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Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics I

EG-160/EG160c

Room 147

Credit 10

Core module for Civil, Mechanical and Aerospace BEng and MEng

Fluid Mechanics I

Content

Aims

To create an interest in fluid flow

To show that flow phenomena are amenable to analysis

To show the relevance of fluid mechanics to Engineering

To create confidence and ability in problem-solving in fluid mechanics

Contents

Fluids properties

Hydrostatics

Conservation principles

Viscous flow in pipes

Assessment

1 class test (Blackboard - online) 20% of final mark

Week 4 - Week 5

2

Fluid Mechanics I

Introduction

A solid is hard and not easily deformed, whereas a fluid is soft and is easily deformed

A closer look at the molecular structure a solid (steel, concrete, etc.)

densely spaced molecules

large intermolecular cohesive forces

the molecules are spaced farther apart

the intermolecular forces are smaller than for solids,

greater molecular spacing and freedom of motion

negligible cohesive intermolecular forces

A more specific distinction is based on how they deform under the action of an external

load. Specifically, a fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted

Common fluids such as water, oil, and air satisfy the definition of a fluid

Some materials, such as slurries, tar, putty, toothpaste, and so on, are not easily

classified since they will behave as a solid if the applied shearing stress is small, but if the

stress exceeds some critical value, the substance will flow. The study of such materials is

called rheology

Fluid Mechanics I

Introduction

The study of fluid mechanics involves the same fundamental laws you have encountered

in physics and other mechanics courses. These laws include Newtons laws of motion,

conservation of mass, and the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

The broad subject of fluid mechanics can be generally subdivided into fluid statics, in

which the fluid is at rest, and fluid dynamics, in which the fluid is moving.

Fluid Mechanics I

Famous Names

SEXTUS JULIUS FRONTINUS A.D. 40103. Wrote treatise on Roman methods of water distribution.

LEONARDO da VINCI 14521519. Expressed elementary principle of continuity; observed and sketched many basic

flow phenomena; suggested designs for hydraulic machinery.

GALILEO GALILEI 1564164. Indirectly stimulated experimental hydraulics; revised Aristotelian concept of vacuum.

EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI 1608164. Related barometric height to weight of atmosphere, and form of liquid jet to

trajectory of free fall.

BLAISE PASCAL 16231662. Finally clarified principles of barometer, hydraulic press, and pressure transmissibility.

ISAAC NEWTON 16421727. Explored various aspects of fluid resistanceinertial, viscous, and wave; discovered jet

contraction.

HENRI de PITOT 16951771. Constructed double-tube device to indicate water velocity through differential head.

DANIEL BERNOULLI 17001782. Experimented and wrote on many phases of fluid motion, coining name

hydrodynamics; devised manometry technique and adapted primitive energy principle to explain velocity head

indication; proposed jet propulsion.

LEONHARD EULER 17071783. First explained role of pressure in fluid flow; formulated basic equations of motion and

socalled Bernoulli theorem; introduced concept of cavitation and principle of centrifugal machinery.

JEAN le ROND dALEMBERT 17171783. Originated notion of velocity and acceleration components, differential

expression of continuity, and paradox of zero resistance to steady non-uniform motion.

ANTOINE CHEZY 17181798. Formulated similarity parameter for predicting flow characteristics of one channel from

measurements on another.

GIOVANNI BATTISTA VENTURI 17461822. Performed tests on various forms of mouthpiecesin particular, conical

contractions and expansions.

LOUIS MARIE HENRI NAVIER 17851836. Extended equations of motion to include molecular forces.

AUGUSTIN LOUIS de CAUCHY 17891857. Contributed to the general field of theoretical hydrodynamics and to the

study of wave motion.

GOTTHILF HEINRICH LUDWIG HAGEN 17971884. Conducted original studies of resistance in and transition

between laminar and turbulent flow.

JEAN LOUIS POISEUILLE 17991869. Performed meticulous tests on resistance of flow through capillary tubes.

Fluid Mechanics I

Famous Names

HENRI PHILIBERT GASPARD DARCY 18031858. Performed extensive tests on filtration and pipe

resistance; initiated open-channel studies carried out by Bazin.

JULIUS WEISBACH 18061871. Incorporated hydraulics in treatise on engineering mechanics, based on original

experiments; noteworthy for flow patterns, non-dimensional coefficients, weir, and resistance equations.

WILLIAM FROUDE 18101879. Developed many towing-tank techniques, in particular the conversion of wave and

boundary layer resistance from model to prototype scale.

ROBERT MANNING 18161897. Proposed several formulas for open-channel resistance.

GEORGE GABRIEL STOKES 18191903. Derived analytically various flow relationships ranging from wave mechanics

to viscous resistanceparticularly that for the settling of spheres.

ERNST MACH 18381916. One of the pioneers in the field of supersonic aerodynamics.

OSBORNE REYNOLDS 18421912. Described original experiments in many fields, cavitation, river model similarity,

pipe resistanceand devised two parameters for viscous flow; adapted equations of motion of a viscous fluid to mean

conditions of turbulent flow.

JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT,LORD RAYLEIGH 18421919. Investigated hydrodynamics of bubble collapse, wave

motion, jet instability, laminar flow analogies, and dynamic similarity.

VINCENZ STROUHAL 18501922. Investigated the phenomenon of singing wires.

EDGAR BUCKINGHAM 18671940. Stimulated interest in the United States in the use of dimensional analysis.

MORITZ WEBER 18711951. Emphasized the use of the principles of similitude in fluid flow studies and formulated a

capillarity similarity parameter.

LUDWIG PRANDTL 18751953. Introduced concept of the boundary layer and is generally considered to be the father

of present day fluid mechanics.

LEWIS FERRY MOODY 18801953. Provided many innovations in the field of hydraulic machinery. Proposed a

method of correlating pipe resistance data which is widely used.

THEODOR VON KRMN 18811963. One of the recognized leaders of twentieth century fluid mechanics. Provided

major contributions to our understanding of surface resistance, turbulence, and wake phenomena.

PAUL RICHARD HEINRICH BLASIUS 18831970. One of Prandtls students who provided an analytical solution to

the boundary layer equations. Also, demonstrated that pipe resistance was related to the Reynolds number.

Fluid Mechanics I

Units

Primary Units

The four primary units of the SI system are shown in the table below:

Notice how the term Dimension of a unit has been introduced in this table. This is not a

property of the individual units, rather it tells what the unit represents. For example a

metre is a length which has a dimension L but also, an inch, a mile or a kilometre are all

lengths so have dimension of L.

