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Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Mechanics I
EG-160/EG160c

Professor M.F. Webster


Room 147

Credit 10
Core module for Civil, Mechanical and Aerospace BEng and MEng

Format: 3 Lectures / week

Fluid Mechanics I

Content

Aims
To create an interest in fluid flow
To show that flow phenomena are amenable to analysis
To show the relevance of fluid mechanics to Engineering
To create confidence and ability in problem-solving in fluid mechanics

Contents
Fluids properties
Hydrostatics
Conservation principles
Viscous flow in pipes

Assessment
1 class test (Blackboard - online) 20% of final mark
Week 4 - Week 5

Summer Exam - 2 hours closed book exam 80%


2

Fluid Mechanics I

Introduction

What is a fluid? What is the difference between a solid and a fluid?


A solid is hard and not easily deformed, whereas a fluid is soft and is easily deformed
A closer look at the molecular structure a solid (steel, concrete, etc.)
densely spaced molecules
large intermolecular cohesive forces

However, for matter that we normally think of as a liquid (water, oil,etc.)


the molecules are spaced farther apart
the intermolecular forces are smaller than for solids,

Gases (air, oxygen, etc.) have


greater molecular spacing and freedom of motion
negligible cohesive intermolecular forces

A more specific distinction is based on how they deform under the action of an external
load. Specifically, a fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted

on by a shearing stress of any magnitude.


Common fluids such as water, oil, and air satisfy the definition of a fluid
Some materials, such as slurries, tar, putty, toothpaste, and so on, are not easily
classified since they will behave as a solid if the applied shearing stress is small, but if the
stress exceeds some critical value, the substance will flow. The study of such materials is
called rheology

Fluid Mechanics I

Introduction

The study of fluid mechanics involves the same fundamental laws you have encountered
in physics and other mechanics courses. These laws include Newtons laws of motion,
conservation of mass, and the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
The broad subject of fluid mechanics can be generally subdivided into fluid statics, in
which the fluid is at rest, and fluid dynamics, in which the fluid is moving.

Fluid Mechanics I

Famous Names

ARCHIMEDES 287212 B.C. Established elementary principles of buoyancy and flotation.


SEXTUS JULIUS FRONTINUS A.D. 40103. Wrote treatise on Roman methods of water distribution.
LEONARDO da VINCI 14521519. Expressed elementary principle of continuity; observed and sketched many basic
flow phenomena; suggested designs for hydraulic machinery.
GALILEO GALILEI 1564164. Indirectly stimulated experimental hydraulics; revised Aristotelian concept of vacuum.
EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI 1608164. Related barometric height to weight of atmosphere, and form of liquid jet to
trajectory of free fall.
BLAISE PASCAL 16231662. Finally clarified principles of barometer, hydraulic press, and pressure transmissibility.
ISAAC NEWTON 16421727. Explored various aspects of fluid resistanceinertial, viscous, and wave; discovered jet
contraction.
HENRI de PITOT 16951771. Constructed double-tube device to indicate water velocity through differential head.
DANIEL BERNOULLI 17001782. Experimented and wrote on many phases of fluid motion, coining name
hydrodynamics; devised manometry technique and adapted primitive energy principle to explain velocity head
indication; proposed jet propulsion.
LEONHARD EULER 17071783. First explained role of pressure in fluid flow; formulated basic equations of motion and
socalled Bernoulli theorem; introduced concept of cavitation and principle of centrifugal machinery.
JEAN le ROND dALEMBERT 17171783. Originated notion of velocity and acceleration components, differential
expression of continuity, and paradox of zero resistance to steady non-uniform motion.
ANTOINE CHEZY 17181798. Formulated similarity parameter for predicting flow characteristics of one channel from
measurements on another.
GIOVANNI BATTISTA VENTURI 17461822. Performed tests on various forms of mouthpiecesin particular, conical
contractions and expansions.
LOUIS MARIE HENRI NAVIER 17851836. Extended equations of motion to include molecular forces.
AUGUSTIN LOUIS de CAUCHY 17891857. Contributed to the general field of theoretical hydrodynamics and to the
study of wave motion.
GOTTHILF HEINRICH LUDWIG HAGEN 17971884. Conducted original studies of resistance in and transition
between laminar and turbulent flow.
JEAN LOUIS POISEUILLE 17991869. Performed meticulous tests on resistance of flow through capillary tubes.

Fluid Mechanics I

Famous Names

HENRI PHILIBERT GASPARD DARCY 18031858. Performed extensive tests on filtration and pipe
resistance; initiated open-channel studies carried out by Bazin.
JULIUS WEISBACH 18061871. Incorporated hydraulics in treatise on engineering mechanics, based on original
experiments; noteworthy for flow patterns, non-dimensional coefficients, weir, and resistance equations.
WILLIAM FROUDE 18101879. Developed many towing-tank techniques, in particular the conversion of wave and
boundary layer resistance from model to prototype scale.
ROBERT MANNING 18161897. Proposed several formulas for open-channel resistance.
GEORGE GABRIEL STOKES 18191903. Derived analytically various flow relationships ranging from wave mechanics
to viscous resistanceparticularly that for the settling of spheres.
ERNST MACH 18381916. One of the pioneers in the field of supersonic aerodynamics.
OSBORNE REYNOLDS 18421912. Described original experiments in many fields, cavitation, river model similarity,
pipe resistanceand devised two parameters for viscous flow; adapted equations of motion of a viscous fluid to mean
conditions of turbulent flow.
JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT,LORD RAYLEIGH 18421919. Investigated hydrodynamics of bubble collapse, wave
motion, jet instability, laminar flow analogies, and dynamic similarity.
VINCENZ STROUHAL 18501922. Investigated the phenomenon of singing wires.
EDGAR BUCKINGHAM 18671940. Stimulated interest in the United States in the use of dimensional analysis.
MORITZ WEBER 18711951. Emphasized the use of the principles of similitude in fluid flow studies and formulated a
capillarity similarity parameter.
LUDWIG PRANDTL 18751953. Introduced concept of the boundary layer and is generally considered to be the father
of present day fluid mechanics.
LEWIS FERRY MOODY 18801953. Provided many innovations in the field of hydraulic machinery. Proposed a
method of correlating pipe resistance data which is widely used.
THEODOR VON KRMN 18811963. One of the recognized leaders of twentieth century fluid mechanics. Provided
major contributions to our understanding of surface resistance, turbulence, and wake phenomena.
PAUL RICHARD HEINRICH BLASIUS 18831970. One of Prandtls students who provided an analytical solution to
the boundary layer equations. Also, demonstrated that pipe resistance was related to the Reynolds number.

