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Paul Sharkey

The Friends of Durruti --- A Chronology

J 6 rnl.ulIo flUe cl 1.9 de Julio 10' ttab~illl(.ore. fie, ~lor(eJo"a ..... r~h~l"rf)"
contra. el fallcienlo ne:glo. el 9 de rfayo I ... hicleron c:on~ra 148 c:onJura,()ione.
c 1;.."lq .... de 109 partido. PC'l"ci\oNblrquele. ",lIad.,. con
cl capU all ..no Inlernadonal

Editorial Crisol, Tokyo, Japan

May 1984, the first impression of the first edition

Spain postage only

Japan donation needed
the rest US $1 or its eqpivalent
(including surface mail postage)
(air mail postage extra)

My hope is that the chronology I'lhich follows may go some of the

way towards shedding some light upon the facts about the FoD group.
Editorial Crisol, Tokyo, Japan, is a one-man publishing Because the fact is that, although nearly every textbook on the
Spanish Revolution feels obliged to mention the group in connection
collective whose aims are as follows; , with the May Events of 1937, the scrupulous reader will be confused
( ) t ublish Paul Sharkey, The Friends of Durrut1 ---
a A ~h~Onology, 1984, in English.
rather than informed by the wide variety of assertions encountered.
, Even historians who mieht be expected to be scrupulously dili"ent in
(b) to publish the Ja~anese version of HaC1a una nueva
their research have penned remarks that can easily be refuted or
revolucion, 1985. f h h can't be sustained by evidence. One of the earliest misrepresentations
Crisol is composed of only one rnant' and tre~~s~~:e ~f ~~y of the FoD group Came in a pamphlet on the subject of the !.In.y Days
t ' cessary fund, translate, ype an which was published by Ediciones Ebro. In reply, the FoD (in El Amigo
o~h~~l~rs~~llaneous business so as to attain the above del Pueblo, no.7, 31 August 1937) accused the authors of ' ••• slipshod
Obj~~;She has been putting Hacia into Japanese: He takfes worlc, poor documentation or an attempt to ex cuse the I'larped attitude
adopted by the committees concerning our intervention in those days
much. encouragernen t from materials
, about the Fr1ends 0 of fighting.' 'rhose features are readily dis covered even in more
D rruti which are sent to h1m. recent authors.
u B the way during the Spani~~ h Revolution, some Jananese The principal allegation against the PoD croup is that, with its
wereYinvolved'in the actual battle s . Only one pekrsS~nh~s , talk of a 'Revolutionary Junta' it was flirting with Bolshevism, Lenin
ized He was Jac 1ral
identity has already been rec)gn • 'st who died at the ism, Marxism. Some n.cwe seen presumption in the eetablislunent of
(aliaS s~rait' S~~Iayil~r f~~~: Ab~U~o~~~ls e~ next matter.
s uch a Junta. Yet, it was never set up, and a readin/,: of the Fon
Brune t e ron, ' .', 1 N York 1953 manifesto 'Tol'lards a Fresh Revolution' will show why. The Junta was
(a) The Volunteers by Steve Ne son' ,e w , • to be elected by and accountable to the union rank and file.
(b) The Book of the XV Brigade, ~ndrld, ,193 8 • 'sited [<'unctions were to be rotated and member s hip if limited duration.
According to a certain Japanese Journalls~"who ~lin Repeatedly authors refer to manifestos C),nnouncing the formi'\tion of
S ain those days, several more Japanc ~e pa~t1C1pate But as the Junta. According to the FoD newspaner and to Jaime Balius, it WM',
b Poth the Republican camps,
and, the Nat10nallst camps •
th '
ames nor d01ngs h ave een
never formed. This fact alone makes nonsense of the further cl8im
a matter of regx'et, ne1 ther elr n the FoD wanted a Junta to which the FOUM Vlould be admitted. One
known down to d a t e . , t ' author* has sugeested that ' ••• the Junta ',~nuld aElsuredly have had to
If a body has informat10n, documents or tes 1monles comprise the POUM and the "Friends of Durruti"', though he f,oes on to
concern~~g the above mentioned Japan ese, ple~se sen~dt~:m admit ' ••• though this is not stated; it cannot be otherwise.' A re~din
to him. They, even though trivial or uncerta1n, wou of the final, lengthy s:l;atement from the FoD might have explained to
him that it could indeed have been otherwise.
appreciated invaluably. many tidings in not distant Others.* have perceived in the statements of Jaime Dalius and the
Hopefully, he could get
FoD group the impact of Marxist activists, such as Hans Freud-!·oulin.
future. Publisher Yet one has only to compare the record of such as rablo TIui ,' , J:dme
Balius and Francisco Carreno with that of the youthful Moulin, or to
contact; ISOYA Takero read the admission by those very same authors that they themselves
clo Tokiwa-so needed an interpreter in Spain and that :0 oulin had despaired of the
Minami-kase 2516 Bolshevik-Leninists' factionalism, and review Balius's consistent
Saiwai-ku outlook from 1936 onwards to realise that such as ~bulin were
Kawasaki-shi influenced by the FoD and not vice versa.
211 JAPAN Hh.,'lt of the propriety of anarchists Cill) inl': for a revolutionary
Junta? Some of the harshest criticisms hC'.ve come from the leading
lights of the CN'r-FAI,and their apologists. Before entering the
republican goverment in November 1936, the CN'r .had been callinl;. for
a National Defence Council. ~rom May 1937 on the FoD were cnlling for
Revolutionary Junta. In their brochure of mid-1938 the FoD described
this as ' ••. a Revolutionary Junta or National Defence vouncil.' So

\~ho had departed from CN'i' policy? The FoD spoke of seizing power and
** Pavel and Clara Thalmann Combats pour la _L_i berte; ~;os cou-
have been condemned for it. Yet Solidaridad Obrera (13 July 1937)
Madrid-Paris, Quimperle, 1983. '
approvingly quotes Camillo Berneri as saying; 'Anarchists accept the
use of political-power by the proletariat, but they take that
political power to be the ensemble of communist management systems, KU Letter t~ Union (;ommuniste, dated 17 November 1937 (quoted in H.
corporative organisms, communal, regional and national institutions, ~hnze, ChrgnlQue de la Revolution Espanole, Ed. Srartacus, Paris
freely constituted outside of and against the political monopoly of ,9 79). In esar M. Lorenzo's Los Anarquistas ~spanoles y el rOde~,
one pE.rty and vIi th a view to minimal concentration of administration.' Inris, 1972, 1orenzo speaks of Union vommuniste speaking on behalf of
Read the FoD brochure and Balius's articles in 1936 - 37 and spot the FoD, the POUM and some elements of the Libertarian Youth an d
the difference between what he advocated and the words of Berneri. ~alling f?r the formation' of these groUP!! . into a unit for_the
Where, the,n, did the FoD err? Not in departing from accepted
libertarian objectives and practices but in clinging stubbornly to
lab)oratlon0: th~ progamme of the proletarian revolution.' (p.219
~.32 ~orenzo lS mlsleading here. He ought to know that Union '
them, in refusing to be seduced by 'circumstances!~ They believed, ,(;O mmunlste ~as ,a small group which had grown out of the Ligue
with Evelio G. Fontaura that 'To invoke the CN'r or even the FAI is ~rots~s teoln vrance and was urging this amalgamation rather than
not enough, if actions turn out to be equidistant from the por~l ng It, and also that the manifesto he quoted was a handbill
revolutionary trajectory which the letters in question stand for' ( distr1~uted at a meeting in the Velodrome d'Hiver, Paris, 18 June
Ideas, 14 January 1937). Even in the matter of their expulsion the 'FoD 1937! lts purpose ° beinG to expose and embar o, ss the speakers, Garcia
ha'dOccasion to remind the CN'l'-FAl 'leadership' of the accepted norms Oliv1er an~ Feder1ca Montseny, who had 'pacified' the anarchists in
of their organisations and that sovereignty resided with the rank and Barcelona 1n May i937.
file. Andre Prudhommeaux regarded the FoD's policies as approximate
to the views advanced by Bakunin after the battle of Sedan in 1670***.
'rhe chief fault of the Foll. appears to have been their too stead-
fast revolutionism. They refused to yield to the argument of
'circumstance'. They refused to be bullied by their own organisation.
'rhey were not deceived by the Stalin of the Populc>,r Front era, nor by
the Moscow trials. Nor were they afraid to acknowledge the
revolutionary credentials of Marxists. Yet they sorely resented the
description marxist when applied to themselves. In short, they were
unlucky enough to have held that anarchism was and had been and still *** *** *** *** ***
would be their goal. In El Amigo del Pueblo, no.3 (12 June 1937) Ada
Marti paid tribute to a POUM member, Francisco Jorda Montana, who had
nroven her revolutionary credentials by her actions. l"ittingly, it The Friends of Durruti --- A Chronology
was Ada ~1arti, writing elsewhere who encapsulated what the FoD were so
painfully to discover throughout their existence and in their dealings
with the CNT's 'circumstancialists'. 'And I tell you thisj there are
no friends in high places. Fear of losing their "dignity" makes them
strike majestic poses which distance them from remembrance of their
friends.' (Esfuerzo, Baroelona, 7 October 1937)
Paul Sharkey
April 1984 8.9.36.
* Helmut Ruediger, El Anarcosindicalismo en la Revolucion that 'The ~~!!!n~fi~h!o~!~:ri~ad Obrer:,Jaime Baliuq gives his opinion
B en war mus be borne by the bou °
Espanola, Barcelona 1938, p.32. Elsewhere (p.29) Ruediger attempts ut in addition to moneys seized from the enemy we must imrgeo1S •••
to explain away the emergence of a disaffected libertarian press ~~~pulhasory charge ~n every township. No one is' to be exempt~~S~r~m
(including El Amigo del Pueblo) py alluding to the ' ••• unduly bland 15 c rge. In thlS grave hour ';e u t
nature of certain official organs.' For Ruediger's own adherence to Ba~r~fices so that th~ social re~ol:t~O/~:;a~;i~~~~~l:~~ i~rs~~~~~er
the precepts of anarchism, . see Manuel Azaretto, Las Pendientes no e forgotten that the comrades on the front are .
Resbaladizas (105 Anarquistas en Espana), Montevideo, 1939· c onduct of the workers left behind in the rearguard.~ountlng upon the

