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Trigonometric and Exponential Functions

Contents
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Definitions in Trigonometry . . . .
Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Identities . . . . . .
Combining waves . . . . . . . . . .
Definition of Logarithm . . . . . .
Laws of Logarithms . . . . . . . .
The Exponential Function . . . . .
Answers to Exercises . . . . . . . .

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2
4
7
9
11
12
13
17

2.1

Definitions in Trigonometry

Angles can be measured in degrees or radians. A radian is the angle subtented at the centre
of a circle by an arc which has the same length as the radius. In figure 1(a), when r = s
the angle x is 1 radian.
In general, for an angle x radians we have s = rx . Since the complete circumference has
length 2r we have that 360 = 2 radians. Hence 180 = radians and this can be
used to convert between degrees and radians.
If an angle is a simple fraction of 180 , then it can be written in terms of
90 =

radians ,
2

60 =

radians ,
3

45 =

radians ,
4

30 =

radians
6

r
x

(b)

(a)

Figure 1

In a right angled triangle, as shown in figure 1(b), we can define a number of ratios as
follows:
sin x =

BC
AB

cos x =

AC
AB

tan x =

BC
AC

In addition, there are three reciprocal ratios:


cosec x =

1
sin x

sec x =

1
cos x

cot x =

1
tan x

On your calculator the buttons sin , cos and tan can be used to find the sine, cosine and
tangent of an angle. It is important to be able to use your calculator using either degrees
or radians. Use your calculator to check the following:
sin(40 ) = 0.64 ,

cos( ) = 0.5
3

tan(14 ) = 0.25

3
Example 2.1 In figure 1(b), AB = h and the perimeter of the triangle is 6 . Show that
h=
Solution

6
1 + sin x + cos x

BC = h sin x and AC = h cos x . Since AB + BC + AC = 6 we have that


6 = h + h sin x + h cos x = h(1 + sin x + cos x) .

Hence
h=

Example 2.2 If sin x =


value of cos x .
Solution

24
25

6
1 + sin x + cos x

and 0 < x <

, find without using a calculator, the exact

In figure 1(b), BC = 24 and AB = 25 . We first have to find AC .

By Pythagoras AC 2 + BC 2 = AB 2 .
Hence AC 2 = (25)2 (24)2 = 49 so AC = 7 and cos x =

7
25

Exercises 2.1
1. If cos x =
sin x .

2
5

and 0 < x <

, find without using a calculator, the exact value of

2.
In figure 2 below, BCDE is a square and ABEF is a rectangle. If BF = 3
and the angle between the lines BF and AF is , show that the area of ACDF is
9(sin cos + cos2 ) .
A

Figure 2

2.2

Graphs of Trigonometric Functions

The graphs of sine and cosine are shown in figures 3 and 4. Note that
sin(180 x) = sin x

cos(360 x) = cos x

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

sin (x)

0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

270

360

Figure 3

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

cos (x)

0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

90

180
x (degrees)

Figure 4
For the function f (x) = sin x we have that f (x + 2) = f (x) for all x. In general, any
function which repeats itself in this way is called a periodic function, that is if f (x + p) =
f (x) for all x where p is a constant. The smallest such p is called the period.

5
The function f (x) = sin x has a maximum value of 1 and a minimum value of 1. For
g(x) = 7 sin x the corresponding maximum and minimum values are 7 and 7.
Wave motions can be described by periodic functions like sine and cosine. The maximum
value provides a measure of the strengh of the wave and is called the amplitude. The graph
of 5 sin 3x is shown in figure 5.

5sin (3x)

5
0

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

Figure 5
If sin = y then we write = sin1 y . Similarly if cos = y then we write = cos1 y .
On a calculator the buttons are usually denoted by sin1 and cos1 . The reader should
use a calculator to check that:
sin1 (0.5) = 30

sin1 (0.32) = 18.7

cos1 (0.2) = 78.5

cos1 (0.6) = 126.9

Example 2.3 Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which sin x = 0.35 .
Using a calculator, if sin x = 0.35 then x = 20.5 .