The above notation uses the MLT system of dimensions, there are other ways of writing

dimensions

Fluid Mechanics I

Units

Derived Units

There are many derived units all obtained from combination of the above primary units.

Those most used are shown in the table below:

The above units should be used at

all times. Values in other units should

NOT be used without first converting

them into the appropriate SI unit.

If you do not know what a particular

unit means, find out else your guess

will probably be wrong.

One very useful tip is to write down the

units of any equation you are using. If

at the end the units do not match you

know you have made a mistake.

For example is you have at the end of

a calculation, 30 kg/m s = 30 m

you have certainly made a mistake

8

Fluid Mechanics I

Units

Examples

During a study of a certain flow system the following equation relating the pressure p1 and

p2 at two points was developed

p2 = p1 +

fLV

Dg

In this equation V is a velocity, L the distance between the two points, D a diameter, g the

acceleration of gravity, and f a dimensionless coefficient. Is the equation dimensionally

consistent?

If V is a velocity, L a length, W a weight, and a fluid property having dimensions of FL-2T

determine the dimensions of (a) VLW/, (b)WL, (c) V /L and (d) VL2 /W

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Before we can proceed, however, it will be necessary to define and discuss certain

fluid properties

Density

The density of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol , is defined as its

mass per unit volume.

Density is typically used to characterize the mass of a fluid system.

In SI the units are kg/m3

The value of density can vary widely between different fluids

For liquids, variations in pressure and temperature generally have only a small effect

on the value of density

For gas, the density is strongly influenced by both pressure and temperature

Specific Volume

v=

and is therefore the reciprocal of the density

10

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Specific Weight

The specific weight of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol , is defined as its

weight per unit volume. Thus, specific weight is related to density through the equation

= g

Just as density is used to characterize the mass of a fluid system, the specific weight is

used to characterize the weight of the system. In SI the units are N/m3

Specific Gravity

The specific gravity of a fluid, designated as SG, is defined as the ratio of the density of

the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified

temperature is taken as 4oC and at this temperature the density of water is 1000 kg/m3

SG = / 1000

and since it is the ratio of densities, the value of SG does not depend on the system of

units used.

It is clear that density, specific weight, and specific gravity are all interrelated, and from a

knowledge of any one of the three the others can be calculated.

11

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize

how fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately

the same value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.

fluidity of the fluid which we will see later in the course.

Examples

Find the density of mercury if its specific gravity is 13.55

A reservoir of glycerine has a mass of 1200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m3. Find the

glycerine's weight, mass density, specific weight and specific gravity (Ans: 11.77kN, 1261

kg/m3, 12.36 kN/m3, 1.26)

The specific gravity of ethyl alcohol is 0.79. Calculate its specific weight and mass density

(Ans: 7.73 kN/m3, 790 kg/m3)

The specific weight of a substance is 8.2 kN/m3, what is its mass density (Ans: 836

kg/m3)

12

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Pressure

Pressure in a fluid at rest is defined as

the normal force per unit area exerted

on a plane surface (real or imaginary)

immersed in a fluid and is created by

the bombardment of the surface with

the fluid molecules.

From the definition, pressure has the

dimension FL-2 and in SI units is expressed

as N/m2. In SI, 1N/m2 is defined as a pascal, abbreviated as Pa, and pressures are

commonly specified in pascals

The equations of motion (Newtons second law)

F = ma

xyz

ay

2

xyz

xyz

=

az

Fz = p zxy psxs cos

2

2

13

Fluid Mechanics I

Note that

Hence,

Fluids Properties

y = s cos

z = s sin

p y p s = a y

y

2

p z p s = ( a z + )

z

2

Since we are interested in the pressure at a point, we take the limit as x,y and z tend

to zero and it follows that

p z = p y = ps

we can conclude that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent

of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present. This important result is

known as Pascals law named in honour of Blaise Pascal

14

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Compressibility of Fluids

This measure how easily can the volume (and thus the density) of a given mass of the

fluid be changed when there is a change in pressure . A property that is commonly used

to characterize compressibility is the bulk modulus, defined as

Ev =

dp

dp

=

dV V d

The bulk modulus (or the bulk modulus of elasticity) has dimensions of pressure.

Large values for the bulk modulus indicate that the fluid is relatively incompressible

Examples

A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a volume of 1000 cm3 at 1MN/m2 and volume of

995 cm3 at 2MN/m2. What is its bulk modulus of elasticity?

If the bulk modulus of elasticity for water is 2.2 GPa, what pressure is required to reduce

a volume by 0.6 precent? (Ans: 13.2 Mpa)

15

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Consider a cylindrical element of fluid inclined

at an angle to the vertical. The pressure at

the end with height z is p and at the end of

height z+z is p+p

Resolving the forces in the direction along the

central axis gives

pA ( p + p ) A gAs cos = 0

p = gs cos

Or in differential form

p

= g cos

s

dp

= g cos

ds

dp dp dp

=

=

=0

ds dx dy

16

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

dp dp

=

= g

ds dz

p = gz + constant

p2 p1 = g ( z2 z1 )

pressure decreases with increase in height

In a liquid with a free surface the pressure at any depth z is normally measured from the

free surface so that z = -h. This gives:

p = gh + constant

At the surface the pressure is the

atmospheric pressure, patmospheric

p = gh + patmospheric

p = h + patmospheric

17

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

The lower limit of any pressure is zero- that is pressure in Vacuum. Pressure measured

above this datum is known as absolute pressure

Since everything is under this pressure, it is convenient to take the atmospheric pressure

as datum, hence, pressure quotes in this condition is called the Gauge pressure

p guage = gh = h

Since g is constant, the gauge pressure can be given by stating the vertical height of any

fluid of density which is equal to the this pressure, this vertical height is know as head

of fluid.

Example

What is the pressure of 500 KN/m2 in terms of the height of water, =1000kg/m3 , and in

terms of Mercury, =13600 kg/m3 .

18

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples

Because of a leak in a buried gasoline storage tank, water has

seeped in to the depth shown. If the specific gravity of the

gasoline is SG= 0.68, determine the pressure at the

gasoline-water interface and at the bottom of the tank.

5m

1m

containing two different immiscible liquids. Find

(a) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer A

(b) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer B

(c) Total pressure at te bottom of the tank

(Ans:2.0m, 0.82m, 18.9kPa)

The reading of an automobile fuel gauge is proportional

to the gauge pressure at the bottom of the tank.

