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History of magnetism

The history of magnetism dates back to earlier than 600 b.c., but it is only in the twentieth
century that scientists have begun to understand it, and develop technologies based on this
understanding. Magnetism was most probably first observed in a form of the mineral magnetite
called lodestone, which consists of iron oxide-a chemical compound of iron and oxygen. The
ancient Greeks were the first known to have used this mineral, which they called a magnet
because of its ability to attract other pieces of the same material and iron.
The Englishman William Gilbert (1540-1603) was the first to investigate the phenomenon of
magnetism systematically using scientific methods. He also discovered that the Earth is itself a
weak magnet. Early theoretical investigations into the nature of the Earth's magnetism were
carried out by the German Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Quantitative studies of magnetic
phenomena initiated in the eighteenth century by Frenchman Charles Coulomb (1736-1806),
who established the inverse square law of force, which states that the attractive force between
two magnetized objects is directly proportional to the product of their individual fields and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Danish physicist Hans
Christian Oersted(1777-1851) first suggested a link between electricity and magnetism.
Experiments involving the effects of magnetic and electric fields on one another were then
conducted by Frenchman Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836) and Englishman Michael Faraday
(1791-1869), but it was the Scotsman, James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), who provided the
theoretical foundation to the physics of electromagnetism in the nineteenth century by showing
that electricity and magnetism represent different aspects of the same fundamental force field.
Then, in the late 1960s American Steven Weinberg (1933- ) and Pakistani Abdus Salam (1926- ),
performed yet another act of theoretical synthesis of the fundamental forces by showing that
electromagnetism is one part of the electroweak force. The modern understanding of magnetic
phenomena in condensed matter originates from the work of two Frenchmen: Pierre Curie (18591906), the husband and scientific collaborator of Madame Marie Curie (1867-1934), and Pierre
Weiss (1865-1940). Curie examined the effect of temperature on magnetic materials and
observed that magnetism disappeared suddenly above a certain critical temperature in materials
like iron. Weiss proposed a theory of magnetism based on an internal molecular field
proportional to the average magnetization that spontaneously align the electronic micromagnets
in magnetic matter. The present day understanding of magnetism based on the theory of the
motion and interactions of electrons in atoms (called quantum electrodynamics) stems from the
work and theoretical models of two Germans, Ernest Ising (1900- ) and Werner Heisenberg
(1901-1976). Werner Heisenberg was also one of the founding fathers of modern quantum

Lenz's law /lntsz l/ is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey
Newton's third law and the conservation of energy.[1] Lenz's law is named after Heinrich Lenz,
and it says:
An induced electromotive force (emf) always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field
opposes the original change in magnetic flux.
Lenz's law is shown with the negative sign in Faraday's law of induction:

which indicates that the induced emf () and the change in magnetic flux (B) have opposite
For a rigorous mathematical treatment, see electromagnetic induction and Maxwell's equations.

Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field
will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)a phenomenon
called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers,
inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.[1][2]
The MaxwellFaraday equation is a generalization of Faraday's law, and forms one of
Maxwell's equations.

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics describing the electrostatic
interaction between electrically charged particles. The law was first published in 1785 by French
physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb and was essential to the development of the theory of
electromagnetism. It is analogous to Isaac Newton's inverse-square law of universal gravitation.
Coulomb's law can be used to derive Gauss's law, and vice versa. The law has been tested
heavily, and all observations have upheld the law's principle.

Parts and function of motor and generator

Magnetic Fields
The field magnet (usually a permanent magnet to save power) creates a steady magnetic field
with a fixed polarity. When an electric current is passed through the wire coil, an
electromagnetic field is generated around the armature.
The field created by the field magnet pushes the armature around in a circle. The commutator
and brushes change the direction of the current to prevent the electromagnet from changing
direction as it turns so that it revolves instead of oscillating. The whole system drives the axle
The engine creates mechanical energy the generator will convert into electricity. Each generator
engine's design aims to create a maximum supply of electrical current by running on a specific
fuel or other power source.
Generators running on fuel have a system that stores and pumps the appropriate fuel to the
engine. The tank stores enough fuel to power a generator for an equivalent number of hours. The
fuel pipe connects the tank to the engine, and the return pipe connects the engine to the fuel tank
for return of fuel. The fuel pump moves the fuel from the tank, through fuel pipe and to the
engine. A fuel filter filters any debris from the fuel before delivery to the engine. The fuel
injector atomizes the fuel and injects it directly into the combustion chamber of the engine.
A car engine creates mechanical energy converted in the alternator to make your car go. The
alternator converts mechanical energy produced by the engine into electrical current. The
alternator comprises of the stator and the rotor (or armature). The stator is a stationary part
containing a set of coils that conduct electricity. The rotor moves to create a constantly rotating
electromagnetic field around the stator.
The alternator generates electrical voltage. The generator must regulate the voltage to produce a
constant current suitable for practical use.
The temperature of generator components requires regulation to prevent overheating during use.
Generators can use a fan, coolant or both to control the temperature of the generator at work.
The temperature of generator components requires regulation to prevent overheating during use.
Generators can use a fan, coolant or both to control the temperature of the generator at work.
The generator will also produce exhaust as the combustion chamber converts fuel. Exhaust
systems dispel the harmful gases emitted by the generator during use.

