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PRIORITISED SECTORAL INTERVENTIONS

1.

GOVERNANCE

Persistent governance deficits are one of the most important drivers of crisis in FATA and KP
today. These have created a broad political space for militant groups to win support and to
present themselves as a viable alternative to the state. The capacity of governance institutions
needs to be built, based on an approach that integrates formal, traditional and civic governance
mechanisms, re-establishes higher levels of integrity in public offices and enhances the
responsiveness of state institutions to citizens demands.
1.1

Situation Analysis

Poor governance in KP and FATA is one of the main causes for citizens dissatisfaction and
disengagement with the state. Underperformance of formal and informal governance institutions
is reflected in the lack of state capacity to provide core services (including security, justice and
social services); insufficient citizens rights, representation and oversight in public affairs
(particularly in FATA); and corruption.
The public administration system in the crisis-affected region is divided into four categories (i.e.
the settled areas, FATA, PATA, and the Frontier Regions), making it difficult for a weakened
administration to operate consistently, efficiently and effectively throughout the region.
Arbitrary governance structures based on the Frontier Crimes Regulation and the power of the
Political Agents office in FATA have fortified the feeling of social injustice in this area. Local
voices in FATA see the imposition and abuse of collective punishment under the FCR and the
discretionary powers of the office of the political agent as unjust. Lack of government response
to citizens needs and lack of representation in public affairs were major concerns expressed by
people living in KP. The weakened social contract between the state and its citizens is one
reason why an insurgency was able to gain a foothold in the region and for the conflict to persist.
The present public financial management (PFM) systems in KP and particularly FATA are weak
and cannot safeguard adequately against fiduciary risks. Lack of transparency and high
prevalence of corruption in public offices have been stated as reasons during PCNA
consultations as to why people in KP and FATA mistrust the government and feel
disenfranchised. The militants capitalise on this feeling and present themselves as an alternative
ruling power with higher levels of integrity.
KP and FATA have a strong and well-established set of informal governance institutions
comprising jirgas, elders, maliks and lashkars, which partly help to mitigate the weaknesses of
the formal institutions. Access to information, representation and participation in decisionmaking are essential for a fair and trustworthy governance system. This is partly provided
through these traditional bodies, although there are issues regarding inclusion, voice and
representation of marginalised groups in society. However, this system has been severely
weakened by the conflict to an extent that it can hardly fulfil its functions at present, leaving a
severe vacuum for civic engagement with the state and informal governance power in the region.
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Other civic or informal governance mechanisms like organised and unorganised civil society
groups, political parties, media or community groups are very weak in KP and FATA. Their
capacity to articulate political demands and pursue them collectively, to hold public and
traditional governance institutions to account or to contribute to service delivery are limited.
However, their ability to mobilise and organise action at the local level, and their adaptability to
changing environments, allows them to often provide essential governance structures and
services quicker in a post-conflict situation than government.
The crisis situation has further weakened the ability of the state and traditional governance
systems to exercise power and fulfil citizen entitlements such as security, social stability and
access to basic services.
1.2

Prioritized Interventions

Overview - Streamlining the complex web of federal-provincial and intra-provincial governance


arrangements in KP and FATA, and boosting the capabilities of the administrative systems, is
critical. Far-reaching political reforms are needed to ensure and sustain citizenship rights in
FATA. In KP outstanding administrative reforms and a local government act for the province
need to be swiftly adopted.
Existing formal anti-corruption mechanisms need to be strengthened by clarifying and
augmenting their mandate, providing stronger political backing by repelling manipulation and
interference, and raising the institutions capacity to deliver better results. The contribution of
informal institutions in fighting corruption and civil society oversight mechanisms needs to be
considerably enhanced. Civil service reforms that promote merit and transparency in the public
sector and strengthening of the court-based and administrative justice mechanisms are also
important. Effective public financial management can go a long way in restoring the confidence
of the public in the state, and enhancing the effectiveness of the state.
Re-establishing a strong social contract between civil society and the state requires
institutionalized mechanisms for civic engagement and oversight in public affairs. There is a
need to revive and strengthen civil society institutions immediately after the conflict subsides, as
they have the ability to quickly facilitate the delivery of basic services. An urgent reform need is
to adopt and implement an integrated approach to local development, where informal community
and district level organizations are systematically linked to formal local governance structures.
Establishing and strengthening existing civil society oversight mechanisms will help build
citizens demand for good governance.
Prioritized interventions to be carried out in relation to governance in KP and FATA are outlined
below:
Citizens rights and transparency in FATA These will be operationalised by implementing the
FATA reform programme decided by parliament last August, conducting income and
expenditure audits under the Political Agents office, establishing a branch of the General