If the tank is 32cm deep and is contaminated with 3cm of

water, how many cm of air remains at the top when the

gauge indicates full? Use gasoline = 6670 N/m3 and

air = 11.8 N/m3. (Ans: 1.4cm)

19

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement

The relation between pressure and head is used to measure pressure with manometer,

liquid gauge.

A tube which is attached to the top of a vessel

containing fluid at a pressure higher than atmospheric

The pressure measured is relative to atmospheric,

hence it is gauge pressure

p A = p1 = gh1 = h1

This method can only be used for liquids. And must not be too small or too large.

20

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

The U tube measure the pressure of both liquids and gases

The U tube is filled with a fluid called the Manometric fluid

The density of the fluid whose pressure to be measured must

be less than that of the manomatric fluid

We know that,

p A = p1

However,

p2 = p A + h1

p2 = p3

and

Hence,

p3 = man h2

p A = man h2 h1

man >>

p A = man h2

21

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

The U tube is connected at the two points where the

pressure difference is to be measured

Using the figure

And

p A = p1

and

pB = p5

p2 = p3

p A + 1h1 = pB + man h2 + 3h3

p A pB = man h2 1h1 + 3h3

Again if the fluid is gas then

p A pB = man h2 + 1 ( h3 h1 )

p A pB = man h2

22

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

If the pressure difference to be measured is small, one leg of the tube is inclined at an

angle

In this case

Again if the fluid is gas then

p A pB = manl2 sin + 1 ( h3 h1 )

p A pB = manl2 sin

23

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples

A closed tank contains compressed air and oil (SG. 0.9).

A U-tube manometer using mercury is connected to the tank.

For column heights h1=90cm, h2= 15cm and h3=22.5cm

determine the pressure reading of the gage.

the volume rate of flow, Q, through a pipe can be

determined by means of a flow nozzle located in the

pipe as illustrated. The nozzle creates a pressure drop,

along the pipe which is related to the flow through the

equation

Q = K p A pB

size. The pressure drop is frequently measured with a

differential U-tube manometer. Determine an equation

for pA pB in terms of the specific weight of the flowing

fluid, 1 the specific weight of the gage fluid, 2 and the various heights indicated.

For 1 = 9.8 kN/m3, 2 = 15.6 kN/m3 ,h1 = 1.0m and h2 = 0.5m what is the value of the

pressure drop, pA pB ?

24

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Problems

A Differential manometer is attached to two tanks.

Calculate the pressure difference between chambers

A and B. Take SGMercury = 13.6, SGOil = 0.89 and

SGTetrachloride = 1.59. (Ans:-37kN/m2)

(Ans: 0.18m)

is oil with SG = 0.8, h1 = 300mm, h2 = 200mm and

h3 = 600mm. (a) determine pA-pB. (b) If pB = 50 kPa and

the barometer reading is 730 mmHg, find the absolute

pressure at A in meters of waters. (Ans:-1.37kPa, 14.9m)

25

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

We have seen that:

Hydrostatic vertical pressure distribution, the pressure varies linearly with depth

Pressures at any equal depth in a continuous fluid are equal

Pressure at a point acts equally in all directions (Pascals law)

Forces from a fluid on a boundary acts at right angles to that boundary

Pressure is defined as force per unit area

The determination of the forces developed on the surface due to the fluid is important in

the design of storage tanks, ships, dams, and other hydraulic structures.

For a horizontal surface, the magnitude of the resultant force is FR=p A

where p = h is the uniform pressure on the bottom

If atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the surface,

the resultant force is due to the liquid in the tank.

Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed

over the bottom, the resultant acts through the centroid

of the area

26

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

For a general case, assuming that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere and using

the xy coordinate system shown.

We wish to determine the direction, location,

and magnitude of the resultant force acting on

one side of this area due to the liquid.

At any given depth, h, the force acting on dA is

dF = hdA and is perpendicular to the surface.

Thus, the magnitude of the resultant

A ydA = yc A

yc is the y coordinate of the centroid, thus

The resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the total area

27

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

to the surface , the resultant force must also

be perpendicular to the surface

To find the location of the resultant force we

consider the moment around the x axis

FR y R = A ydF = A y 2 sin dA

Since

FR = Ayc sin

y 2 dA

A

yR =

yc A

The numerator is the second moment of the area, Ix. Using the parallel axis theorem

I x = I xc + Ayc2

Ixc is the second moment of the area with respect to an axis passing through the centroid

and parallel to the x axis. Thus,

yR =

I xc

+ yc

yc A

28

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

It is clear that the resultant force does not pass through the centroid but always below it

Similarly the x coordinate of the resultant force can be obtained by summing moment

about the y axis

xR =

A xydA = I xy = I xyc + x

c

yc A

yc A

yc A

Ixy is the product of inertia with respect to the x and y axes. Ixyc is the product of inertia

with respect to an orthogonal system passing through the centroid

29

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples

The 4m-diameter circular gate is located in the

inclined wall of a large reservoir containing

water = 9.80 kN/m3The gate is mounted on

a shaft along its horizontal diameter. For a water

depth of 10 m above the shaft determine:

(a) the magnitude and location of the resultant

force exerted on the gate by the water, and

(b) the moment that would have to be applied

to the shaft to open the gate.

0.6m by 0.6m plate bolted to its side. When the pressure gage

on the top of the tank reads 50 kPa, what is the magnitude

and location of the resultant force on the attached plate?

30

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Integration method can be used, however, it can be tedious

The easiest way is to consider the fluid volume enclosed by the curved surface

The magnitude and location of the forces on the horizontal and vertical surfaces can be

determined from the relationship of planer surfaces

In order for force system to be in equilibrium the horizontal components must be equal

and collinear and the vertical components must be equal and collinear

FH = F2

FV = F1 + W

FR = ( FH ) 2 + ( FV ) 2

The location of the resultant force is found by Summing moment about an appropriate axis

31

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples

The 3m long cylinder floats in oil and rest against a wall

Determine the horizontal force the cylinder exerts on the

wall at the point of contact.

1m

960N/m3

at rest.

Determine the magnitude and line of action of the

resultant force that the water exerts on a 1m length of

the curved section BC of the conduit wall.