Solution

From the graph of sin x , another solution is x = 180 20.5 = 159.5 .


Example 2.4 Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which cos x = 0.4 .
Using a calculator, if cos x = 0.4 then x = 66.4 .

Solution

From the graph of cos x , another solution is x = 360 66.4 = 293.6 .


Example 2.5 Let f (x) = cos(2x + 5 ) . Find the values of x between 0 and 2 for which
f (x) = 0 , leaving your answers in terms of .
Solution
If 2x +

cos A = 0 if A =
=

then x =

3
20

, A=

3
2

, A=

5
2

and A =

Similarly, other solutions are x =

13
20

, x=

23
20

and x =

33
20

7
2

6
Example 2.6 Sketch the graph of 4 cos(2x) for 0 x 360.
(a) Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which 4 cos(2x) = 2 .
(b) Find the range of values of y for which there is a solution of the equation
4 cos(2x) = y
Solution

4cos (2x)

4
0

(a)

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

We have to solve cos(2x) = 0.5 . Since cos1 (0.5) = 60 , we have that

cos A = 0.5 if A = 60 or if A = 360 60 = 300 .


Since cos(A + 360) = cos A for all values of A we have that
cos A = 0.5 if A = 60 , 300 , 420 , and 660 .
The solutions of cos(2x) = 0.5 are x = A/2 = 30, 150, 210, 330 .
(b)

From the graph, if 4 y 4 then we can solve the equation


4 cos(2x) = y

while if y < 4 or y > 4 , there is no solution.


Exercises 2.2
1.

Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which: sin x = 0.42 .

2.

Find the values of x between 0 and 360 for which: cos x = 0.8 .

3. Let f (x) = sin(2x 4 ) . Find the values of x between 0 and for which f (x) = 0 ,
leaving your answers in terms of .
4.
Sketch the graph of 5 sin(2x) for 0 x 360. Find the range of values of p
for which there is a solution of the equation 5 sin(2x) = p . Find the solutions with x
between 0 and 180 when p = 3 .

2.3

Trigonometric Identities

1.

sin2 A + cos2 A = 1

2.

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

3.

sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B

4.

cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

5.

cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

Example 2.7 Simplify ( sin A + cos A )2 .


Solution

( sin A + cos A )2 = sin2 A + 2 sin A cos A + cos2 A .

By identity 1, sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 so ( sin A + cos A )2 = 1 + 2 sin A cos A .


Example 2.8 If x = 3 sin 2 and y = cos , show that (x + 2)2 + 9y 2 = 9 .
Solution

If x = 3 sin 2 and y = cos , then x + 2 = 3 sin and

(x + 2)2 + 9y 2 = 9 sin2 + 9 cos2 = 9(sin2 + cos2 ) = 9 since (sin2 + cos2 ) = 1 .

Example 2.9 Simplify cos(x + ) .


Solution

Using identity 4 with A = x and B = , we have that


cos(x + ) = cos x cos sin x sin

Since cos = 1 and sin = 0 we obtain cos(x + ) = cos x .


Example 2.10 Simplify : (a) sin 2x cos xsin x cos 2x ,
Solution
we obtain

(b) cos 2 cos +sin 2 sin .

(a) Using sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B with A = 2x , and B = x ,


sin 2x cos x sin x cos 2x = sin(2x x) = sin x .

(b) Using cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B with A = 2 , and B =


cos 2 cos + sin 2 sin = cos(2 ) .
Example 2.11 Show that sin(A + B) + sin(A B) = 2 sin A cos B .
Solution

By identities 2 and 3

sin(A+B)+sin(AB) = sin A cos B+cos A sin B+sin A cos Bcos A sin B = 2 sin A cos B .

