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Carbonate Reservoir and its Impact on EOR

S.K. Masalmeh, Shell Technology Oman

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, 1618 September 2013.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been

reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its

officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to

reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract

It is widely recognized that the determination of the amount and distribution of residual oil saturation (Sorw) is a significant

factor in managing ongoing waterflooding and the selection of EOR methods that are applicable and economically suitable for

oil reservoirs. Laboratory core flooding tests are often used to estimate the amount of Sorw. The same core samples are then

usually subjected to EOR flooding experiments to estimate the extra amount of oil that can be recovered with the specific EOR

option. Failure to accurately determine Sorw will lead to wrong estimates of recovery factor of both waterflooding and the

subsequent EOR methods.

Significant amount of data is available in the literature on determining S orw and on the critical capillary or bond number to

mobilize Sorw. However, most of the data are measured on sandstone rock and for water-wet conditions. In this study the focus

is on 1- determination of Sorw in the laboratory for carbonate reservoirs, 2- The factors that affect Sorw, including capillary end

effect, capillary and Bond numbers, initial oil saturation, rock permeability, rock heterogeneity and experimental techniques

and 3- The use of numerical simulation as tool to aid proper interpretation of laboratory experiments.

The main conclusions of the study are: 1- Performing the water flooding experiments at reservoir rates of ~1 ft/d will lead to

overestimation of Sorw as the data can be dominated by capillary end effect; 2- The relative contribution of capillary end effect

increases as the permeability increases especially for heterogeneous carbonate rocks; 3- There is no correlation between Sorw

and rock permeability or porosity for the case understudy; 4- The critical capillary or bond number of non-water-wet

carbonates is much higher than those reported in the literature for water-wet sandstone; thus experiments can be performed at

higher rates than those expected in the field without the risk of de-saturation of Sorw and 5- Once an equilibrium between

capillary and viscous (or gravity) forces is established, the remaining oil saturation is independent of the number of pore

volumes injected.

The data presented in this paper has significant impact on the design of any subsequent EOR process. It shows that the EOR

target (after waterflood) is significantly reduced if the measurements are performed using high rates (or high centrifuge speed)

to overcome capillary end effect. Moreover, for non-water wet rock surfactant flooding will require much higher reduction in

IFT to mobilize residual oil saturation than for water-wet rocks.

2. Introduction

Capillary forces acting within the pore network are responsible for trapping oil during immiscible displacement. This trapped

oil can be mobilized and recovered, once viscous or gravity forces acting on the trapped phase exceeds the capillary forces.

The degree of recovery of residual oil by reduction of capillary forces depends upon how small they become relative to the

viscous and/or gravity forces. The ratio of viscous to capillary forces is the capillary number while the ratio of gravity to

capillary forces is the Bond number. Numerous experiments have been conducted and reported in the literature to correlate

capillary or Bond number with Sorw. The main objectives of these studies are to determine Sorw, the critical capillary or Bond

number above which the residual oil will be remobilized and the desaturation curves as a function of capillary or Bond

number. Most of the measurements reported in the literature have been performed on strongly water-wet porous media i.e,

sand packs, outcrop or reservoir sandstone samples.

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A wide range of critical capillary or Bond number has been reported in the literature which ranges between 10 -5 to 10-2, see

Fulcher et. al., 1985; Sheng 2011 and references therein. In some cases a critical capillary number of 10-7 was reported while

others could not detect any critical capillary number for some carbonate rocks [Abrams 1975; Kamath et.al. 2001]. The

reasons for this wide range in the reported critical capillary number are not well understood. It was already recognized that the

rock wettability could be one of the reasons. For water-wet rock, Sorw is very well defined and insensitive to flooding rate and

the critical capillary or Bond number required for mobilization of Sorw is in the order of 10-5. The critical capillary or Bond

number increases for oil-wet rocks which may partly explain the literature data. Moreover, experimental artefacts such as

capillary end effect especially for non-water wet rock, could also be one of the reasons for the wide range in the reported

critical capillary or Bond number.

A general problem in the measurement of fluid flow properties is that one has to ensure that the results obtained in the

laboratory are representative for the field. Therefore, flooding experiments are often performed at field rate of ~1 ft/day

assuming the results are more representative for the reservoir. It is difficult to attain residual oil saturations in the laboratory

flooding experiments. In most of the experiments only remaining oil saturation is reached, due to the capillary end-effect or

due to an extremely small mobility (very low relative permeability) of the oil phase as it approaches residual saturation. These

experimental artefacts are magnified for experiments performed at low rates i.e., field rates. In many of the cases reported in

the literature, remaining rather than residual oil saturation has been measured due to the experimental artefacts. Thus the

measured residual oil saturation is too high, and it can be more than 15 saturation units higher than true Sorw. These

experimental artefacts also lead to erroneous determination of the critical capillary or Bond number or makes it difficult to

detect them. More oil will be produced as the viscous or gravity forces are increased (overcome capillary end effect) which

may erroneously be interpreted as remobilization of residual oil saturation.

Relatively little data is available in the literature for carbonate rocks and non-water-wet porous media. In this paper we will

present a case study of a carbonate reservoir, where the rock wettability was well characterized by a combination of

spontaneous imbibition and capillary pressure curves. The experiments were performed using both centrifuge and flooding

techniques over a wide range of capillary or Bond numbers. Special attention has been given to the capillary end effect and the

balance between capillary forces on one hand and viscous or gravity forces on the other hand. Moreover, the impact of initial

oil saturation (Soi), rock permeability, rock heterogeneity and pore size distribution on S orw was investigated.