Nov ember 1936.
Interviewea by L'E .
October 1936. 'rhe War Committee of the Durruti Column decides to ~f th~ government decrees relative "~pagne Ant~fasciste, Durruti says
send a delegate to the celebrations on the anniversary of the October • •• This decision 'b the 0 regurallsation of the militias
Revolution in Moscow. Sce pti cal as to the purpose of the invitation i 1j,:alJsolutel;r de1}oid ~f"an governm~nt hae had a deplorable effect. It
received from the Soviet consul in Barcelona, Antonov-Ovsenko . irre oonci~bl~ 6ont~ 't -b y sen~e Of , r~~lity. There i~ an
Durruti nonetheless dravlS up an oren letter add.ressed to soviet m lit1I:1B' ~'.'. 'We kno:\ha~tween ' that m~nta1ity and 'that of the militia:;:
workers. Francisco Carreno, the former teacher who belongs to the
rll e of the other one.' one of these attitudes h!il:a to vanish in the
Column's i'lar Committee and has special responsibility for propaganda
is ohosen as the delegate. 'rhe open letter says 'We have no confidence ') . 11.36.
in politics even if it e;o es by the name demo c ratic or a ntifascist. We Solidaridad Obrera 't '
trust in our class brothers ( ••• ) not for anyth i ng in the world are over the CN'r-FAI radio stat.. prln s a radlo broadcast made by Durruti
Oatalo nia. 'The time ha 1. cm , and addressed to the workers of
we going to renounce our prin c iples, the princ ipl es of the working 1 I ving in the cities 'rh s come to dem and sacr i fices also from those
c l ~S B 'S struggle for liberation.' Carreno vi s its the Soviet Union workers in the rear 'fO ere m~st be effective mobilisation of all
I-li th riJartin Gudel!. Carreno Ivill be a FoD member. what sort of men we' canrr:~ w 0 ar~ already on the front want to know
lho mi litarisation decreed ~yutPhon 1.n our re a r ••• If the object of
' e Generalidad i t · t· .
Balius who , in 1935 had publ i s hed a book ( Octubre Catala n! I) r o i st a n lron discl' pll'ne u pon u~ that' . s 0 In . lmldate us and
on the s ubject of t he Oct ober 1934 upri s inf, in ca talonia 1,rites in an rlttthors of the decree to come o~~ t 1.S a mIstake and we invite the
a rt i cle in so lidarida d Obrera entitled ' ~ e cannot f orget; 6 Octobe r ' moral e and discipline. The h l~ the front to get a taste of our
a pr ou os of Cat a lani s t a tte mpt s to ma rk the s econd a nnivers ary of the rmd dis cipline in the rear n wedS a go and compare those with morale
r e volt. 'ori the s e cond a nnivers a ry of t he October event VIe have t.o ntrus t the management of tguhar ••• He who have left Catalonia
I • e economy to you Y 1
uree a l l \-!O rker s to e nsure tha t the revolution permeates every aspect .0 y our responsibilitie
s an d d'lsclpllne
.. ou s a.' so mtta' live up
yours• e lve
of lif e . 'l'he consequences \"1 i ll be dep lor abl e i f the t r a nsformation
ina u[,ura ted on 19 J u ly s hould be nothing more than an outward s how••• ?O . 11.36.
6 October deserve s to be pas sed ove r in s ilence. ~ et a longside the : milli on Durruti was killed on the ~i adrid fr ont. (Over half a
feat s of July, there i s no comparison pos s ible.' people attend his funeral in Barcelona.)

10.10.36. A government de cree establishe s the popular Army and makes Por 108 fucro8 de la "Verdad
provi s ion for milit ari sation of the volunteer militias.

15. 10 .3 6 • In solidaridad Obrera, Jaime Balius co mpl a ins of the

No 80lIl08 agente8
counter-revolutionary unde rtone s of the pe t it -bourgeo i s press a nd
warns a gainst ap nlying a brake to the revolut io n. ' The Revoluti on has
t o be s erved 'l'Ii thout s elfi s hne ss ••• Let a ny who fe e l unable to folIo provocadore8
u s step aside and leave u s a c lear path.'

Hall transcurrido muy· pocas

Pa horas de las j orn!, d as de mayo. Aun perdura en nueslros
In Solidaridad Obrera, Balius urges decentralisation and oidos el fra,or del combate
devolution to district level. 'Let us not forg et that there must be que, auroleados de una mo;eda;"~:d~:\:u: ten,aOlos a nuestro lado aquellos camaradn!
N t n , e saron con .u frente el pavimento barcelones
decentralisation. Let us remember that should any centralising organ ues ro cuerpo y nuestro. nervlos e.tan t d . .
Nos sentlmos maltrechos y fatlrad 0 aVla presos de aquella a,ltacion lilantina.
come into existence, the creative opportunities which have cost so conceptos que se han vertldo cont os'1 pero nos scnt lmos dolorldos, en Irado sumo, por 105
much blood and for which so much blood has yet to be shed ••• will 'defend~: u::asca;::;c~:~:s
., a la revoluclon, qulslthos q::Ctuber~ntes de amor a las Ideas
largely be lost to us.' me n t o y a cada Instante por los s to e· as ve am os rasladas a cada 010·
I\quellos hombres que saivaron ;c ~e~ que deberian tencr un poco de conslderaclon a
a spana, en las jornadas de julio del predomlnlo fasclsta.

2.12.36. I 37.
Jaime Balius writes in Solidaridad Obrera , 'The so-called
Catalan question as such has been resolved ••• Let us be equal to the . After the new year the government will issue no pay and no
demands of the present moment.' qU1pment except to regularised (i.e. militarised) combat units.

Hriting in Solidaridad Obi'era on the subject of 'Durruti's
testament', Balius asserts, 'Durruti roundly stated that we anarchists On behalf of the Durruti Column, the following units •••
require that the revolution be of an all pervasive (totalitario) I, h . no.4 Gelsa detachment, the'Accion y Alegria' Group, the Inter
nature, and that the comrades so steadfastly resisting fascism on the 1\~~lonal Group, the artillery batteries,. the machine-gunner secti"ns
fields of battle ~dll not tolerate anyone tampering with Itld 0 ther centuries ••• issue a statement "1'0 the comrades, to the
revolutionary and liberating content of the present moment.' ! onf deral columns' protesting at militarisation and offerinc' a
pnoific structure acceptable to the fighting men They clai~ to
December 1936. p(n.k 'On behalf of everyone of the centuries of'the Durruti Column'
'l'he German volunteers in the Durruti Golumn's ""Ap~parently the government is making the provision of equipment
International Group express their objections to militarisation imposed (onditlo nal upon our militarisation ••• According to what the
from I'li thout and list a number of factors they insist should be '(lmm~ttees themselves say, they cannot give us any as "urances that the
incorporated into any nel~ military code; they want the delegate system Mnd :nd government will supply us with the equipment even if we do
to be re tained along I·d th egalitarian features and want soldiers' Illllitar ise. That being the case, the trespalls against our principles
Councils to represent the army as a I"hole. wnnl~ be rewarded with nothing more than an empty promise.' rhis
ITlIJnU es to is published in the paper Acracia of Lerid.a. In the FoD
17.12.36. 11 wopaper (El Amigo del PUeblo, no.5, 20 July IJ37) this m1'J.nifesto is
In Solidaridad Obrera, Jaime Balius says of opportunists J'( printed and it is stated ••• 'On the date given at the foot of thE'
and upstarts that "rhe revolution must be harsh, we might even say lII11nifesto, the Friends of Durruti group, composed for the most part of
brutal ••• 'l'he time has come to purify the cadres of the revolution. n()mr~des from ~he Aragon Front, Durruti Column (Gelsa section)
Unless >~e do this, Vie risk making, a superficial revolution, a pnbllshed opinlons rec;ard:ing militarisation which the passage of time
revolution in name ·o!lly. 'r he parvenus must be stopped.' III V endorsed against the 'majority' \-Iho opposed it' ••• 'Even from
III front line, amid the mud of the trenches, amid the cold and the
lhlrst , watching our comrades fall day in day out, we opposed the
Issue number 1 of Ideas the mouthpiece of the libertarian \n 't i-revolutionary suicidal course followed b', those l'lho were the
III ntors of our organisation.'
movement in the Bajo Llobregat area, an area notorious for its
intransigent revolutioniam. A list of contributors to its columns
names Jaime Balius and Francisco Carreno, both of whom will be 11l.1.37.
members of the FoD. 'r he General idad government of Ga talonia passes 58 de crees
verelY ' curtailing the revoluti on.

