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THE STEPPE LANDS AND THE WORLD BEYOND THEM

Studies in honor of Victor Spinei on his 70 th birthday

editors Florin Curta, Bogdan-Petru Maleon

EDITURA UNIVERSIT;軍II „ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA” IAI – 2013

Suported by grant CNCSIS PN II-RU 343/2010

Redactor: Dana Lungu Cover: Manuela Oboroceanu Editorial assistant: Anda-Elena Maleon

Front cover illustration: “Portolan chart by Angelino Dulcert (1339)”, Sea Charts of the Early Explorers, 13 th to 17 th Century, ed. Michel Mollat du Jourdin, Monique de La Ronciére, Marie-Madeleine Azard, Isabelle Raynaud-Nguyen, Marie-Antoinette Vannereau, Fribourg, Thames and Hudson, 1984, pl. no. 7.

ISBN 978-973-703-933-0

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CONTENTS

Victor Spinei and the research on the Eurasian steppe lands Victor Spinei’s opus: a complete list of works

Early nomads

Michel Kazanski, The land of the Antes according to Jordanes and Procopius Peter Golden, Some notes on the Avars and Rouran Li Jinxiu, A study of the Xiyu Tuji

9

13

35

43

Francesco Dall'Aglio, The interaction between nomadic and sedentary peoples on the Lower Danube: the Cumans and the “Second Bulgarian Empire”

299

The Mongols and the aftermath of the Mongol invasion of 1241

Christopher P. Atwood, The Uyghur stone: archaeological revelations in the Mongol Empire Antti Ruotsala, Roger Bacon and the imperial Mongols of the thirteenth century Christian Gastgeber, John of Plano Carpini and William of Rubruck. Re- reading their treatises about the Mongols from a sociolinguistic point of view Charles J. Halperin, “No one knew who they were”: Rus’ interaction with the Mongols Georgi Atanasov, Le maître (αφえちkてへ – dominus) de Drăstăr Terter et le beg Tatar Kutlu-Buga pendant les années 70 - 80 du XIV siècle Alexander Rubel, Alexander kam nur bis zur chinesischen Mauer. Der Alexanderroman und seine Reise nach Asien im Mittelalter

315

345

355

377

389

399

Medieval archaeology within and outside the steppe lands

Silviu Oa, Cercei decoraYi cu muluri de granule pe pandantiv (secolele XII-XIV) Dumitru eicu, The beginnings of the church architecture in the medieval Banat: rotundas Ionel Cândea, Some remarks on new ornamental disks, stove tiles, and tripods from the medieval town of Brăila (14 th -16 th centuries) Lia B<trîna, Adrian B<trîna, Gheorghe Sion, ReΒedinYa feudală de la GiuleΒti (com. Boroaia)

409

437

455

469

Early urban life between steppe empires and Byzantium

Virgil Ciocîltan, Cluj Βi GalaYi: sugestii etimologice Laureniu R<dvan, ContribuМii la istoria unui vechi oraК al Moldovei:

Bârlad

523

543

Liviu Pilat, IaΒii Βi drumul comercial moldovenesc

563

Emil Lupu, Drum, oraК Кi hotar între Лara Moldovei Кi Лara Românească

569

Sergiu Mustea郡<, ChiΒinăul Βi arheologia urbană

599

The world outside the steppe lands during the Middle Ages and the early modern period

Alexandru-Florin Platon, Représentation et politique : l’hypostase corporelle de l’État dans l’Empire Byzantin

617

Warren Treadgold, The lost Secret History of Nicetas the Paphlagonian

645

Ovidiu Cristea, Un gest al lui Manuel I Comnenul la Zemun (1165)

677

Alexandru Simon, Walachians, Arpadians, and Assenids: the implications of a lost charter

689

Matei Cazacu, Marche frontalière ou État dans l’État? l’Olténie aux XIV e -XV e siècles

697

Arno Mentzel-Reuters, Der Kreuzzug des Deutschen Ordens zum Dnjestr (1497). Protokoll einer Katastrophe