3. Capillary and Bond Numbers

Multi-phase flow in porous media is governed by the interplay between capillary, viscous and gravitational forces. The flow

regime can be characterised by the dimensionless capillary number N c and the Bond number Nb. These numbers measure the

ratio of viscous and capillary or gravitational and capillary forces at the pore scale, respectively.

A number of different, although more or less equivalent, definitions of the capillary and Bond numbers have been proposed by

various researchers, see Cense and Berg 2009 and references therein. In this study the following formula for the capillary

number is used:

Nc

cos

u

cos

(1)

where v is the interstitial velocity, u is Darcy velocity, is the viscosity of the displacing phase, is the interfacial tension, is

the contact angle and is the porosity in fraction.

The Bond number measures the relative strength of gravity and capillary forces as described by eq. 2,

Nb

Kg

cos

(2)

where is the density difference between the displacing and displaced phase, g is the acceleration due to gravity and K is the

absolute permeability.

A simple example is presented to highlight the problem of running laboratory experiments at field rate. The velocity of water

advancement during waterflooding is in the order of 1 ft/day which is equivalent to ~ 3.5x10 -6 m/s. Using equation 1 and

assuming the interfacial tension (IFT) is 27 mN/m, water viscosity is 0.4 mPa.s (at reservoir conditions of the reservoir under

study) and for simplification the contact angle is set as 0 then the capillary number is ~5x10 -8. To perform a laboratory

flooding experiment at the same capillary number for a core sample of 1.5 inch (3.8 cm) diameter and a porosity of 0.25, the

flooding rate is ~ 0.05 cm3/minute. The expected pressure drop during such an experiment for a sample of 5 cm long,

permeability of 5 mD and a water relative permeability end point of 0.5 is ~0.06 bar.

This pressure drop is very low and it is lower than the (negative) imbibition capillary entry pressure of non-water-wet samples,

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see Figure 1. The Figure shows the P c curves of 3 samples of permeability 3.5, 37.4 and 127 mD, respectively. The expected

viscous pressure drop (assuming no capillary forces) for the 3 samples at 100% water fractional flow rate and assuming water

relative permeability end point of 0.5 is 0.09, 0.008 and 0.002 bar, respectively. In this case the flooding experiments will be

dominated by capillary end effect which leads to very high remaining oil saturation. This raises the questions whether:

1- Conducting the flooding experiments at field rate is more representative and

2- Conducting the experiments at higher rate would lead to de-saturation of Sorw?

As most of the work done in this paper is conducted by the centrifuge, the centrifuge speed that leads to a Bond number of

5x10-8 (750 rpm) would lead to a gravity head of ~ 0.1 bar which is almost the same order of magnitude as the entry capillary

pressure for the non-water-wet samples used in this study, see Figure 1. The following assumptions have been used in the

calculation: plug permeability is 5 mD, density difference is 200 kg/m3, centrifuge arm is 15 cm, sample length is 5 cm and

IFT is 27 mN/m.

To avoid the experimental artefacts discussed above, the flooding experiments should be designed such that end effects are

reduced by using high viscous pressure gradients and equilibration times are chosen sufficiently long to reduce "after-flow"

effects due to low relative permeabilities. Reducing the experimental artefacts is not straightforward. Therefore, a combination

of proper experimental design (high rates) and numerical simulation of the experimental data is required. The use of numerical

simulation to aid proper interpretation of laboratory experiments proved to be an efficient tool to minimize the impact of the

experimental artefacts on the results and conclusions of the study and accurately determine residual oil saturation. Following

this procedure, one could resolve inconsistencies observed between residual oil saturations determined using different

experimental techniques and procedures and explain the wide range of the reported critical capillary number in the literature.

High rate flooding experiments may cause the displacement to become unstable. A thorough discussion on factors affecting

the stability of the displacement front can be found in Peters and Flock 1981. One of the conditions for the onset of instability

during two phase immiscible displacement is that the mobility ratio is higher than 1 (M= K rwoo/Kroww>1). In one

dimensional laboratory experiments, especially for light oil, there is less potential for fingers to grow. In case there is a

potential of front instability, the experiment can be designed such that the rates are increased in steps where the high rate is

only applied at the end in case capillary end effect is still present.

4. Experimental Procedure

The samples used in this study went through a comprehensive special core analysis (SCAL) program [Masalmeh and Jong

2006, 2007b and 2008]. The program included rock characterisation, centrifuge and flooding experiments. The focus of this

paper is on the capillary pressure, relative permeability and residual oil saturation measurements. In order to investigate the

effect of capillary forces on relative permeability and S orw, the capillary and Bond numbers have also been calculated at each

flooding rate or centrifuge speed. The following procedure was followed:

1- More than 100 samples of wide range of permeability have been used in the study, the characteristics of a subset of

the samples are shown in Table 1.

2- The core plugs are cleaned to water-wet status and fully saturated with brine.

3- The core samples are initialised at Swi using either the centrifuge or porous plate.

4- The plugs are aged in crude oil for four weeks to restore wettability.

5- Multispeed imbibition centrifuge experiments were performed to measure the imbibition P c curve and Sorw. The Bond

number was calculated for each speed.