No ..queda ot!O camina que el de una nueva revoluci6n. Vayamos a

su .Ilreparac16n. Y en e1 fragor de la nueva gesta nos vo1veremos
a enc~htrar en la cal1e 105 camaradas que hoy batallan en 105
fr~ ntes, 105 .camaradas que yacentras rejas y lo~ camaradas que
El descenso de la revoluci6n de julio ha sido r~pido. Ninguna. en la hora actual adn no han perdido la esperanza de una revo-
de las revoluciones que se consideran como el arquetipo de las luci6n que rinda justicia a la clase trab~jadora. •
conmociones sociales sufri6 un declive tan vertiginoso.
No puede teorizarse en torno de la sucesi6n.escalonada de hechos A la consecuci6n de una nUeva revoluci6n que d~ satisfacci6n
c~mpl eta a 10s obreros de la,ciudad y del campo. A la consecu-
porque la revoluci6n ya no existe. Es forzoso abrir nuevamente c16n.de una sociedad anar4uista que d~ satisfacci6n alas aspi-
brecha en la cantera inagotable de la Espafia pro1etaria. Hay que raci ones humanas,
volver a empezar.
IIAdelante, camaradas!(

5 - 8. 2 .31.
Delegates from the ana r chist mi l it i "" IIIIH1t hl oone re s s A decree from the Generalidad dissolves the control patrols.
in Valencia to diRcuss the question of mi li t nr-hm l. i (1 11 . 'I' hn oh,I e ctors In the POUM paper La Batalla, Andres Nin reprints large extracts from
from the Durruti Column (Gelsa sector) a r e rf'pro""o tlL nd It,Y i'll lllo fl.uiz, an article by Jaime Balius published in the CN'r eveninr,- paper La Noche.
who helped Durruti storm the Ataraz a nas barro.okll ,i n IIII I'rn lcm:' on 20 (Balius wa s director of La Noche which, along \'Iith Catalunya sold
July 1936. 'rhe Gelsa o.b jectors were seve r a.l ti rn~lIi ' ,l nd "\lf1 \. lld to 'adhere around 45,000 copies daily ••• figures from SOlidaridad Obrera, 2 April
to the decision taken reearding milit a ri SCl.t ion. ]n.lll l1 o l,I"' 111 1. 0 this 1931). In that article, welcomed by Nin, Baiius had written '\~e
11 effect from the Reeional Committees of the CN'~ 11. 1111 1"/\ I w" ,." I " nored. anarchists have arrived at the limits of our concessiong •••• Not
[I So Was the order that the refractorie s s h.-,u lcl 1 a,V cl()I~ 1I \' 1, ,, 1 I' I~ c',~ro ns another step backward. It is the hour of action. Save the r~volution'
a nd quit the front. Ho s tility between the compli(1.nL ,,,,d \' 11" "I) f" 'uctory and 'If we continue to give up our positions there is no doubt that in
sections of the Durruti Column was so se r i OUG thnL n "I/lIIIIII"n lon from a short time we shall be overwhelmed and the revolution will simply be
the column, headed by Jose Man;o;ana spoke wit h th(' ) '1)/'.1111111 .) 1'" l11rn i ttees another souvenir. It i s for this fundamental reason that it is
on the SUbject. As a result, the militiamen at GC]I"l Wil l '" I "v l Lod to necessary to develop a new orientation in our movement.' Dalius also
li resolve the situation one way (by militari s inp;) or 1. 11" p l. II'J I' (hy wrote that he was eratified to find tha t 'Our anxiety is now shared by
quitting the front). 'l'hey a f:reed t o quit the f r ont II l1 d 1~lv" 1Ip their the evening paper of an organisation ,Ii th which we are in fund nmenta.l
"ea pons within 15 days. Later the Fo D would explain (Ill ISI /\iII ICg~ agreement concerning the present r evolutionary epoch and the role of
E..ueblo, no.5, 21 July 1931) ' Our l·Jithdrawa l 'from th" " ""1 1. Will' clue to the working class.' Clearly that organisation was the pourn.
the f a ct that ~le ha d no de s ire to assulDe repon sibilll v ,1'0 " It 1II1 C1 ~ak4eil
attitude whose failure we foresaw. Now, back in the 1'!)/II'/U"II 'II, wo 5-3.31.
remain combatants.'
Solidaridad Obrera carrie s an announcement of the f ormati on
of the FoD group. "rhe Friends of Durruti is not just another c lub. We
aim to see the Spanish Revoluti o n per va ded by the revoluti onary acumen ~
of our DurrutL 'rhe FoD remain f a ithful to the l a st words uttered by
our comrade in the heart of Barcelona in denun ciation of the work of
c. N. T. F".A.I.
the counter-revolution •••• To enrol in our association, it is vital
that one belong to the CNT and sho~1 evidence of a record of struggle
a love of ideas and the revolution. On a tem porary basis, a pplications
Agrupadon IILos omigos de Durruti 'f may be made at Rambla de Cataluna , 15,principa l ( CNT Journalis t s'
Section) between 5.00 pm a nd 1.00 pm.'

iTRABAJADORES .. i The forma tion of the PoD is .announced in the paees of Frente,
the organ of the Durruti Column, printed in Pina de Ebro, Aragon.
Una Junta revolucionaria , Fusilamiento de los cu lpn bles,
Desarme de todos Ics Cuerpos armados. A FoD meeting scheduled for 9.30 pm that day in wha t i s
Socializaci6n de la economia. described as the group's 'social Pr emises' at Rambla de las Flores, 1,
Disoluci6n de los Partidos politicos que hayan agredldo Cl la 1 is announced in ?olidaridad Obrera. The purpose of the meeting is to
c!ase trabajadora. elect a new steering committee and lay do wn the statutes governing the
group. 'At the same time we appeal to militants of some standing
No cedamcs la caile. La revoluci6n ante todo. and various organisms with a view to forming a group that will live up
Saludamos a nuestros , Camaradas del P. O. U. M. que tHIn entirely to the precepts bequeathed to us by the martyr of .the ideal,
contraternizado en la calle con nosotros. the idol of the People.'


Solideridad Obrera ca~ries notice of a FoD meeting schedule ~
for 11.00 am, 21 March 1931. This notice i " repeated on the folJowing

Ruta, the organ of the Libertarian Youth in Catalonia
Issue no.6, vol.I! of the FOUlil's T~nglish language organ, carries an article by the FoD entitled ' On behalf of _the ' anarchist
The Spanish Revolution (31.3.37.) notes a move by the CNT to - concept of the revolution.' It says 'l'le point the finger at no one. We
centralise authority in its regional committe es. Those committees only feel a burning love for our precepts and our organisations. Bilt- as
are emnowered to decree mobilisations, issue orders and watchwords, militants of them, we have an indisputable right to speak out. 'l'here
etc. ' All who do not act accordinG to these rules and agreements ~rill is still time for us rescue the revolution and revitalise our precepts
be publicly expelled from the organisation.' but \~e must press on with the revolution.'

The paper The Spanish Revolution from which the autho:: Balius article 'Let's make the r evolution' appears in Ideas,
quotes here was the POUM's English-language o::gan publlshed no.15. Speaking of- the presumption of Companys, Balius says 'It~
in Barcelona under the editorship of the Amerlcan Charles. intolerable that an individual without the sli~htest support in the
Orr. And besides, there was another paper ?alled.The Sp~nlsh workplaces should try to arrogate to himself the power which rightly
Revolution published in New York by ~he Unlted Llbe::tarlan belongs only to the working people •••• But the bourgeois politi c ians
_ Organisations. Each of them was reprlnted. Int~restlngly, are not to blame for this, for after all t his i !?, their stock in trade.
S~m Dolgoff (pseud. Sam Weiner), who wa~ an edlt?r of the. No. To apportion the blame for the revolution's not having swept a s ide
anarchist The Spanish Revolu~ion and wrltes ~he 1~troductl0n the foes of the working class, one has to look to the workers' ranks
to the reprint of the an8Tchlst paper, says ln S011 of •.• to those whose inde c ision in the early stages allowed :_the ' forces,
Liberty, vol.8 no.2, that Russell Blackwell, who writes the of counter-revolution to erow to the extent that now it will be a
introduction to the reprint of ~he P?UIVlist paper, was . a costly business to cut them down to size.'
member of the Friends of Durrutl durlng the May Days ln
Ba rcelona in 1937. (publisher)
As the birthday celebrations of the Second Republic
a pproach, the FoD issues a leaflet addres s ed 'To the working people'.
Programa ~evolu£ionaN It records the dangers posed to the revolution by the State,
parliamentary' socialism, government-controlled security -forces oand- an

rlo • de la Agrupa£ion a ttempt to shift attention away from July 1936 to April 1931. 'A wave
of reaction is fed by those segments of the middle class which re~y
u pon the praetorian corps spawned by the bourgeois stage for backing.'
(/I Allligo§ de Durruti·.
• •• 'If we retreat in the face of our enemies we will be ousted from
t he whole Penin~la. Let us not waver.' ••• 'We possess the organs
which must replace the s tate which is in ruins. 'rhe unions and the _,
U oa Jnota ReTolncionaria. municipalities must take charge of the economic and social life of
El Poder econ6mico a 108 Sio ... ~IUNICIPALITIES .' ••• 'parliamentary socia lism ••• has a content more
bourgeois than worker. ' ••• 'We are not prepared to tolerate the shame -
dicdtoll. f ul situation ~Iher e by fascists stroll throup;h the streets and a ne s t
of place-seekers is respected - while our comrades linger in j a il
LOll Mtinicipi08 IibIell. a wai ting their a ppears,n ee in the dock.' •.• ' Ive want no part of 14
April. Its memory is obnoxious. Only the parasite s of politics can
commemorate it.' ••• '14 April is not a day for demonstration s . We
k now the meaning of the April masquerade. And because we do not ~ant
July to end up like the hopeless early days of the Republic we
Queremoll lIenar una etapa. resolutely oppose those who espouse the April anniversD.ry and the
f igure of a lawyer raised to the heights of presidential office.' (a
SOIDOI Ana. quilltall. reference to Companys)