743

Ioan-Aurel Pop, Un text latin din 1531, despre raporturile moldo-polone, de la arhivele de stat din Milano

761

Iurie Stamati, Les Slaves et la genèse des Roumains et de leurs États selon la tradition historiographique russe, de la chronique Voskresenskaia à Lev Berg

779

Abbreviations

795

THE LAND OF THE ANTES ACCORDING TO JORDANES AND PROCOPIUS

Michel Kazanski

Numerous archaeological finds show that during the sixth century the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Dnieper area was densely populated by sedentary communities (Fig. 1:1-5). Most settlements in this area have been attributed to the Pen’kovka culture. 1 On the left bank of the Dnieper, the Pen’kovka culture bordered on the KoloΗin culture to the north, in the forest-steppe area, while on the right bank, it adjoined the Prague culture, in the area of the Stugna river, south of Kiev. 2 While the Prague culture has been unanimously linked with the Slavs (Sclaveni, Sklabenoi) of the ancient writers, all first-hand studies of the Pen’kovka sites have assigned them to the Antes (Antae). 3 The sixth-century historians Jordanes and in particular Procopius placed the Antes close to the northern frontier of the Empire (Fig. 2), in an area which coincides with the (south-)western parts of the Pen’kovka culture. 4 However, these two historians, who wrote their books nearly at the same time, give a rather dissimilar description of the land of the Antes. Jordanes (Fig. 3: 1) places the Antes to the north from the “bend of the Pontos,” from the Dnieper to the Dniester. However, he also conceptualizes those two rivers as located far away from each other (Jordanes, Getica, 36, 37), which actually fits better with the configuration of the forest-steppe zone. Indeed, in the steppe lands in the south near Odessa and Kherson, the distance between the estuaries of the Dnieper and the Dniester is rather small. Jordanes also places the Sclaveni west of the Dniester. The Bulgars are also placed by Jordanes to the north of the Pontus (Black Sea). 5 This was definitely the area close to the imperial frontier, i.e.

1 だ¿ñÇ ぜ. ぢëóêÜÑÖ0¡, ぢñÖá¡Üçï¡í  ¡Ü¿áöÜëí (ゑÜëÜÖñ¢, 1998), figs. 1-6.

2 Michel Kazanski, Les Slaves. Les origines, I er -VII e siècles après J.-C. (Paris, 1999), pp. 83-125.

3 For a review of the literature, see Bartomiej Sz. Szmoniewski, “The Antes:

eastern ‘brothers’ of the Sclavenes?”, in Neglected Barbarians, edited by Florin Curta (Turnhout, 2010), pp. 67-76.

4 ぢëóêÜÑÖ0¡, ぢñÖá¡Üçï¡í  ¡Ü¿áöÜëí, fig. 1.

5 It must be noted that no Greek source mentions the Bulgars at all, describing the entire Black Sea population as Huns. However, in his ethnic and geographical account of

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Michel Kazanski

the northwestern Black Sea area, whence most Bulgar raids against the Empire must have originated. 6 Jordanes gives no direct information of how far to the east did the lands of the Bulgars stretch and whether they included the area not only to the west but also to the east from the river Dnieper. However, his reference to the Bulgars as neighbours of the Acatziri implies that the lands of the Bulgars extended into what is now Left-Bank Ukraine. 7 The Acatziri – a steppe people who lived in the remote lands of the Pontic Scythia during the time of Attila, most likely somewhere in the eastern parts of the northern Black Sea region 8 – are described by Jordanes as neighbours of the Aesti, who lived to the east from the river Vistula. A good explanation for such an unusual vicinity is the late antique geographers’ interpretation of Eastern Europe as a relatively narrow strip of land between the northern Ocean and the Maeotis. 9 A map of this kind would necessarily place the steppe population in the region of the Sea of Azov, next to the peoples of the Baltic Sea. The Acatziri are said to have been destroyed in about 463 by a coalition of tribes including the Onogurs (Hunuguri), the Saragurs (Saraguroi) and the Ugrians (Urogoi), who came from someplace to the east. 10 Following that, the Acatziri ceased to play any important role in the northern Black Sea region. One can surmise that they were thrown back to the northern borderland of the steppe, either in the Don valley or in between the Don and the Dnieper rivers. 11 Those who won over the Acatziri settled somewhere in the eastern area of the southern Russian steppe: the Saragurs somewhere in the north-eastern part of the Caucasus region, 12 and the Ugrians, according to other sources, 13 in the Lower Volga.