6- Some of the samples went through multiple experiments, drainage and imbibition, with and without a surfactant. The

drainage data is not discussed in this paper.

7- Flooding experiments (combination of steady state and unsteady state experiments) were performed on 16 samples

(only 10 samples are shown in Table 1) to measure relative permeability and Sorw and investigate the effect of

capillary number on both parameters.

8- The capillary number was increased in steps by increasing the displacement velocity (flow rate). The highest capillary

number achieved in the flooding experiment was ~ 2x10 -5 assuming a contact angle of zero. The capillary number

will increase by a factor of 3 if a contact angle of 110 o is used, see the discussion in section 5.4.

9- The Bond number was increased by either increasing the centrifuge speed and/or reducing IFT by a factor 10-20 as a

result of using a surfactant in the displacing fluid.

In the centrifuge experiment, the average saturation in a core plug is recorded at a set of centrifugal speeds and then a capillary

pressure vs. saturation point is calculated at each speed. The capillary pressure is then calculated using either analytical

techniques [Forbes 1997; Hassler and Brunner 1954] or numerical interpretation [Maas and Schulte 1997]. In this paper the

experimental data have been interpreted by numerical simulation using MoReS, the Shell in-house simulator. The pressure

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difference between the fluids results from the density difference, as in gravity driven process in the field. Therefore, the Bond

number (instead of capillary number) was used to scale the centrifuge experiments.

5. Results and Discussion

5.1 Bond Number and Sorw

Figure 2 shows the oil saturation as a function of Bond number during centrifuge experiment for two samples. The Bond

number is calculated using eq. 2, where is 27 mN/m and is 0. The effect of contact angle on the results of this study will be

discussed in section 5.4. The oil saturation is calculated either using the average oil saturation in the sample or by numerical

interpretation which calculates the oil saturation at the inlet of the sample and account for capillary end effect. The data in the

figure shows that:

1- Oil production starts only as the Bond number exceed 10 -7.

2- The average oil saturation in the sample decreases gently as the centrifuge speed (Bond number) increases and more

oil is produced at all centrifuge speeds. Therefore, using the average oil saturation curve shown in Fig. 2 may lead to

a poor definition of Srow and to the conclusion that there is no critical Bond number for de-saturation of Srow, as

reported by Kamath et. al. 2001.

3- The oil saturation at the inlet (not affected by capillary end effect) decreases sharply as the Bond number increases

until it reaches a plateau of ~10%. This plateau value is the residual oil saturation and it is reached at a Bond number

10-6 < Nb <10-5. Increasing the Bond number by more than one order of magnitude and well beyond 10 -5 did not lead

to any reduction in Sorw.

The data in Fig. 2, clearly shows that the average oil saturation curve suffers from capillary end effect and therefore as the

speed increases the capillary end effect decreases and more oil is produced. This extra oil production is not due to

remobilization of Sorw.

A wider range of Bond number was investigated using higher permeability samples or surfactant solution where the IFT is ~12 mN/m. Figs. 3 and 4 show the interpreted inlet oil saturation as a function of Bond number for several samples with (Fig. 4)

and without (Fig. 3) surfactant. As shown in Figure 3, samples of similar permeability have similar curves (Figures 3a, 3b &

3c). Figure 3d shows samples of different permeability, which explains the spread in the data. All the data in Figure 4 is

measured on low permeability samples. The following observation can be drawn from the two figures:

1- Similar to Fig. 2, no oil production is observed for a Bond number lower than 10 -7. This demonstrates that running

laboratory experiments at Bond number similar to the one experienced in the field will hardly produce any oil.

2- The data consistently show residual oil saturation of ~10-15% for all the samples irrespective of permeability and the

use of surfactant.

3- The residual oil saturation is obtained at a Bond number as low as 10 -6 for the low permeability samples and as high

as 8x10-5 for the high permeability samples.

4- For the low permeability samples used in the surfactant experiments, the Bond number is increased by more than an

order of magnitude compared to the water-oil experiments and the residual oil saturation is reached at Nb~4x10-6 to

2x10-5.

5- No residual oil de-saturation is observed up to a Bond number of ~ 10 -3, which is 5 orders of magnitude higher than

the capillary number experienced in the field.

6- The data also demonstrates that, for the case under study, the centrifuge experiments can run at much higher Bond

number without the risk of remobilizing Sorw.

5.2 Comparison of Bond Number Data with and without Surfactant

Most of the samples used in the surfactant experiments are of low permeability. In some cases the same sample was used first

without and then with surfactant, which gives the opportunity to extend the Bond number range for either the same or similar

samples. Figure 5 shows the oil saturation as a function of Bond number with and without surfactant measured on samples of

similar permeability, see Table 1. The Figure shows that during oil de-saturation, the surfactant data is shifted towards higher

Bond number. The residual oil saturation, ~10-15%, is obtained at lower Bond number without surfactant, and a factor of ~4

increase was required to get to Sorw when the surfactant was used. The data also shows that the plateau oil saturation (Sorw)

extends over more than 2 orders of magnitude without any residual oil remobilization.

