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4th Matrix Method of

Static Aeroelasticity

Xie Changchuan
2014 Autumn

Content
1Finite Element Method(FEM)Brief introduction
2Steady aeroedynamics and coefficient matrix
3General equation of static aeroelasticity
4Divergence and load redistribution
5Control efficiency and reversal

Main Aims
Understand the engineering analysis method
and basic mathematic principles of elastic
aircraft from a simple slender wing model.
2

Finite Element Method(FEM)


Considering bending problem of non-uniform Euler beam
P

Equation
2
x 2

2 w( x)
EI ( x) x 2 = 0

Note as

Boundary
condition

L( w) = 0
Fixed end
Free end

Note as

Definition domain

: x [0, l ]

w(0) = w(0) = 0
EI (l ) w(l ) = 0
Bending moment

[ EI ( x) w( x)] = P Shear force


x
x =l

B( w) = 0 : x = 0, x = l
3

Finite Element Method(FEM)


Suppose the solution as w( x) =

( x)q
i =1

And another trial function


satisfying the boundary conditions as

i
n

v( x) = i ( x) pi
i =1

Combine the different equation and boundary conditions


in a integral form (weak form)

L( w)vd + B( w)vd = 0

2
L(w)vd = 0 x 2
l

2 w( x)
EI ( x) x 2 v( x)dx

= EI ( x)
0

integral by part
l

w v

w
w v
dx
+
EI
x
v

EI
x
(
)
(
)
x 2 x 2
x
x 2 0
x 2 x 0
2

w
2 w v
B(w)vd = x EI ( x) x 2 + P v EI ( x) x 2 x = 0
0
0
2

Finite Element Method(FEM)


Substitute the boundary conditions

L( w)vd = EI ( x)
0

w v

w
w v
dx
+
EI
x
v

EI
x
(
)
(
)
x 2 x 2
x
x 2 0
x 2 x 0
2

2 w 2v
= EI ( x) 2 2 dx Pv(l )
0
x x
l

Substitute the supposed solutions


n 2i ( x)
qi
= EI ( x)
2
0
x

i =1
l

2
n

n j ( x)
p j dx P j ( x) p j

2
l
x

j =1

j =1

2
2i ( x) j ( x)
n l
dxqi
= EI ( x)
2
2
0
x
x

i =1
j =1
n

p j P j ( x) l p j = 0
j =1

Because v = 0 p j 0
2
2i ( x) j ( x)
n l
dxqi
0 EI ( x)

2
2
x
x
i =1
j =1
n

P j ( x) l = 0
j =1

Finite Element Method(FEM)


Note

2
2i ( x) j ( x)
K ij = EI ( x)
dx
2
2
0
x
x
l

Fi = P i ( x) l
i =1

The general equation is written as

Kq = F

q = [ qi ] The general coordination

K = K ij The general stiffness matrix

F = [ Fi ]

The general force

Let i ( x) be the FEM shape function N i ( x) i = 1, 2,3, 4


N1 ( ) = 1 3 2 + 2 3

N 2 ( ) = ( 2 2 + 3 ) / l

N 3 ( ) = 3 2
2

N 3 ( ) = ( 3 2 ) / l

= x/l

For uniform element


Then

6l
12

2
EI 6l 4l
e
K = 3
l 12 6l

2
l
l
6
2

12
6l
12
6l

6l
2l 2
6l

4l 2

0
0
e
F =
P

0

Steady aerodynamics of slender wing


Strip theory
Aspect ratio

L = qcCL

>5

Modification of
moderate aspect ratio
Aeroelastic
modification

From aerodynamic theory


of infinite aspect ratio wing

(CL )

>3

CL = (CL )

+2

CL = (CL )
+4

Essentially, it is aerodynamic theory of 2D wing segment.


The interference between segments is ignored.

The engineering modification of strip theory.


From more precise load distribution results of wind tunnel pressure
test or computed fluid dynamics method at given states, replace the
aerodynamic derivatives by local effective values.