8
Example 2.12 Simplify f (x) = sin 2x cos( 5 ) + cos 2x sin( 5 ) .
Hence find the smallest positive value of x for which f (x) = 1 , leaving your answer in
terms of .
Solution Using sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B with A = 2x , and B =
obtain f (x) = sin(2x + 5 ) .
Since sin C = 1 if C =

we have that 2x +

. Hence x =

3
20

, we

Example 2.13 Find the values of between 0 and 360 for which
sin cos 15 + sin 15 cos = 0.8
Solution
obtain

Using sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B with A = , and B = 15 , we


sin cos 15 + sin 15 cos = sin( + 15)

Using a calculator, if sin x = 0.8 then x = 53 (to the nearest degree).


From the graph of sin x , another solution is x = 180 53 = 127 .
Hence = 53 15 = 38 or = 127 15 = 112 .
Exercises 2.3
p
(a sin t)2 + (a cos t)2 occurs in mechanics. Simplify it.

1.

The expression

2.

Show that for all values of A ,

cos2 A sin2 A = 2 cos2 A 1 .

3.

Show that for all values of A ,

( sin A + cos A )2 + ( sin A cos A )2 = 2 .

4. Let x = 2 sin 1 and y = 3 cos + 2 ., Show that 9(x + 1)2 + 4(y 2)2 = k where
k is a constant and find k .
5.

Simplify: (a) sin(x + )

(b) sin 3x cos 2x + sin 2x cos 3x .

6.

Simplify (a) cos 7x cos 2x + sin 7x sin 2x

7.

Simplify : (a) cos(2x + y) cos x + sin(2x + y) sin x ,

) sin x sin( 10
).
(b) cos x cos( 10

(b) cos 3 cos sin 3 sin .

8. Simplify f (x) = cos 2x cos( 6 ) + sin 2x sin( 6 ) . Hence find the smallest positive value
of x for which f (x) = 0 , leaving your answer in terms of .
9.

Find the values of between 0 and 360 for which


sin cos 10 sin 10 cos = 0.326

10.

Use the result in Example (2.11) to show that


2 cos bt sin(2bt + ) = sin(3bt + ) + sin(bt + ) .

2.4

Combining waves

Example 2.14 Express 3 sin x + 4 cos x in the form R cos(x ) .


Solution

Using the identity cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B , we have that
R cos(x ) = R cos x cos + R sin x sin

We require
3 sin x + 4 cos x = R cos x cos + R sin x sin = (R cos ) cos x + (R sin ) sin x
Comparing the sin x terms on both sides of the above:
R sin = 3

(1)

Comparing the sin x terms on both sides of the above:


R cos = 4

(2)

We need to solve equations (1) and (2) to find R and . Squaring equations (1) and (2)
gives
R2 sin2 = 9
and
R2 cos2 = 16
Adding these equations gives
R2 sin2 + R2 cos2 = 9 + 16 = 25
Using the identity sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 gives
R2 sin2 + R2 cos2 = R2 ( sin2 + cos2 ) = R2 = 25
and so R = 5 .
To find we divide equation (1) by equation (2) to get
tan =

3
4

Since sin and cos are positive we have that = tan1 ( 34 ) = 37 (to the nearest degree).
Hence
3 sin x + 4 cos x = 5 cos(x 37)

Example 2.15 Express sin x + 3 cos x in the form R cos(x ) . Hence find the maximum value of sin x + 3 cos x and the smallest positive x at which this maximum occurs.
Solution

sin x + 3 cos x = R cos(x ) = R cos x cos + R sin x sin .

Then
R sin = 1
Thus

and

R cos = 3

R2 = 32 + 12 = 10

10
so that R =

10 . Also

1
3
Since sin and cos are positive we have that = tan1 ( 13 ) = 18.4 . Hence
tan =

sin x + 3 cos x =

10 cos(x 18.4)

The
maximum value of cos A is 1 when A = 0 . Hence the maximum of sin x + 3 cos x
is 10 and it occurs when x 18.4 = 0 , that is x = 18.4 .

