the
pressure at height 1 km.
9. An X-ray beam of intensity I0 in passing through absorbing material t millimeters
thick emerges with an intensity I given by
I = I0 ekt
where k is a constant. Find k if I =

I0
2

when t = 9 .

16
where a is a constant. Find a if f (0) = 4 .
1 + a et

10.

Let f (t) =

11.

5et

## Express t in terms of y when y = t

3e 2

12. The total mass y (measured in kilograms) of the halibut population in the Pacific
Ocean at time t (measured in years from the present time) is given by
y=

m
1 + 3ek t

## where m = 8 107 and k is a constant.

(i) What is the initial mass of the fish?
(ii) If y = 4 107 after 2 years, find k .
(iii) What will be the mass of the halibut in the long term?

17

2.8

Exercises 2.1
1 sin x =

1
5

Exercises 2.2
1 x = 25 or x = 155

2 x = 37 or x = 323

3 x=

or x =

5
8

## 4 The equation has a solution if 5 p 5 . If p = 3 then x = 71.6 or x = 18.4 .

5sin (2x)

5
0

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

Exercises 2.3
1 a

5(a) sin x

4 k = 36

6(b) cos(x +

)
10

8 cos(2x 6 ) . x =

7(a) cos(x + y)

5(b) sin 5x

6(a) cos 5x

7(b) cos(3 + )

9 = 29 or = 171

Exercises 2.4
1
3

5 cos(x 26.6)

## 65 cos(x 29.7) . Minimum is 8 when x = 119.7 .

4 I=

89 cos(150t 32)

18
Exercises 2.5
1(a) 1

1(c) 2

1(b) 3

2 18.45

3 0.069

4 130

Exercises 2.6

1(b) log(2 x)

1(a) log(16)

2 ln

(x2 + 1)3
(x 7)2

1(c) log

x3
1 + 2x

4(a) x = 384

4(b) x = 4.4

Exercises 2.7
1 f (0) = 10 and f (0.5) = 6.07
4(a) x = 2.7

6 t = ln

3y
2

2 i = 0.406

4(b) x = 0.255

5 e10x 2 + e10x

7 k = 0.02

9 k = 0.077

10 a = 3

11 t = ln

2y
3y 5

12(ii) k = 0.549