Auditors office in FATA and by training parliamentarians and civil society on legislative aspects
of FATA reform.
Finalizing and implementing the FATA reform package of August 2009 and implementing
amendments to FCR will be one of the most powerful activities assuring people of their citizens
and human rights and the advent of a fundamental change in state-citizen relationship. A
thorough communication campaign will be launched on the options and preferences on the future
political status of FATA in all agencies in an inclusive and gender-sensitive manner. This will
allow forging a new sense of identity and direction for the people in FATA, vital for regaining
social cohesion and investing in the state.
Conducting an audit on public and private incomes and expenditures in two Political Agents
Offices in FATA will assure people of strengthened and enforced citizens rights and thus build
trust in the effectiveness and responsiveness of the state. Results will be used to engage people
living in all agencies in a debate on expenditure priorities for reconstruction and development
and their involvement in monitoring expenditure. A radio program featuring in all FATA
agencies will allow the trust-building effect to be spread throughout the region.
Demand-driven, participatory and effective local governance mechanisms based on sound and
widely owned policy frameworks, involving citizens especially marginalized groups (poor,
women, IDPs, youth) and communities in decision-making and oversight of public affairs.
Activities to support building such mechanisms include adopting community driven development
approaches for community level development and conducting a first round on citizen report
cards surveys. To improve citizen oversight and check maladministration, support will be
extended for the formation of Ombudsman offices in KP and citizen complaint centres in FATA.
Conducting a citizen feedback survey on service satisfaction will allow people in post-crisis
communities to voice their concerns, and express their needs and grievances. It will demonstrate
transparency and openness on the Governments side to interact differently with citizens by
listening and asking them for their opinions and priorities. The baseline information obtained
through this exercise will help in prioritizing interventions according to the urgency stated by
citizens, and in comparing progress over time.
Enhanced capacity of the public administration in KP and FATA for delivering basic services in
a just and equitable manner and for emergency reconstruction This will be achieved by setting
up and using a broad e-governance system, and by drafting and implementing a civil service
reform which focuses on merit based promotion of men and women and accountable delivery of
public services. Legal clinics and paralegal networks will be set up in communities in postconflict areas to address immediate legal needs and show effective delivery of a core public
service.
Development of effective, trusted anti-corruption mechanisms that enhance public accountability
- PFM systems will be established that are responsive to peace-building, programme
development and poverty reduction and strengthen transparency and accountability in
management of public funds in KP and FATA. An institutional analysis of the formal anticorruption (AC) structure will be conducted to identify weaknesses and develop a road map for
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implementing improvements. Capacity is a major constraint for enhancing effectiveness,


therefore a capacity development strategy for anti-corruption and PFM institutions will be
developed and implemented swiftly. Particular focus will be given to legislators by
implementing a support program for parliamentarians and provincial assembly members to raise
their knowledge in PFM and AC issues. Transparency and civil society involvement in
budgeting will be done through two pilot rounds on participatory and gender budgeting exercises
with civil society.
Effective and robust civil society capable of better articulating and serving the needs of
communities Activities for this include: mapping of CSOs in KP and FATA and presenting
results to stakeholders; implementing a grant mechanism for CSOs; and implementing a program
for engaging elected leaders at all levels in peace-building, social cohesion and policy oversight.
The grant mechanism will provides funds to and build capacity of civil society organizations,
thereby facilitating in getting basic services quickly to communities in post-conflict settings, and
demonstrating state support, presence and responsiveness.
Strengthening Parliamentary Oversight Interventions will be undertaken to support the
Parliament and provincial Assembly, in particular strengthening of the KP legislative committees
related to public accounts, budget and development planning; and capacity building of the
provincial assembly secretariat to institutionalize the changes that will be undertaken in the 30months timeframe.
Showing change and progress on governance dimensions quickly in a post-crisis setting is very
important because it has ripple effects for the potential contribution of other sectors to peacebuilding and can earn a very high dividend in re-establishing trust and confidence in the state.
Of the interventions outlined above, six have been selected that can show results within the
critical first six months of PCNA implementation:
Implementation of the CSO grant mechanism;
Setting up legal clinics and paralegal networks in communities;
Conduct of a citizen feedback survey on service satisfaction;
Conduct of an audit on incomes and expenditures in two Political Agents Offices;
Implementation of the FATA reform package and amendments to FCR;
Communication campaign on the options on the future political status of FATA.
8-10 Year View - The proposed 6-30 months interventions set out in the TRF aim at an
immediate and quick impact on peace. However, the resulting outcomes provide multiple entries
for more systemic changes. A vision of what the core governance structures should look like in
8 to 10 years takes the following aspects into account:
Strong engagement of political representatives, parties, citizens and communities in
planning, decision-making and monitoring of all major public affairs at all levels;
The political status of FATA will have been decided after extensive deliberation, debate
and consensus building and will be under implementation;
Fair play and equity will have been achieved through the adoption of an integrated
system of governance, in which the state treats all citizens equally, and administrative
control and decision-making will be simplified and rationalized;
Enhanced state effectiveness to conquer corruption;
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Forums for engagement between formal and informal structures will have facilitated
institutionalization of the relationship between civil society and traditional jirgas with
Government institutions.