5.3 The Bond Number and Sample Permeability

As shown in eq. 2, the Bond number is proportional to the permeability of the sample. Therefore, the data in Fig. 3 shows that

1- the Bond number at which oil production starts, 2- the Bond number at which Sorw is obtained and 3- the maximum Bond

number used in the experiment increase as the permeability increases. This triggered the question whether a better correlation

could be achieved without the permeability in eq. 2. Figure 6a shows the oil saturation as a function of Bond number for 4

samples with permeability of 4.1, 13.5, 52.7 and 105.8 mD, respectively. The same data is shown in Figure 6b after dividing

SPE 165981

the Bond number by the permeability of the samples (Nb is divided by 4.1, 13.5, 52.7 and 105.8, respectively, to keep the same

scale). As shown in the figure, the data collapse into almost one curve indicating a better correlation when eq. 2 is divided by

the permeability.

5.4 Effect of Wettability on the Bond Number

So far the Bond number was calculated assuming a contact angle equal to zero, i.e, strongly water-wet assumption. The

wettability of the samples used in this study has been characterized by the use of capillary pressures (primary drainage,

imbibition and secondary drainage P c curves) and spontaneous imbibition of water and oil. Spontaneous imbibition data

showed that hardly any oil or water has been imbibed. The capillary pressure curves have been used to calculate an apparent

advanced contact angle during imbibition experiments, see Masalmeh and Jing 2006 and 2007b. The calculated apparent

contact angle is between 105o-115o, for most of the samples. Therefore, the water wet assumption underestimates the Bond

number calculated in Figures 2-6. If the calculated apparent contact angle is used in eq. 2, the Bond number would increase by

a factor of 2-4.

5.5 Capillary End Effect and Sample Permeability

One of the common misunderstandings in flooding experiments is that capillary end effect is more significant for low

permeability plugs. Therefore, it is assumed that the data of high permeability samples is not impacted by capillary end effect

or capillary forces. In reality, the capillary end effect is more dominant for high permeability samples if the same rate is used

and if the samples have the same contact angle. Using bundle tube model, the permeability (K) of a homogeneous sample with

uni-modal pore size distribution is:

K R 2

(3)

From Darcys law, the viscous pressure (Pvis) for a given Darcy velocity is inversely proportional to permeability (i.e.,

inversely proportional to R2) while the capillary pressure is inversely proportional to R, where R is the pore throat size.

1

1

2

K R

2 cos

Pc

R

Pvis

(4)

(5)

Therefore, as the permeability increases the viscous pressure decreases faster than capillary pressure which makes capillary

forces relatively more important and leads to higher capillary end effect in flooding experiments. Moreover, high permeability

samples are usually more heterogeneous and often exhibit bi-modal pore size distribution. Figure 7 shows the NMR T2

distribution and MICP pore throat size distribution of 3 samples where sample A exhibits a dual-porosity behaviour, sample B

shows a wide pore size distribution and sample C shows a narrow pore size distribution. For sample A the large pores (peak at

1000 ms) determine the permeability and the small pores (but still filled with oil) determine the capillary pressure at low oil

saturation. Therefore, for bi-modal high permeability samples, R in eq. 4 is the radius of the large throats while R in eq. 5 is

radius of the small throats. This enhances the relative importance of capillary forces and increases capillary end effect for such

high permeable samples. This could explain the claim that heterogeneous samples have higher residual oil saturation. In this

study, no correlation was found between Sorw and the heterogeneity of the samples as all flooding experiments were run at high

rate to overvome capillary end effect. More details are presented in section 5.8 below.

Figure 8 shows simulation of water flooding experiments for two samples of 5 and 150 mD, respectively. The capillary

pressure curves used in the simulation runs are similar to those shown in Fig. 1 for the respective permeability. The simulation

runs were performed at different flow rates using the same relative permeability curves and S orw for the two core samples. As

demonstrated in the figure, the high permeability sample shows lower recovery at all injection rates. The difference at the

lowest injection rate is ~20 saturation units.

The simulation data shows also that once equilibrium between capillary and viscous forces is established, the remaining oil

saturation is independent of the number of pore volumes injected, see Fig. 8b, especially for the high permeability run. It is

clear from the slope of the production curves at the low rates that oil production either completely ceases or only very small

change is expected if the run continues for 100s of pore volumes. Significantly higher oil recovery is observed as the rate is

increased.

The number of injected pore volumes can lead to higher recovery only for the case where viscous forces are still higher than

capillary forces but the oil is produced at very low rate due to an extremely small mobility of the oil phase. This could happen

either as oil saturation approaches Sorw (low relative permeability), or as it approaches the equilibrium between viscous and

capillary forces. In both cases, long time (many pore volumes) is required to get to equilibrium, as clearly shown in Fig. 8a,

especially the last step. However, in both cases, oil production will stop once equilibrium is reached and injecting many pore

SPE 165981

5.6 Experimental Verification

Steady state experiments (including bump rates) have been run on 16 high and low permeable samples. The experiments were

run at 30 cc/hour and 50 cc/hour for the low and high permeability samples, respectively. Then two bump rates of 200 cc/hour

and 500 cc/hour were performed to overcome capillary end effect and investigate the impact of capillary number on S orw. Only

the data of two samples will be discussed in this section.

5.6.1 Capillary End Effect and Rock Permeability

Examples of in-situ saturation profiles of low and high permeable samples are shown in Fig. 9. Even though a higher rate was

used, the high permeability sample shows much higher capillary end effect compared with the low permeability sample. Table

2 shows the capillary number, flow rate and average saturation for both samples together with S orw. The residual saturation was

obtained from the numerical interpretation of the data and the saturation profile at the inlet of the sample which is less

influenced by end effect. The capillary number was calculated assuming a contact angle equal to zero. The values in table 2

will increase by a factor of 2-4 if the apparent contact angle of 105o-115o is used in eq. 1.