Exercises 2.4
1.

Express sin x + 2 cos x in the form R cos(x ) .

2. Express 6 sin 5x + 8 cos 5x in the form R cos(5x ) . Hence find the maximum
value of
6 sin 5x + 8 cos 5x
and the smallest positive x at which this maximum occurs.
3.
of

Express 2 sin x + 5 cos x in the form R cos(x ) . Hence find the minimum value
7 + 2 sin x + 5 cos x

and the smallest positive x at which this minimum occurs.


4. The current in an electric circuit is given by I = 5 sin 150t + 8 cos 150t . Express I
in the form R cos(150t ) .
5.
of

Express 4 sin x + 7 cos x in the form R cos(x ) . Hence find the minimum value
8 + ( 4 sin x + 7 cos x )2

and the smallest positive x at which this minimum occurs.

11

2.5

Definition of Logarithm

If a and b are positive numbers we can always find x such that ax = b . For example, if
a = 10 and b = 100 then x = 2 since 102 = 100 . The number x is called the logarithm
of b to base a , and we write x = loga (b) .
If b = ax

then

x = loga (b)

As an example 1000 = 103 so log10 (1000) = 3 .


If the base of the logarithm of b is 10 then we write log b . On a calculator , logarithms
to base 10 are usually denoted by log . The reader should use a calculator to check that
log(2) = 0.301

log(45) = 1.653

log(0.4) = 0.398

Most calculators have two different logarithm functions: base 10 logarithms and logarithms
to base e The letter e stands for the number 2.718281 . On a calculator , logarithms
to base e are usually denoted by ln .
The reader should use the ln button on a calculator to check that
ln(2) = 0.693

ln(10) = 2.303

ln(0.3) = 1.204

Example 2.16 Show that loga (a) = 1 .


Solution

If x = loga (a) then ax = a . Since a1 = a we have that x = 1 .

Exercises 2.5
1.

Without using a calculator find :

(a) log(10)

(b) log(1000)

(c) log(0.01) .

2.

The power gain of an amplifier relates input power P to output power P0 by



P0
Power gain = 10 log
.
P

Find the power gain if P0 = 28 and P = 0.4 .


3.

Evaluate t =

ln(x/y)
when x = 3 and y = 6 .
10

4.
A measure of sound S (measured in decibels) is related to the intensity of sound
(measured in watts per square meter) by

I
S = 10 log
.
I0
Here I0 is the intensity of a just auidible sound and has the value 1012 W m2 . Calculate
the intensity level S in decibels of a jet aircraft with an intensity of 10 W m2 .

12

2.6

Laws of Logarithms

Below we give the various laws of logarithms and show how to apply them.
Let B and C be positive numbers. Then for any base a :
1.
2.

loga (BC) = loga (B) + loga (C)



loga B
= loga (B) loga (C)
C

3.

loga (B n ) = n loga (B)

4.

loga (1) = 0

Example 2.17 Reduce to a single log term :


(a) log(8) + log(3)
(b) 3 log(2) + log(3) log(6)
Solution

(c) ln(x2 y) ln(y) + 3 ln(x) .

(a) Using rule 1, log(8) + log(3) = log(8 3) = log(24) .

(b) By rule 3, 3 log(2) = log(23 ) = log(8) . Using rules 1 and 2,

3 log(2) + log(3) log(6) = log(8) + log(3) log(6) = log

83
6

= log(4) .

(c) ln(x2 y) ln(y) + 3 ln(x) = ln(x2 ) + ln(y) ln(y) + ln(x3 ) = ln(x5 ) .


Example 2.18 Find the value of x which satisfies 4x = 2500 .
Solution

Taking logarithms to base 10 of each side of 4x = 2500 gives


log(4x ) = log(2500) .