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society (key goals for sector)
Full engagement and
1.1 Establishment of effective mechanisms for
Limited capacity
participation in policy,
engagement of elected leadership at all levels
of the legislative
planning and decision-making
in peace building, social cohesion and policy
committees
of public affairs.
oversight.
within the
1.2 Strengthened citizen oversight mechanisms by
provincial
Indicators:
enabling the legislature, establishing grievance
assembly.
redress mechanisms in KP/ FATA.
-Operational framework
Absence of
Indicators:
for participation of citizens
Ombudsman
in policy and decision
office in KP, lack
1.2.1 Operational mechanisms for engagement
making especially
of citizens
and oversight of leadership at all levels.
vulnerable (poor, women,
complaints
1.2.2 Operational Ombudsman Directorate, CCC
IDPs, Youth and
centers at
& legal aid clinics in KP & FATA.
marginalized communities)
institutional
1.2.3 Disaggregated data for grievances
levels, absence of
1.2.4 publication of action plan & audit reports.
performance of
-Demand driven and
public officials
participatory local
data
governments planning.
No detestation and arrest
against women and
children
Citizens grievances
processed (F&M)
- Citizens access the public
reports (action plan and
audit reports)

The local
government
Ordinance 2001
has lapsed in
December 2009.
Government of
KP is drafting a
new law.
Delivery is
managed
through lines
departments
overseen by
FATA and KP
secretariats.
Local
Limited

1.3 Capacity building of responsive transparent


local governments and enhancement of
citizens participation in local governance in KP
& FATA.

07/10

12/10

Support program to the


Parliament & Provincial
Assembly ($1m)
Initiate peace , security
and stabilization dialogue
engaging
political/representative
leadership at all levels
($200.000)
Mapping of legislative
committees &identify
Areas for capacity
development. ($200.000)
Engagement of citizens
especially of vulnerable
in decision making and
monitoring, utilizing the
existing legal aid clinics(
$700.000)
Design of citizen report
cards for service delivery
in KP (in 5 departments)
($250.000)
5develop plan to
establish an Ombudsman
Office; citizen complaint
centres (CCC) ($200.000)
Expand the legal aid
clinics of Malakand to the
rest of KP & FATA ($ 1m)
Develop a plan on
extension of federal
Ombudsman services to
FATA ($500.000)

Activity:
Technical support to the
Local government
department of GoKP and

12/11

12/12

Training of Legislative
committees on public
account, budget and
local governments ;
strengthening of the
Assembly Secretariat
to strengthen
legislative committees
($200.000)
First round of citizen
report cards prepared
for key five public
services (F/M).
($50.000)
Survey results shared
with line departments
and civil society and
an action plan
prepared ($50.000)
Establishment the
Office of the
Ombudsman and CCC
centers in FATA
agencies.($ 1m)

Legislative reviews and


publication of the
budget document and
performance of local
government.
($100.000)
Preparation and
publication of second
round of citizen report
cards for key five public
services. ($50.000)
Preparation and
publication of
improvement of
services action plan.
($50.000)
Technical assistance to
design district and
agency-wise
Ombudsman Offices;
($150.000)
4Support to
Ombudsman office,
CCC & legal aid clinics in
KP/FATA ($ 1.500.000)

Support to PA
secretariat to issue
budget documents
reflect the results of
audit and corrective
allocations and
measures ($500.000)
Completion of social
audit for all services
in the province
($800.000)
Rollout of technical
Support to the Offices
of local (district and
agency) Ombudsman
($1.500.000)

Design of a pilots
program using the
existing legal aid
clinics and para-legal

Roll out the


implementation of
pilots program across
KP and FATA where

Implementation of a
pilots program where
citizen-local
government liaison is

Total Cost:
$ 10,000,000

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline
accountability of
services and
limited citizen
participation.
Currently, the
provincial
assembly is in
charge of the
policy and
planning but the
role of legislative
committees is
weak.
No formal &
effective citizen
grievance redress
system exists in
FATA
FATA local
governments are
still weak and
ineffective by
concentrating all
powers in the
office of the
Political. Service
delivery is
managed
through lines
departments
overseen by
FATA
secretariats.

Outputs

Indicators:
1.3.1 Responsive, transparent and capable local
governments.
1.3.2 Approved participation mechanisms of
citizens in policy making
1.3.3 Institutionalized CIET (citizens feedback
survey).
1.3.4 Improved participation of women
1.2 Capacity development to engage citizen of
FATA in political issues related to FATA Status.
1.3 Capacity building of the PA to implement
human rights obligations in FATA
Indicators:
1.3.1 Strong political participation in FATA.
1.3.2 FATA citizens are granted full rights and
entitlements either by creating a new
province or integrating it into KP
1.3.3 Operational audit and accounts offices
PAs in FATA.
1.3.4 Amended Frontiers Crimes Regulations.
1.3.5 Amended functions of SAFFRON
delegation administrative to FATA Secretariat.
1.3.6 Amendments to the Constitution, laws
and rules with respect to FATA
1.3.7 Institutionalize access to information
1.3.8 Operational legal aid clinics and
expanded para-legal net work

07/10
FATA secretariat to
develop mandatory
participation
mechanism.($800.000)
Expand the legal aid
clinics and para-legal net
work to enhance the
participation of citizens
1
at local level ($1m)

