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Spring 2003

6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits

Prof. J. A. del Alamo

Homework #1 - February 14, 2003

ELEC 310
Due: February 21, 2003 at recitation (Rm. 26-310, 1 PM)
(late homework
will not
Homework
# 1be accepted)

Note: Ignore
points assigned
to problems
below.
Please
writeall your
recitation
session
time on your problem set solution.

1. [25 points] Consider a p-type Si sample with a resistivity of 0.5 cm. The doping level
is uniform throughout. In a certain portion of this sample, there is an electric field of a
magnitude 1000 V /cm. Estimate the magnitude of:
a) [5 points] the electron drift velocity,
b) [5 points] the hole drift velocity,
c) [5 points] the electron drift current density,
d) [5 points] the hole drift current density,
e) [5 points] the total drift current density.

2. [20 points] Consider a semiconductor in thermal equilibrium with a non-uniform doping


level given by the functional form:

ND (x) = NDo +

ND
1 + exp Lxc

with ND < NDo . Assume quasi neutrality.


a) Sketch the doping distribution.
b) Derive an expression for the electrostatic potential o (x). Select as origin of potentials
the point at which ND (x) = NDo . Sketch the potential distribution in space.
c) Derive an expression for the electric field E(x). Sketch the electric field distribution in
space.
d) Derive an expression for the volume charge density (x). Sketch the volume charge
density distribution in space.

3. [35 points] In a certain n-type region of a semiconductor in thermal equilibrium, there


is a hole concentration with the following spatial distribution:

po (x) = 103 (1 9 103 x) cm3

for 0 x 104 with x in cm

Assume that in this region, the electron mobility and hole mobilities are n = 500 cm2 /V s
and p = 200 cm2 /V s, respectively.

a) Derive an expression for and sketch the hole diffusion current density in this region.
b) Derive an expression for and sketch the hole diffusion velocity in this region.
c) Derive an expression for and sketch the electric field distribution in this region.
d) Derive an expression for and sketch the hole drift velocity in this region.
e) Derive an expression for and sketch the electron concentration in this region.
f ) Derive an expression for and sketch the electron diffusion current density in this region.
g) Derive an expression for and sketch the electron diffusion velocity in this region.

4. [20 points] Consider an n-type Si region in thermal equilibrium at 300 K with an


electrostatic potential distribution as sketched below. The electron concentration at x = 0
is no (x = 0) = 1017 cm3 .

(V)
=0.3 + 0.06 [1+cos (103x)] V with x in cm

0.42

x0

(x) = 0.42 V

0 x 10 m (x) = 0.3 + 0.06[1 + cos(103 x)] V


with x in cm

0.06

=0.3 V

x > 10 m

(x) = 0.3

0.3
0

10

x (m)

a) Derive an expression for the electric field, E, throughout the sample. Sketch to scale.
b) Calculate an expression for the net volume charge density, , throughout the sample.
Sketch to scale.

*** Assume room temperature for all calculations: T = 300K


5. [20 points] Consider the following n-well diffusion IC resistor below that has a resistance of 1K:.
You can ignore any effect due to the contact (drawn in black) on either side of the resistor.

figure 1

a) What is the sheet resistance of the IC resistor in figure 1?

figure 2

The process engineer makes an error in the mask for the resistor and creates the resistor
in figure 2. (You can ignore the effects of the two end contacts) The resistor has been
doped with a phosphorous to achieve a doping level of 2.5* 1016 cm-3. Its thickness is
100um.
b)
c)
d)
e)

What is the hole concentration po?


What is the electron mobility?
What is the sheet resistance?
What is the overall resistance between the two contacts?