Fluid Mechanics I

Units

Primary Units
The four primary units of the SI system are shown in the table below:

Notice how the term Dimension of a unit has been introduced in this table. This is not a
property of the individual units, rather it tells what the unit represents. For example a
metre is a length which has a dimension L but also, an inch, a mile or a kilometre are all
lengths so have dimension of L.
The above notation uses the MLT system of dimensions, there are other ways of writing
dimensions

Fluid Mechanics I

Units

Derived Units
There are many derived units all obtained from combination of the above primary units.
Those most used are shown in the table below:
The above units should be used at
all times. Values in other units should
NOT be used without first converting
them into the appropriate SI unit.
If you do not know what a particular
unit means, find out else your guess
will probably be wrong.
One very useful tip is to write down the
units of any equation you are using. If
at the end the units do not match you
know you have made a mistake.
For example is you have at the end of
a calculation, 30 kg/m s = 30 m
you have certainly made a mistake
8

Fluid Mechanics I

Units

Examples
During a study of a certain flow system the following equation relating the pressure p1 and
p2 at two points was developed

p2 = p1 +

fLV
Dg

In this equation V is a velocity, L the distance between the two points, D a diameter, g the
acceleration of gravity, and f a dimensionless coefficient. Is the equation dimensionally
consistent?
If V is a velocity, L a length, W a weight, and a fluid property having dimensions of FL-2T
determine the dimensions of (a) VLW/, (b)WL, (c) V /L and (d) VL2 /W

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Before we can proceed, however, it will be necessary to define and discuss certain

fluid properties

Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight




Density
The density of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol , is defined as its
mass per unit volume.
Density is typically used to characterize the mass of a fluid system.
In SI the units are kg/m3
The value of density can vary widely between different fluids
For liquids, variations in pressure and temperature generally have only a small effect
on the value of density
For gas, the density is strongly influenced by both pressure and temperature

Specific Volume

v=

The specific volume, is the volume per unit mass


and is therefore the reciprocal of the density

10

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Specific Weight
The specific weight of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol , is defined as its
weight per unit volume. Thus, specific weight is related to density through the equation

= g

where g is the local acceleration of gravity

Just as density is used to characterize the mass of a fluid system, the specific weight is
used to characterize the weight of the system. In SI the units are N/m3


Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of a fluid, designated as SG, is defined as the ratio of the density of
the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified
temperature is taken as 4oC and at this temperature the density of water is 1000 kg/m3

SG = / 1000
and since it is the ratio of densities, the value of SG does not depend on the system of
units used.


It is clear that density, specific weight, and specific gravity are all interrelated, and from a
knowledge of any one of the three the others can be calculated.
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Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize
how fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately
the same value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.

There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the


fluidity of the fluid which we will see later in the course.

Examples
Find the density of mercury if its specific gravity is 13.55
A reservoir of glycerine has a mass of 1200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m3. Find the
glycerine's weight, mass density, specific weight and specific gravity (Ans: 11.77kN, 1261
kg/m3, 12.36 kN/m3, 1.26)
The specific gravity of ethyl alcohol is 0.79. Calculate its specific weight and mass density
(Ans: 7.73 kN/m3, 790 kg/m3)
The specific weight of a substance is 8.2 kN/m3, what is its mass density (Ans: 836
kg/m3)

12

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Pressure
Pressure in a fluid at rest is defined as
the normal force per unit area exerted
on a plane surface (real or imaginary)
immersed in a fluid and is created by
the bombardment of the surface with
the fluid molecules.
From the definition, pressure has the
dimension FL-2 and in SI units is expressed
as N/m2. In SI, 1N/m2 is defined as a pascal, abbreviated as Pa, and pressures are
commonly specified in pascals
The equations of motion (Newtons second law)

Fy = p yxz psxs sin =

F = ma

in the y and z directions are

xyz

ay
2
xyz
xyz
=
az
Fz = p zxy psxs cos
2
2
13

Fluid Mechanics I

Note that
Hence,

Fluids Properties

y = s cos

z = s sin

p y p s = a y

y
2

p z p s = ( a z + )

z
2

Since we are interested in the pressure at a point, we take the limit as x,y and z tend
to zero and it follows that

p z = p y = ps
we can conclude that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent
of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present. This important result is
known as Pascals law named in honour of Blaise Pascal

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Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Compressibility of Fluids
This measure how easily can the volume (and thus the density) of a given mass of the
fluid be changed when there is a change in pressure . A property that is commonly used
to characterize compressibility is the bulk modulus, defined as

Ev =

dp
dp
=
dV V d

The bulk modulus (or the bulk modulus of elasticity) has dimensions of pressure.
Large values for the bulk modulus indicate that the fluid is relatively incompressible


Examples
A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a volume of 1000 cm3 at 1MN/m2 and volume of
995 cm3 at 2MN/m2. What is its bulk modulus of elasticity?
If the bulk modulus of elasticity for water is 2.2 GPa, what pressure is required to reduce
a volume by 0.6 precent? (Ans: 13.2 Mpa)

15

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Basic Equation for Pressure Field


Consider a cylindrical element of fluid inclined
at an angle to the vertical. The pressure at
the end with height z is p and at the end of
height z+z is p+p
Resolving the forces in the direction along the
central axis gives

pA ( p + p ) A gAs cos = 0

p = gs cos

Or in differential form

p
= g cos
s
dp
= g cos
ds

If =90 then s is in the x or y directions, (i.e. horizontal),so

dp dp dp
=
=
=0
ds dx dy

or in homogenous domain, Pressure in the horizontal direction is constant.

16

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Integrating the above equation gives

dp dp
=
= g
ds dz
p = gz + constant

Integrating between z1 znd z2 will lead to

p2 p1 = g ( z2 z1 )

If =0 then s is in the z directions, (i.e. vertical),so

Thus in a fluid under gravity,


pressure decreases with increase in height


Pressure and Head


In a liquid with a free surface the pressure at any depth z is normally measured from the
free surface so that z = -h. This gives:

p = gh + constant
At the surface the pressure is the
atmospheric pressure, patmospheric

p = gh + patmospheric
p = h + patmospheric
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Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

The lower limit of any pressure is zero- that is pressure in Vacuum. Pressure measured
above this datum is known as absolute pressure
Since everything is under this pressure, it is convenient to take the atmospheric pressure
as datum, hence, pressure quotes in this condition is called the Gauge pressure

p guage = gh = h
Since g is constant, the gauge pressure can be given by stating the vertical height of any
fluid of density which is equal to the this pressure, this vertical height is know as head
of fluid.


Example
What is the pressure of 500 KN/m2 in terms of the height of water, =1000kg/m3 , and in
terms of Mercury, =13600 kg/m3 .

18

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples
Because of a leak in a buried gasoline storage tank, water has
seeped in to the depth shown. If the specific gravity of the
gasoline is SG= 0.68, determine the pressure at the
gasoline-water interface and at the bottom of the tank.

5m
1m

For the open tank, with piezometers attached on the side,


containing two different immiscible liquids. Find
(a) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer A
(b) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer B
(c) Total pressure at te bottom of the tank
(Ans:2.0m, 0.82m, 18.9kPa)
The reading of an automobile fuel gauge is proportional
to the gauge pressure at the bottom of the tank.
If the tank is 32cm deep and is contaminated with 3cm of
water, how many cm of air remains at the top when the
gauge indicates full? Use gasoline = 6670 N/m3 and
air = 11.8 N/m3. (Ans: 1.4cm)

19

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Pressure Measurement
The relation between pressure and head is used to measure pressure with manometer,
liquid gauge.