Activity:
Notification of a
regulation to extend the
Political Parties Act to
FATA ($120.000)
Strengthening the audit
and accounts branches of
the federal authority in
FATA agencies ($700.000)
Setting up of additional
audit and accounts
branches of the federal
authority in FATA
agencies ($2m)
Delegation of SAFFRON
administrative functions
to FATA secretariat for
transparent
operations($800.000)
Initiate dialogue on the
role of jirgas and their
interface with formal
governance structures
($200.000)

12/10

net work to
strengthen citizenlocal government
liaison. ($500.000)
developing citizen
charters in
conflict affected
districts/agencies with
special focus on
women participation
($2.500.000)

Activity:
Review the PAs
powers of arrest and
detention, including
granting right to bail;
and exclude women
and minors from
collective responsibility
under the
law($600.000)
Support to PA offices to
implement human
rights obligations
($800.000)
Capacity development
for audit processes in
PA offices &
establishment of
internal auditors (1m)

12/11
strengthened.($3m)
institutionalize a
citizen feedback
mechanism (client
survey, legal aid clinics
and para-legal
network) ($700.000)

12/12
citizen-local
government liaison is
strengthened Citizen
charters prepared and
displayed.
($2.150.000)
Total Cost
$10,000,000

Implementation of
FATA reforms package
announced by the
Government in
2009($2m)
Annual audit report of
government and donor
assistance to achieve
transparency in public
spending in FATA
($200.000)

FATA integrated into


the Pakistani
mainstream through
legal and
constitutional
amendments.($1.380.
000)
Access to information
legislation prepared
and approved for
FATA ($200.000)

Total Cost:
$10,000,000

UNDP is currently assisting program related to strengthening Rule of Law through provision of support to the Justice and Security sector in North Western Frontier Province. The program deals with
the formal and civic structure and support the interplay and harmonization within the context of Malakand division. It promotes and secure entitlements for the citizens especially the poor and the
disadvantaged.

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Local
accountability of
services and
citizen
participation is
limited.
Political parties
do not operate in
FATA; the
governance is
through
appointed PA
offices.
Traditional Jirgas
collaborate and
liaise with the
office of PA in
FATA; however,
they have a
limited role
especially since
the conflict as
hundreds of
maliks have been
eliminated by the
militants.
Currently PA
funds in FATA are
outside the ambit
of the Auditor
General of
Pakistan which
leaves no
possibility for
citizens to know
what the
resources are for
the region and
how they are

12/10

12/11

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

spent

PFM system responsive to


peace building and the needs
of the citizens especially
vulnerable group(poor,
women, IDPs, youth and
marginalized communities)
Indicators:
Effective and responsive
PFM system in KP & FATA
Mechanisms for participatory
and gender mainstreamed
budgeting , spending and
auditing in place

Baseline:
Existing
Provincial
government PFM
has eighteen C
or below ratings
of PEFA
performance
indicators out of
twenty eight and
currently no
other alternates
are available to
fast track
payments and
ensure effective
fund flow during
peace building
process.

2.1. Establishment of PFM systems that is


responsive to peace building, programme,
development, poverty reduction. and supports
transparency and ,accountability in management of
public funds

2.2. Strengthening and building capacity for the


participation of communities in budget making,
spending and auditing processing.
Indicators:
Fluency in fund flow and increase

Activity:
Design & pilot
implementation of
financial management
systems other than
existing PFM suitable to
sectors specific needs for
peace building
interventions ($800.000).
KP/FATA.
Development of Risk
Management Strategy
and
Certification of
Internal Controls.
KP/FATA ($500.000)
Assessment of existing
PFM at KP and FATA
using PEFA Framework,
($500.000)

Activity:
Design for community
based participatory
planning, budgeting,
spending and auditing in
conflict context.
KP/FATA.($500.000)

Implementation of the
framework for
community based
spending and auditing.
KP/FATA ($800.000)
Pilot gender responsive
budget in 3

.Pilot Implementation
of Risk Management
Strategy on selected
departments.KP/FATA
.($1m)
Updating existing PFM
in light of PEFA
recommendations
KP/FATA (1m).

Roll out Activity 1/4 to


districts
($4m)

. Activity: 3 party
evaluation& adoption
of PFM system
developed during
PCNA into mainstream
existing PFM
KP/FATA ($800.000)
rd

Roll out

Rollout

Rollout
($900.000)
Total cost:
$10,000,000

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Baseline:

-----------------------------------

Limited capacity
of Anticorruption
system
Lack of citizens
oversight
mechanism

Outputs
effectiveness of internal controls.
Processing time, reporting and reconciliation
as defined in system design document
Improved PEFA rating, & reduction in
Fiduciary risk .
X % of PCNA budget is spent through
communities
Reduction audit paras relating to non
compliance of financial rules or irregularities.
The expenditure of departments is traceable
by Gender dimension.
3. Capacity development of effective and
functioning A-corruption mechanism, and
enhanced the citizens participation and
oversight.
Indicators:
Functioning Anti-corruption system developed
2-Mechanism for participation and oversight
established