The base rates used in the experiments (30 and 50 cc/hour) are much higher than the field rate of 1 ft/day (~10 and ~16 ft/da y,

respectively). However, the capillary end effect is still significant, and as expected from the discussion in section 5.5, it is

more profound in the high permeability sample. The average oil saturation is ~20 saturation units higher than S orw for the high

permeability sample. As the rate increased, the capillary end effect is reduced and more oil is produced. The high flooding

rates used in the experiments did not lead to any de-saturation of residual oil. For example, the last two saturation profiles for

the low permeability sample (200 cc/hour and 500 cc/hour) are almost the same. Moreover, in all flooding experiments

(including the bump rates) both the average oil saturation and oil saturation at the inlet are still higher than the residual oil

saturation obtained from the centrifuge (at Nb ~ 10-6), see Figs. 3&6.

5.7 Flooding Experiments at Field Rate

All the flooding experiments were run at high flow rates; no data is available for the rock used in this study using field rates.

Therefore, numerical simulation was used to estimate the impact of using field rates on both relative permeability and

remaining oil saturation. We have followed the following procedure:

1- History match the high rate experiments to obtain the oil and water relative permeability curves. A history matched

example using one of the samples is presented in Masalmeh and Jing 2008.

2- Re-run the simulation deck at field rate (~0.05 cc/minute) using the estimated relative permeability and P c curves

obtained from history matching of the high rate experiments and the centrifuge data. To facilitate comparison with the

available data, the simulation run is performed to mimic a steady state experiment.

3- Use pressure drop and production data to estimate the relative permeability curves and residual oil saturation

assuming zero capillary pressure. In this study, the discussion is limited to Sorw and the water relative permeability

end point Krwo.

The results of the simulation runs for both a high and low permeability samples are shown in Figures 10&11. Figure 10 shows

the production data as a function of time for the high rate experiment and low rate simulation run for low and high

permeability samples (see Figs. 10a & 10b). As shown in the figure, for the high permeability sample a significant difference

in the oil saturation is evident for most of the fractional flow rates apart from the bump rates. The oil saturation at 100% water

fractional flow rate is 50% and 34% for the low and high rate runs, respectively. This oil saturation achieved in the low rate

simulation run (before the bump rates) is more than 30 saturation units higher than Sorw, see the data in Table 2. For the low

permeability sample, the impact of capillary end effect is less significant, especially when both oil and water fractional flow

rates are high (see the data between 70 and 160 hours). However, the remaining oil saturation at the 30 cc/hour is ~ 20

saturation units higher than Sorw.

Figure 11 shows the saturation profiles of the high and low rate runs of the high permeable sample. The last two saturation

profiles (Sat10 and Sat11) are the same as they correspond to the same bump rates used in both runs. Significant difference is

evident between the corresponding saturation profiles (same fractional flow but different total rate). For the low rate saturation

profiles (Fig. 11a), the capillary end effect is evident at all fractional flow rates, see the inhomogeneous saturation profiles

(Sat2 to Sat9). For the higher rate run (30 cc/hour), the capillary end effect is only clear for the 100% water fractional flow

step (Sat9). The capillary end effect is still clear even at the high bump rates (200 cc/hour and 500 cc/hour), Sat10 and Sat11.

To illustrate the impact of capillary end effect on the conventional calculation of relative permeability, the pressure and flow

rate during the high and low rate simulation runs were used to calculate water relative permeability end point (K rwo). Using

Darcys law, the end point at low rate is:

SPE 165981

LR

K rwo

PHR q LR HR

K rwo

PLR q HR

(6)

For the high permeability sample (4_17), the viscous pressure is 0.03 and 0.068 bar for the low and high rate simulation runs

and the flow rates are 3 and 50 cm3/hour, respectively. Substituting these numbers in eq. 10, we get K rwoLR =0.135 KrwoHR.

However, the saturation at which the water relative permeability end points are calculated is markedly different due to the end

effect (50% and 66%). The pressure drop and flow rate that coincide with the same water saturation in the high rate run were

used in eq. 6 and the low rate end point increased to K rwoLR =0.5 KrwoHR. This shows that the error in Krwo can be anywhere

between a factor 2 to 8 depending on whether the saturation difference is taken into account or not.

As evident from Figs. 10&11, capillary end effect dominates the data of the low rate run apart from the bump rates. Running

such an experiment at field rate in the laboratory will lead to significant errors in the results, both the residual oil saturation

and the relative permeability curves. The experimental data cannot be reconciled by numerical simulation especially if no

bump rates are used at the end of the experiment.

5.8 Effect of Initial Oil Saturation, Sample Permeability and Heterogeneity on Residual Oil Saturation

So far the discussion focused on the impact of capillary/Bond number, flooding rates and capillary end effect on residual oil

saturation. In this section, the impact of initial oil saturation, rock permeability, rock heterogeneity and pore size distribution

on residual oil saturation is investigated. Residual oil saturation was measured on more than 100 samples of different

permeability and some of them initialized at different initial oil saturation. The data has been measured also using different

experimental techniques, i.e., centrifuge, steady state and unsteady state techniques. The results are shown in Figure 12 where

the figure shows both Sorw as a function of permeability (Fig. 12a) and Sorw as a function of Soi (Fig. 12b). There is a scatter in

the data, however, no clear trend between Sorw and initial oil saturation [See Masalmeh et. al. 2007a] or sample permeability

was observed. The residual oil saturation is in the range of 5-15%, with the bulk of the data clustered around 10%. This

conclusion cannot be generalised and need to be checked for other fluids and rock systems. Moreover, most of the data shown

in Fig. 12b are measured for initial oil saturation higher than 70%, with only few samples measured starting from lower S oi.