The Piezometer Tube Manometer


A tube which is attached to the top of a vessel
containing fluid at a pressure higher than atmospheric
The pressure measured is relative to atmospheric,
hence it is gauge pressure

p A = p1 = gh1 = h1
This method can only be used for liquids. And must not be too small or too large.

20

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

The U Tube Manometer


The U tube measure the pressure of both liquids and gases
The U tube is filled with a fluid called the Manometric fluid
The density of the fluid whose pressure to be measured must
be less than that of the manomatric fluid
We know that,

p A = p1

However,

p2 = p A + h1

p2 = p3

and

Since we are measuring gauge pressure


Hence,

p3 = man h2

p A = man h2 h1

If the fluid to be measure is gas, the

man >>

, and the gauge pressure

p A = man h2
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Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Measurement of pressure difference using the U Tube Manometer


The U tube is connected at the two points where the
pressure difference is to be measured
Using the figure
And

p A = p1

and

pB = p5

p2 = p3
p A + 1h1 = pB + man h2 + 3h3
p A pB = man h2 1h1 + 3h3

If the fluid is the same at the two points then


Again if the fluid is gas then

p A pB = man h2 + 1 ( h3 h1 )

p A pB = man h2

22

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Inclined Tube Manometer


If the pressure difference to be measured is small, one leg of the tube is inclined at an
angle

In this case

p A pB = manl2 sin 1h1 + 3h3

If the fluid is the same at the two points then


Again if the fluid is gas then

p A pB = manl2 sin + 1 ( h3 h1 )

p A pB = manl2 sin

23

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples
A closed tank contains compressed air and oil (SG. 0.9).
A U-tube manometer using mercury is connected to the tank.
For column heights h1=90cm, h2= 15cm and h3=22.5cm
determine the pressure reading of the gage.
the volume rate of flow, Q, through a pipe can be
determined by means of a flow nozzle located in the
pipe as illustrated. The nozzle creates a pressure drop,
along the pipe which is related to the flow through the
equation

Q = K p A pB

where K is a constant depending on the pipe and nozzle


size. The pressure drop is frequently measured with a
differential U-tube manometer. Determine an equation
for pA pB in terms of the specific weight of the flowing
fluid, 1 the specific weight of the gage fluid, 2 and the various heights indicated.
For 1 = 9.8 kN/m3, 2 = 15.6 kN/m3 ,h1 = 1.0m and h2 = 0.5m what is the value of the
pressure drop, pA pB ?

24

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Problems
A Differential manometer is attached to two tanks.
Calculate the pressure difference between chambers
A and B. Take SGMercury = 13.6, SGOil = 0.89 and
SGTetrachloride = 1.59. (Ans:-37kN/m2)

Calculate the level h of the oil in the right hand tube


(Ans: 0.18m)

The liquid at A and B is water and the manometer liquid


is oil with SG = 0.8, h1 = 300mm, h2 = 200mm and
h3 = 600mm. (a) determine pA-pB. (b) If pB = 50 kPa and
the barometer reading is 730 mmHg, find the absolute
pressure at A in meters of waters. (Ans:-1.37kPa, 14.9m)

25

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Forces on Submerged Surfaces in Static Fluids


We have seen that:
Hydrostatic vertical pressure distribution, the pressure varies linearly with depth
Pressures at any equal depth in a continuous fluid are equal
Pressure at a point acts equally in all directions (Pascals law)
Forces from a fluid on a boundary acts at right angles to that boundary
Pressure is defined as force per unit area

Fluid Pressure on a Surface


The determination of the forces developed on the surface due to the fluid is important in
the design of storage tanks, ships, dams, and other hydraulic structures.
For a horizontal surface, the magnitude of the resultant force is FR=p A
where p = h is the uniform pressure on the bottom
If atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the surface,
the resultant force is due to the liquid in the tank.
Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed
over the bottom, the resultant acts through the centroid
of the area
26

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

For a general case, assuming that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere and using
the xy coordinate system shown.
We wish to determine the direction, location,
and magnitude of the resultant force acting on
one side of this area due to the liquid.
At any given depth, h, the force acting on dA is
dF = hdA and is perpendicular to the surface.
Thus, the magnitude of the resultant

FR = A hdA = A y sin dA = sin A ydA

A ydA = yc A

The integral is the first moment of the area


yc is the y coordinate of the centroid, thus

FR = Ayc sin = Ahc

The resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the total area

27

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Since all differential forces are perpendicular


to the surface , the resultant force must also
be perpendicular to the surface
To find the location of the resultant force we
consider the moment around the x axis

FR y R = A ydF = A y 2 sin dA
Since

FR = Ayc sin

y 2 dA

A
yR =
yc A

The numerator is the second moment of the area, Ix. Using the parallel axis theorem

I x = I xc + Ayc2
Ixc is the second moment of the area with respect to an axis passing through the centroid
and parallel to the x axis. Thus,

yR =

I xc
+ yc
yc A
28

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

It is clear that the resultant force does not pass through the centroid but always below it
Similarly the x coordinate of the resultant force can be obtained by summing moment
about the y axis

xR =

A xydA = I xy = I xyc + x
c
yc A

yc A

yc A

Ixy is the product of inertia with respect to the x and y axes. Ixyc is the product of inertia
with respect to an orthogonal system passing through the centroid

29

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples
The 4m-diameter circular gate is located in the
inclined wall of a large reservoir containing
water = 9.80 kN/m3The gate is mounted on
a shaft along its horizontal diameter. For a water
depth of 10 m above the shaft determine:
(a) the magnitude and location of the resultant
force exerted on the gate by the water, and
(b) the moment that would have to be applied
to the shaft to open the gate.

A pressurized tank contains oil (S.G=0.9) and has a square,


0.6m by 0.6m plate bolted to its side. When the pressure gage
on the top of the tank reads 50 kPa, what is the magnitude
and location of the resultant force on the attached plate?

30

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surfaces


Integration method can be used, however, it can be tedious
The easiest way is to consider the fluid volume enclosed by the curved surface

The magnitude and location of the forces on the horizontal and vertical surfaces can be
determined from the relationship of planer surfaces
In order for force system to be in equilibrium the horizontal components must be equal
and collinear and the vertical components must be equal and collinear

FH = F2

FV = F1 + W

FR = ( FH ) 2 + ( FV ) 2

The location of the resultant force is found by Summing moment about an appropriate axis

31

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Examples
The 3m long cylinder floats in oil and rest against a wall
Determine the horizontal force the cylinder exerts on the
wall at the point of contact.
1m

960N/m3

The 2m-diameter drainage conduit is half full of water


at rest.
Determine the magnitude and line of action of the
resultant force that the water exerts on a 1m length of
the curved section BC of the conduit wall.

1m

32

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Problems
Isosceles triangular gate AB is hinged at A. Compute the
horizontal force P at point B for equilibrium, neglecting
the weight of the gate. (Ans: 22.47 kN)

The triangular channel is hinged at A and held together


by cable BC at the top. If cable spacing is 1m into the
paper, what is the cable tension. (Ans: 88.5 kN)

Determine the pivot locaion y of the square gate so that


it will rotate open when the liquid surface is shown.
(Ans: 0.833m)

Compute the air pressure required to keep the gate closed.