07/10
Development of Gender
Responsive Budget
Strategy
KP/FATA($500.000)

Activity:
Develop and implement
reform program for AntiCorruption Establishment
(ACE) in KP and FATA
Develop formal and
informal institutions
based reform strategies
in KP and FATA

Effective, trusted and


functioning Anti-corruption
mechanism with strong
citizens role and participation

10

12/10

12/11

12/12

departments: Health,
Education and social
welfare. KP/FATA
($600.000)

Assess and improve AC


reform programs in KP
and FATA
Initial monitoring
evaluation and impact
assessment

Review and
institutionalization of
reform strategy and
measures in KP and
FATA
Monitoring evaluation
and impact assessment

-Assessment of
beneficiary oversight
processes in KP and
FATA
Policy
recommendations for
integration and long
term
institutionalization
Monitoring evaluation
and impact
assessment
Total Cost:
$10,000,000
Detailed budget will be
developed based
proposed assessment)

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

coherent with informal system

Baseline:

Indicators

Limited capacity
of Public
Administration
Lack of trust by
citizens and
communities

Trusted and functioning


Anti-corruption
mechanism
Strong citizens
participation and oversight
mechanisms

Outputs
4 Capacity building of Federal, KP and FATA
Secretariats to manage a reform program
focused on rebuilding trust and improving
delivery of services.
Indicators:
Key functional areas in FATA and KP
Secretariats rapidly and sufficiently staffed
Service delivery targets achieved
Communities are actively engaged in
determining development priorities and in the
oversight of post conflict reconstruction

-------------------------------------Effective, accountable, trusted


and responsive and capable
Public Administration system
responsible for basic service
delivery and emergency
reconstruction
Indicator:
Reformed public
Administration system in
KP & FATA
Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation (key goals for sector)
Effective and sustainable civil
Baseline:
5.Capacity building of civil society in KP and FATA
society capable to articulate
to enhance citizen voice and bridge the gaps
and serve the needs of
Limited capacity of
between formal and traditional governance
communities
civil society
structures
Indicators:
1-Strengthened civil society
capable to articulate and serve
communities

Indicator:
-citizens voice enhance through strong civil
society organisations & COBs
-institutionalized links between formal and
informal institutions

07/10

12/10

Mobilize TA for Federal,


KP and FATA Secretariats
to develop and manage a
emergency PAR program
including translation of
public information in
local languages and
through community
radios.
Conduct rapid
assessment of capacities
needed to support a large
reconstruction program
in KP and FATA levels of
administration.
Develop a functional
capability in KP and FATA
Secretariats to support
peace-building and
reconciliation efforts and
strengthen e-government
features
Develop program for
recruitment of skilled civil
servants to support post
conflict reconstruction.

Commence program to
recruit skilled civil
servants on incentive
contracts into priority
functional areas.
Plans for basic reform
of priority functional
areas in KP and FATA to
support reconstruction
developed and
approved.
E government features
installed at the district
and agency levels

Mapping CS and

assessment of capacity
(first 3 months).
Establishment of CS grant
mechanisms for
immediate interventions
related to peace building
in the conflict affected
areas (6-30 months)

KP/FATA
Design of civil society led

11

12/11

Modalities for
community
engagement on
program determination
and management
completed and
endorsed by key
stakeholders in
KP/FATA (including
translation of all vital
public information in
local languages)

12/12
Basic reform of core
functional
units
completed
Community
consultations and
oversight mechanisms
become operational
and institutionalized.
Monitoring,
evaluation and impact
assessment
completed and
provide baseline for
medium term reform
program KP/FATA
Total cost:
$15,000,000
Detailed budget will be
developed based on the
assessment

Conduct
comprehensive study
on formal and informal
institutions assessing
capacity,
complementarities,
shortcomings and gaps.
KP/FATA
Roll out of civil society
led rural support
programme in conflict

Roll out of rural support


programmes involving
jirgas and CBOs in at
least 50% of the FATA
and remaining districts
of KP region

Full implementation
of rural support
programmes across
KP and FATA.
Total cost:
$10,000,000

Transitional Results Framework: Governance Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10
rural support
programmes that involve
jirgas and CBOs.

12

12/10
affected areas.

12/11

12/12

2.

RULE OF LAW

There is widespread recognition that political and rule of law (RoL) reforms are fundamental for
securing sustainable peace in the crisis-affected areas.2 The CAF noted the RoL deficit lack of
formal justice, discriminatory legislation, collective punishments, inability of law enforcement
agencies to ensure security, the illicit economy as a critical dimension of the crisis. To counter
this, essential formal justice and security institutions need to be established and Constitutional
and legal frameworks extended to FATA, FR and PATA, based on equality of citizenship.
2.1