Scythia, Jordanes clearly distinguishes Bulgars from Huns, the latter including, according to his account, the Altziagiri, the Saviri, and the Hunuguri.

6 Jordanes, Getica 36-37, edited by Francesco Giunta and Antonino Grillone (Rome, 1991).

7 ごëóÖí ぢ. げíïñî¡í , ぜÜëï¡Üú ぶÜ¿ñ¡. ぢÜÇëñßñÖó  £Öíöó ó£ ぢëóí£Üçá  ó óê ½ñïöÜ ç óïöÜëóó ä¿ñ½ñÖ でñçñëÖÜÇÜ ぢëóôñëÖܽÜëá  ç äÜïöÇÜÖÖï¡Ü0 ~äÜêÜ (でíÖ¡ö- ぢñöñëßÜëÇ, 2007), pp. 103 and 104; Michel Kazanski, “Les Hunnugours et le commerce de fourrure au VI e siècle,” in Zwischen Fjorden und Steppe. Festschrift für Johan Callmer zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Claudia Theune (Rahden, 2010), pp. 225-26.

8 Priscus, fr. 1, 2, in Historici graeci minores, edited by Ludwig A. Dindorf (Leipzig, 1870); ぜóêíú¿ ぜ. とí£íÖï¡óú, AÖÖí B. ぜíïö▲¡Üçí, “’ぴíëï¡óñÇÜÖÖ▲ ó í¡íîóë▲,” in ゎÜÖÖ▲, ÇÜö▲ ó ïíë½íö▲ ½ñ¢ÑÜ ゑÜ¿ÇÜú ó がÜÖíñ½, ëñÑ. ん¿ñ¡ïñú ゎ. ぱÜëíïáñç (でíÖ¡ö-ぢñöñëßÜëÇ, 2009), pp. 123-24.

9 どíöáíÖí H. が¢í¡ïÜÖ, M. どíöáíÖí とí¿óÖóÖí, ごëóÖí ゎ. とÜÖÜçí¿Üçí, A. B. ぢÜÑÜïóÖÜç, «づÜïï¡í  ëñ¡í». づñôÖ▲ñ äÜöó ゑÜïöÜôÖÜú ぎçëÜä▲ ç íÖöóôÖÜú ó ïëñÑÖñçñ¡ÜçÜú ÇñÜÇëíâóó (ぜÜï¡çí, 2007), p. 23.

10 Priscus, fr. 8,

11 C. A. づܽíüÜç, “ごïöÜëóôñï¡í  ÇñÜÇëíâó  びí£íëï¡ëÇÜ とíÇíÖíöí (V-XIII çç),” AEMA 11 (2000-2001): 263.

12 ぜóêíú¿ ご. んëöí½ÜÖÜç, ごïöÜëó  êí£íë (ずñÖóÖÇëíÑ, 1962), pp. 62-4.

The land of the Antes according to Jordanes and Procopius

37

Jordanes does not mention the exact location of the Hunuguri, whose main business, according to him was the trade with fur trading. 14 However, the unknown author known, for lack of a better name, as the Ravenna Geographer, who wrote in the late seventh or early eighth century and used Jordanes’ description of Scythia, places the land of Onogoria close to the uppermost point of the Maeotian marsh. 15 This may be sufficient reason to locate the Hunuguri in the north-eastern area of the Sea of Azov, next to the estuary of the river Don. 16 However, it is possible that by the seventh century they moved to the east from the Don and the Sea of Azov, in the area known to the Armenian Geography as “Oghondor–Blkar– Strangers.” 17 However, placing the Hunuguri (Onogurs) in the northern Caucasus region prior to the seventh century does not make much sense, for that does not square at all with their participation in the fur trade, which must have originated in the forest zone in the north. 18 According to Procopius of Caesarea (Fig. 3: 2), the land of the Antes began not far from the Lower Danube, across which their raids started under Justin I, 19 and ended at the western border of the Utigurs. 20 Procopius placed the latter to the east from the Cimmerian Bosporos and from Tanais (either the Don or the Donets). 21 Crossing the Tanais was the beginning of the war between the Utigurs and the Cutrigurs. 22 The Utigurs also controlled