Using rule 3, x log(4) = log(2500) , so that


x=

3.398
log(2500)
=
= 5.64
log(4)
0.602

Note that we could have taken logarithms to base e to obtain


x=

7.824
ln(2500)
=
= 5.64
ln(4)
1.386

Exercises 2.6
1. Reduce to a single log term :
(a) log(6) log(3) + 3 log(2)
(b) 12 log(x) + log(2)
2.
3.
4.

(c) 3 ln(x) ln(1 + 2x) .

Express 3 ln(x2 + 1) 2 ln(x 7) in the form ln A .



1
= 0.
Show that ln(x) + ln
x
Solve for x :

(a) (1.02)x = 2001

(b) 6x = 2683

13

2.7

The Exponential Function

We begin by looking at the graph of y = ex


x
ex

-2
-1 0
1
2
3
4
0.14 0.37 1 2.72 7.39 20.1 54.6

ex

0
2

1.5

0.5

0
x

0.5

1.5

Figure 5
The function y = ex is called the exponential function. On a calculator , the exponential
function is usually written as ex . The reader should use the ex button on a calculator to
check that the above table.
The laws of indices apply to ex so that e0 = 1 , (ex )2 = e2x and ex ey = ex+y .
An alternative notation for ex is exp(x) . This is useful for complicated expressions like
exp(5x2 + 3x) .
If y = ex then taking taken logarithms to base e of each side gives
ln(y) = ln(ex ) = x ln(e) = x since ln(e) = 1 . This result is worth remembering:
if y = ex

then x = ln y

Example 2.19 Let f (t) = 2 exp(10t2 ) . Find f (0) and f (0.2) .


Solution

f (0) = 2e0 = 2 . When t = 0.2 , 10t2 = 0.4 .

When t = 0.2 , 10t2 = 0.4 . Using a calculator f (0.2) = 2e0.4 = 1.34 .

14
Example 2.20 Simplify (e3x + e3x )2 .
Solution

(e3x + e3x )2 = (e3x )2 + 2 e3x e3x + (e3x )2 = e6x + 2 + e6x .

Example 2.21 Solve for x :


Solution
(b)

(a)

(a) 5ex = 20

(b) e5x = 0.2 .

5ex = 20 so ex = 4 . Hence x = ln(4) = 1.386 .

e5x = 0.2 so 5x = ln(0.2) = 1.6094 . Hence x = 0.322 .

Example 2.22 In an experiment to test the relationship between two quantities y and x
it is found that y = 200 when x = 10 . The theory is that y = 4ekx where k is a constant.
Find the value of k .
Solution

When x = 10 , y = 200 = 4e10k so e10k = 50 . Then

10k = ln(50) = 3.912 so that k = 0.3912


Example 2.23 A radioactive material decays according to m(t) = m0 ekt where t is the
time (in years), m0 is the initial mass (in grammes), and m(t) is the mass at time t .
A block of material with a mass of 100g is reduced to 80g after 20 years. Find the time
taken for half of its mass to decay.
Solution

We first find k . Since m(20) = 80 we have that 100e20k = 80 .

Then e20k = 0.8 so that 20k = ln(0.8) = 0.223 and k = 0.0112 .


To find the time taken for half of its mass to decay we have to find t such that
100ekt = 50
with k = 0.0112 . Then ekt = 0.5 so
kt = ln(0.5) = 0.693
and t = 62 years.
Example 2.24 In a capacitive circuit the instantaneous voltage v across the capacitor at
time t is given by v = a(1 ebt ) where a and b are constants. Express t in terms of
the other letters.
Solution

Hence

v = a(1 ebt ) = a a ebt . Hence a ebt = a v so that

av
av
bt
e =
and
bt = ln
a
a
1
t = ln
b

av
a

15

Example 2.25 Express t in terms of y when y =

et

et 1

et
so that y(et 1) = et .
et 1
Hence yet y = et so that et (y 1) = y . Then
Solution

y=

y
e =
y1
t

Example 2.26 Let y =

and

t = ln

y
y1

28

1 + 3 e2 x

(a) Find the value of y when x = 0.


