Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

# 4th Matrix Method of

Static Aeroelasticity

Xie Changchuan
2014 Autumn

Content
1Finite Element Method(FEM)Brief introduction
3General equation of static aeroelasticity
5Control efficiency and reversal

Main Aims
Understand the engineering analysis method
and basic mathematic principles of elastic
aircraft from a simple slender wing model.
2

## Finite Element Method(FEM)

Considering bending problem of non-uniform Euler beam
P

Equation
2
x 2

2 w( x)
EI ( x) x 2 = 0

Note as

Boundary
condition

L( w) = 0
Fixed end
Free end

Note as

Definition domain

: x [0, l ]

w(0) = w(0) = 0
EI (l ) w(l ) = 0
Bending moment

## [ EI ( x) w( x)] = P Shear force

x
x =l

B( w) = 0 : x = 0, x = l
3

## Finite Element Method(FEM)

Suppose the solution as w( x) =

( x)q
i =1

## And another trial function

satisfying the boundary conditions as

i
n

v( x) = i ( x) pi
i =1

## Combine the different equation and boundary conditions

in a integral form (weak form)

L( w)vd + B( w)vd = 0

2
L(w)vd = 0 x 2
l

2 w( x)
EI ( x) x 2 v( x)dx

= EI ( x)
0

integral by part
l

w v

w
w v
dx
+
EI
x
v

EI
x
(
)
(
)
x 2 x 2
x
x 2 0
x 2 x 0
2

w
2 w v
B(w)vd = x EI ( x) x 2 + P v EI ( x) x 2 x = 0
0
0
2

## Finite Element Method(FEM)

Substitute the boundary conditions

L( w)vd = EI ( x)
0

w v

w
w v
dx
+
EI
x
v

EI
x
(
)
(
)
x 2 x 2
x
x 2 0
x 2 x 0
2

2 w 2v
= EI ( x) 2 2 dx Pv(l )
0
x x
l

## Substitute the supposed solutions

n 2i ( x)
qi
= EI ( x)
2
0
x

i =1
l

2
n

n j ( x)
p j dx P j ( x) p j

2
l
x

j =1

j =1

2
2i ( x) j ( x)
n l
dxqi
= EI ( x)
2
2
0
x
x

i =1
j =1
n

p j P j ( x) l p j = 0
j =1

Because v = 0 p j 0
2
2i ( x) j ( x)
n l
dxqi
0 EI ( x)

2
2
x
x
i =1
j =1
n

P j ( x) l = 0
j =1

Note

2
2i ( x) j ( x)
K ij = EI ( x)
dx
2
2
0
x
x
l

Fi = P i ( x) l
i =1

Kq = F

F = [ Fi ]

## Let i ( x) be the FEM shape function N i ( x) i = 1, 2,3, 4

N1 ( ) = 1 3 2 + 2 3

N 2 ( ) = ( 2 2 + 3 ) / l

N 3 ( ) = 3 2
2

N 3 ( ) = ( 3 2 ) / l

= x/l

Then

6l
12

2
EI 6l 4l
e
K = 3
l 12 6l

2
l
l
6
2

12
6l
12
6l

6l
2l 2
6l

4l 2

0
0
e
F =
P

0

## Steady aerodynamics of slender wing

Strip theory
Aspect ratio

L = qcCL

>5

Modification of
moderate aspect ratio
Aeroelastic
modification

## From aerodynamic theory

of infinite aspect ratio wing

(CL )

>3

CL = (CL )

+2

CL = (CL )
+4

## Essentially, it is aerodynamic theory of 2D wing segment.

The interference between segments is ignored.

## The engineering modification of strip theory.

From more precise load distribution results of wind tunnel pressure
test or computed fluid dynamics method at given states, replace the
aerodynamic derivatives by local effective values.

## Steady aerodynamics of slender wing

Lifting line theory

## Frederick W. Lanchester in 1907

Ludwig Prandtl in 19181919

incompressible, potential flow
Unswept, undihedral, large aspect ratio single wing
Extension of lifting line theory W.F. Phillips in 2000
Introducing compressible flow, swept and dihedral
angle, large aspect ratio multi wing
Mark Drela in 2007
Xie Changchuan in 2009

## Introducing large aspect ratio multi wing

with large deformation

## Steady aerodynamics of slender wing

Free vortex

Bound vortex

-d

a. Horseshoe vortex

## Using spanwise varying vortex (y) along 1/4 chordline

represents the complete wing, then after the trailing edge
there is a free vortex sheet d tending to infinite distance.
9

## In practice, the wing is

divided into several segments.
On each segment a horseshoe
vortex is assigned.
Kutta-Joukowski law

F =V y

V

10

## Lifting line theory

Prandtls Assumption: The aero forces acting on wing
section are equal to that on a section of infinite long
wing at same AOA.
1
1
F = V2C L ( a + ind ) S = V2C L e S
2
2
V Inflow speed

## a Geometric AOA of wing section, including the initial AOA,

pre-twist of wing and torsion angle induced by elasticity.

C L

## Control point is at 1/4 chord point.

Lift line slope of airfoil, the value can be selected by
practice airfoil and its AOA, which could introduce the
nonlinearity of aerodynamics at some extent.

Effective AOA
11

## Lifting line theory

1 2
( yi )V y = V CL [a ( yi ) + ind ( yi )]yb( yi )
2
Circulation of
bound vortex

Induced
angle

ind ( yi ) = A( yi )

Chord length
of segment

## Aerodynamic influence coefficient, calculated by

Biot-Savart law considering all the horseshoe vortex

## aero forces on each segment in matrix form

1
V = V 2CL b [ a A ]
2
1
1
1
= VCL b I + VCL bA a
2
2

12

## Lifting line theory

1

Aero
forces

1
1
2
Fa = V = V CL b I + VCL bA a
2
2

Fa = qD( w0 + w )

Homework

## Considering a un-swept wing

modeled by 3 horseshoes, the
control points are at 1/4 chord
points of middle line on each
aerodynamics influence matrix
A.
13

z
y

D
D

## There are many other panel methods,

including subsonic and supersonic panel
method, piston theory,

14

## Basic equation of static aeroleasticity

Kw = qD ( w0 + w ) + f
K Stifness matrix of wing

## Vector of other forces, like gravity, thrust,

15

Kw = qDw + qDw0 + f
Static aeroelastic
divergence

## General Eigenvalue Problem of

homogeneous equation

qdiv = min i

Kw = Dw

## Unique solution Problem of

un-homogeneous equation
1

w = ( K qD) (qDw0 + f )
Aero force
distribution

Fa = qD( w0 + w )
16

## Control effectiveness and reversal

No relationship with the initial
Basic equation of static
aeroelasticity with control surface displacement and forces other
than aerodynamics

Kw = qDw + qC
distribution

w = ( K qD) qC

Fa = qDw + qC

of aerodynamics

F = Fa

F / i = 0
F / i
Control effectiveness
=
(F / i ) r
Control reversal

17

Homework