13 Theophylact Simocatta, History VII 7.1.13, translated by Mary and Michael Whitby (Oxford, 1986).

14 Jordanes, Getica, 36-37.

15 Ravenna Cosmography, IV 2, in Joseph Schnetz, Itineraria Romana, vol. 2 (Stuttgart, 1990).

16 Franz Altheim, Attila et les Huns (Paris, 1952), p. 205.

17 んëöí½ÜÖÜç, ごïöÜëó , pp. 167-9; ん¿ñ¡ïíÖÑë B. ゎíÑ¿Ü, ÄöÖóôñï¡í  óïöÜëó  でñçñëÖÜÇÜ とíç¡í£í IV - X çç. (ずñÖóÖÇëíÑ, 1979), pp. 58 and 69.

18 ゎíÑ¿Ü, ÄöÖóôñï¡í  óïöÜëó , 58 and 69; ごçíÖ ゐÜ¢ó¿Üç, びëóïöÜ がó½óöëÜç, “Protobulgarica (げí½ñö¡ó äÜ óïöÜëóó äëÜöÜßÜ¿Çíë ÑÜ ïñëñÑóÖ▲ IX ç.),” BB 9 (1995): 21; づܽíüÜç, ”ごïöÜëóôñï¡í  ÇñÜÇëíâó ,”, p. 288; Kazanski, “Les Hunnugours,” pp. 225-26.

19 Procopius, Secret History 18.20, edited by J. Haury (Leipzig, 1906); Procopius, Gothic War III 14.1-2, edited by J. Haury (Leipzig, 1905).

20 Procopius, Gothic War IV.4.9.

21 Procopius, Gothic War IV.4.7-9, 5.15-21. For details, see ゎíÑ¿Ü, ÄöÖóôñï¡í  óïöÜëó , 81; C. A. づܽíüÜç, “ゐÜ¿Çíëï¡óñ ä¿ñ½ñÖí でñçñëÖÜÇÜ ぢëóôñëÖܽëÜá  ç V -VII çç.,” AEMA 8 (1994): 209-18.

22 Procopius, Gothic War IV.18.22. Although the ethnogenetic legend states that both these peoples formed locally, in the northern Black Sea area, as early as the fifth century (Procopius, Vandal War IV.5, edited by J. Haury [Leipzig, 1905]), they probably played no notable political role or were incorporated into nomadic unions of the Bulgars or the Onogurs. Jordanes’s Bulgars also remained in the Black Sea area after 550. They appear in written sources after that as a people of the Black Sea steppe (Zacharias Rhetor, Historia ecclesiastica 12.7, edited by E. W. Brooks [Louvain, 1923]). They certainly raided Thrace in 559 (Victor of Tunnuna, Chronica, edited by Theodor Mommsen, MGH AA 11 Chronica minora 2 [Berlin, 1894], p. 560), and were present in the Lower Danube region by 590 as a