1m

32

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Problems

Isosceles triangular gate AB is hinged at A. Compute the

horizontal force P at point B for equilibrium, neglecting

the weight of the gate. (Ans: 22.47 kN)

by cable BC at the top. If cable spacing is 1m into the

paper, what is the cable tension. (Ans: 88.5 kN)

it will rotate open when the liquid surface is shown.

(Ans: 0.833m)

The gate is a circular plate of diameter 0.8m and weight

2.0kN.(Ans: 43 kPa)

33

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Problems

Compute the horizontal and vertical components of the

hydrostatic force on the quarter-circle face of the tank.

(Ans: 308kN, 289kN)

semicylindrical indentation ABC per meter of width into

the paper. (Ans: 115.1 kN, = 10.6o)

shaped as shown. Determine the magnitude of the

hydrostatic force acting on the curve portion AB per

meter width of the dam and the moment of this force

about A. (Ans: 658 kN, 2470kNm)

34

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Fluid Dynamics

This section discusses the analysis of fluid in motion - fluid dynamics. The motion of fluids can

be predicted in the same way as the motion of solids are predicted using the fundamental laws

of physics together with the physical properties of the fluid

Objectives

Introduce concepts necessary to analyse fluids in motion

Identify differences between Steady/unsteady uniform/non-uniform

compressible/incompressible flow

Demonstrate streamlines and stream tubes

Introduce the Continuity principle through conservation of mass and control volumes

Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation

Demonstrate practical uses of the Bernoulli and continuity equation in the analysis of flow

Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid

Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is

used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids.

35

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Flow Classification

It is possible - and useful - to classify the type of flow which is being examined into small

number of groups. The following terms describe the states which are used to classify fluid flow:

uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every point in the

fluid it is said to be uniform

non-uniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the same at every point the flow is

non-uniform. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid that flows near a solid boundary

will be non-uniform as the fluid at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary,

usually zero. However if the size and shape of the of the cross-section of the stream of

fluid is constant the flow is considered uniform)

steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity, pressure and cross-section)

may differ from point to point but DO NOT change with time

unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time, the flow is

described as unsteady. (In practise there is always slight variations in velocity and

pressure, but if the average values are constant, the flow is considered steady

36

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Combining the above we can classify any flow in to one of four type:

Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. An

example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity.

Steady non-uniform flow. Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not

change with time. An example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet velocity will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.

Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the

same, but will change with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a

pump pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off

Unsteady non-uniform flow. Every condition of the flow may change from point to point

and with time at every point. For example waves in a channel.

steady flow is by far the most simple of the four. You will then be pleased to hear

that this course is restricted to only this class of flow

37

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Three-dimensional flow

Although in general all fluids flow three-dimensionally, in many cases the greatest changes

only occur in two directions or even only in one.

Flow is one dimensional if the flow parameters (such as velocity, pressure, depth etc.) at a

given instant in time only vary in the direction of flow and not across the cross-section. An

example of one-dimensional flow is the ideal flow in a pipe.

Note that since flow must be zero at the pipe wall - yet non-zero in the centre there is a

difference of parameters across the cross-section. Which is only necessary if very high

accuracy is required.

Flow is two-dimensional if it can be assumed that the flow parameters vary in the direction

of flow and in one direction at right angles to this direction.

38

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

The motion of each fluid particle is described in terms of its velocity vector, V

If it is steady flow, each successive particle that passes through a given point will follow

the same path. For such cases the path is a fixed line in the xz plane.

For steady flows each particle slides along its path, and its velocity vector is everywhere

tangent to the path. The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow

field are called streamlines

Close to a solid boundary streamlines are parallel to that boundary

The fluid is moving in the same direction as the streamlines, hence, fluid can not cross it

Streamlines can not cross each other

Any particle starting on one streamline will stay on the same streamline

Streamlines are two dimension while streamtubes are three dimensions

39

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Flow rate

Mass flow rate: is the mass of fluid flowing per unit time

Volume flow rate Discharge: is the volume of fluid flowing per unit time. (It is also

commonly, but inaccurately, simply called flow rate). The symbol normally used for

discharge is Q. Multiplying this by the density of the fluid gives us the mass flow rate

Mean Velocity:

This is the discharge divided by the area cross section.

This does not imply that the velocity is constant across

the cross section

Inviscid Flow:

That is the fluid is assumed to have zero viscosity.

In practice there are no inviscid fluid. However, for many flow situation the viscous effect is

small compared to other forces such as pressure gradient and gravitation.

40

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Continuity

Matter cannot be created or destroyed. This principle

is know as the conservation of mass.The principle is

applied to fixed volumes, known as control volumes

(or surfaces)

Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time + Increase of mass in the control

volume/unit time

For steady state

Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time

For incompressible flow = constant, hence

A1Vm1 = A2Vm 2 = Q

41

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Examples

For the pipe contraction shown, determine

the velocity of water at section 2 if the

velocity at section 1 is 2.1 m/s and the

surface area of section 1 and section 2 are

0.01 m2 and 0.003 m2 respectively

For the pipe expansion shown, determine

the velocity of water at section 1 if the

velocity at section 2 is 3.0 m/s and the

diameters of section 1 and section 2 are

30 mm and 40 mm respectively

If the mean velocity in pipe 1 is 2 m/s and its

diameter is 50mm and pipe 2 diameter is 40 mm

and takes 30% of the total discharge and pipe 3

diameter is 60mm, determine the values of

discharge and the mean velocity in each pipe

42

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Mass passing in 1 sec = AV

Weight passing in 1 sec =

gAV

KE per unit weight =

V2

2g

mV 2 1

= (AV )V 2

2

2

Datum

mgh = ( AV )gh

PE per unit weight = h

Work done per unit weight =

Energy per unit weight =

( pA)V

p

g

p

V2

+h+

g

2g

p

V2

+h+

= Constant

2g

g

43

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

In the direction of the streamtube we have the following forces

Pressure force at upstream end =

pA

( p + p ) A

Weight force =

deviding by

Noting that

F = ma

gAL

pA ( p + p ) A Ahg = AL( dV / dt )

1 dp 1 dV dh

+

+

=0

g dL g dt dL

dV dV dL

dV d (V 2 / 2 )

=

=V

=

dt dL dt

dL

dL

gives

1 dp 1 dV 2 dh

+

+

=0

g dL 2 g dL dL

This is known as the Eulers Equation, for incompressible fluid this can be integrated to yield

p V2

+

+ h = Constant

g 2g

44

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Note that all the individual terms in the Bernoullis equation have units of length

The term h is know as potential head

V2

The term

is know as velocity head

2g

p

The term

is know as pressure head

g

The term H =

p

V2

+h+

is know as total head

g

2g

Example

A fluid of constant density of 960 kg/m3 is flowing

steadily through the tube shown. The diameter at

section 1 is 100 mm and at section 2 is 80 mm.