The gate is a circular plate of diameter 0.8m and weight
2.0kN.(Ans: 43 kPa)

33

Fluid Mechanics I

Hydrostatics

Problems
Compute the horizontal and vertical components of the
hydrostatic force on the quarter-circle face of the tank.
(Ans: 308kN, 289kN)

Compute the hydrostatic force and its line of action on


semicylindrical indentation ABC per meter of width into
the paper. (Ans: 115.1 kN, = 10.6o)

The face of the dam retaining water to depth 10m is


shaped as shown. Determine the magnitude of the
hydrostatic force acting on the curve portion AB per
meter width of the dam and the moment of this force
about A. (Ans: 658 kN, 2470kNm)

34

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Fluid Dynamics
This section discusses the analysis of fluid in motion - fluid dynamics. The motion of fluids can
be predicted in the same way as the motion of solids are predicted using the fundamental laws
of physics together with the physical properties of the fluid
Objectives
Introduce concepts necessary to analyse fluids in motion
Identify differences between Steady/unsteady uniform/non-uniform
compressible/incompressible flow
Demonstrate streamlines and stream tubes
Introduce the Continuity principle through conservation of mass and control volumes
Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation
Demonstrate practical uses of the Bernoulli and continuity equation in the analysis of flow
Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid
Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is
used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids.

35

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Flow Classification
It is possible - and useful - to classify the type of flow which is being examined into small
number of groups. The following terms describe the states which are used to classify fluid flow:
uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every point in the
fluid it is said to be uniform
non-uniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the same at every point the flow is
non-uniform. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid that flows near a solid boundary
will be non-uniform as the fluid at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary,
usually zero. However if the size and shape of the of the cross-section of the stream of
fluid is constant the flow is considered uniform)
steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity, pressure and cross-section)
may differ from point to point but DO NOT change with time
unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time, the flow is
described as unsteady. (In practise there is always slight variations in velocity and
pressure, but if the average values are constant, the flow is considered steady

36

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Combining the above we can classify any flow in to one of four type:
Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. An
example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity.
Steady non-uniform flow. Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not
change with time. An example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet velocity will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.
Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the
same, but will change with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a
pump pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off
Unsteady non-uniform flow. Every condition of the flow may change from point to point
and with time at every point. For example waves in a channel.

steady flow is by far the most simple of the four. You will then be pleased to hear
that this course is restricted to only this class of flow

37

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Three-dimensional flow
Although in general all fluids flow three-dimensionally, in many cases the greatest changes
only occur in two directions or even only in one.
Flow is one dimensional if the flow parameters (such as velocity, pressure, depth etc.) at a
given instant in time only vary in the direction of flow and not across the cross-section. An
example of one-dimensional flow is the ideal flow in a pipe.

Note that since flow must be zero at the pipe wall - yet non-zero in the centre there is a
difference of parameters across the cross-section. Which is only necessary if very high
accuracy is required.
Flow is two-dimensional if it can be assumed that the flow parameters vary in the direction
of flow and in one direction at right angles to this direction.

38

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Streamlines and Streamtubes


The motion of each fluid particle is described in terms of its velocity vector, V
If it is steady flow, each successive particle that passes through a given point will follow
the same path. For such cases the path is a fixed line in the xz plane.

For steady flows each particle slides along its path, and its velocity vector is everywhere
tangent to the path. The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow
field are called streamlines
Close to a solid boundary streamlines are parallel to that boundary
The fluid is moving in the same direction as the streamlines, hence, fluid can not cross it
Streamlines can not cross each other
Any particle starting on one streamline will stay on the same streamline
Streamlines are two dimension while streamtubes are three dimensions
39

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluid Dynamics

Flow rate
Mass flow rate: is the mass of fluid flowing per unit time
Volume flow rate Discharge: is the volume of fluid flowing per unit time. (It is also
commonly, but inaccurately, simply called flow rate). The symbol normally used for
discharge is Q. Multiplying this by the density of the fluid gives us the mass flow rate

Mean Velocity:
This is the discharge divided by the area cross section.
This does not imply that the velocity is constant across
the cross section

Inviscid Flow:
That is the fluid is assumed to have zero viscosity.
In practice there are no inviscid fluid. However, for many flow situation the viscous effect is
small compared to other forces such as pressure gradient and gravitation.

40

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Continuity
Matter cannot be created or destroyed. This principle
is know as the conservation of mass.The principle is
applied to fixed volumes, known as control volumes
(or surfaces)

Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time + Increase of mass in the control
volume/unit time
For steady state
Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time

1 A1Vm1 = 2 A2Vm 2 = constant


For incompressible flow = constant, hence

A1Vm1 = A2Vm 2 = Q
41

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Examples
For the pipe contraction shown, determine
the velocity of water at section 2 if the
velocity at section 1 is 2.1 m/s and the
surface area of section 1 and section 2 are
0.01 m2 and 0.003 m2 respectively
For the pipe expansion shown, determine
the velocity of water at section 1 if the
velocity at section 2 is 3.0 m/s and the
diameters of section 1 and section 2 are
30 mm and 40 mm respectively
If the mean velocity in pipe 1 is 2 m/s and its
diameter is 50mm and pipe 2 diameter is 40 mm
and takes 30% of the total discharge and pipe 3
diameter is 60mm, determine the values of
discharge and the mean velocity in each pipe

42

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Energy The Bernoullis Equation


Mass passing in 1 sec = AV
Weight passing in 1 sec =

gAV

Kinetic Energy passing in 1 sec =


KE per unit weight =

V2
2g

mV 2 1
= (AV )V 2
2
2

Datum

mgh = ( AV )gh

Potential Energy passing in 1 sec =


PE per unit weight = h

Work done by pressure in 1 sec = force * Distance =


Work done per unit weight =
Energy per unit weight =

( pA)V

p
g

p
V2
+h+
g
2g

p
V2
+h+
= Constant
2g
g

Along a streamtube If there is no energy dissipation

43

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Energy The Bernoullis Equation


In the direction of the streamtube we have the following forces
Pressure force at upstream end =

pA

Pressure force at downstream end =

( p + p ) A

Pressure forces around the circumference = zero


Weight force =

mg cos = ALg cos = Ahg

Using Newton 2nd Law


deviding by

Noting that

F = ma

gAL

pA ( p + p ) A Ahg = AL( dV / dt )

1 dp 1 dV dh
+
+
=0
g dL g dt dL

dV dV dL
dV d (V 2 / 2 )
=
=V
=
dt dL dt
dL
dL

gives

1 dp 1 dV 2 dh
+
+
=0
g dL 2 g dL dL

This is known as the Eulers Equation, for incompressible fluid this can be integrated to yield

p V2
+
+ h = Constant
g 2g
44

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Energy The Bernoullis Equation


Note that all the individual terms in the Bernoullis equation have units of length
The term h is know as potential head

V2
The term
is know as velocity head
2g
p
The term
is know as pressure head
g
The term H =

p
V2
+h+
is know as total head
g
2g

Example
A fluid of constant density of 960 kg/m3 is flowing
steadily through the tube shown. The diameter at
section 1 is 100 mm and at section 2 is 80 mm.
The pressure gauge at section 1 indicated a pressure
of 200 kN/m2 and the velocity was 5 m/s.
Determine the pressure at section 2.