See note 1.
Solidaridad Obrera carries a notice concerning the funeral
arranr,ements for one Francisco Garcia, which, it says, will be The FoD hold a public meetine; in the Goya Theatre, Barcelona .
of especial interest to the "Friends of Durruti.'" They warn that an attack upon the Norkers is imminent, pointing to the
funeral of Roldan Cortada , the revolt by the carabineers in Ripoll.
19.4.37. and other provocations as part of a series of incidents planned in
The FoD hold a public meeting in Barcelona in the Foliorama eovernment circles by representatives of so-called antifascist groups.
rheatre. It is attended by Jaime Balius, Pablo Huiz, I"rancisco Pellice
(of the Iron Column) and l"rancisco Carreno (of the Durruti Column's
\'/ar Committee). Balius, Ruiz and Pellicer belonged, along with Bruno Rodriguez Sala of the PSUC sei z es the 'relephone F,x c hanp:e in
Llado,to the same anarchist group, the 'Renacer'group of the FAI. Barcelona. 'l'his signals the start of the May Events which pit the eN I' ,
leAI, 1i'IJL and POUM e,gainst the PSUC, the re publicans and Cat~lanist s
and the official security forces. 'rile revoluti o nary f o rces had soon
Al pueblo frabajador secured the city, all except the city centre. Just as GN'r-FAI f)efence
Committee had resolved to make a final a ssault on the Generalidad
buildine, Police Headqunrters and the Hotel Colon ' there came radio
appeals by Garcia Oliver and Marano Va 7quez of the CNT , for a - ceasefire
EL MOMENTO ACTUAL ~ .. "ur liUm ,,:o. :-;ur"lrn~ rrrrt~f',,""IU ."
""" I. "hllR":JCio" .If' IIh",lar 11 ~h'GIG • dl",I"r.
V.I.",lo I' ... ~" May). The reformist forces availed of this c hance to renel-l their
• EAI.,..o. 'I'h'ltndo uno d~ 10. I",hnln ma .... ul",ln.nl~"
d. I. r .... oludOn up .... "I •. El F._~I.do u"II.II~h. qUit "ulrlo attacks. The conflict broke out again •
'nl .rrt.., .. t1d. 'armid.bl .. Irn bit mtmonblt'!! Jnrlllctu dt'
)ullo, It m.nllltnt 10d'1'I. t" pie pOt I. ohr. ltonln1"", I.:\!-l l1'F.TF.:,\TIONES DE VALENCIA
,"oh,(lo".,I. 011 ,. ptqut'lI. bur,aul.. • Y fH·: OU-:!-l .\ nE ~1Il:-;TSERn:\T
Un' 0"·.013 It .. ,,,,nto,, It" .I\",,,nl.d. pflr I".. . ulnf'"
dt 1. cl .... " '''''fU, qll(' .t rt11'1.1dlln tn I"" (11\'1'1''''' flrt'ln. L::t r'lnlnHc" .. luclOn "' ",.,,!flu" par dQq"lar. U •••
Incid.·,H.· ..... furd,I ..... ,'n Vllltnel. , ." Olu ••h W."I"n.'
The FoD issue leaflets, readin~ 'CNT, FAI, The Priends of
rl.not ".ddo. In I, el.p' bur,lIl'1'.
Lt ui"l:I de I. Gtn",.lId.d It" lIn, dt'm'\ ~ 't:tciti" tah" h:a .. ,,,,,Ii, .,1 .. III rtelend.h, d. tin '1" •• ' •• f. 4, ...... Durruti Group., Workers! A Revolutionary Junta. Shoot the culprits.
lorlc. d., !lUt ... h. dt t .. lrvdur.r un ","ntl" nu.· .... "rt',.. 1':"1",,..
4:lndltnrln, POt tnhro, dt I.. fnrn"!! 1' .. '.1.1\· ... I_I r.,,·t1;:I 1,'-".lIt:l. qu .. I. "1,,",, 'al.,0.4. pof I, p •• Disarm all of the armed corps. Socialise the economy. Dissolve the
11.1 1I,·.. "tI" I. hurl do:o quco 1:1 1.."1.,,, ,It· :,,·..,u,·",,·· h.,,.. ~ ..... i;,.. ur::u.".~i . l. <lu Itlv""tral de- VII . . . ,.11 •• Inlol.,.,,('I.
IU"'(,II. II'"d.'ro" , .-.,.rdl •• "I':ln hotr .. id.,,, ,.In ,•••·,/n,1. ;0.:" 1-:" ""'<la d .. ,I::t.1, ,'n n",rulo"a, '" " f .. dlcl.o a .. 1,.b.J.~,r. political parties which have turned a[ainst the 'wrkinp: class. Let u s
t-:" Ill.·..." .: •..\1,,"I:oerrllt ta ."II.do un e... '" "",,If'. Lo,
es """ibh' lra,,"hdr cnt! I. Cftnlt.rn·\·"III.:I,i" '1110' ..... t:i "'1'
un•• ,",a pnr loa hclorl'!O ~u!OG,",ichns. Ir"hai·.. ', ....·" Ilr,.,,·,oIuII. U," Itch'n d. ,uar41 •• do ... 11. not surrender the streets. '.l'he revolution above everything. :'Ie ['",Jute
L:a h ... r3 :1.:1"\11 c" .. e \·Id." mu.·rh· ".ar;, 1";1 tb ...• trait". ,.!! nll.lI.h"l • • I. tJoblulon "lIIpe"dl •• ln pGf I, G. H. I._ our comrades of the POUr.! who have sided NUh us on the streets. Lone;
j .... "r'. ~i c,· d('".".~ cl p' ,~1O • nu.·"I,"'" .·".·'"i::-,· . . """'mn" Iluhllu ... .
dunrhrlG.\I d,,1 :\r ... ,'l'"',,,"ul.r. Nu tlv.i'·""h. ~~"... ,,1:...101 lie CGIIa' .. 01 pu .. d.ft' •• b. 1"1.,,,.•. Lt, live the Social Revolution! DOI-ID with the Counter-Revolution" S ee
L. C:XT ~ la FAt. pqr ur I." nr"lI"i ... d .... ,',. 'IV" rC'c,,' pro·....,. p"r In. "1I(tI"" d. V.I .. Ilc1o , I... ,rn" "A' I .
I("n ~I h,lId .. pot,IIbr. h";lr: 0,· tI:tr V". ,,,oIj,b r.,,,,,lut;,,,,.,,i,, Mun·~n .. d .. 01... d. M""IIC"'" h.. 4. ur n\,,1,4'L
jQul.,,, le 01'01", • • ello .. IIn tulde, r •• ,,,,lttal
note 2. 'T his leaflet was approvinely r e printed in La Batalla on 6 MRY.
,I (ali.·J,: .... In ~,Ii". que' mlllbll "1 '''''"'''111" ;1(lu .. l. I'".
Ilcol'mo"ltllI ur~n"(I. '1u\, h,I" .Ie .u""IIII,lf ,.1 F.·llu'n "'I rui" •. So ul.", •• d'II\lIltllo. 0 IIIler.r I, '.fwO." .. ,,, ",I,,,.
Ln, lIi"dl(IOI.111 r ' I", ~1I"itlIIIG~ ho." tit' tl.t'·!"hO: ur.,,, ,!o:- Ius l1li' p ....... " 101. f .. cI,I ... POf 1. "U. , _I."tr .....
I. ,'Itt, II"c,.,,,o,,,lca r ,,"dal tit' 1. re'"hll•.ulo. I ... sor.lIl'fON re"'ltl. Un .,I'I"l'f. d .. e .. ehufilta .. "11,,1, •• '0"""4,, "".
IInhn .n I. drc~1 en. •• p." del ''''1111111. d. 10' Ut.
LI Hit E.,".
Y E,,'IIJEXTE~ SISIH('.\T() y ~rlll'''rtrIO
.. do .. As the fighting continued, Solidaridad Obrera carried 13,
notice from the Regional Committees of the CN'!, a nd FAI, the li'AI's
EL It DE A8JUL Peninsular Committee, the Local jcederc>.tion of (;Wr unions, the He{;ion <t l
Se .. I'-"al(n.nd, I. ,o"tran.rolocl' .. d •• ". ~.a,"" Committee of the Libertarian youth and the local Vederation of
,,,.,,1,,," ,••1,.,." 4..1 ,r..
El I"bern.dftf d .. Ahnul ••• dhuenlr .1 ·SGela""",. per·
IIml'lIl,,·;(I. e'" 1'1 ClII' h., un (u"'enldo ..... tie burp"
CI'III! 011,1''''1'''. h. hco\,h. IIn.!! d .. el.r~I."C!r • 1. pn",,,. CO"
ducarad •. !'fant, ••
-L",\. COIftPI",_ d• • n. ld'nt,
1.. ltlt.cI'. 11111. '0 .0 Ut .. ,
, •• 6" d. 111:1,111', p.f. , • .,. ..... af ,I ..... I."t ••
anarchist groups c o mp laining of apocryphal leCl,flets circulating,
Ta. qu(' 1.'I1a ,,"a (.",Idad In,C',,11. d. bllla cGnlra ""tllf. La p.qutfta bo,ro"". Irata d. ul'''far .1 14 •••• ,11 allee;edly signed by the POml, en'r and [eAI. l'heir content:,; are f " unoc n
cam .... dc !thrllln. E,. del oo"'lnl" p'blle. q ••• 1 c.",ar.d. c." l&fIo P"""'. S, lral. d • • " '0"'''')' • "' "0"\" objectionable by the above committees. 'Hhat ",e wish to h:we clci'rly
MarGin ful d"I('lIldo • "la d, a" '"c"' .. nl. e." .1 '011 .... q •• ,6t, ftpr ..,,,t. 1nl",," t. .. I"d ... L.. ,.t"cI".d •.
1lI.,for ""cloll,la ~fnrd". "'.II~odo ,or- I • • arllclpacl6n d.
M.'''In ('11 un ",llln Of "nil' do p., I•• ·tomp.ft.,•• d.1
re. d .. '.. la ch.,a ...... " 10' "' •• a,h,,,,,o. , •• ""'01. dil'
la rt"ohlclA" , d, I" cl ... tr.luj.dGn.
understood is tha,t neither the eN'!' nor the FA! has sic:nerl any s ort of
."eloond.laa. NG .u,,',"'G, ..... 1' •• d • .tltl 14 d • • brll. la fotcv"do lcC'.flet, h", ndbill, manifesto or d "> cument of any other descripti o n
""I''' e"l(, prI'I ... I" falll h. ",.Id. d ............. ,. para .. n"';~'., 80' ...... 1. I. po.d.o ~.'''''"f I••• 1.ld,,1I
Cl"" to) pnCof SGd.II.lo h.,. 'n',nl.do d, uomo)ar oelf· d, I. ·,.nllu. alone; \~ith the Horkers' P<'.rty of j,larxist I' nificati " n (I'l>lm).'
~Id.d('l fascI,'a, 0 nll ... I", e,mof.d •. Lo. Irab.Jadnraa .,p.aoh. ~hl .... hJ. · ..1 .Irllo d.t
i~ l.rnlo IIn. dnco u",an ... , .. I. drulllLa pa"do)a 11 d, Jollo. 70d .. I.. oln. he ••• 11'
'0 .... " ,I"ulldad
•• lurlbll'! ~G !Onn I.s ho",hu ••hl bltn' • • _., • • • It"u .",. I. ul,,"lOn .ocld 4. h. lor".d .. "'Cl 11111 •• 21 U d,
",onll("nf'n !Ill 1'1'1,,16 •. s." 1'1' upreunl."lu del .0cl.II."" •. .brll no eJ1 In df. d, ",."U,.. I.d ...... N" .. tf. . . . ltll""
L. ",."i"ht:'l (n"lr;a ~'"'~I" ... d. all' e."u •• dora e"IG' 'I'. MIs:nlflu ). ",.,unlt!. d, ',.ltrll. Y ,or,u ••• ,.u._"
Solidaridad Obrera carries a note from the Regional
,01. ,\1 "~"II'f'illhdar a M.,.I., '1': trot. dt ech::tr clc"u el'''' 4ae jull" tu",l n' tnlllO la cl.p. I"hu", d. ,,,' certll •• to.
Irll I." .'rl!lfnh::td""e-,, ~qllc! e""5111111c" I• • "Ica ,.r."Uo
de '1u~ I. I'll'"llIcl"" nn ,er' .hG,.do.
4. la R.. ,61111ca "0' ,n'u"I.",,,. d, a"lI •• " .. ,. derl41da
~." 10' Cl" p.lroef"a • • , a .. I.. , .. rl, 4. ,'1'11 , eOft " commi ttees of the CNT and the FAI dated 5 ~~ay 1937.
,\I Ih·f"n,",,·r • ~"'rnl", dd .. ndl''''G •• 'a CNT , • I. FAf. ..
~,ufl. ~U, nUfn. '''' .".,.d ••
I.~al" • t. ,I ... ,rHI.
\'/e are taken aback by some leaflets circulatinF, in the city and
"11" ::tl ,·ltl!!;r :on lib.:rl"", CI""pll",,,. cnn a ... Gblljful4n Inel •• ".ft.I.1.
dlbl •.
endorsed by an enti1iy called '''rhe [i'riends of Tlurruti". Its cnntents
are utterly intolerable and contrary to the decision made by the