(b) Express x in terms of y.
Solution

(a)

Using e0 = 1 , when x = 0 ,
y=

28
=7
1+3

y(1 + 3 e2 x ) = 28 so that 1 + 3 e2 x =

(b)

3 e2 x =
Hence
2 x

28 1

=
3y 3

and

28
and
y

28
1
y
1
x = ln
2

28 1

3y 3

Exercises 2.7
1.

Let f (t) = 10 exp(2t2 ) . Find f (0) and f (0.5) .

2.
The instantaneous current i at time t in a circuit is given by i = 3ebt where
b = 0.5 . Find i when t = 4 .
20
. Find f (0) and f (0.5).
1 + 4 e2 t

3.

Let f (t) =

4.

Solve for x :

5.

Simplify (e5x e5x )2 .

6.

Express t in terms of y when y = 3 2et .

(a) 2ex = 30

(b) e2x = 0.6 .

7. A piece of metal loses heat according to the formula y = 100ekt where y is the
temperature difference (in C) between the metal and the surrounding air after time t
minutes and k is a constant. If y = 67 C after 20 minutes, find k .

16
8.

The atmospheric pressure p (mm of mercury) at height h (km) is given by


p = 760 ekh

where k is a constant. The pressure at 2 kilometers is 590. Find k and hence find the
pressure at height 1 km.
9. An X-ray beam of intensity I0 in passing through absorbing material t millimeters
thick emerges with an intensity I given by
I = I0 ekt
where k is a constant. Find k if I =

I0
2

when t = 9 .

16
where a is a constant. Find a if f (0) = 4 .
1 + a et

10.

Let f (t) =

11.

5et

Express t in terms of y when y = t


3e 2

12. The total mass y (measured in kilograms) of the halibut population in the Pacific
Ocean at time t (measured in years from the present time) is given by
y=

m
1 + 3ek t

where m = 8 107 and k is a constant.


(i) What is the initial mass of the fish?
(ii) If y = 4 107 after 2 years, find k .
(iii) What will be the mass of the halibut in the long term?

17

2.8

Answers to Exercises

Exercises 2.1
1 sin x =

1
5

Exercises 2.2
1 x = 25 or x = 155

2 x = 37 or x = 323

3 x=

or x =

5
8

4 The equation has a solution if 5 p 5 . If p = 3 then x = 71.6 or x = 18.4 .

5sin (2x)

5
0

90

180
x (degrees)

270

360

Exercises 2.3
1 a

5(a) sin x

4 k = 36

6(b) cos(x +

)
10

8 cos(2x 6 ) . x =

7(a) cos(x + y)

5(b) sin 5x

6(a) cos 5x

7(b) cos(3 + )

9 = 29 or = 171

Exercises 2.4
1
3

5 cos(x 26.6)

2 10 cos(5x 37) . Maximum is 10 when x = 7.4 .

29 cos(x 22) . Minimum is 7 29 when x = 202 .

65 cos(x 29.7) . Minimum is 8 when x = 119.7 .

4 I=

89 cos(150t 32)

18
Exercises 2.5
1(a) 1

1(c) 2

1(b) 3

2 18.45

3 0.069

4 130

Exercises 2.6

1(b) log(2 x)

1(a) log(16)

2 ln

(x2 + 1)3
(x 7)2

1(c) log

x3
1 + 2x

4(a) x = 384

4(b) x = 4.4

Exercises 2.7
1 f (0) = 10 and f (0.5) = 6.07
4(a) x = 2.7

6 t = ln

3y
2

2 i = 0.406

4(b) x = 0.255

5 e10x 2 + e10x

7 k = 0.02

8 k = 0.127 and the pressure is 670.

9 k = 0.077

3 f (0) = 4 and f (0.5) = 8.09

10 a = 3

12(i) 2 107 kilograms

11 t = ln

2y
3y 5

12(ii) k = 0.549

12(iii) 8 107 kilograms