The effect of initial oil saturation should be checked for more samples that spans the whole range of saturation.

The data shown in Figure 12a is measured on uni-modal (homogeneous) bi-model (heterogeneous) samples. The bi-modal

samples are those of permeability higher than ~20 mD, the pore size distribution of these samples is similar to sample A

shown in Figure 7. As shown in Figure 12a, the residual oil saturation of both uni-modal (lower permeability samples, similar

to sample C in Figure 7) or bi-modal samples is similar. However, the capillary end effect is more prominent for bi-modal

samples as discussed in section 5.5. Therefore, the remaining oil saturation is higher than that for uni-modal samples when

compared at similar capillary number, see table 2, Figure 9 and the discussion in section 5.6. The residual oil saturation for bimodal samples is approached only at high rates and properly determined in combination with numerical simulation to

overcome the capillary end effect.

Impact of Experimental Technique: It is widely believed that the experimental technique affects the measured residual oil

saturation in the laboratory and that the S orw values obtained by the centrifuge technique are underestimated and not

representative to field scale. It was demonstrated in earlier sections that the residual oil saturation in the centrifuge is obtained

at relatively low speed (low Bond number, i.e., less than 10 -6), the high speeds are only required to overcome the capillary end

effect and they only reduces the average oil saturation in the sample. In this study the residual oil saturation was measured

using both flooding and centrifuge techniques. The data shown in table 1 demonstrates that the residual oil saturation measured

using both techniques are similar. The data show that when including the bump rates and through numerical interpretation the

flooding experiments lead to the same residual oil saturation as the centrifuge experiment. This demonstrates that the residual

saturation measured in the laboratory is independent of the measurement technique, however, it requires proper experimental

design and numerical interpretation of the experimental data.

6. Consequences for EOR

The data presented in this paper has significant impact on the design of any subsequent EOR process. Laboratory core flooding

tests are often used to measure Sorw. The same core samples are then usually subjected to EOR flooding experiments to

estimate the extra amount of oil that can be recovered with the specific EOR option. Proper assessment of the EOR target

should take into account the capillary end effect on Sorw derived from laboratory experiments. Failure to accurately determine

Sorw will lead to wrong estimates of the recovery factor of waterflooding and overestimates the potential target for the

subsequent EOR methods. For example flooding with surfactant solution after waterflood will reduce capillary pressure and

may lead to significant extra oil production by reducing capillary end effect which is not necessarily observed in the reservoir.

An example of the effect of surfactant on capillary pressure is shown in Figure 13a, where the capillary pressure is measured

on the same sample with and without surfactant [Masalmeh and Oedai 2009]. The Pc curve with surfactant solution compared

to the normal water-oil Pc curve is:

SPE 165981

Pc _ so

so

Pc _ wo

wo

where Pc_so is the capillary pressure for the surfactant solution, P c_wo is the capillary pressure for water-oil, so is the surfactant

solution-oil IFT and

wo is the water-oil IFT. In this case the surfactant IFT is only a factor of ~ 15 lower than the water-oil

IFT.

Running laboratory experiments with surfactant will lead to significant extra oil production as compared to flooding

experiments without surfactant. This extra production is mainly caused by the reduced capillary forces and will not necessarily

be observed on field scale unless the process is dominated by gravity forces, like the case of surfactant enhanced gravity

drainage (SEGD) in fractured reservoirs, see Masalmeh and Oedai 2009. Figure 13b shows an example to demonstrate the

impact of reducing capillary forces on oil production in centrifuge experiment. The figure shows the oil production as a

function of time at different centrifugal speeds of two experiments performed on twin sample with and without surfactant. As

shown in the figure, at the lowest speed which is equivalent to a Bond number of ~ 8x10-8, the remaining oil saturation is 20%

and 80% with and without surfactant, respectively. As discussed in section 3, this Bond number is in the same order of

magnitude as the capillary number experienced in the field. Therefore, a centrifuge experiment run at such speed would lead to

misleading conclusion on both remaining oil saturations and the potential for surfactant flooding in such a reservoir. The

residual oil saturation of both experiments is ~10%, this is obtained at the end of the centrifuge experiment (7500 rpm) and

using numerical interpretation. The results of the numerical interpretation were already shown in Figure 13a.

To investigate the impact of capillary end effect on surfactant flooding experiments, the Pc curves with and without surfactant

shown in Figure 14 are used to simulate flooding experiments on low (5 mD) and high (150 mD) permeability samples,

respectively. The results of the simulation of water floooding are shown in Figure 15. The simulation runs were performed at

different flow rates using the same relative permeability curves and S orw for the two core samples. As demonstrated in the

figure, the simulation run with the reduced Pc curve (Pc_surf) shows higher recovery at low rates and the difference in oil

recovery is more prominent for the high permeability sample. The difference in the oil recovery with or without surfactant

diminishes at the highest rate where viscous forces dominate and capillary end effect is minimized. Therefore, running a water

flooding experiment at low rate (1 or 3 cc/hour) and then follow that with surfactant flooding at the same rate can result in 1520 saturation units extra oil recovery for high permeability samples (>100 mD). This extra oil recovery is mainly an

experimental artefact.