The pressure gauge at section 1 indicated a pressure

of 200 kN/m2 and the velocity was 5 m/s.

Determine the pressure at section 2.

45

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Pitot Tube

If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body,

some move to the left and some to the right. But one,

in the centre, goes to the tip of the blunt body and stops.

This point is known as the stagnation point

Applying the Bernoullis equation between point 1 and 2 gives

1

p2 = p1 + V12

2

The term

1

V12 is called dynamic pressure

2

calculation of the velocity of the fluid

This is the principle on which the Pitot-static tube is based

Two concentric tubes are attached to two pressure gauges

46

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Example

For the Pitot tube shown, show that the

relation between the fluid velocity and

the manometer reading h

V1 =

2 gh( man )

Venturi Meter

The Venturi meter is a device for measuring

discharge in a pipe.

It consists of a rapidly converging section

which increases the velocity of flow and

hence reduces the pressure.

By measuring the pressure differences the

discharge can be calculated.

47

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

p1 V12

p V2

+

+ z1 = 2 + 2 + z2

g 2 g

g 2 g

Using the continuity equation

Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 V2 =

However,

V1 A1

A2

p1 + gz1 = p2 + g ( z2 h) + man gh

Hence,

2 gh man

V1 =

2

A1

1

A2

h

B

Qideal = V1 A1

To get the actual discharge we account for losses due to friction, we include a coefficient

of discharge

Qactual = Cd Qideal

48

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

At the surface velocity is negligible and the pressure

atmospheric.

At the orifice the jet is open to the air so again the

pressure is atmospheric

If we take the datum line through the orifice then

z1 = h and z2 =0.

Hence,

V22

h=

V2 = 2 gh

2g

To incorporate friction we use the coefficient of velocity

Vactual = CvVtheoretical

Each orifice has its own coefficient of velocity, they usually lie in the range (0.97 - 0.99)

The actual area of the jet is the area of the vena contracta not the area of the orifice. We

obtain this area by using a coefficient of contraction for the orifice

Aactual = Cc Atheoretical

49

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Qactual = Cd Aorifice gh

50

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

A notch is an opening in the side of a tank or reservoir which extends above the surface of

the liquid.

It is usually a device for measuring discharge.

A weir is a notch on a larger scale - usually found in rivers.

Weir can be sharp crested but also may have a substantial

width in the direction of flow - it is used as both a flow

measuring device and a device to raise water levels.

We will assume that the velocity of the fluid approaching

the weir is small so that kinetic energy can be neglected.

We will also assume that the velocity through any elemental

strip depends only on the depth below the free surface.

These are acceptable assumptions for tanks with notches or

reservoirs with weirs, but for flows where the velocity

approaching the weir is substantial the kinetic energy must

be taken into account

51

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

will consider a strip of thickness h, width l and at depth h

Velocity through the strip

V = 2 gh

Q = AV = lh 2 gh

H

Q = 2 g lh1/ 2 dh

0

Rectangular Weir

2

Q = b 2 g h1/ 2 dh = b 2 g H 3 / 2

3

0

2

Qactual = Cd b 2 g H 3 / 2

3

Triangular Weir

The width b at depth h is

b = 2( H h) tan ( / 2 ) , hence

Qactual = Cd

8

tan ( / 2 ) 2 g H 5 / 2

15

52

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Examples

Water flows along a circular duct from A to B where

conditions are those shown. Assuming no losses,

estimate the pressure at B.

what is the pressure at point B? Neglect all losses

due to viscous effects and assume that the nozzle

outlet is at the same height as point B.

A horizontal venturi tube, for measuring the flow of water, tapers from 300 mm diameter

at the inlet to 100 mm diameter at the throat and has a discharge coefficient of 0.98. If the

differential U-tube manometer, containing water over mercury (specific gravity 13.6),

connecting the inlet and the throat, shows a difference in mercury levels of 55 mm,

determine the volume flow.

53

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems

A pitot-static tube used to measure the air speed in a wind tunnel is coupled to a water

manometer. If the dynamic pressure is h mm of water, obtain an expression for the air

speed in m/s. (Ans: 3.99h0.5)

shown. How long will it take for the water to drain from

the tank through a 0.02- m-diameter drain hole in the

bottom of the tank? Assume quasisteady flow. (Ans: 2.45 hr)

A triangular orifice is cut in the vertical side of a tank containing a liquid. The base of the

orifice is horizontal and of breadth b. The apex of the orifice is at a height d above the

base and is located at a depth d below the liquid surface level. If the coefficient of

discharge is unity, derive an expression for the volume flow rate. (Ans: 0.91b(gd3)0.5)

54

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems

Water flows through the pipe contraction shown.

For the given 0.2-m difference in manometer level,

determine the flowrate as a function of the diameter

of the small pipe, D. (Ans: 0.0156 m3/s)

that the pressures at sections (1) and (2) are

300 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. Determine the

diameter of the pipe at section (2), D2, if the

velocity at section 1 is 20 m/s and viscous effects

are negligible. (Ans: 0.0688 m)

55

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Moving fluids exerting forces on whatever it hits

In fluid mechanics the analysis of motion is performed in the same way as in solid

mechanics by the use of Newton s Second Law of motion

The momentum equation is a statement of Newtons Second Law and relates the sum of

the forces acting on an element of fluid to its acceleration or rate of change of momentum.

Newtons 2nd Law can be written:

The Rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the

body, and takes place in the direction of the force

F=

d ( mV )

dt

In time t

momentum of fluid entering stream tube

momentum of fluid leaving stream tube

Applying Newtons Second Law

F=

1 A1V1tV1

2 A2V2tV2

Note

1 represent inflow

2 represent outflow

2 A2V2tV2 1 A1V1tV1

t

56

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Assuming fluid with a constant density and using the continuity equation

Q1 = A1V1

Q2 = A2V2

F = (Q2 V2 Q1V1 )

Since the velocity have components in the x, y, and z direction, it is more convenient to consider

each direction separately

Fx = (Q2Vx 2 Q1Vx1 )

Fy = (Q2V y 2 Q1V y1 )

Fz = (Q2Vz 2 Q1Vz1 )

FR = Force exerted on the fluid by any solid body touching the control volume

FB = Force exerted on the fluid body (e.g. gravity)

FP = Force exerted on the fluid by fluid pressure outside the control volume

When using the momentum equation, the following steps need to be considered:

Decide on co-ordinate axis system

Calculate the total force

Calculate the pressure force

Calculate the body force

Calculate the resultant force

57

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

The Force Due to the Flow Around a Pipe Bend

Consider a pipe bend with a constant cross section lying in the horizontal plane and turning

through an angle of

Control Volume : The control volume include the faces

at the inlet and outlet of the bend and the pipe walls

Co-ordinate system

It is convenient to choose the co-ordinate axis so

that one is pointing in the direction of the inlet velocity.