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Michel Kazanski

the northern area of the eastern Black Sea coast in the Caucasus, since they had received the area around the present-day Bay of Tsemes from the Tetraxite Goths involved in the war against the Cutrigurs. 23 In my opinion, the incompatibility between Jordanes and Procopius’ accounts of the Antes is a direct reflection of a chronological difference. Jordanes gave an ethnic and geographical description of Scythia as seen between 490 and 520 most likely by Cassiodorus or some other historian whose work he employed. 24 He actually mentions the Bulgars, who first appeared on the northern border of the empire in 480, when Emperor Zeno recruited them against the Ostrogoths. 25 That date may be used as a terminus post quem for the source of Jordanes’ description of the ethnic geography of Scythia. The Bulgars were responsible for a number of devastating raids across the Danube (491, 499, 502, 530, and 537 26 ). It is those raids that Jordanes must have had in mind, as he seems to have not known anything about the Cutrigurs and the Utigurs dominating the Pontic steppe in the mid- sixth century. Given that Jordanes’s Bulgars are described as hostile, the date at which the text on which he relied to describe the ethnic geography of Scythia must have been written at some point after 491. The terminus ante quem is given by the account of the Antes being behind the river Dniester. Indeed, only one Antian attack on the Empire is mentioned before 527, and that suggests that until then they were still living relatively far from the Danube. 27 Their annual attacks started at the beginning of Justinian’s reign in 527, which was possible only if they lived not far from the frontier. 28 This reminds one of the finds of the Pen’kovka

part of the troops under the command of the Avar khagan (Theophylact Simocatta, History VII.4.1). The best illustration of the ethnic changes taking rapidly place in the steppe lands is the story of Sinnion, a Hunnic officer in Belisarius’ army. In 530, when no source mentions the Cutriguri, Sinnion commanded a Hunnic (“Massagetic”) regiment in the Roman army (Procopius, Vandal War I.11.12), and then he disappears from the radar of the written sources. However, he reappeared in the Empire in 551-52 at the head of a group of Cutrigur refuges (2,000 warriors with their wives and children) from the northern Black Sea area, who had escaped from the Utrigurs invading the Cutrigur lands. Sinnion’s brothers in arms among the Romans welcomed him with open arms (Procopius, Gothic War IV.19.6-7). It is worth pointing out that one and the same author (Procopius) regarded the one and same person (Sinnion) as both Hun and Cutrigur. This may well explain why later authors writing after ca. 600 made no distinction between Bulgars and Cutrigurs, even though they knew both names.

23 Procopius, Gothic War IV.18.22.

24 On the ethnic and political situation in the Black Sea steppes in the fifth century see げíïñî¡í , とí£íÖï¡óú, んê½ñÑÜç, ぜóÖíï Ö, ぜÜëï¡Üú ぶÜ¿ñ¡, 102-05; Kazanski, “Les Hunnugours,” pp. 225-26.

25 んëöí½ÜÖÜç, ごïöÜëó , 80.

26 んëöí½ÜÖÜç, ごïöÜëó , 80-1.

27 Their only important raid across the Danube was under Justin I (518-527), and they were easily defeated (Procopius, Gothic War III.40.6).

28 Procopius, Secret History 18.20.

The land of the Antes according to Jordanes and Procopius

39

pottery on settlements north of the Lower Danube and on the northern border of the Bugeac steppe corridor (Fig. 2). The source of Jordanes’ geographical account has probably been written before the Antes became a permanent source of military trouble on the Danube, i.e. before 527. The people of the Pen’kovka culture to the east from the Dnieper River, a region in which Pen’kovka sites may be dated as early as the Hunnic period, 29 chose to remain outside the Antian union between 480 and 520, or else Cassiodorus simply did not know anything about them. As for Procopius, he must have described the situation of 540-550, when the Antes were a powerful force on the Lower Danube. Their last large raid against the empire is recorded in 545. 30 There were negotiations with the Antes that probably ended in a treaty of military alliance: the Antes had to take the fort of Turris (somewhere in the Lower Danube area, though its exact location is not known) and to prevent other barbarians from approaching the Byzantine frontier. 31 From 545 to 552, active military operations against Byzantium on the Danube were conducted by Sclavenes, not Antes. 32 Procopius also knew well the Cutrigurs and the Utigurs, who began their military and political activities in the mid-sixth century, but he did not mention the Bulgars, who are not known from any important event between 537 and 559. 33 In 547, Constantinople received an embassy from the Tetraxite Goths in the northern Caucasus region, who gave a detailed account of what was happening in the north-eastern Black Sea area, particularly about the northern Black Sea “Huns”. 34 It was most likely at that time and from that source that Procopius obtained his information about Utigurs living in the lands to the east of the Maeotis and the Tanais, as neighbours of the Antes. Jordanes, or more exactly his sources, was not