The data presented in this paper has another important implication for the design of EOR processes like surfactant or alkalinesurfactant-polymer flooding especially for non-water-wet rock. Such EOR techniques work by changing the balance of forces

on capillary trapped oil, where the capillary number is increased via a decrease in surface tension. As demonstrated in this

study, the capillary number required to mobilize trapped oil is significantly higher in non-water-wet systems when compared

to strongly water-wet systems. No trapped oil remobilization was observed up to a Bond number of 10 -3 which is almost 5

orders of magnitude higher than the capillary number experienced in the field.

7. Conclusions

In this paper we have investigated the impact of capillary forces and capillary end effect on residual oil saturation, relative

permeability and laboratory flooding experimental data for a non-water-wet carbonate rock. The main conclusions of the study

are:

1- For the reservoir under study, the residual oil saturation is well defined, ~10-15%.

2- Performing the flooding experiments at reservoir rates of ~1 ft/d will lead to remaining oil saturation which is much

higher than Sorw as the data is dominated by capillary end effect.

3- The residual oil saturation was obtained at Bond number of 10 -6 or higher, increasing the Bond number by more than

2-3 orders of magnitude did not lead to any remobilization of the trapped oil. Thus experiments can be performed at

higher rates than those expected in the field without the risk of de-saturation of Sorw.

4- The relative contribution of capillary end effect increases as the permeability increases especially for heterogeneous

carbonate rocks.

5- The data shows no correlation between Sorw and Soi or rock permeability. This conclusion cannot be generalized and

need to be checked for other rock and fluid systems.

SPE 165981

6- The critical capillary or Bond number of non-water-wet carbonates is much higher than those reported in the literature

for water-wet sandstone. No trapped oil remobilization was observed up to a Bond number of 10 -3 which is almost 5

orders of magnitude higher than the capillary number experienced in the field.

7- The low rate experiments also lead to erroneous relative permeability curves, a factor of 2 underestimation in the

water end point (Krwo) can be easily observed.

8- Once an equilibrium between capillary and viscous (or gravity) forces is established, the remaining oil saturation is

independent of the number of pore volumes injected.

Acknowledgement

The author would like to thank Shell management for permission to publish this paper. The paper has greatly benefited from

critical review by Xudong Jing, Peter Doe, Paul Boerrigter and Issa Abu Shiekah.

References

Abrams, A.: The influence of fluid viscosity, interfacial tension, and flow velocity on residual oil saturation left by waterflood SPEJ

(October 1975), 437447.

Cense, A.W. and Berg, S.: The viscous-capillary paradox in 2-phase flow in porous media, SCA 2009-13, Noordwijk aan Zee, The

Netherlands 27-30 September, (2009).

Forbes, P.: Centrifuge Data Analysis Techniques: An SCA Survey on the Calculation of Drainage Capillary Pressure Curves from

Centrifuge Measurements, SCA 9714, Calgary, Canada (1997).

Fulcher, R.A., Ertekin, T., Stahl, C.D.:Effect of Capillary Number and its Constituents on Two-Phase Relative Permeability Curves, JPT,

(Feb 1985), p 249.

Hassler, G. & Brunner, E.: Measurements of capillary pressure in small core samples, Transactions AIME (1954) 160, 114123.

Kamath, J., Meyer, R.F., Nakagawa, F,M.: Understanding Waterflood Residual Oil Saturation of Four Carbonate Rock Types, SPE 71505,

SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September3 October (2001).

Maas, J.G. and Schulte A.M.: Computer Simulation of Special Core Analysis (SCAL) Flow Experiments Shared on the Internet, SCA9719, Calgary, (1997).

Masalmeh, S.K. and Jing, X.D. Capillary Pressure Characteristics of Carbonate Reservoirs: Relationship between Drainage and Imbibition

Curves, SCA 2006-16, Trondheim, Norway, 12-16 September, (2006).

Masalmeh, S.K., Abu Shiekah, I. and Jing, X.D.: Improved Characterization and Modelling of Capillary Transition Zones in Carbonate

Reservoirs, SPE paper 109094, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol. 10 (2): 191-204 APR (2007a).

Masalmeh, S.K. and Jing, X.D.: Improved Characterisation and Modelling of Carbonate Reservoirs for Predicting Waterflooding

Performance, SPE paper 11722_PP, IPTC conference held in Dubai, U.A.E., 46 December (2007b).

Masalmeh, S.K. and Jing, X.D.: The Importance of Special Core Analysis in Modelling Remaining Oil Saturation in Carbonate Fields,

SCA 2008-3, Abu Dhabi, October (2008).

Masalmeh, S.K., Oedai, S., Surfactant Enhanced Gravity Drainage: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulation Model, SCA200906, presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Sep. 27-30, (2009).

Peters, E.J. and Flock, D.L.: The Onset of Instability During Two-Phase Immiscible Displacement in Porous Media; SPE Journal, 249

258, April 1981.

Sheng, James J.: Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery: Theory and Practice, Elsevier, USA, (2011), p 293-314.