12 13
libertarian movement; this obliges us to disown it in full and in
democratic powers are blatantly supportine fascism.' ••• 'Let us not
Let this be noted by all comrades and by the public in general. lie
abandon the streets.' ••• 'Comrades. On a wa r footine. Do not lose heart.
Be on the alert for the first summons issued to you. Long live the
categorically disol·m this leaflet and point out that yesterday l'Ie
social revolution! iJO';/fl with the counter-revolution! All nraise to our
found ourselves obliged to disol1n another by that very same body. fallen comrades.'
He of the regional committees of the CN'r and FAI are not disposed to
let anyone speculate with our organisations, nor may anyone flirt with
dubious attitudes or maybe the intrigues of outright agents This manifesto is reported in Solidaridad Obrera with the
provocateurs. . words "rhe body called the "Friends of Durru-ti" has issued a new
Let everyone adhere to the specific watchl'lOrd of these comml tte:s. manifesto which a fresh display of !,rovo~ation adorned with demarogy.
'rhe Generalidad Council havinG been formed, everyone must accept Its 'l'he CN'r and the FAI must excise this intolerable demagogy and
decisions for we all are represented in it. Get the guns off the provocation by the roots and immediately.'
stt'eets. '
Also on 6 May, the FaD issues a larger manifesto headed with the
'.ords '''NT FAI Friends of Durruti Group, \~orkers'. It reviews the
. fighting,
the v, (then , still in progress )and "the FoD sear l'ler a 1 er t·Ing
The regional Com~ittee of the UGT, meeting in BRrcelona
demands that members of the POm.! be expelled from the UG'r, the party
of the Norkers to the imminent attack. It names the provocateurs as be disbanded, out la.Hed , its press shut down and its printine; C1.nd
the P})uC, Estat Catala, the Esquerra and the Generalidad-controlled radio facilities confiscated ••• 'acting in the same fa~hion ae;ainst
security forces with the Valencia government and Generalidad orr,anisations of the type of the "l"riends of Tlurruti" disOl·men by the
governm'ent in the backgro und. 'lfe have VIon the stre:ts l'fhich we ha,:,e CNT's regional cnmmittee.'
no vlish to surrender, for they belong to us, \'Ie havlng taken them In
an open and resolute battle.' ;i peaking of the May. fighting, the FoD
explain that ".'le have not taken to the streets slmply to request that The first issue of thel"oJ) paper El Amigo del Pueblo
the armed corps be disarmed. No. Ife want the du~ recompense for th~ appears. It has been printed at the Impremta Laietana, Bou de Sant
blood which has been spilled.' ••• "rhe Generalldad represents nothlng. Pere, 9. The FoD have attempted (pa~e 2) to pre se nt -their publicationp.
Its continued existence is a bolster to the counter-revolution.' •••
(the- manifesto of 61 May i937) alongside the datement iSf'ued by the
'It is inconceivable, that the CNT's committees should have acted so regional committees of the CNT and Libertari2.n and the Liaison
cravenly as to order a ce<.l.se-fire and indeed have imposed a return to Committee of the FAI groups in Catalonia on 11 May 193 7 spelling out
rk J'ust vlhen we were on the very brink of total victory.' ••• ' Such
their attitude to the May Events. 'rhe purpose was to enable readers
conduct must be described as a betrayal of the revo 1 u t·lone ••• one
that no one ought to commit or encourage in the na~e 0: anything. We
ind words to describe the harm done by Solldarldad Obrera , and
to make up their own minde which Vie\i was the most correct. No less
than 109 lines of the FoD document have been obliterated by the
~n not f . censor. The FoD note that their manifesto has received the endorsement
the most outstandingmilitarits'of1the·CN'r.' ••• "['he dis 'a "irol-Ial'from' of a group of wounded comrades in the Humania hospital and another
the CNT's so-called re~ponsible committees has come as no surpr~se to group of comrades from Hijar. Repe".tedly the FoD insist (as <Taime
us. ';le kne't/ in advance that those committees could not do, anythln~ Balius entitles his article on page 4) 'We are no ae;ents provoc"tcurs.'
t h than retard the proletariat's advance. l-1e knoVI the rREINTISrAS
o the
on er Regional Gommittee only too well. He a~e the "F' d
'rle~ s.o
Durruti" who have moral a uthority enough to dlsown these Indlviduals,
A regional Plenum of CNT Local and l.omarcal Federations
who have betrayed the revolution and the working class, as being meets in Barcelona. On the agenda is the "CoD question. This followed
incompetents and cowards.' ••• "rhere was no kno\"lled~e of how to mount the sUmmoning of the FoD before the Loca.l Ji'ederation of CNT union,-;,
a thoroughgoing .. attacK nor wO's there any cootdina:tl~n' 6f effort as ·far·
When, according to the F'o D(El Amigo del Pueblo, no.5, 20 July 1937)
as the insurrection was concerned. Time and ammunltlo~ were wasted on
it was agreed ' ••. and not on our instigation that our case should be
mere sniping instead of a speedy and di.'.ring attack belng ~lanned.
Understanding and leadership were missing.' ••• "rhe cessatIon 0: _
fiehting doesn't presuppose defeat. 'rhough we may not have achleved
debated in the union assemblies. But this was not done. Thnse with
an interest in our attitude's being sanctioned found it more
convenient to raise the matter before a Plenum of Locals and Comarcals.'
ou; ob.iective,s we have increased our l-leap.onr y .' ••• 'Let us be on t~e
The meeting on 22 May 1937 gave the F'o ') ,~. period. of erace in which to
alert for comipg events. Let us not be dlsmayed, let us keep up
SUbstantiate their charges of "betrayal' by the Hegional Committees.
solid revolutionary' morale. Let us not forget that we a re playing a
That period of ~ace was 48 hours. 'Our answer was that we st d b
trump card. Let us not be deluded by the alleged threat of an attack
what had been agre~d at the audience \·/e had had Id th the comr~~e's ;rom
from with ships of the English fleet, when in point of fact the
the Local Federation, namely that our case be debated in the union
14 15
p-ssemblies, insofar as these alone were empowered to judge in such 1.6.37.
instances and to prescribe what should be done. t (El Amigo del Pueblo, A report from the CN'r National Committee (dD.ted 29 May' 37)
no.5) appears in the Boletin de Informa.cion CN'l'-F'AI relatine the proceedinp:s
of a National Plenum of CNT Regionals at which 'Catalonia reported the
26.5.37. decision reached with regard to the "Friends of Durruti" and the
Issue no.2 of. El Amigo del Pueblo appears. It recordB~ Plenum unanimously resolved to remove from the organisation the
contribution towards the paper's cost from Group X on the Aragon front, leading lights of the "Friends of Durruti" group and that, come what
from Miguel Chueca, Gregorio Jover, the committee at Bellver de Cinca may, the fomenting of any split as a result, must be averted.' In El
and comrades at Pina de Ebro. It records also the death of FoD member Amigo del Pueblo, no.5, the FoD dispute that the aereement to expel
Manuel Sanchez of Sallent,a mining town 'l'he paper also notes the them was unanimous ' ••• there wa.s no una.nimity for the Andalusi" .n
formation of n~w branches of the FoD and the imminent opening of new Regional voted aeainst.'
FoD locals in Sans,Tarrasa,Gracia and Sabadell. Issue no.2 is not
censored and there is an announcement of the 'El Amigo del Pueblo 1l.6.37.
Graphics Workshop at the disposal of revolutionaries.' On the front A joint circular from the regional cOrlmi ttees of the CN'r
paGe it is Elnnounced "rhe absurd treatment meted out to us by the and the FAI endorses the order for the expulsion of members of the
censors obliges us to give them the slip.' In the face of threats to FoD from their organisations.
that effect, the 1"oD warn 'Plenums of Locals and Comarcals are not
empowered to expel any comrade. We invite the committees to raise the 12.6.37.
"Friends of Durruti" case in the union assemblies, the seat of the El Amigo del Pueblo, no ,) appears. On page one it carrie"
organisation's sovereignty.' a retraction ( 'as agreed at the Plenum of FAI groups and in
anticipation of the .. CNT and. FAI committees doine: likel·Jise') ••• 'We did
not use the word "betrayal" in the sense of sell-out or bad faith but.
In Solidaridad Obrera, the Regional "ommi ttees of the CN'r rather to signify incompetence and c o ~rardice ••• we retract to day in
and FAI and Local Federation of CN1' unions note the decision 'on 22 May expectation that the committees will also retract the label of "aGent s
by the Plenum of Locals and Comarcals and state 'Over double the provocateurs" they used a Ga ins t us .' TiE papeI' also carries a note or
period of grace given ••• for the .substantive proof to be produced ••• support from the anarchi s t e;roup 'Marg2.1ef', siehed by (former l''Urruti
now having elap?ed ••• we notify both organisations, confederai -and Column member?) Antonio Bonilla expr essing solidarity with the FoD
anarchist that they should proceed to expel from their midst all despite the disavowals by the committ ees. It also notes that, in a
members of the "Friends of llurruti" association who do not publicly memo sent to the CNT and FAI Regiona l committees as well as to the
dissociate themselves from the stance adopted by said grouping.' (See Local l~ederat i on of CNT unions, the Local Federation of the
note 3) Libertarian youth and the youth Defence Gomr,d ttee had both endorsed
the FoD interuretation of the May Events. It notes, too, that the r~; u' :
organ, Treball . ha.d ..reported the FoD to the police for issuing El A.!!1ie;o
11 Grido del Popolo, the paper of the Italian Uommunist del Pueblo clandestinely. On page 4 there i, a reprint of a report
Party in France refers to Camillo Berneri ' ••. one of the leaders of from Castilla Libre, the GN'r daily paper in Madrid, allegine that 'The
the "ii'riends of Durruti" group which •.• provoked the bloody uprising "Friends of Durruti", originally set up as a cultural body whose
against the Popular Front government in Catalonia ••• got his just purpose was to propagate the ideas of the people's caudillo, h!'1.8 been
deserts during that revolt from the Democratic Revolution vlhose right led astray by provocateur elements formerly active in the Communist
of self-defence no antifascist can deny.' Party.' The FoD comment 'This is not worthy of a reply. Members of
In Solidaridad Obrera, Joaquin Aubi and Rosa Munoz write a.n open this group are CN'r and FAlmembers of long standine;. Their lives are
letter to the paper's director stating ' ••• having learned of the a rosary of sufferings and deprivation.'
dispute that has arisen between the CN'l' and FAI and the "}i'riends of
Durruti" group, to \~hich I belonged, I find myself obliged publicly
to quit that association,being against the power strugp:le which it is In the paper Ideas, a Dr' Ludovici writes on behalf of the
waging aeainst the specific and confederal bodies ••• I continue to 'Errico Malatesta' group to refute the claims made by Il Grido del
look upon the comr2.des belonging to the "[i'riends of Durruti" as Popolo on 29 May 1937 regardinf, Berneri. Ee states that t . . . comrade
comra des ••. but ••• "'rhe CN'r was my womb and it shall also be my Berneri did not belong to the "[cri ends of 1)urruti" group, not that
tomb". ' there ",ould h,"we been anythinG wrong in that ••• '