Steady aerodynamics of slender wing


Lifting line theory

Frederick W. Lanchester in 1907


Ludwig Prandtl in 19181919

Steady, inviscid, irrotational,


incompressible, potential flow
Unswept, undihedral, large aspect ratio single wing
Extension of lifting line theory W.F. Phillips in 2000
Introducing compressible flow, swept and dihedral
angle, large aspect ratio multi wing
Mark Drela in 2007
Xie Changchuan in 2009

Introducing large aspect ratio multi wing


with large deformation

Steady aerodynamics of slender wing


Free vortex

Bound vortex

-d

a. Horseshoe vortex

b. System of horseshoe vortex

Using spanwise varying vortex (y) along 1/4 chordline


represents the complete wing, then after the trailing edge
there is a free vortex sheet d tending to infinite distance.
9

Steady aerodynamics of slender wing

In practice, the wing is


divided into several segments.
On each segment a horseshoe
vortex is assigned.
Kutta-Joukowski law

F =V y

F Aero force vector acting on small segment y


V

Local inflow vector


10

Lifting line theory


Prandtls Assumption: The aero forces acting on wing
section are equal to that on a section of infinite long
wing at same AOA.
1
1
F = V2C L ( a + ind ) S = V2C L e S
2
2
V Inflow speed

S Area of wing segment

a Geometric AOA of wing section, including the initial AOA,


pre-twist of wing and torsion angle induced by elasticity.

ind Induced down wash angle at control point of wing section,


C L

Control point is at 1/4 chord point.


Lift line slope of airfoil, the value can be selected by
practice airfoil and its AOA, which could introduce the
nonlinearity of aerodynamics at some extent.

Effective AOA
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Lifting line theory

1 2
( yi )V y = V CL [a ( yi ) + ind ( yi )]yb( yi )
2
Circulation of
bound vortex

Induced
angle

ind ( yi ) = A( yi )

Chord length
of segment

Aerodynamic influence coefficient, calculated by


Biot-Savart law considering all the horseshoe vortex

aero forces on each segment in matrix form

1
V = V 2CL b [ a A ]
2
1
1
1
= VCL b I + VCL bA a
2
2

12

Lifting line theory


1

Aero
forces

1
1
2
Fa = V = V CL b I + VCL bA a
2
2

Fa = qD( w0 + w )

Aerodynamic coefficient matrix

Homework

Considering a un-swept wing


modeled by 3 horseshoes, the
control points are at 1/4 chord
points of middle line on each
segment, please deduct the
aerodynamics influence matrix
A.
13

Vortex circle method ---- a kind of panel method


z
y

D
D

There are many other panel methods,


including subsonic and supersonic panel
method, piston theory,

14

Basic equation of static aeroleasticity

Kw = qD ( w0 + w ) + f
K Stifness matrix of wing

w Displacement vector of wing

w0 Initial displacement vector of wing

Dynamics pressure of inflow

D Aerodynamic coefficient matrix

Vector of other forces, like gravity, thrust,


15

Divergence and load redistribution

Kw = qDw + qDw0 + f
Static aeroelastic
divergence

General Eigenvalue Problem of


homogeneous equation

qdiv = min i

Kw = Dw
Load redistribution

Unique solution Problem of


un-homogeneous equation
1

w = ( K qD) (qDw0 + f )
Aero force
distribution

Fa = qD( w0 + w )
16

Control effectiveness and reversal


No relationship with the initial
Basic equation of static
aeroelasticity with control surface displacement and forces other
than aerodynamics

Kw = qDw + qC
Aero load
distribution

w = ( K qD) qC

Fa = qDw + qC

Specified sum load


of aerodynamics

F = Fa

F / i = 0
F / i
Control effectiveness
=
(F / i ) r
Control reversal

17

Homework
Please deduct the dynamic pressure
of control reversal and the control
effectiveness in matrix form

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