45

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Application of the Energy Equation

Pitot Tube
If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body,
some move to the left and some to the right. But one,
in the centre, goes to the tip of the blunt body and stops.
This point is known as the stagnation point
Applying the Bernoullis equation between point 1 and 2 gives

1
p2 = p1 + V12
2
The term

1
V12 is called dynamic pressure
2

Knowledge of the static and stagnation pressure will enable the


calculation of the velocity of the fluid
This is the principle on which the Pitot-static tube is based
Two concentric tubes are attached to two pressure gauges

46

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Example
For the Pitot tube shown, show that the
relation between the fluid velocity and
the manometer reading h

V1 =

2 gh( man )

Venturi Meter
The Venturi meter is a device for measuring
discharge in a pipe.
It consists of a rapidly converging section
which increases the velocity of flow and
hence reduces the pressure.
By measuring the pressure differences the
discharge can be calculated.

47

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Using the Bernoullis equation between 1 and 2

p1 V12
p V2
+
+ z1 = 2 + 2 + z2
g 2 g
g 2 g
Using the continuity equation

Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 V2 =
However,

V1 A1
A2

p1 + gz1 = p2 + g ( z2 h) + man gh
Hence,


2 gh man

V1 =
2
A1
1
A2

The theoretical discharge is

h
B

Qideal = V1 A1

To get the actual discharge we account for losses due to friction, we include a coefficient
of discharge

Qactual = Cd Qideal

48

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Flow Through a Small orifice


At the surface velocity is negligible and the pressure
atmospheric.
At the orifice the jet is open to the air so again the
pressure is atmospheric
If we take the datum line through the orifice then
z1 = h and z2 =0.
Hence,

V22
h=
V2 = 2 gh
2g

This is the theoretical value of velocity.


To incorporate friction we use the coefficient of velocity

Vactual = CvVtheoretical

Each orifice has its own coefficient of velocity, they usually lie in the range (0.97 - 0.99)
The actual area of the jet is the area of the vena contracta not the area of the orifice. We
obtain this area by using a coefficient of contraction for the orifice

Aactual = Cc Atheoretical

49

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

So the discharge through the orifice is given by

Qactual = AactualVactual = CcCv AorificeVtheoretical


Qactual = Cd Aorifice gh

50

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Flow Over Notches and Weirs


A notch is an opening in the side of a tank or reservoir which extends above the surface of
the liquid.
It is usually a device for measuring discharge.
A weir is a notch on a larger scale - usually found in rivers.
Weir can be sharp crested but also may have a substantial
width in the direction of flow - it is used as both a flow
measuring device and a device to raise water levels.
We will assume that the velocity of the fluid approaching
the weir is small so that kinetic energy can be neglected.
We will also assume that the velocity through any elemental
strip depends only on the depth below the free surface.
These are acceptable assumptions for tanks with notches or
reservoirs with weirs, but for flows where the velocity
approaching the weir is substantial the kinetic energy must
be taken into account

51

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

To determine the theoretical discharge over a weir we


will consider a strip of thickness h, width l and at depth h
Velocity through the strip

V = 2 gh

Discharge through the strip

Q = AV = lh 2 gh

Integrating from the free surface to the weir crest


H

Q = 2 g lh1/ 2 dh
0

Rectangular Weir

The width is constant, b, Hence

2
Q = b 2 g h1/ 2 dh = b 2 g H 3 / 2
3
0

To obtain the actual discharge we introduce the coefficient of discharge

2
Qactual = Cd b 2 g H 3 / 2
3
Triangular Weir
The width b at depth h is

b = 2( H h) tan ( / 2 ) , hence
Qactual = Cd

8
tan ( / 2 ) 2 g H 5 / 2
15
52

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Examples
Water flows along a circular duct from A to B where
conditions are those shown. Assuming no losses,
estimate the pressure at B.

If the velocity of the water jet at point A is 20 m/s,


what is the pressure at point B? Neglect all losses
due to viscous effects and assume that the nozzle
outlet is at the same height as point B.

A horizontal venturi tube, for measuring the flow of water, tapers from 300 mm diameter
at the inlet to 100 mm diameter at the throat and has a discharge coefficient of 0.98. If the
differential U-tube manometer, containing water over mercury (specific gravity 13.6),
connecting the inlet and the throat, shows a difference in mercury levels of 55 mm,
determine the volume flow.

53

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems
A pitot-static tube used to measure the air speed in a wind tunnel is coupled to a water
manometer. If the dynamic pressure is h mm of water, obtain an expression for the air
speed in m/s. (Ans: 3.99h0.5)

Water collects in the bottom of a rectangular oil tank as


shown. How long will it take for the water to drain from
the tank through a 0.02- m-diameter drain hole in the
bottom of the tank? Assume quasisteady flow. (Ans: 2.45 hr)

A triangular orifice is cut in the vertical side of a tank containing a liquid. The base of the
orifice is horizontal and of breadth b. The apex of the orifice is at a height d above the
base and is located at a depth d below the liquid surface level. If the coefficient of
discharge is unity, derive an expression for the volume flow rate. (Ans: 0.91b(gd3)0.5)

54

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems
Water flows through the pipe contraction shown.
For the given 0.2-m difference in manometer level,
determine the flowrate as a function of the diameter
of the small pipe, D. (Ans: 0.0156 m3/s)

Water flows steadily through the pipe shown such


that the pressures at sections (1) and (2) are
300 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. Determine the
diameter of the pipe at section (2), D2, if the
velocity at section 1 is 20 m/s and viscous effects
are negligible. (Ans: 0.0688 m)

55

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

The Momentum Equation


Moving fluids exerting forces on whatever it hits
In fluid mechanics the analysis of motion is performed in the same way as in solid
mechanics by the use of Newton s Second Law of motion
The momentum equation is a statement of Newtons Second Law and relates the sum of
the forces acting on an element of fluid to its acceleration or rate of change of momentum.
Newtons 2nd Law can be written:

The Rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the
body, and takes place in the direction of the force

F=

d ( mV )
dt

We start by assuming that we have steady flow


In time t
momentum of fluid entering stream tube
momentum of fluid leaving stream tube
Applying Newtons Second Law

F=

1 A1V1tV1
2 A2V2tV2

Note
1 represent inflow
2 represent outflow

2 A2V2tV2 1 A1V1tV1
t
56

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Assuming fluid with a constant density and using the continuity equation

Q1 = A1V1

Q2 = A2V2

F = (Q2 V2 Q1V1 )
Since the velocity have components in the x, y, and z direction, it is more convenient to consider
each direction separately

Fx = (Q2Vx 2 Q1Vx1 )

Fy = (Q2V y 2 Q1V y1 )

Fz = (Q2Vz 2 Q1Vz1 )

The force F is made up of following components:


FR = Force exerted on the fluid by any solid body touching the control volume
FB = Force exerted on the fluid body (e.g. gravity)
FP = Force exerted on the fluid by fluid pressure outside the control volume