16 17
El Amigo del Pueblo no.4 appears. It reports the arrest of 21.'1. 1(.
Jaime Balius (as a result of the information given by 'rreball?). T'; I Amigo. del Prieblo no.8. Reports a raid by 'armed po] ice
Replyinp; to an article in Las Noticias (18. 6. 37.), the FoD deny that l'ri I,ll I /11 rInd artillery 6n the premises of the GIlT Food Union, a
they and the Libertarian Youth spearheaded the May fighting ••• 'Had uni"" 11\ which the FoD had much supnort. 23 individuals on the premiser"
the Groups named been behind the revolt, \oIe should not in <"ny way>hs,ve wor III r r, trd,. The FoD state 'Once again, for the hundredth time, the
given up control of the streets.' An article from Balius ane;rily commlLLr t opted to compromise, on the basis of who knows what
insists that the allegation (by Fragua ;)ocial, et CNT paper in Valencia) compllrllLI()n o at national level. ... ["or tactical reasons we are
that he is a Marxist, be SUbstantiated or withdrawn. Like the preo~ding a((n I flrt L nonfrontat ions 1-li th the security forces. These receive the ir
is~ue, no.4 carries an article by Juan, Santana Galero, the press and orc! r"1I I'rom s omeone and carry them out. In this specific instance we
propoganda secretary of the Catalan Regional Committee of the must d I n oover who gave the order. No matter who he may bC', he must be
Libertarian Youth. See note 4. hunt rI dOlm at gunpoint in the streets as a threat to public peace,
even l r he is in government.'

]~l Amigo del Pueblo no.').

El Amigo del Pueblo no.5 appears. It contains a review B.11.37.

of the dispute between the FoD and the 'superior committees' and
El Amigo del l'uct)lo no.lO. Criticif'es the collaboration-
the text of the document 'To the comrades, to the confederal Columns'
(Gelsa, 16 January 1937). ists of the GNT for allo1-lin~ the ~overnment to creep back and to
consolidate its hold "l'o think that for six months all of the
interests of the or/;otnlnlllion hn.ve played second fiddle to thiE'
bagatelle • ... 'rhe "I"rlnndo of Durruti" maintain, that only a
congress can chnnr,r lh CNJ"s tactioB". Anyone so unscrupulous as to
sidestep this ro~uirumrnt makes himself a likely candidate for the
label "traitor" .. .'