Situation Analysis

The relationship between Pakistan and the Tribes in FATA is defined by a Special Status
arrangement set out in the Frontier Crimes Regulation 1901 (FCR) based on indirect governance,
limited dispute resolution responsibility vis--vis the tribals inter se and minimal security
arrangements. The absence of a meaningful State in the affected areas enabled the various
militant groups to occupy and assert control, creating safe havens and local illicit economies.
The lack of formal justice and development, and the correspondingly reduced stake of citizens in
State and society, created an environment receptive to militancy.
The Special Status arrangement has contributed to widespread political alienation, lack of trust
and confidence in the State due to poor service delivery and neglected development, ultimately,
creating a legitimacy crisis that enabled the militants to displace the nominal State authority.
Residents of FATA and FR are denied basic Constitutional protections3 and freedoms.4
Depending on the degree of State presence provided for under the FCR, disputes are largely
resolved through a jirga on the basis of customary (Riwaaj) or Islamic (Shariah) laws as opposed
to regular laws. Controversial collective punishment provisions allow the State to hold entire
tribes, clans and families responsible, and/or confiscate their properties, for the conduct of
individuals. As well as creating a sense of injustice amongst the innocent, such punishments
destroy livelihoods, assets and contribute to vulnerability. In Swat, the militancy was directly
linked to the perceived degradation of the justice system.5 KP enjoys a relatively developed
legal system with a professional judiciary and the application of regular criminal and civil
procedural and substantive laws. The RoL systems of FR and PATA variously fall in between
the FATA and KP models.
The different legal frameworks operating in the different areas mean that the various categories
of insurgents, namely, Pakistani citizens and foreigners (some who may legally be residents),
adults, women and juveniles, all attract different legal consequences under local and international

For example, National Democratic Institute roundtable forum press release on Mainstreaming FATA: Moving
Forward dated 17 June 2009 and Parliamentarians Commission for Human Rights seminar on FATA, FCR and
Human Rights: Challenges and Responses held on 22 September 2005. For judicial policy and reform see, inter
alia, judicial judgments cited herein.
3
For example, the rights of legal representation and appeal before the courts.
4
For example, freedom of association
5
Crisis Analysis Framework (CAF): Summary, Pakistan Post Crisis Needs Assessment for KP and FATA, p.2.
2

13

laws.6 These diverse legal frameworks need to be rationalized to ensure effective legal cover for
the counter-insurgency throughout the affected areas. Lawful authorisation to conduct the
military operation needs to be properly documented.
The long porous FATA border allows the unhindered movement of persons and goods without
much regard for international borders, controls and customs. FATA has become a land bridge
for the criminal (drugs) and criminalized (transit trade) economies of the region, generating
considerable income through cross-border smuggling for local residents and for funding and
arming political and military networks.7 A UNODC report notes, drugs and insurgency are
caused by, and effect, each other.. Harbouring foreign militants as guests, under a distorted
extension of the custom of hospitality (melmastia), has become a source of extra income thus
aligning local customs and economic interests with the insurgency.
The presence of safe havens supported by illicit economies based on drugs, human and arms
trafficking with the resultant criminality is adversely impacting affected areas causing a widely
perceived sense of insecurity, rooted in the inability of formal and informal security
organizations to provide security and maintain law and order.8 The militants are able to exploit
this and their call for social justice to, for example, control markets, impose religious
requirements, enforce fines and other punitive measures, and extort fees for providing security
thereby financing the insurgency.
The Government is yet to announce a clear and consistent State policy defining the way forward.
Various reforms announced by past and the recent governments have not been implemented.
Election manifestos of the major political parties in Pakistan all variously provide for reforming
the status of FATA and the FCR.9 At the same time, the military continues to arm and use the
tribal lashkars (tribal forces) to fight the militants. In the absence of an overall State policy, the
National Counter Terrorism Authoritys (NACTA) operational policy and role will be of limited
effect.
2.2

Priority Interventions

Judicial Reforms - Following an amendment to the FCR a separate judicial office will be
established at the Agency level reporting to a High Court. The Criminal Procedure Code and the
Civil Procedure Code will be amended and chapters inserted recognizing jirga decisions which,
subject to a judicial review to test legality, will either be confirmed as a decree or sent back to
original jirga for review. The jirga members will be selected by the parties to the dispute. The
confirmed decision may be appealed before a higher court. The aggrieved party will have the
right to select the forum, and thereby, the substantive law. Whilst the default provisions will be
the regular courts and laws, the parties may by consensus, or the aggrieved party at will, select to
For example, the Geneva Conventions 1949 and Protocols 1977, which provide that nobody in enemy hands can
fall outside the law (ICRC Commentary); Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and
the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1994.
7
Summarized from JAYSHREE BAJORIA, The Troubled Afghan-Pakistani Border, Council on Foreign Relations,
20 March 2009
8
CAF Summary, p.5.
9
ZIAD HAIDER, Mainstreaming Pakistans Tribal Belt: A Human Rights and Security Imperative, Belfer Center,
Harvard University, Discussion Paper #09-01, January 2009, p. 12.
6