When using the momentum equation, the following steps need to be considered:

Draw a control volume


Decide on co-ordinate axis system
Calculate the total force
Calculate the pressure force
Calculate the body force
Calculate the resultant force

57

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Application of the Momentum Equation


The Force Due to the Flow Around a Pipe Bend
Consider a pipe bend with a constant cross section lying in the horizontal plane and turning
through an angle of
Control Volume : The control volume include the faces
at the inlet and outlet of the bend and the pipe walls
Co-ordinate system
It is convenient to choose the co-ordinate axis so
that one is pointing in the direction of the inlet velocity.
Calculate the total force:

FTx = Q (Vx 2 Vx1 ) = Q (V2 cos V1 )


FTy = Q (Vy 2 Vy1 ) = Q (V2 sin 0)

Calculate the pressure force:

FPx = p1 A1 p2 A2 cos
FPy = 0 p2 A2 sin

Calculate the body force: The only body force is that exerted by gravity and have not
component in the x and y directions

58

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Calculate the resultant force:

FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx


FTy = FRy + FPy + FBy
FRx = Q (V2 cos V1 ) p1 A1 + p2 A2 cos
FRy = QV2 sin + p2 A2 sin
FRx

Hence

FR

FR = FRx2 + FRy2
FRy

F
Rx

= tan 1

FRx

the force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction

V5_5.mov

59

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Force on a Pipe Nozzle


Because the fluid is contracted at the nozzle
forces are induced in the nozzle
Control Volume and Co-ordinate system are shown
Calculate the total force:

FT = FTx = Q (Vx 2 Vx1 )

Using the continuity equation

Q = A1V1 = A2V2

Calculate the pressure force:

FPx = p1 A1 p2 A2

1 1
FT = Q 2
A2 A1

We use the Bernoulli equation and noting that the pressure outside is atmospheric

p1 =

Q 2 1

1
2 2
2 A2 A1

Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x direction


Calculate the resultant force:

FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx


1 1
1
Q 2 1
FRx = Q ( )
( 2 2 ) A1
A2 A1
2 A2 A1
2

60

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Force Due to an Inclined Jet Hitting a Plate


V2

Control Volume and Co-ordinate system are shown


Calculate the total force:

FTx = ((Q2Vx 2 + Q3Vx 3 ) Q1Vx1 ) = Q1V1 cos


FTy = ((Q2V y 2 + Q3Vy 3 ) Q1V y1 )
= ((Q2V2 Q3V3 ) Q1V1 sin )

V1

V3

Using the energy equation and noting that z1=z2=z3 and the pressure is all
atmospheric we can prove that v1 = v2 = v3 = v
Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric
Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions
Calculate the resultant force:

FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx

FRx = Q1V cos

FTy = FRy + FPy + FBy

FRy = V (Q3 Q2 + Q1 sin )


61

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Force on a Pelton Wheel Blade


The above analysis of impact of jets be extended and applied to analysis of turbine blades
One clear demonstration of this is with the blade of a turbine called the Pelton wheel
A narrow jet is fired at blades which stick out around the periphery of a large metal disk
The jet is deflected by the blade and the change of its momentum transfer a force to the
blade and hence a torque to the drive shaft
Calculate the total force:

Q
Q
FTx = (( Vx 2 + Vx 2 ) Q Vx1 )
2
2
= Q (V2 cos + V1 )
Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric
Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions
Calculate the resultant force: FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx

FRx = Q (V2 cos + V1 )

62

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Examples
Air flows from a 600 mm diameter pipe, through a
nozzle which is bolted on to the end of the pipe,
and discharges into the atmosphere. The outlet
diameter of the nozzle is 300 mm. A U-tube
manometer, connected to the pipe, shows a
pressure difference of 250mm of water. Assuming
that there are no losses, estimate the speed of the
air at the outlet of the nozzle and the force in the bolts required to hold the nozzle in
position. (Ans: 65.2 m/s; 415 N)
A horizontal pipeline has a bend which changes the direction of the water flowing through
it by 45 and at the same time changes in diameter from 0.5 m upstream to 0.25 m
downstream. The gauge pressure upstream is 2x1O5N/m2 and the volume flow is O.4m3/s.
Neglecting losses, determine the force required to hold the bend in position. (Ans:R=33kN)

63

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems
A nozzle providing a horizontal jet of water 25 rnm diameter at a speed of 10 m/s is
supplied by a pipe from an open reservoir whose free surface is 7 m above the nozzle. The
jet powers a simple turbine made up of flat plate blades which the jet strikes at 90. The
blades are connected to a shaft so that the point of impact between the jet and the blades
is 300 mm from the centre of the shaft
Mate an estimate of: (i) the loss of head in the pipe. (ii) the force exerted by the jet if the
blades are stationary.
If the shaft is allowed to rotate at 200 rev/min, calculate: (iii) the force now exerted on the
blades;(iv) the power available at the shaft; and (v) the overall efficiency, taking the free
surface of the reservoir as the input
(Ans: (i) 1.9 m; (ii) 49.1 N (iii) 18.3 N; (iv) 115 W; (v) 34%)
A horizontal streamlined nozzle issues a jet of fluid of density , cross sectional area a and
velocity U. Ignoring any viscous losses, derive an expression for the force required to hold
the nozzle in position at the end of a pipeline of cross sectional area A.

64

Fluid Mechanics I

Conservation Principles

Problems
Air of density 1.22 kg/m3 flows in a duct of internal diameter
600 mm and is discharged to the atmosphere. At the outlet
end of the duct, and co-axial with it, is a cone with a base
diameter greater than 600 mm and a vertex angle of 90.
The flow through the duct is controlled by moving the
cone into the duct, the air then escaping along the sloping
sides of the cone. The mean velocity in the duct upstream of the cone is 15 m/s and the air
leaves the cone with a mean velocity of 60 m/s parallel to the sides. Neglecting viscous
effects, calculate the force exerted by the air on the cone. (Ans: 441N)
In the system shown, air is drawn from the
atmosphere into a 250 mm diameter duct by a
fan and flows out past a 200 mm diameter obstacle
with a speed of 30 m/s. If the air is stationary in
the atmosphere and there are no losses in the duct,
calculate: (i) the speed of the air in the duct
(ii) the pressure in the duct upstream of the fan
(iii) the force F required to hold the obstacle in position (iv) the power delivered to the air
by the fan (Ans: (i)10.8 m/s; (ii) -71.7 N/m2 gauge; (iii) 11.1 N; (iv) 293 W)
65

Fluid Mechanics I

Real Fluid

Viscosity
It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how
fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately the same
value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.
There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the fluidity of
the fluid.
From the definition of fluid, deforms continuously when subjected to shear forces, if a
fluid is at rest there are no shearing forces.
Shear stresses develop if the particles of moving fluid move relative to one another.
At all solid boundaries the flow particles have
zero relative velocity to the boundaries and it
will increase as we move toward the centre
Since we are concerned with flow past solid
boundaries; cars, aeroplanes, pipes and
channels, shear forces will be present

66

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Viscosity in Gasses
The molecules of gasses are only weakly kept in position by molecular cohesion (as they
are so far apart). As adjacent layers move by each other there is a continuous exchange
of molecules. Molecules of a slower layer move to faster layers causing a drag, while
molecules moving the other way exert an acceleration force. Mathematical considerations
of this momentum exchange can lead to Newton law of viscosity.
If temperature of a gas increases the momentum exchange between layers will increase
thus increasing viscosity.
Viscosity will also change with pressure - but under normal conditions this change is
negligible in gasses.