~ "miC,Cl_dol Pueblo no.ll. A commemorative issue on
El Amigo del Pueblo no.6. It is indicated that this issue the anniveroar,Y of lJurruti's death. On page 2, it is noted' Durruti
has been printed by the Imp. Libertaria, Perpignan, France. Much of told the politlolnrln and his own comrades; You demand discipline. Bul
the content deals \o1i th the prisons, probably the result of the "That are you doinr: in the rearguard? And on more than onE' occasion,
observations of the jailed Jaime Balius who continued to write from he gave aAGUrnnOI'f] thn.t once lk'wing triumphed on the fields of battle
the militian wonl(] turn their gunsights upon the reargua,rd.' ••• 'The
temperament of our lost leaders is the same as that which moves the
"Friends of f)urruLi" group. Durruti knew that, unless the enemy was
El Amigo del Pueblo no.7 contains a oritique of a pamphlet cru8hed, tho Jlr~th of revolution could not be foU owed.' On page 3
on the ~lay Events published by Edi ciones Ebro. 'rhe pamphlet had the 'Durruti wnn It 100 ~~ proletarian. Had he lived until May, he would
FoD announcing 'A revolutionary Junta has been formed in Barcelona', not have elldorncd the "ceasefire" but swept aside every compact,
and adding 'T1E POUM must be admitted to the Revolutionary Junta every compromino behind the scenes and 110uld have placed himself at
because i t stood by the workers.' 'rhe l~oD move on in this critique the head of thnt class revolt.'
to make the fol101ving points 'One; We could not speak of a
Revolutionary Junta having been set up because in point of fact none
had been formed. Two; The said Junta not having been set up we could mid-193B.
not have invited a place in it for the P(1U]11 comrades. 'rhree; We salute Appearance of 'Towards a Fresh Revolution', a fuller
the POUM because we saw them on the streets defending the working exposition of the views and aims of the ~oD. The decision to issue the
class's interests.'
brochure was taken in mid-1938 at what Jaime Balius deflcribed in 197R
as 'the group's last session'.
Notes of a Local Plenum of Groups at which the matter was raised again.
' ••• certain elements asked unsucces s fully that we a.bsent ourselves
1. According to Pavel and Clara 'rhalm<tnn (Combats pour la LibeC'tC'J from the premises before the debates began.' At that group meetinr,
.l40scou-I,ladrid-Paris, Editions La Digitale, Quimper, 1983), '(Hans the FoD explained what they understood the 110rd 'betrayal' to sir,nify
Freund)-Houlin, some Friends of Durruti and ourselves drew up a and ' ••• it was agreed that both parties would retract the terms they
leaflet tha,t 11e aimed to distribute outside the building where the had used in the published note and manifesto.' 'l'his was done in F.l
(/.lay Day) festivities were taking place. ';/e denounced the Stalinists' Amigo del Pueblo, no.3 (1 2 June 1937), but ' ••• has yet to be done by
policy as well as the hesitancy of the an<trchists and of the POUM.' those who unhesitatingly, unfairly and improperly endorsed our
(p.196) expUlsion from the organi sation for which we have sacrificed so much.'
In El Amigo del Pueblo, no.4 ( 22 June 1937) Jaime Balius stated
2. Ae:ain according to Pavel and Clara 'rhalmann (op. cit. p.190), 'In our last issue, we of the Friends of Durruti withdrew the charge
They met .. with Moulin at the headquarters of the l~oD. 'rhere was a of betrayal for the sake of anarchist rp,volutionary unity. And we
heated argument involving Jaime Balius, JIIoulin and some of Balius's hope that the committees will retract the charge of tlap.;ents
friends. 'I' hat evening (4 May 1937) they agreed on the text of a provocateurs".' 'i'he FoD clai ms of grassroots support seem to be
handbill which 'l'halmann reconstructs from memory as approximately . confirmed by Grandizo Munis, le ade r of the ~p anish Bolshevik-Leninists,
'Immediate formation of a Defe nce Junta, a defence council made up of the Spanish Section of 'rrotsky ' s Fo urth Interned ional, who writes
all revolutionary elements from the ~'AI, CN'I', pom~ and the Libertarian (Jalones de Derrota, Promesa de Victoria, Editorial Lucha Ubrera,
Youth, whatever revolutionary committees remain and the control Mexico DP, 1948, p. 2)O- 291)' ••• the local committees refused to
patrols. All pOl"er to the workers' and peasants' committees and implement a resolution from the superior committees expelling the
unions; withdrawal of the anarchist ministers from the Valencia chief (FoD) leaders.'
f,overnment. Disarm the Communist Party organisations in the rearguard.
Greater pressure on the central government to secure recognition of a 4. Grandizo Munio (op. r it. p.3S5) notes that 'El Amico del Pueblo
new, revolutionary autonomous e:overnment in Catalonia ••••• Signed the organ of the "J"rl ondo of JJurruti" and La VO;", J eninista the
the Friends of Jlurruti.' The 'rhal manns speak of 40'JO - 5000 such Trotskyists' orgnn aaoily distributed t ens of thousands of copies',
handbills having been printed at gunpoint in the Barrio Chino around and he adds ' ••• evon thoueh an;yo ne arrested \>Iith one of those papers
midnight on 4 May 1937. In none of their publications did the FoD ever in his pocket \~ould have receivod a sentence of between 10 and 30
acknowledge the above text or anything close to it. Given Balius's years'.
newspaper connections (he had been an editorial statf member on
Solidaridad Obrera amd Tierra y Libertad and the Barcelona corres-
pondent for the Madrid-based CNT.) it seems odd that coercion should
have been necessary~ vlhen it oa~ to the printing of the first bsue
of the FoD newspaper El Amigo del Pueblo (20 May 1937) this was done -Los imilos de Durruli-
"Loe AmlgOlO de Durrtttl" no ee unA
in a regular way by the Impremt<t Laietana, Bou de Sant Pere, 9. The A Inlclatlv8. de unos cuanOO5 Cama.-
pet\IL nu\.>, Nowtr", pretendemos Que
radlUl del lUlart]ttisUl Buen .. ventun.
Th<tlmanns claim (op.cit. p.191) to have persuaded the FoD 'henceforth Dum.t!. Que .upo !lnalizar att ~Ida de I .. ~valucl6n espRlio:a se compeDetre
to operate from the undergr.mnd', yet the first issue of El Amigo del acueroo oon 105 t.nheloo de llberael6il d. la 8&vla revoluclonarl. de Ilue!!tro
qllol mAtI.Mon toda IU eJecutorla per- Durrutl. Loo a.mlgos de Durrutl per·
Pueblo (20 May 1937) was mutilated by censorship so it had clearly ln1I1eaIl rlele!! a la. lilim..., pal .. br~1
oonal. M ha pens ado en 1& oonvenJen- pronunciad&a por Due.tra C.a.rn.rada
been published overground. See also (on p.3) the announcement that cl& de eonstltulr Ulla agrupscl6n Que en eI oara.%l>n de Bar~lan .. '} denun.
'Overall director is comrade Jaime Balius, while the editorial staff pe.rpetu.. 1.. memoria del bomb~ Que c1ando la Jabor conlrarrtvoluclonarla
1IlmbolI%6. por au honradrz y ' por su
includes comrades Roig, Ruiz and Domingo Paniagua.' The same issue ' nJer. la etaPI' revoluclon ..rl .. comen·
l' a<:\l,!anda con trazoo • Irllea el .,....
mloo que habl.m~ de stif\llr.
notes that the <" oD premises in Rambla de las )<'lo re s , 1,1 are still ""d.. a me<ll.doo de Ju1!o.
Para incrlbtr.1e en nue.5tra &!ocl ....
functioninr: .rhat address, with telephone number (18721) was given On Invltamos .. todos la5 camaradaa cl6n ... Ind!;pensable pertenecer a I~
que en Yids Quisleron al ca.mar&ci&
every masthead as the administrative and editorial offices of El Amigo Dnrrutl Y Que si desaparecer el RI·
O. N. T. '1 oomprobar un po&.do de
del Pueblo. pnt. de nuestra revolucl6n oolUervLII IItOb:. 1 de aInOO" a lAa Id.... 1 a la
at recueroo del gran luchador, a que :~luc16b.. Do ana IIlAn.r& 1n",,1.
mrresen Cl cLoe OJnlga5 de Durrulli. rtt., M reclben I ... lneorIpcloD.. c
3. 'rhe 1<'oD claim (El Amigo del Puebl~ no.5, 20 July 1937) that 'the Rambla de Ca t"lulla. 11, prtnclf*l
Secretariat of the Local ~ederation of Croups and the Committee and (a.ocl6n de Perlodl~lA.' d. la O.N,T.>'
the Local l~ederation of the Libertarian youth refused to endorse this dolt pto a .Ie~ .,. la to,rda.
note ••• indeed, the Libertarian youth made an official protest about lA 00mfJd6D ~
it in a note sent to the Regional Committee,while also intimating that
they sympathised whole-heartedly Hith our stand.' 'l'he FoD also speak
20 21
c. N. T. P. A. I.