Calculate the total force:

FTy = Q (Vy 2 Vy1 ) = Q (V2 sin 0)

FPx = p1 A1 p2 A2 cos

FPy = 0 p2 A2 sin

Calculate the body force: The only body force is that exerted by gravity and have not

component in the x and y directions

58

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

FTy = FRy + FPy + FBy

FRx = Q (V2 cos V1 ) p1 A1 + p2 A2 cos

FRy = QV2 sin + p2 A2 sin

FRx

Hence

FR

FR = FRx2 + FRy2

FRy

F

Rx

= tan 1

FRx

the force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction

V5_5.mov

59

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Because the fluid is contracted at the nozzle

forces are induced in the nozzle

Control Volume and Co-ordinate system are shown

Calculate the total force:

Q = A1V1 = A2V2

FPx = p1 A1 p2 A2

1 1

FT = Q 2

A2 A1

We use the Bernoulli equation and noting that the pressure outside is atmospheric

p1 =

Q 2 1

1

2 2

2 A2 A1

Calculate the resultant force:

1 1

1

Q 2 1

FRx = Q ( )

( 2 2 ) A1

A2 A1

2 A2 A1

2

60

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

V2

Calculate the total force:

FTy = ((Q2V y 2 + Q3Vy 3 ) Q1V y1 )

= ((Q2V2 Q3V3 ) Q1V1 sin )

V1

V3

Using the energy equation and noting that z1=z2=z3 and the pressure is all

atmospheric we can prove that v1 = v2 = v3 = v

Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric

Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions

Calculate the resultant force:

61

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

The above analysis of impact of jets be extended and applied to analysis of turbine blades

One clear demonstration of this is with the blade of a turbine called the Pelton wheel

A narrow jet is fired at blades which stick out around the periphery of a large metal disk

The jet is deflected by the blade and the change of its momentum transfer a force to the

blade and hence a torque to the drive shaft

Calculate the total force:

Q

Q

FTx = (( Vx 2 + Vx 2 ) Q Vx1 )

2

2

= Q (V2 cos + V1 )

Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric

Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions

Calculate the resultant force: FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx

62

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Examples

Air flows from a 600 mm diameter pipe, through a

nozzle which is bolted on to the end of the pipe,

and discharges into the atmosphere. The outlet

diameter of the nozzle is 300 mm. A U-tube

manometer, connected to the pipe, shows a

pressure difference of 250mm of water. Assuming

that there are no losses, estimate the speed of the

air at the outlet of the nozzle and the force in the bolts required to hold the nozzle in

position. (Ans: 65.2 m/s; 415 N)

A horizontal pipeline has a bend which changes the direction of the water flowing through

it by 45 and at the same time changes in diameter from 0.5 m upstream to 0.25 m

downstream. The gauge pressure upstream is 2x1O5N/m2 and the volume flow is O.4m3/s.

Neglecting losses, determine the force required to hold the bend in position. (Ans:R=33kN)

63

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems

A nozzle providing a horizontal jet of water 25 rnm diameter at a speed of 10 m/s is

supplied by a pipe from an open reservoir whose free surface is 7 m above the nozzle. The

jet powers a simple turbine made up of flat plate blades which the jet strikes at 90. The

blades are connected to a shaft so that the point of impact between the jet and the blades

is 300 mm from the centre of the shaft

Mate an estimate of: (i) the loss of head in the pipe. (ii) the force exerted by the jet if the

blades are stationary.

If the shaft is allowed to rotate at 200 rev/min, calculate: (iii) the force now exerted on the

blades;(iv) the power available at the shaft; and (v) the overall efficiency, taking the free

surface of the reservoir as the input

(Ans: (i) 1.9 m; (ii) 49.1 N (iii) 18.3 N; (iv) 115 W; (v) 34%)

A horizontal streamlined nozzle issues a jet of fluid of density , cross sectional area a and

velocity U. Ignoring any viscous losses, derive an expression for the force required to hold

the nozzle in position at the end of a pipeline of cross sectional area A.

64

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems

Air of density 1.22 kg/m3 flows in a duct of internal diameter

600 mm and is discharged to the atmosphere. At the outlet

end of the duct, and co-axial with it, is a cone with a base

diameter greater than 600 mm and a vertex angle of 90.

The flow through the duct is controlled by moving the

cone into the duct, the air then escaping along the sloping

sides of the cone. The mean velocity in the duct upstream of the cone is 15 m/s and the air

leaves the cone with a mean velocity of 60 m/s parallel to the sides. Neglecting viscous

effects, calculate the force exerted by the air on the cone. (Ans: 441N)

In the system shown, air is drawn from the

atmosphere into a 250 mm diameter duct by a

fan and flows out past a 200 mm diameter obstacle

with a speed of 30 m/s. If the air is stationary in

the atmosphere and there are no losses in the duct,

calculate: (i) the speed of the air in the duct

(ii) the pressure in the duct upstream of the fan

(iii) the force F required to hold the obstacle in position (iv) the power delivered to the air

by the fan (Ans: (i)10.8 m/s; (ii) -71.7 N/m2 gauge; (iii) 11.1 N; (iv) 293 W)

65

Fluid Mechanics I

Real Fluid

Viscosity

It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how

fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately the same

value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.

There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the fluidity of

the fluid.

From the definition of fluid, deforms continuously when subjected to shear forces, if a

fluid is at rest there are no shearing forces.

Shear stresses develop if the particles of moving fluid move relative to one another.

At all solid boundaries the flow particles have

zero relative velocity to the boundaries and it

will increase as we move toward the centre

Since we are concerned with flow past solid

boundaries; cars, aeroplanes, pipes and

channels, shear forces will be present

66

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Viscosity in Gasses

The molecules of gasses are only weakly kept in position by molecular cohesion (as they

are so far apart). As adjacent layers move by each other there is a continuous exchange

of molecules. Molecules of a slower layer move to faster layers causing a drag, while

molecules moving the other way exert an acceleration force. Mathematical considerations

of this momentum exchange can lead to Newton law of viscosity.