14

have the matter adjudicated by a jirga. Support will be provided to draft necessary legislation.
Justice professionals, including lawyers and leading jirga members, will be trained in
Constitutional and regular laws, and customary and Islamic laws. Public awareness campaigns
will be formulated and implemented to inform citizens about fundamental rights and the legal
system. Support will be provided to review existing laws so that they are applicable to FATA,
FR and PATA as in the rest of KP.
Law Enforcement Agencies - Civilian law enforcement agencies (LEAs) will be strengthened to
effectively maintain law and order and investigate crimes. Separate police/levies, prosecution,
prison and probation services will be established headed by professionals (rather than the
Political Agent). Support will be provided to review and draft a new Levies Force law/regulation
to establish a professional organization with appropriate service, incentives and accountability
structures comparable to the regular police in KP supported by training to address emergent
security challenges.
Whilst the numbers of personnel in specialized LEAs dealing with border controls, money
laundering, drugs trafficking and customs will need to be enhanced, specialized training and
equipment will be provided to enhance effectiveness. NACTAs capacity will be enhanced to
formulate policy, monitor operations and co-ordinate counter-insurgency efforts. Support will be
provided to review laws to ensure an effective security cover throughout the crisis-affected areas.
Stemming Illicit Economy and Promoting Investment - Enhancing the presence and capacity of
the specialized LEAs will help counter the illicit economy, which will create space and
opportunities for investment and business, as well as reduce the flow of finances to the
insurgency. Regular civil and commercial laws will be extended to entire Pakistan. Judges, jirga
members, chambers of commerce and industry members, lawyers and other stakeholders
awareness training will be supported to inform them about the enabling the legal framework to
attract investment.
Legal Cover for Military Operations - Capacity of the Ministry of Defence will be developed to
plan and implement military operations with adequate legal cover and in a legally compliant
manner. A specialized unit, with lawyers seconded from the Ministry of Law, will be established
to advise the Government of the legality of military operations under international and local
laws. Similarly, the legal departments of the respective armed forces will be strengthened to
ensure adequate in-house capacity for dealing with legal issues and to competently advise the
leadership.
Capacity Building of Justice Sector Organizations - Support will be provided to introduce
competency/skills-based training systems and methodologies for justice sector organizations
(including lawyers) and to up-date skills and training. National occupational standards, job
descriptions, performance indicators and evaluations methods will be formulated, and training
curricula revised and notified by the relevant training and professional bodies.
Grievance Redress and Access to Information - The mandate of the Federal Ombudsman will be
extended to FATA and FR, and support will be provided to draft legislation for public grievance
redress (PGR) mechanisms that will be established for provincial and local service provision.
15

Support will also be provided to draft Freedom of Information (FOI) laws for KP, PATA, FR and
FATA. Dedicated inspectorates will be established to monitor and report on the quality of
service delivery; specialized equipment and training will be imparted to these. Equipment will
be provided to effectively implement FOI and PGR systems. An awareness campaign will be
designed and implemented to raise public awareness about opportunities for PGR, FOI and
transparency. Training will be provided to members of judiciary and civil service to enhance
appreciation of PGR and FOI provisions, standards and requirements.
The Government will be supported to draft a legal empowerment policy, pursuant to which
departments will be required and supported to formulate legal empowerment strategies for
reaching out to the poor and vulnerable, and to implement, monitor and report progress. Support
will be provided to establish a GOP Authority to manage a no-fault based compensation scheme
for civilian collateral damage - essential for maintaining public support for the counterinsurgency operations.
State-Civil Society Engagement - Nikaat, lungi and mwajib10 will be abolished so that public
goods and services are directly accessible by the general public, thus reducing the gap between
the State and citizens. Civil society will be mobilized by providing suitable organizations and
individuals with paralegal training to support citizens to engage with the State through provisions
such as PGR and FOI. Support will be provided to network trained paralegals with government
departments to create a conducive relationship for citizens engagement. Government officials
and civil society actors will be sensitized to constructively engage with each other. A public
awareness campaign will formulated and implemented to enhance awareness of rights,
entitlements, PGR and FOI mechanisms. Rehabilitation programmes will be implemented for all
detainees/prisoners empowering them to become productive members of society.
Of the interventions outlined above, the following will be undertaken in the critical first six
months:
Communication strategy to inform and engage citizens in the reform process, with
particular emphasis on PGR;
Establishment of PGR mechanisms;
Establishment of a transparent no-fault based compensation system for civilian collateral
damage;
Civic education will be a mandatory part of the school curriculum.
8-10 Year View - It is expected that there will be significant increases in public investments in
the social and RoL sectors to sustain the reforms. To extend the Constitution and full citizenship
rights to the residents of FATA and FR, the Special Status arrangements will be replaced by
either merging FATA and FR with KP province or by the creation of a separate province.
10

Reflecting the continuity of the indirect colonial rule, the State still relies upon paid intermediaries such as maliks
(the titular head of the tribe appointed and recognized by the Political Agent) and lungi holders (representatives of
sub-tribes/clans) to administer FATA, whose loyalty and services are rewarded with special status and financial
benefits including a share in the development construction contracts, a share in khassadaris, jirga expenses and a
monthly stipend from the Political Agent. The tribe also receives benefits in accordance with a defined ratio under
the system of nikaat, and receive a half-yearly mwajib, which is an amount divided among the whole tribe.
Summarized from:
http://www.waziristanhills.com/NorthWaziristanAgency/AdministrativeSetUp/tabid/88lan...

