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4

Conducting
Marketing Research

Marketing Management, 13th ed

Chapter Questions
What constitutes good marketing
research?
What are g
good metrics for measuring
g
marketing productivity?
How can marketers assess their return
on investment of marketing
expenditures?
How can companies more accurately
measure and forecast demand?
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Build-A-Bear
Workshop
makes the most
of interactive
entertainment
retailing

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What is Marketing Research?


Riset pemasaran adalah disain
sistematik, pengumpulan, analisa, dan
laporan data serta penemuan yang
relevan untuk situasi pemasaran yang
spesifik dalam perusahaan
perusahaan.

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Types of Marketing Research


Firms

SyndicatedS
di t d
Service
informasi

perdagangan (Nielsen
Media Research-track viewing habits of
varied audiences)

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Custom
(Specific projects
Design study
Report findings)

SpecialtyLine
(jasa
wawancara)

The Marketing Research


Process
Define the problem
p

Develop research plan

Collect information
Make
decision
Analyze information

Present findings

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Step 1

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Define the problem (e.g., Will offering an in-flight


Internet service create enough incremental
preference and profit of American Airlines to justify its
cost?)
Specify decision alternatives (e.g., Should
American offer an Internet connection?)
State research objectives (e.g., types of 1st class
passengers are likely to use internet?)

Step 2

Data
S
Sources

Research
A
Approach
h

Research
Instruments

Sampling
Plan

Contact
Methods
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Research Approaches
Observation
Ethnographic--link
Ethnographic link between culture &
behavior &/or how cultural processes develop
over time (participant observation)
Focus groupdiscuss topics of interest
Surveyknowledge,
Surveyknowledge beliefs,
beliefs preferences,
preferences
satisfaction
Behavioral data
data--Datapurchasing
Data purchasing data
Experimentationcause and effect
relationships
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Focus Group in Session

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Research Instruments
Questionnaires
Qualitative & Quantitative Measures
Technological
T h l i lD
Devices
i

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Questionnaire Dos
Do s and Donts
Don ts

Kuesioner tidak bias


Pertanyaan simple
Pertanyaan spesifik
Menghindari jargon
Menghindari kata-kata
sulit
Menghindari kata-kata
ambigu
g

Menghindari
g
hal negatif
g
Menghindari hipotesis
Menghindari kata-kata
yang kemungkinan
salah dengar
Menggunakan pilihan
jawaban
Menggunakan kategori
yang bermanfaat
Memperbolehkan
responden
memperbaiki jawaban

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Question Types - Dichotomous


In arranging this trip, did you contact
American Airlines?
Yes No

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Question Types Multiple Choice


With whom are yyou traveling
g on this trip?
p
No one
Spouse
S
Spouse and children
Children only
Business
B i
associates/friends/relatives
i t /f i d / l ti
An organized tour group
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Question Types Likert Scale


Indicate your level of agreement with the
following statement: Small airlines generally give
better service than large
g ones.
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Di
Neither agree nor disagree
Agree
Strongly
St
l agree
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Question Types Semantic Differential


American Airlines
Large ....Small
Experienced..Inexperienced
Modern
Modern...Old
Old-fashioned
fashioned

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Question Types Importance Scale


Airline food service is _____ to me
me.
Extremely important
Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
Not at all important

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Question Types Rating Scale


American Airlines
Airlines food service is _____.
Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor

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Question Types
Intention to Buy Scale
How likelyy are yyou to p
purchase tickets on
American Airlines if in-flight Internet access
were available?
Definitely buy
Probably buy
Not sure
Probably not buy
Definitely not buy
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Question Types
Completely Unstructured
What is your opinion of American Airlines?

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Question Types
Word Association
What is the first word that comes to your mind
when you hear the following?
Airline ________________________
American _____________________
Travel ________________________

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Question Types
Sentence Completion
When I choose an airline
airline, the most important
consideration in my decision is:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
__________________.

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Question Types
Story Completion
II flew American a few days ago
ago. I noticed that
the exterior and interior of the plane had very
bright
g colors. This aroused in me the following
g
thoughts and feelings. Now complete the story.
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
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Question Types
Pi t
Picture
(Empty
(E
t Balloons)
B ll
)

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Question Types
Th
Thematic
i Apperception
A
i Test
T

Make up a story that reflects what you think is happening in this picture.

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Qualitative Measures
Word associationwords are presented, one at a
p
mention the first word that
time,, and respondents
comes to mind.
Projective techniquesgive people an incomplete
stim l s and ask them to complete itit.
stimulus
Visualizationrequires people to create a collage
from magazine
g
or drawing
g to depict
p their p
perceptions
p
Brand personificationask subjects what kind of
person they think of when the brand is mentioned.
Ladderingseries of increasingly more specific
why questions can reveal consumer motivation and
consumers deeper, more abstract goals.
consumers
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Qualitative Measures
Shadowingobserving people
Behavior mappingphotographing
p p with a space2
p
y
people
or 3 days

Consumer journeykeeping track of


interactions a consumer has with a product, service,
p
or space

Camera journalsask consumers to keep


visual diaries of activities and impression
related to a product

Extreme user interviewstalking to people


about a product and evaluating their experience
with
t itt

Storytellingprompting
Storytelling
prompting people to tell
personal stories about their consumer
p
experiences
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Unfocused groupsinterview a
diverse group of people to explore ideas

Technological Devices
Galvanometers (measure
interest or emotions aroused by
Exposure to a specific ad or picture)
Tachistoscope (flashes an ad to a
Subject with an exposure interval and
respondent describes everything he/she recalls)

Eye
y cameras ((study
y respondents
p

eye movement to see where their eyes


land 1st and how long, etc.)
A di
Audiometers
t
(
(record
d when
h TV iis on

and the channel)

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GPS (global positioning system


system, can
Determine how many billboards a person
may walk or drive by during a day)

Sampling Plan
Sampling unit: Who is to be surveyed?
Sample size: How many people should be
surveyed?
d?
Sampling procedure: How should the
respondents be chosen?

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Types of Samples
Probability
y

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Simple random
Every member of population
has an equal chance of
selection
Stratified random
Population is divided into
mutually exclusive groups
((age
g g
groups)
p ) and random
samples are drawn from
each group
Cluster
Population
p
is divided into
mutually exclusive groups
(city blocks) and a sample is
taken from each group

Non-probability
Non
probability

Convenience
Selects the most
accessible population
members
b
Judgment
Selects population
members who are good
prospects for accurate
information
Quota
Selects
S l t and
d iinterviews
t i
a
prescribed number of
people in each of several
categories

Contact Methods
Mail Questionnaire
(For people would not give
personal interviews or whose responses
might be biased or distorted by interviewer)

Telephone Interview
(Gather information quickly, however
interview are short and non-personal)

Personal Interview
(Most versatile and expensive
expensive,
subject to interview bias or distortion)

O li Interview
Online
I t i
(Inexpensive, faster, honest, versatile, samples small
4-31and skewed, tech problems and inconsistencies)

Pros and Cons of Online Research


Advantages
Inexpensive
Fast
Accuracy of data,
even for sensitive
questions
Versatility
e sat ty

Disadvantages
Small samples
Skewed samples
Technological
problems
Inconsistencies

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