If temperature of a gas increases the momentum exchange between layers will increase

thus increasing viscosity.

Viscosity will also change with pressure - but under normal conditions this change is

negligible in gasses.

Viscosity in Liquids

There is some molecular interchange between adjacent layers. The molecules are much

closer than in gasses, hence, the cohesive forces hold the molecules in place more rigidly.

Increasing the temperature of a fluid reduces the cohesive forces and increases the

molecular interchange.

Reducing cohesive forces reduces shear stress, while increasing molecular interchange

increases shear stress.

High pressure can also change the viscosity of a liquid. As pressure increases the relative

movement of molecules requires more energy hence viscosity increases.

67

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

For a 3d rectangular element of fluid

The shear stress, , is

F

A

For a particle at point E which moves under the shear stress to E in time t

The shear strain is

dx

dy

dx dV

=

tdy dy

It has been experimentally confirmed that the shear stress is directly proportional to the

rate of shear strain

= Constant *

dV

dy

dV

dy

, Hence

68

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

For a solid the strain is a function of the applied stress (providing that the elastic limit has not been

reached). For a fluid, the rate of strain is proportional to the applied stress.

The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is applied and (if the elastic limit

is not reached) the deformation disappears when the force is removed. A fluid continues to flow for as

long as the force is applied and will not recover its original form when the force is removed.

Newtonian Fluids:

Fluids obeying Newtons law

where the value of is constant

Non-Newtonian Fluids:

Fluids in which the value

of is not constant

69

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Viscosity, , is the property of a fluid, due to cohesion and interaction between molecules,

which offers resistance to sheer deformation.

Different fluids deform at different rates under the same shear stress. Fluid with a high

viscosity such as syrup, deforms more slowly than fluid with a low viscosity such as water.

All fluids are viscous, Newtonian Fluids obey the linear relationship given by Newtons law

of viscosity.

dV

dy

Where

-2

or kg m-1 s

-2

dV

is the velocity gradient or rate of shear strain, its Dimension t 1 and Units radians s-1

dy

70

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

The Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity, , is defined as the shear force, per unit area, (or

shear stress ), required to drag one layer of fluid with unit velocity past another layer a

unit distance away.

= /

Mass

=

/

=

=

dy

Area Distance

Area

Length Time

kg m-1 s-1 )

Typical values: Water =1.14 x 10-3 kg m-1 s-1 1 , Air =1.78 x 10-5 kg m-1 s-1 , Mercury

=1.552 kg m-1 s-1 , Paraffin Oil =1.9 kg m-1 s-1 .

71

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Kinematic Viscosity

Kinematic Viscosity, , is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density.

104 St = 1 m2 s 1 .)

(Although

10-4 m2 s 1 , Paraffin Oil =2.375 x 10-3 m2 s 1 .

, Mercury =1.145 x

72

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Examples

A dimensionless combination of variables that is important in the study of viscous flow

through pipes is called the Reynolds number, Re, defined as VD/ where is the fluid

density, V the mean fluid velocity, D the pipe diameter, and the fluid viscosity. A

Newtonian fluid having a viscosity 0.38 N.s/m2 of and a specific gravity of 0.91 flows

through a 25-mm-diameter pipe with a velocity of 2.6 m/s. Determine the value of the

Reynolds number

The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two wide, parallel plates

is given by the equation

2

3Vm y

V=

1

2 h

where Vm is the mean velocity. The fluid has a viscosity of 0.2 N.s/m2. When Vm=0.6 m/s

and h=0.5 cm. determine: (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall, and (b) the

shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls and passing through the centerline

(midplane).

73

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Examples

A large plate moves with speed vo over a stationary plate on a layer of oil of thickness d

and viscosity . If the velocity profile is that of a parabola, with the oil at the plates having

the same velocity as the plates, what is the shear stress on the moving plate from the oil?

If a linear profile is assumed, what is the shear stress on the moving plate? (Ans: vo/(2d),

vo/d )

incline on a film of oil 0.006 mm thick. Assuming a linear

velocity profile in the oil, what is the terminal speed of

the block? The viscosity of the oil is 7 mPa.s.

(Ans: 5.16 m/s)

74

Fluid Mechanics I

Most of conduits used to transport fluid are round in cross section

They are designed to withstand a considerable pressure difference across their walls

Most of the basic principles involved are independent of the cross-sectional shape

For all flows involved in this section, we assume that the pipe is completely filled with the

fluid being transported

The difference between open-channel flow and the pipe flow is in the fundamental

mechanism that drives the flow

For open-channel flow, gravity alone is the driving force

For pipe flow, gravity may be important, but the main driving force is likely to be a pressure

gradient along the pipe

If the pipe is not full, it is not possible to maintain this pressure difference

75

Fluid Mechanics I

The flow of real fluids exhibits viscous effect, that is they tend to .stick. to solid surfaces

and have stresses within their body

You might remember from earlier in the course Newtons law of viscosity:

dV

dy

This tells us that the shear stress, , in a fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient - the

rate of change of velocity across the fluid path. For a Newtonian fluid we can write:

dV

dy

In this part we shall look at how the forces due to momentum changes on the fluid and

viscous forces compare and what changes take place.

76

Fluid Mechanics I

If we were to take a pipe of free flowing water and inject a dye into the middle of the

stream, what would we expect to happen?

This phenomenon was first investigated in the 1880s by Osbourne Reynolds in an

experiment which has become a classic in fluid mechanics

Reynolds discovered that dependent on the speed of the flow the dye will flow smoothly, in

a wavy manner or in a vigorous eddying motion where it mixed completely with the water

very orderly with all particles moving in straight lines

parallel to the pipe walls

In transitional the flow comprises short burst of

turbulence embedded in a laminar flow

In turbulent the flow incorporate an eddying or mixing action. The motion of the fluid

particle is complex and involve fluctuations in velocity and direction

77

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid velocity

Fluid viscosity

Typical dimension

Where:

L is a representative length

V is mean velocity

is density of fluid

is absolute viscosity

is kinematic viscosity

Re =

VL VL

=

For commercial pipe flow

for Re < 2000 laminar flow

for 2000 < Re < 4000 flow is transitional

for Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent

78

Fluid Mechanics I

Examples:

Are the flows laminar or turbulent:

A flow of water trough a pipe of square cross section. The section is 500x500mm and the

mean velocity of flow is 3m/s. take viscosity to be 1.2*10-3 kg/m s.