10

SPE 165981

id

Swc

Sor

K_brine

Phi%

15a

0.1

0.15

15.2

0.289

16b

0.12

0.1

37.4

0.31

19b

20b

0.19

0.1

0.1

0.1

13.5

3.1

0.27

0.23

20c

22a

27b

28b

s31b

47b

2_3b

2_3c

2_4

2_7b

2_8

0.1

0.1

0.11

0.1

0.15

0.24

0.19

0.12

0.09

0.12

0.12

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.1

0.1

0.12

3.1

13.6

52.7

19.7

105.8

5.4

8.5

7.1

13.5

18.4

14.7

0.21

0.25

0.31

0.30

0.28

0.28

0.26

0.25

0.27

0.31

0.31

2_14

2_17

2_18

0.07

0.12

0.14

0.1

0.11

0.1

3.5

5.9

1.4

0.28

0.23

0.2

2_22

3_14

3_15

0.15

0.29

0.18

0.11

0.12

0.08

2.5

77.5

49.4

0.26

0.2

0.25

3_21

3_26

0.11

0.11

0.1

0.09

7.3

4.1

0.27

0.28

id

Swc

Sor

K_brine

Phi%

0.12

4_16

0.085

127.0

29.8

4_17

0.06

0.12

210.0

26.8

3_13

0.105

0.12

8.5

25.9

27C

0.09

0.08

21.7

29.9

2-7

0.1

0.13

9.4

27.6

3_06

0.06

0.11

17.9

31.6

2-12

0.06

0.13

6.8

30.0

3_42

0.065

0.13

4.1

29.4

3_48

0.16

0.13

4.9

25.4

3_56

0.07

0.18

5.4

28.8

Plugs used in surfactant experiments

2_23s

0.11

0.08

2.6

0.26

2_24s

0.07

0.08

3.4

0.27

3_20s

0

0.1

4.9

0.29

3_23s

0.65

0.09

3.3

0.26

3_25s

0

0.12

5.1

0.3

3_32s

0.08

0.13

2.4

0.29

3_36s

0.09

0.11

2.6

0.3

3_39s

0.48

0.14

4.4

0.28

3_46s

0.48

0.14

4.4

0.28

3_54s

0.25

0.11

4.9

0.28

Table 2: Capillary Number, flow rates, water saturation and Sorw for two samples used in flooding

experiments.

Rate

30

50

200

500

Nc

Sw (average)

Sorw

-7

7.2 X10

-6

1.2X10

-6

4.8X10

-5

1.2X10

0.74

0.80

0.83

Sw (average)

Sorw

0.13

0.12

0.66

0.73

0.78

SPE 165981

11

of different permeabilities, see table 1.

during centrifuge experiment for two samples

b)

a)

c)

d)

Figure 3: Oil saturation as a function of bond number for samples of different permeabilities.

samples using surfactant.

similar permeability, with and without surfactant.

12

SPE 165981

a)

b)

Figure 6: Oil saturation vs bond number a) Bond number calculated using eq. 2 and b) Bond number is divided by the

permeability, see text.

100

10

s45a

% Pore volume

s29a

a)

s2-1

b)

80

60

A

B

20

0

1.E+03

0

10

100

1000

10000

s45a

s29a

s2-1

40

1.E+02

1.E+01

C

1.E+00

1.E-01

1.E-02

NMR T2 (ms)

Figure 7: Example NMR T2 distributions (a) and MICP pore thoat size distribution (b) representing three different

types of pore size distrihution: A shows a bi-modal pore size distribution, B shows a wide pore size distribution and

C shows a uni-modal with narrow pore size. distribution

300

Sw

Pressure

a)

0.8

3 cc/h

15

cc/h

30

cc/h

200

cc/h

240

0.8

0.4

120

0.2

60

0

200

400

Time (hour)

600

P_viscous (psi)

180

Sw

10

Sw

1 cc/h

0.6

b)

Pressure

15

cc/h

30

cc/h

3 cc/h

0.6

1 cc/h

Sw

0.4

0.2

200

400

Time (hour)

Figure 8: Simulation data showing capillary end effect: a) low permeability and b) high permeability samples.

a)

200

cc/h

b)

Figure 9: Saturation profiles for a) low and b) high permeability samples, stronger end effect is observed for high

permeability

600

P_viscous (psi)

SPE 165981

13

a)

b)

Figure 10: Comparison of the experimental data (high rate) and simulation data (low rate) for a) low and b) high

permeability samples

b)

a)

Figure 11: Saturation profiles of the low rate (a) and the high rate (b) for the high permeability sample

a)

b)

Figure 12: Residual oil saturation vs rock permeability (a) and initial oil saturation (b)

0.8

a)

surf actant

b)

No_surf actant

Sw

0.6

0.4

0.2

1250

0

0

2000

3500

7500

2500

5000

1500

5000

10000

15000

Tim e (m inute)

Figure 13: a) Capillary pressure with and without surfactant for the same sample and b) Oil production data as a

function of time for different speeds measured on the same sample with and without surfactant.

20000

14

SPE 165981

Pc_surf

a)

Pc_surf

b)

Pc_wat

Pc_wat

Figure 14: Capillary pressure with (slid line) and without (dashed line) surfactant for low permeability sample (a)

and for high permeability sample (b).

a)

b)

Figure 15: a) Simulated recovery curves with (solid line) and without (dashed line) surfactant for low permeability

sample (a) and for high permeability sample (b). The simulation is performed using the Pc curves shown in

Figure 14.

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