Viscosity in Liquids
There is some molecular interchange between adjacent layers. The molecules are much
closer than in gasses, hence, the cohesive forces hold the molecules in place more rigidly.
Increasing the temperature of a fluid reduces the cohesive forces and increases the
molecular interchange.
Reducing cohesive forces reduces shear stress, while increasing molecular interchange
increases shear stress.
High pressure can also change the viscosity of a liquid. As pressure increases the relative
movement of molecules requires more energy hence viscosity increases.

67

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Newtons Law of Viscosity


For a 3d rectangular element of fluid
The shear stress, , is

F
A

The deformation caused by is

the shear strain and it is the angle


For a particle at point E which moves under the shear stress to E in time t
The shear strain is

dx
dy

and the rate of shear strain is

dx dV
=
tdy dy

It has been experimentally confirmed that the shear stress is directly proportional to the
rate of shear strain

= Constant *

dV
dy

The proportionality constant is known as the dynamic viscosity,

Newtons law of Viscosity is

dV
dy

, Hence

68

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

For a solid the strain is a function of the applied stress (providing that the elastic limit has not been
reached). For a fluid, the rate of strain is proportional to the applied stress.

The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is applied and (if the elastic limit
is not reached) the deformation disappears when the force is removed. A fluid continues to flow for as
long as the force is applied and will not recover its original form when the force is removed.

Newtonian Fluids:
Fluids obeying Newtons law
where the value of is constant
Non-Newtonian Fluids:
Fluids in which the value
of is not constant

69

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Viscosity, , is the property of a fluid, due to cohesion and interaction between molecules,
which offers resistance to sheer deformation.
Different fluids deform at different rates under the same shear stress. Fluid with a high
viscosity such as syrup, deforms more slowly than fluid with a low viscosity such as water.
All fluids are viscous, Newtonian Fluids obey the linear relationship given by Newtons law
of viscosity.

dV
dy

Where

, is the shear stress, its dimensions ML-1 T -2

and its Units N m

-2

or kg m-1 s

-2

dV
is the velocity gradient or rate of shear strain, its Dimension t 1 and Units radians s-1
dy

is the coefficient of dynamic viscosity

70

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity


The Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity, , is defined as the shear force, per unit area, (or
shear stress ), required to drag one layer of fluid with unit velocity past another layer a
unit distance away.

= /

dV Force Velocity Force Time


Mass
=
/
=
=
dy
Area Distance
Area
Length Time

Units: N s m-2 or kg m-1 s-1 . (Although


kg m-1 s-1 )

is often expressed in Poise, P, where 10 P = 1

Typical values: Water =1.14 x 10-3 kg m-1 s-1 1 , Air =1.78 x 10-5 kg m-1 s-1 , Mercury
=1.552 kg m-1 s-1 , Paraffin Oil =1.9 kg m-1 s-1 .

71

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Kinematic Viscosity
Kinematic Viscosity, , is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density.

Dimensions: L2 T -1 and Units: m2 s


104 St = 1 m2 s 1 .)

(Although

is often expressed in Stokes, St, where

Typical values: Water =1.14 x 10-6 m2 s 1 - , Air =1.46 x 10-5 m2 s


10-4 m2 s 1 , Paraffin Oil =2.375 x 10-3 m2 s 1 .

, Mercury =1.145 x

72

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Examples
A dimensionless combination of variables that is important in the study of viscous flow
through pipes is called the Reynolds number, Re, defined as VD/ where is the fluid
density, V the mean fluid velocity, D the pipe diameter, and the fluid viscosity. A
Newtonian fluid having a viscosity 0.38 N.s/m2 of and a specific gravity of 0.91 flows
through a 25-mm-diameter pipe with a velocity of 2.6 m/s. Determine the value of the
Reynolds number
The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two wide, parallel plates
is given by the equation
2
3Vm y
V=
1
2 h

where Vm is the mean velocity. The fluid has a viscosity of 0.2 N.s/m2. When Vm=0.6 m/s
and h=0.5 cm. determine: (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall, and (b) the
shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls and passing through the centerline
(midplane).

73

Fluid Mechanics I

Fluids Properties

Examples
A large plate moves with speed vo over a stationary plate on a layer of oil of thickness d
and viscosity . If the velocity profile is that of a parabola, with the oil at the plates having
the same velocity as the plates, what is the shear stress on the moving plate from the oil?
If a linear profile is assumed, what is the shear stress on the moving plate? (Ans: vo/(2d),
vo/d )

A 250 mm square block weighing 1.1.kN slide down an


incline on a film of oil 0.006 mm thick. Assuming a linear
velocity profile in the oil, what is the terminal speed of
the block? The viscosity of the oil is 7 mPa.s.
(Ans: 5.16 m/s)

74

Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Characteristic of Pipe Flow


Most of conduits used to transport fluid are round in cross section
They are designed to withstand a considerable pressure difference across their walls
Most of the basic principles involved are independent of the cross-sectional shape
For all flows involved in this section, we assume that the pipe is completely filled with the
fluid being transported

The difference between open-channel flow and the pipe flow is in the fundamental
mechanism that drives the flow
For open-channel flow, gravity alone is the driving force
For pipe flow, gravity may be important, but the main driving force is likely to be a pressure
gradient along the pipe

If the pipe is not full, it is not possible to maintain this pressure difference

75

Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

The flow of real fluids exhibits viscous effect, that is they tend to .stick. to solid surfaces
and have stresses within their body
You might remember from earlier in the course Newtons law of viscosity:

dV
dy

This tells us that the shear stress, , in a fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient - the
rate of change of velocity across the fluid path. For a Newtonian fluid we can write:

dV
dy

The constant of proportionality, , is known as the viscosity.


In this part we shall look at how the forces due to momentum changes on the fluid and
viscous forces compare and what changes take place.