A flow of air through a pipe of diameter 35mm. The air velocity is 0.1 m/s and viscosity is

1.7*10-5 kg /m s

79

Fluid Mechanics I

In the derivation of the Conservation of energy equation we have assumed ideal fluid

1

shear stress in real fluid will absorb

some of the energy available, hence

hL

Energy Line

V22

2g

P1

g

V

1

Z1

Head

loss

Velocity

head

P2

Piezometric

head

Pressure

head

V12

2g

Piezometric

head

p V2

p1 V12

+

+ h1 = 2 + 2 + h2 + h f

g 2g

g 2g

2

Z2

Free-body diagram of a cylinder of fluid

Datum

the fluid is flowing at a constant velocity

p1r 2 ( p1 p1 )r 2 2rL = 0

p 2

=

L

r

80

Fluid Mechanics I

Thus,

dV

p

=

r

dr

2 L

V =

dV

dr

dV = 2L rdr

p 2

r + C1

4 L

pD 2

At r = D/2 we have V = 0 this will give C1 =

16 L

The discharge is Q = V dA =

r=D / 2

r =0

pD 2 2r

1

16 L D

2

pD 2 2r

, hence V =

1

16L D

D 4 p

2

rdr

=

128L

p1 p2

= h f p = gh f

g g

D 4 gh f

Q=

128L

hf =

128LQ

D 4 g

81

Fluid Mechanics I

However, Re =

Vd

therefore,

hf =

hf =

32 LVmean

gD 2

64 L V 2

L V2

= f

Re D 2 g

D 2g

here semi imperical formula are used to determine the

velocity profile and hence the turbulent shear stress

Following the experiments of Reynolds and Darcy and Wiesbach, the shear stress was

proportional to V2.

Following the same analogy as above we get

L V2

hf = f

D 2g

The various experiments showed that the friction is dependent of the Re and the relative

roughness of the pipe k/D or /D

Moody produced plots of the friction f as a function of Re and /D for commercial pipes

82

Fluid Mechanics I

83

Fluid Mechanics I

available.

the simple equation

hL = K L

Energy Line

hL

V2

2 g Here, K is the loss coefficient

K L = (1

A1 2

)

A2

Pipe expansions

Valves

KL = 0.8

KL = 0.5

KL = 0.2

KL = 0.04

84

Fluid Mechanics I

85

Fluid Mechanics I

Example

Determine the head lost to friction when water flows through 300m of 150mm diameter

galvanised steel pipe at 50 litres/s.

Calculate the steady rate at which oil ( =10-5 m2/s) will flow through a cast-iron pipe

100mm diameter and 120 m long under a head difference of 5 m.

Determine the size of galvanised steel pipe needed to carry water a distance of 180 m at

85 litres/s with a head loss of 9 m.

Determine the discharge for the flow situation

shown in the figure. The loss coefficient for a

fully opened valve, a standard elbow and a

flush entrance can be taken as 10., 0.9 and

0.5 respectively. The pipe is 150mm diameter

and made of cast-iron. The water temperature

is 15oc.

10m

Fully Open valve

12m

30m

60m

86

Fluid Mechanics I

Examples

Oil of viscosity 0.048 Pa s and density 930 kglm3 flows through a horizontal 25 mm

diameter pipe with an average speed of 0.3 m/s.

(i) Check that the flow is laminar

(ii) Calculate the pressure drop in a 30 m length of pipe

(iii) Find the speed of the fluid at a distance of 6 mm from the wall of the pipe.

(Ans: Re = 145; (ii) 2.21 x 104 N/m2; (iii) 0.438 m/s)

Calculate the power required to pump 50,000 kg of oil per hour along a horizontal pipeline

100 mm diameter and 1.6 km long if the density and kinematic viscosity of the oil are 915

kglm3 and 1.86 1O-3 m2/s. (Ans: 257 kw)

Calculate the pressure drop and power required per 100 m length of horizontal 250 mm

diameter cast iron pipe to pump water ( = 1.14 X 10-6 m2/s) at the rate of 2.0 litres per

second. (Ans: 11.1 N/m2; 2.22 x 10-2 W)

87

Fluid Mechanics I

Problems

A pipeline connecting two water reservoirs having a difference of level of 6 m is 720 m long

and rises to a height of 3 m above the upper reservoir, at a distance of 240 m from it,

before descending to the lower reservoir. If the pipe diameter is 1.2 m and the friction

factor is 0.04, estimate the volume flow and the gauge pressure at the highest point in the

pipeline. Assume losses are those due to friction only. (Ans: 2.51 m3/s; -51.6x103 N/m2)

Water from a large reservoir is discharged to atmosphere through a pipe 450 m long. The

outlet is 12 m below the surface level in the reservoir. Taking the friction factor as .04,

calculate the diameter of pipe necessary if the discharge is to be 9 x 1O-3 m3/s. Assume

that the loss at the inlet to the pipe and the kinetic energy in the water at the pipe outlet

are negligible and then justify this assumption. (Ans: 100mm)

A pipe 50 mm diameter and 45 m long is connected to a large tank, the inlet to the pipe

being 3 m below the surface. The lower end of the pipe, which is 6 m below the upper

end, is connected to a 100 mm diameter horizontal pipe 75 m long which discharges to

atmosphere. If the friction factor is 0.036 calculate the discharge, taking into account the

entry loss and the sudden enlargement between the two pipes. (Ans: 4.66 x 10-3m3/s)

88

Fluid Mechanics I

Problems

A 200 mm diameter commercial steel pipeline 500 m long is to convey 4 m3 of water per

minute from a reservoir to a storage tank whose free surface level is 20 m above that of

the reservoir. If there are four standard elbow bends (loss coefficient 0.9 per elbow) and

two gate valves (loss coefficient 0.3 per valve) in the line, calculate the power required,

assuming the efficiency of the pump is 80%. (Ans: 24.9 kW)

situated in a 150 m length of 150 mm diameter

galvanised steel pipe, containing four 90 elbow

bends, which discharges to atmosphere. If the

turbine absorbs 10 kW from the water, estimate

the depth H required in the reservoir to give a

flow rate of 0.1 m3/s. (Ans: 51.25 m)

89

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