29 ぎçÇñÖóú A. ゎÜë0ÖÜç, づíÖÖóñ ~öíä▲ óïöÜëóó ï¿íç Ö がÖñäëÜçï¡ÜÇÜ ずñçÜßñëñ¢á  (ずñÖóÖÇëíÑ, 1981), pp. 79-80; Michel Kazanski, Archéologie des peuples barbares (Bucharest/Br<ila, 2009), pp. 157-61.

30 Procopius, Gothic War III 14.11.

31 Procopius, Gothic War III 14.31. We do not know the result of the negotiations, but Pen’kovka pottery finds are known from early Byzantine forts on the Lower Danube (Fig.

2). 32 Procopius, Gothic War III 13.24, 29.1,2, 38.1-23, 40.1-3, 31-45, 4.25.1-5.

33 Victor of Tunnuna mentions the Bulgar raid in Thrace in 559/60 (Victor of Tunnuna, Chronica, p. 560). This Bulgar invasion took place during a lull in Sclavene raiding activity, after the active years between 545 and 552. Other sources ascribe the attack to the Huns and the Sclavenes (John Malalas, Chronographia, edited by Ludwig A. Dindorf [Bonn, 1831], p. 490; Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, translated by Cyril Mango and Roger Scott [Oxford, 1997], p. 559) or to the Cutrigurs headed by Zabergan (Agathias, Histories 5.12, edited by Roger Keydell [New York, 1967]. It is important to note that, if they participated at all, the Sclavenes appear in this episode as an auxiliary force, in sharp contrast to their independent raids of 545-552.

34 Procopius, Gothic War IV 4. 12, 13.

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Michel Kazanski

privy to that information. However, another interpretation of Procopius’ placing the Antes to the east of the river Dnieper is also possible. The Pen’kovka population in Left-Bank Ukraine, which has maintained its independence for some reason, have finally joined their Antian relatives at that time. Be as it may, Procopius’ account of the Antes settled within a large area between the Lower Danube and the river Don coincides with the distribution of the sites with the Pen’kovka pottery. 35

35 Dan Gh. Teodor, “Slavii la nordul Dun<rii de Jos în secolele VI-VII d. H.,” AMold 17 (1994): fig. 1; ぢëóêÜÑÖ0¡, ぢñÖá¡Üçï¡í  ¡Ü¿áöÜëí, fig. 1-6.

The land of the Antes according to Jordanes and Procopius

41

Fig. 1. The archaeological situation in the middle Dnieper area (first half and middle of the sixth-century).

1 – area of the Prague culture; 2 – area of the Pen’kovka culture; 3 – area of the KoloΗin culture; 4 – Nomadic sites.

Fig. 2. The Pen’kovka culture and the lower Danube limes.

1 – sites with Pen’kovka culture materials; 2 – findings of the Pen’kovka ceramic

ware in the early Byzantine sites.

1 – Dulceanca; 2, 3 – BudureΒti; 4 – S<rata-Monteoru; 5 – Pojor<ni; 6 – CiorteΒti; 7 – D<nceni; 8 – Hansca; 9 – Histria; 10 – Murighiol; 11 – Piatra Frec<Yei; 12 – Garv<n / Dinogetia; 13 – Isaccea / Noviodunon. According to Teodor 1994.

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Michel Kazanski

42 Michel Kazanski Fig. 3. The ethnic geography of the northern Black Sea area according to
42 Michel Kazanski Fig. 3. The ethnic geography of the northern Black Sea area according to
42 Michel Kazanski Fig. 3. The ethnic geography of the northern Black Sea area according to
42 Michel Kazanski Fig. 3. The ethnic geography of the northern Black Sea area according to

Fig. 3. The ethnic geography of the northern Black Sea area according to Jordanes (1) and Procopius (2).