Step-up Transformer
On a step-up transformer there are more turns on the secondary coil than the primary coil. The
induced voltage across the secondary coil is greater than the applied voltage across the primary
coil or in other words the voltage has been stepped-up.
Step-down Transformer
A step down transformer has less turns on the secondary coil that the primary coil. The induced
voltage across the secondary coil is less the applied voltage across the primary coil or in other
words the voltage is stepped-down.
Transformers are very efficient. If it is assumed that a transformer is 100% efficient (and this is a
safe assumption as transformers may be up to 99% efficient) then the power in the primary coil
has to be equal to the power in the secondary coil, as per the law of conservation of energy.
Power in primary coil = Power in secondary coil
Remember, power = potential difference x current
Primary coil p.d. x primary coil current = Secondary coil p.d. x secondary coil current
VP x IP = VS x IS
So if the potential difference is stepped up by a transformer then the current is stepped down by
roughly the same ratio. In the case of the potential being stepped down by the transformer then
the current is stepped up by the same ratio.

A)Bar magnet

B)Horshoe magnet

C and D

Uses of electromagnets
Electromagnets are very widely used in electric and electromechanical devices, including:

Motors and generators

Relays, including reed relays originally used in telephone exchanges
Electric bells and buzzers
Loudspeakers and earphones
Magnetic recording and data storage equipment: tape recorders, VCRs, hard disks

MRI machines

Scientific equipment such as mass spectrometers

Particle accelerators
Magnetic locks
Magnetic separation equipment, used for separating magnetic from nonmagnetic material,
for example separating ferrous metal from other material in scrap.
Industrial lifting magnets
Electromagnetic suspension used for MAGLEV trains
Induction heating for cooking, manufacturing, and hyperthermia therapy

MAGNET: A material that has the property, either natural or induced, of attracting iron or steel.

MAGNETIC FIELD: The space around a magnet in which the magnetic force can be detected.
MAGNETIC FLUX: The total magnetic induction across or through a specified area.

MAGNETIC INDUCTION, B: The production of magnetic properties in a magnetizable

substance when placed in a magnetic field.

MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE: A series of invisible lines passing from one pole to another
of a magnet, which taken together form the magnetic field.

MAGNETIC ORIENTATION: Determines the magnetic polarity and position of one magnet
pole to the other.

MAGNETIC SATURATION: The maximum amount of magnetic energy that can be absorbed
by a magnetic substance.

MAXIMUM ENERGY PRODUCT, BH max: The point on the BH curve where the product
of B and H is a maximum and the required volume of magnet material required to project a given
energy into its surroundings is a minimum. (MGOe)

MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE: The maximum temperature a magnet can

withstand without significant long range instability or structural changes.

MGO: Mega Gauss Oersted.

NORTH POLE: The pole of a magnet that when freely suspended would point to the north
magnetic pole of the earth.

OERSTED: The unit of magnetic intensity in the cgs ( centimeter-gram-second ) system that
describes magnetic force.

POLE PIECES: Steel plates attached to the north and south poles of a magnet which direct the
lines of flux and can control the gradient of the magnetic field.

PULL TEST: A test of holding value or breakaway force and reachout, usually conducted with
a flat ferrous plate or ferrous sphere and a spring scale.

REACH OUT: The distance in which a magnetic field will extend from the magnet source.

RESIDUAL MAGNETISM: Small amounts of magnetism that remain in a material after being
exposed to magnetic force.

As a consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity, electricity and magnetism are

fundamentally interlinked. Both magnetism lacking electricity, and electricity without
magnetism, are inconsistent with special relativity, due to such effects aslength contraction, time
dilation, and the fact that the magnetic force is velocity-dependent. However, when both
electricity and magnetism are taken into account, the resulting theory (electromagnetism) is fully
consistent with special relativity.[6][9] In particular, a phenomenon that appears purely electric or
purely magnetic to one observer may be a mix of both to another, or more generally the relative
contributions of electricity and magnetism are dependent on the frame of reference. Thus, special
relativity "mixes" electricity and magnetism into a single, inseparable phenomenon called
electromagnetism, analogous to how relativity "mixes" space and time into spacetime.
All observations on electromagnetism apply to what might be considered to be primarily
magnetism, e.g. perturbations in the magnetic field are necessarily accompanied by a nonzero
electric field, and propagate at the speed of light.