76

Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Laminar and Turbulent Flow


If we were to take a pipe of free flowing water and inject a dye into the middle of the
stream, what would we expect to happen?
This phenomenon was first investigated in the 1880s by Osbourne Reynolds in an
experiment which has become a classic in fluid mechanics
Reynolds discovered that dependent on the speed of the flow the dye will flow smoothly, in
a wavy manner or in a vigorous eddying motion where it mixed completely with the water

In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is


very orderly with all particles moving in straight lines
parallel to the pipe walls
In transitional the flow comprises short burst of
turbulence embedded in a laminar flow
In turbulent the flow incorporate an eddying or mixing action. The motion of the fluid
particle is complex and involve fluctuations in velocity and direction
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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Reynolds experiments revealed that the onset of turbulence was a function of


Fluid velocity
Fluid viscosity
Typical dimension

This led to the formation of the dimensionless Reynolds Number


Where:

L is a representative length
V is mean velocity
is density of fluid
is absolute viscosity
is kinematic viscosity

Re =

VL VL
=

It can be shown that

The Reynolds Number = Inertia force / viscous force


For commercial pipe flow
for Re < 2000 laminar flow
for 2000 < Re < 4000 flow is transitional
for Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Examples:
Are the flows laminar or turbulent:
A flow of water trough a pipe of square cross section. The section is 500x500mm and the
mean velocity of flow is 3m/s. take viscosity to be 1.2*10-3 kg/m s.
A flow of air through a pipe of diameter 35mm. The air velocity is 0.1 m/s and viscosity is
1.7*10-5 kg /m s

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Energy Losses Due to Friction


In the derivation of the Conservation of energy equation we have assumed ideal fluid
1

The friction which results from the the


shear stress in real fluid will absorb
some of the energy available, hence

hL

Energy Line

V22
2g

P1
g

V
1

Z1

Head
loss
Velocity
head

P2

Piezometric
head

Pressure
head

hf is often know as the

V12
2g

Piezometric
head

p V2
p1 V12
+
+ h1 = 2 + 2 + h2 + h f
g 2g
g 2g

head loss due to friction

2
Z2

To determine the hf we consider the


Free-body diagram of a cylinder of fluid

Datum

Using Newtons second law and noting that


the fluid is flowing at a constant velocity

p1r 2 ( p1 p1 )r 2 2rL = 0
p 2
=
L
r
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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Assuming laminar flow and using Newtons law of viscosity


Thus,

dV
p
=
r
dr
2 L

Integrating will give

V =

dV
dr

dV = 2L rdr

p 2
r + C1
4 L

This is represent a parabolic velocity distribution

pD 2
At r = D/2 we have V = 0 this will give C1 =
16 L
The discharge is Q = V dA =

Using the Energy equation

r=D / 2

r =0

pD 2 2r
1
16 L D

2
pD 2 2r
, hence V =
1
16L D

D 4 p

2
rdr
=

128L

p1 p2

= h f p = gh f
g g

D 4 gh f
Q=
128L

hf =

128LQ
D 4 g
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Fluid Mechanics I

Using the mean velocity Vmean=Q/A will give

However, Re =

Vd

therefore,

hf =

hf =

32 LVmean
gD 2

Viscous Flow in Pipes

. We will drop the mean.

64 L V 2
L V2
= f
Re D 2 g
D 2g

For Turbulent flow, Newtons law of viscosity does not apply,


here semi imperical formula are used to determine the
velocity profile and hence the turbulent shear stress
Following the experiments of Reynolds and Darcy and Wiesbach, the shear stress was
proportional to V2.
Following the same analogy as above we get

L V2
hf = f
D 2g

The various experiments showed that the friction is dependent of the Re and the relative
roughness of the pipe k/D or /D
Moody produced plots of the friction f as a function of Re and /D for commercial pipes

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Energy Losses Due to Friction

General theoretical treatment for local losses is not


available.

It is usual to assume rough turbulence which lead to


the simple equation

hL = K L

Energy Line

hL

V2
2 g Here, K is the loss coefficient

The losses can be due to :

K L = (1

A1 2
)
A2

Pipe expansions

Pipe contractions: depend on A1/A2

Elbow and junctions

Pipe Entrance and exit

Valves

KL = 0.8

KL = 0.5

KL = 0.2

KL = 0.04

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Example
Determine the head lost to friction when water flows through 300m of 150mm diameter
galvanised steel pipe at 50 litres/s.
Calculate the steady rate at which oil ( =10-5 m2/s) will flow through a cast-iron pipe
100mm diameter and 120 m long under a head difference of 5 m.
Determine the size of galvanised steel pipe needed to carry water a distance of 180 m at
85 litres/s with a head loss of 9 m.
Determine the discharge for the flow situation
shown in the figure. The loss coefficient for a
fully opened valve, a standard elbow and a
flush entrance can be taken as 10., 0.9 and
0.5 respectively. The pipe is 150mm diameter
and made of cast-iron. The water temperature
is 15oc.

10m
Fully Open valve

12m

30m

60m

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Examples
Oil of viscosity 0.048 Pa s and density 930 kglm3 flows through a horizontal 25 mm
diameter pipe with an average speed of 0.3 m/s.
(i) Check that the flow is laminar
(ii) Calculate the pressure drop in a 30 m length of pipe
(iii) Find the speed of the fluid at a distance of 6 mm from the wall of the pipe.
(Ans: Re = 145; (ii) 2.21 x 104 N/m2; (iii) 0.438 m/s)
Calculate the power required to pump 50,000 kg of oil per hour along a horizontal pipeline
100 mm diameter and 1.6 km long if the density and kinematic viscosity of the oil are 915
kglm3 and 1.86 1O-3 m2/s. (Ans: 257 kw)
Calculate the pressure drop and power required per 100 m length of horizontal 250 mm
diameter cast iron pipe to pump water ( = 1.14 X 10-6 m2/s) at the rate of 2.0 litres per
second. (Ans: 11.1 N/m2; 2.22 x 10-2 W)

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Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Problems
A pipeline connecting two water reservoirs having a difference of level of 6 m is 720 m long
and rises to a height of 3 m above the upper reservoir, at a distance of 240 m from it,
before descending to the lower reservoir. If the pipe diameter is 1.2 m and the friction
factor is 0.04, estimate the volume flow and the gauge pressure at the highest point in the
pipeline. Assume losses are those due to friction only. (Ans: 2.51 m3/s; -51.6x103 N/m2)
Water from a large reservoir is discharged to atmosphere through a pipe 450 m long. The
outlet is 12 m below the surface level in the reservoir. Taking the friction factor as .04,
calculate the diameter of pipe necessary if the discharge is to be 9 x 1O-3 m3/s. Assume
that the loss at the inlet to the pipe and the kinetic energy in the water at the pipe outlet
are negligible and then justify this assumption. (Ans: 100mm)
A pipe 50 mm diameter and 45 m long is connected to a large tank, the inlet to the pipe
being 3 m below the surface. The lower end of the pipe, which is 6 m below the upper
end, is connected to a 100 mm diameter horizontal pipe 75 m long which discharges to
atmosphere. If the friction factor is 0.036 calculate the discharge, taking into account the
entry loss and the sudden enlargement between the two pipes. (Ans: 4.66 x 10-3m3/s)

88

Fluid Mechanics I

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Problems
A 200 mm diameter commercial steel pipeline 500 m long is to convey 4 m3 of water per
minute from a reservoir to a storage tank whose free surface level is 20 m above that of
the reservoir. If there are four standard elbow bends (loss coefficient 0.9 per elbow) and
two gate valves (loss coefficient 0.3 per valve) in the line, calculate the power required,
assuming the efficiency of the pump is 80%. (Ans: 24.9 kW)

In the water system shown in Fig 9, a turbine is


situated in a 150 m length of 150 mm diameter
galvanised steel pipe, containing four 90 elbow
bends, which discharges to atmosphere. If the
turbine absorbs 10 kW from the water, estimate
the depth H required in the reservoir to give a
flow rate of 0.1 m3/s. (Ans: 51.25 m)

89