Adrapaclon 101 Amldol de DurruU

La proyoucion 4. la contrarrewoiucion aclu:ldo con tal limidu que IIls,"n ord.nar 1:l1t0 ,I lu"n
'I qUI Indu,o h.y.n j'"pultlo la ... u,lIa .1 trllb.jo cv.ndo ".
El aullo .. I. r.t,".",. tv' ,I loque d. d.d" d, tltl lu,r.
131 tonlr.rnvoludonariu. Fu' ,t (oml"u. d, un :l1.que
l:ib.mo •• n 101 find .. inm,dialol d, I .. viCloria lolal. No I t "1
Irnido fn CUtnl. dl d6ndl h. plllido I. a,rui,n, no .. tu
;! fondo (onlr. I, ,I .. , !.lIb.J.dor •• prnl3do altnd6n .1 yrrd:rotlu(/ .i,n"i~'do dl las o(.lu.lu
la fnc:rutiJada hi.t6riu qUI h.m'l Itnat,d. d, un" 01;'1_ jern .. das. '1'.1 conduct. h3 dl caliliurn d~ ltalti6n , 10 re-
",ra'tI.r. y rotund. d,:d, dl .. ha, .tab .. de IUr!;, la h, lIolucitn qUI nlldie tn n'Hn"r, de nar.a debe comlt't ni p ••
Ivpnrlf;:i, utal,", con r;us •• d. tr."d;:!. El dL1 3 d .. Ma.,.. trotinll;. I 11'. ';JI"·,,, .. ~ ,·,,111" ~'"Iifil'"'' I. lobo' ntl"ta qll.
u conlum6 I, a"uI6" d. 101 partido. pt1utno · bur~u.~u. y 1101 ,,,,Iiudo Solid;llridad Obrt; .. y I.... mililantlt mh dull·
d', h .• lu.nu dl .,d,n J.lublico, qUI sinlit"dO£t imp.>hnlU udo. de I. C.N.T.
ante .1 IVlnn d, I .. IUlrtu r,,,,,lod.nll.i .. u di'pu,;uon ;'I.
:111'1.' tn un,r. nuul", ;lnIL.. JlJtlU }" d, un (o"I"lIi10 Ei comite rel'on~f de la C,N.T, no. deuuto,iu
alla""nlt human •. No nOI h, .orprend.do I. d ... ulorirad6n dl 101 H,m.dot
No '101 .quivoc.mol. cuando d,clJmo' rn .t att, pulll;co comilh rupltnsabltl d. I., C.N.T. S.b'.m"., d, ,nlt.TI.no, qUI
ctl,l,r,do por 101 _Amill't d, Durruli. en :,f !ealro Goy/\, en utOt tomiltl no podl,n h.ur olra co. a 'quI e!'>iorpec.t .1
j" propi. IIllp~r. dl I. ~,bl', In!:ablad,', qUt III ."rl.i';.n ....... nu d,1 prohl.ri.d". Conoc.emo, lobr,damlnll I 19'
contr" la, trab.j:adaru Ib, • praducirll :a{:o usui"'o. I ,,11 •• 1 HEINTl5TAS qUi tll'" ,n .1 comit4 R.sion;'!.I,
hm~1 qUf' 11 tntltrro dt Roldjn Corladll, 1;'1 subltllllti6n dt Sc.mo. 101 1Ami,O' d. Durruti, quienll IlnunOI autarld.d
10' carabintros tn RiJ'lotl, y Oltu ptollocadones ftSisl."d.a, nlo.,1 luliciente P"" de!")utoriut • ulol individuol qUI h,n
con~. lilvlan dilllrt.OI .. I,bon .. dt un, cadena qve u utaba f"r. traictoro:rodo I I. r'lIolucbn y • I. d ... Ir.b.j.do,., "'o~ In-
jando ." 101 propiOl ~tnlrol olid,lu tn dpndt rHide" ''JI capaUI y cob.rd". Cu."do no Itn.mo. Intmlso enlrlnle, .n·
r.prlltnh"h. de los ueloru .ptllid.dol /<"lil .. cilll1' en tl
terrsno d, 1o. denomln,lillol.
E~ tlla prov(.c.cl6n h.n inhf'venldo ~n primer \bmino • el
Irts.n d, nu.yo ,I pod .. • CompanYI 'I ' la p'qu.". bur,l... ·
'f • • demh. Inlre8,n ~I Ord~n Publico ;Ill sobi ... ,o conlr.-
rrellolution.rio dl V31.n~;3 y lA cc..nltj,ri;, d. Dtl ... :) al lene·
P.5.U.C., En:ro! C.!aU, Elquerr. Republ.r.lllnll, p"rl,do 50 r "- r,l POUI.
li,t" UnHiudo de C.hlu'h y 10. cverpOI :rormndol qve ,'.!:l. l . Iraid6n n de un lIolumen .norme, L •• do. SAr.nU,.
b,n 1\ 1".ldo de I . Otntr.lid,d. Ton .. ulu IUUI;\I conl ... ..,lIn ulndatn d. I. cl .... I.a)uj.dor" Hsurid,d y deftnu. tOn
con ,I 'poyo oUdolo, par no d.dt olid.l, de la Oener,lid:ad o'recid ... ~n bandej • • nuulro. ,n.rni,o •.
de Calalulla y d,1 Gobl,rno dl V.I.nda.
~Que h"c:err
£1 prolehriado en la ull. A ptl.r d, I. lresua conurhda .1 upldlu d, III jorn,d ..
A ta .srui6n dl I. T.I.f6nica, qUI enubu6 el propio Ra· qll~ :lcab,mo. dt lIiv;r contint'.. tn pit, S, h. ccmetido .1
drlsuu S.I", "lpondi6 d. un. m.ne •• un£nimt el I".olrl:ari.· er.or ,r .. ndiolo d. d.r !iempo .1 adllerurio d~ r,lorur .UI
d, pe •• onjndon ~n I. c.lI • • rma "I brluo. C,,"IrO dlas h:a pOlicionu. Se .... po.ihili!ado que .1 sobl,.no d. Vafend.
dut.do I. luc"" b.llh.. do .. 10, Ir,b.j.dortl con una bra. onandt lu.rlat • I. conlr.rr.voluci6n.
vuta In,n.r.abll. L. unl" h. h"ido, da nu.vo, 11 palll· No n ha ubida .Iacar • londo nl ha IlCi.lido un. coor-
menlo c",lItj,ro. d;nllclon d • • ~Iu'r'o, en el lerreno inlurrecdon.1. S, h. p.r_
H,mo. rtll.lorludo aqulllol dl,. m.mor"blu dl I.. Jor. (;,Ilo el titmpo y lal munition'", con ,i"'plu p.queol, .n
n.d .. d. Jurio. Hemol I,n,do I, c,I1" que no qlltremO' u- vu de p'anllr un ;'!.taque rapido y .udlll. H. hlhdo Inl.lisen·
d .. pot ',r nuutr. y pOt h.berl. conquiltado In I"ch. fronc;'!. cb y di .. cci6n.
y d,ddid •. El ,lto I. luch, no pruupon. un. derrota. A puar d,
que no hly.mol dlda clm. a nuult.. obl,tlllol hemo • • 1,.1.
11 ,du,l movlmlento m,nlado nunl.o .rm.m ...... o,
Se h • • liTlnado QUI , .. Jorn.d" de Jullo !!Hron un. ru· El' . . . ,m .. conqui'ladu no I .. hlmOl dl ent,tSllr • I.
pUefh • la prOlloc.ci6n luel.la, pero 101 ,A",isol dl Du.rUlb cot'l!rarrlvoluci6n, Son de la d::ne 1r.l)lIj .. oora, Subthle el pe·
hem",. uthnido public.menlt qve I. utncill de los drll' "'e· lil!lro dt nunlrol en,mi&o, que manti,nen 'VI po.lcionu y
morllbln de Julio r... die,b. en I... anli . . . b.olut .. de Im.n· que pOtlun, 10d,III., abund"nh ,rm;'!mento.
cipation dtl prolet~ri.do. ElllmOl .tanlOI • 101 aconhcimitnto. qVI " lllldn.n.
No dum'yemol. M.ntens.mo. un • • 6lid. mor.1 r'lIoludon._
Nos h.alhtmol en un UIO Identico ria. No olllidemo, qUI no . . . bmo. JuS~ndo u". carh d,cill.
En lu ilclu.I" jorn.d:al de Mayo. ;'!. petar de t.,.ber exit· 11 .... No no. dej •. mos .Iudn.r por el ."punlo p,lIsro d. vna
tido un;'! prollocad6n no h,mOI ulido 11 la ca'le. I,n 101", par:ro :tgrui6n d, 101 b:arco. dl I. utu~d.a inSlua CUllndo In re.li_
ptdi. tl dnormt d. 101 cuerpOI arm"dol ,ino ql.e qut.emn dad I .. polencias democdticu utA" :opoyando 1111 lasci.mo
que I .... nSrt que re h. det1'.m.'\do h.lle I. dtbid. compen- d .. un. man, •• ducar.dll.
11Id6ro, Sep.mo. Interpretar el momenlo .dull!. NuulrOI ,dll.r-
Edamol lIilliendo un inttanlt de tuperncl6n d. un • • lap" uriol I""lendl.n dnlruir el prolttariado rellolucion.rio par.
p,quei'lo-bu,su"a El com:,.h librldo I"or el prolel,ri.do ea- Itnlar IlU prem"" d. lln armilllclo palrocin.do por 101 10·
latin .. pola.iu en un /\nhelo d, '1IIIn~. que ha d, consiltir ·bierno. inSlh 'I f,.nc4., V .1 mismo liempo pa •.") u'lu.at un
,n'..!' pl .. maci6n d. un predominlo obnro, den por den. predominio del capihl en el perlmtlro de I. E,:I.I'I. prol,-
Nud,tr. Asruplci6n qUI ha fllado e" la calle, .n lu larl •.
b.rtic.d .. , d.lendilndo tu conquill" del prolflari.do pro· No .bandonlmo. la callt. M:anlengi\mOI el u~lrilU Indl)-
puS" .. par I1 !riunfo 101111 dl la "volvei6" .0cl.,1. No pode. mable 'lUt CArlclet;r6 11 Ourruli In I" Cllltr, r" 101 IUIJ""
mal .ctpl,r I, t:td6n, 'I el hfCno COo'llr(lrr'lIolucion"rlo. de tt, I~.~ba,o. '/ In riondt no. Incontremo •• 'I m.1n'1ns'mono.
conlliluit un nUtlla ).bl.rno con 101 mimos plllrlido., ptn, I're~lo. a terminar III s.andiu. obr. 'n'cI"d, en I ~ ... memo·
con di.linl .. t.prtnnt.nh., 1£110 .. un ,nl:rol'lo dt tal uli_ r,~hl.~ jorn",dlll ql'e 1I1"II;,ron uturad .. d,l Hplt;tu d. 10.

bre qUi "0 "";IImOI • C,,"~~rend .. ci. .no It.t (omilh d~ I. can,,,r.,du del FRENTE que hlln hecho .. nil,' IU ·,01 .Ir.d.
C N.T. Y .Isun cemil~ d, I. F.A.I, II'! h~'f.n prerlado • I. cont.a 101 /\~ioti'I"'5, co"tr. III bvrllcraci. 110.;'11 Y conl.a lu
rnliud6n d. tll 1I1I'.nr. • du;guald,des 'I 10$ comlldreo: que flun ptrdut.n 11 puar d.
Nl\r~lr" A~ro~)a,·i"n ".xi!!f' I. 1'"I~~IHII,'I"" Imn".l!ula <It' UII/\ ~abtrU derr.mildo I ••.~nlJre a torrenlU.
ill.,1:. ,p\'nlurj"u:llin, cl fnIlJJ:ulJil'nln lIe 1<, 1·1!11'1I1,]f'~, el d.·~·
CAMARADAS: £n pit! de ,uerra, No desfalln-
nrml' ell' 1"~ cu"l'l";J\ F\rmll,II/~. la 8ndnlh~ ii.n :" In ('rnIF,mlll
\. la 'Ii~f')"h'iiin ,1(' ,"d"lI 'n~ [l1l.rlidoF p'.lltlto~ '1li, "1111 A.e"·
di" Estad atentol al primer lIam.aml~nto que se 01

,'i·t .. 11 I~ ,.·L.(' Irnt.njllrlnrn haga.

IViva la revolucion loci~f! jAbajo la c:ont"r,evo~
L. G'ntralid3d no •• p.u.nh nlld,. S" conlirou1Icl6n ;~'Ii.
lic~ I:ro conl.arrevolucl6n. l:ro b.t,,,;'!. I. htmos Ipn3do 10' Ira. 'uei"nf
h;'!.;.,dor,*, E. inconubiblt qUI 101 comilh de la C.N.T. "lIy"n Loa a los cam.arad.as caldot.