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ESS 3

Midterm Exam Study Outline

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Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, and part of 4

Chapter 1 Nutrition
Be able to define
*Nutrition:
*Wellness:
Different dimensions of wellness:
*RDA:
*UL:
*EER:
*AMDR:
Know the Macronutrient ranges: CHO:

Fats:

Prot:

Nutrients
List the six groups of Essential Nutrients:
a) Macronutrients (4):
b) Micronutrients (2):

Carbohydrates
a) Energy contribution (4kcal/gram)
b) main sources:

Fats
a) Energy contribution (9kcal/gram)
b) sources

Protein
a) Energy Contribution (4kcal/gram)
b) Main sources

Healthful Diet
a) Adequate, Moderate, Balanced, Varied, Colorful

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Chapter 2 Digestive System (Human Body)

Hunger vs. Appetite


a) Hypothalamus (function and triggers)

GI Tract
a) Know the order of the organs and understand what they do from mouth
to anus (the entire digestive tract)
b) Gallbladder - bile
c) Pancreas insulin (from which cells?) and glucagon

Digestion
a)Mechanical technically, digestion begins with smell, however
mechanically with chewing it begins in the mouth.
i) In mouth
ii)In Stomach
b) Chemical
i.)Enzymes (in general role)
ii)Salivary amylase

Small Intestine
a) Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
b) Role in digestion and absorption
c) Villi

Nutrient Transport
a) Blood
b) Lymph how does lymph move, a basic understanding of what it does

Absorption
a)disorders related to (IBS, IBD, Crohns, Ulcerative Colitis, Chronic
Inflammation)

Liver (in general)


a) functions

Chapter 3 Carbohydrates
Simple and Complex
Sweeteners natural, artificial, HFCS
Mono (one) saccharides (Glucose, Galactose, Fructose - digestion)
Di (two) saccharides (Lactose)
Poly (many) saccharides know the molecular structure of each
a) Starch - sources
a) Glycogen What is it? Where is it?
b) Fiber Sources and Requirements
i.
Soluble
ii.
Insoluble

Carbohydrates as fuel
a)
b)
c)
d)

Glucose
Gluconeogenesis
Fuel usage requirements
Glucose Pathways

Pancreas
Insulin and Glucagon
a)
b)
c)
d)

definitions
functions
relationship to blood glucose levels
hypo- and hyperglycemia

Diabetes

a) Type I (causes and treatment)


b) Type II (causes and treatment)
c) Risk and Prevention

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Chapter 5 Proteins
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Protein

a) functions
i.
cell growth
ii.
enzymes
iii.
hormones
iv.
fluid and electrolyte balance
v.
acid-base balance, pH
vi.
immune system, antibodies
vii.
transport nutrients, oxygen
viii.
structure
ix.
energy (*gluconeogenesis)

Amino Acids (20)


a) Essential (9) dont need to know names,but if you are science major,
learn them! ;)
b) Nitrogen
c) Peptide bonds (dipeptide, tripeptide, polypeptide)
d) Shape
e) Denaturation

Complete proteins (sources)


Incomplete proteins
Complementary Proteins (examples)
Mutual Supplementation
Digestion
Intake requirements (AMDR) and recommendations
a) Intake for special populations (children, elderly, athletes)
b) Excess intake issues (direct and indirect)

Supplementation
Vegetarianism (terminology)
Deficiency issues
Different classifications

Chapter 4 Fats/Lipids
Triglycerides
a) Basic structure (glycerol backbone 3 fatty acids)
b) Saturated Fat
i)
molecular structure

ii)
sources
iii)
risk factor
c) Unsaturated Fat
i)
monounsaturated fatty acids (structure and sources)
ii)
polyunsaturated fatty acids (structure and sources)
d) Trans Fats
i)
Hydrogenation
ii)
Heath concerns

Essential Fatty Acids (Omega 3, 6, 9 where do they come frombasic understanding of what they do!)
a) Linoleic Acid (sources)
b) Alpha-linoleic acid (sources)

Phospholipids
a) basic molecular structure
b) sources

Sterols
a) Basic molecular structure
b) Cholesterol
c) Sources

Function of Fats (energy, Protection, Insulation)


AMDR of fats
Lipoproteins
a) VLDL
b) LDL
c) HDL

Cardiovasular Disease

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a) Causes (related to fats)


b) risk factors
c) prevention