16

PATA, however, will be fully integrated with KP with the extension of regular substantive and
procedural laws. Indirect governance through maliks and other elite will be replaced by a more
direct, transparent and participative form of governance. The judiciary, police/levies,
prosecution, prison, parole and probation services will be fully functional alongside a
constitutionally compliant jirga adjudication system. The juridical interaction between regular,
customary and Islamic laws will have created a new case law and precedents (nerkh) bringing
them closer. With effective co-ordination mechanisms or protocols in place, devolved and
strengthened civil LEAs, namely, the police and/or levies services will lead on law and order and
security, whilst specialized LEAs presence and capacity will be enhanced to effectively control
borders, money laundering and trafficking. There will be substantial investments in capacity
building with modern competency/skills-based frameworks operationalized. Non-state law
enforcement mechanisms (such as lashkars) will be prohibited by law. Civil society will
constructively engage with government departments to promote legal empowerment and civic
engagement.

17

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society (key goals for sector)
1. Citizens Fundamental Rights
1. Adequate and effective legal GOP reviewed legal
protected and Constitutional
and policy cover for the
State of provision of
cover to ensure
protections enforced
counter-insurgency effort
security and justice
effective legal
1.1 Effective legal cover for
services in 2009
provision for military
1.1 Protection of citizens rights
military operation provided
operation
enhanced
Limited capacity of civil 1.2 GOP counter-terrorism policy GOP announced policy
1.2 Active participation of civil
implemented
society engaged in ROL
for countering
society and women groups
1.3 NACTAs operative policy
work
terrorism
implemented
NACTA announced
Out-dated justice
operative policy for
2. Mechanisms for protection of
training and
countering terrorism
Fundamental
Rights
and Justice and security
performance
enforcement of constitutional
evaluation systems
legal and
protections operationalized,
organizational
2.1 Criminal and civil, including
frameworks reviewed
land and tenancy laws
Civil society
reviewed and amended
empowered to
2.2 Protection and gender
participate on the
responsive mechanisms in
review processes
place
Civil society mapped
2.3 Citizens, especially vulnerable
and strengthened to
groups (poor, women, IDPs
monitor and report
and youth) capacity enhanced
violations of rights and
to engage with justice system
constitutional
2.4 Legal aid clinics established
protection
2.5 GOKP and FATA policies
Legal aid clinics
revised to abolish privileges
established and
and patronage extended
expanded
through/under nikaat, lungi
Justice sector training
and mwajib and provided by
systems reviewed to
the State directly to citizens in
introduce
a fair and transparent manner
competency/skillsbased training
3. Justice sector officers and
standards and
employees capacity enhanced
techniques
inline with international
MOD military law unit
standards
operationalized
3.1 Notified occupational
Armed forces legal
standards
capacity enhanced
3.2 Notified competency-based

18

12/10

Stakeholder
consultations held to
review
recommendations
Institutional
relationships between
civil society and ROL
institutions notified
Legal aid clinics
institutionalized
Grants provided to
civil society for
support redress of the
Fundamental Rights
Job descriptions and
standards drafted and
notified for each
occupational
position/function
Training
competency/skillsbased modules for
each occupational
position/function
drafted and notified
An authoritative
compilation of all laws
in force in PATA
published and made
on-line
Witness, judge and
prosecutors
protection scheme/s
implemented

12/11

12/12

Recommendations of ROL organizational


the review reports
capacities to enforce
implemented
fundamental rights &
constitutional
Justice and LEAs
protections enhanced
training institutions
curricula revised in
Competency/skillsline with
based training
competency/skillsimplemented
based training
systems
Total cost: $ 15 m

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs
curricula

Judicial services
1. Effective, capable, and fair Lack of trust in the
criminal and civil (including
criminal and civil justice
land and revenue) justice
systems by citizens
system
accessible
by
citizens and vulnerable Nominal justice gap in
group (poor, women, IDPs,
2009
youth and marginalized
communities)
Average case life in
various categories in
1.1 Increased demand for
2009
formal justice by citizens
Case disposal index in
2009

07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

GOKP and FATA notify


and announce policies
abolishing privileges
and patronage
extended
through/under nikaat,
lungi and mwajib
formulae and
provided by the State
directly to citizens in a
fair and transparent
manner
Feasibility for witness,
judge and prosecutors
protection scheme/s
approved
Performance of AJP
reforms reviewed
Successful AJP
reforms expanded
and replicated
Law Reforms Bill
2005 proposed
reforms reviewed
Nizam-i-Adl
Regulation 2009
(NAR) reviewed to
ensure conformity
with the Constitution
PHCs monitoring
and evaluation
functions including
public grievance
redress (PGR)
reviewed
Human and
organizational
capacity of the
subordinate judiciary

1. Provision of support to
judicial reforms
1.1 Judicial system including
revenue courts reformed
1.2 Effective transparent and
accessible monitoring and
inspection function at PHC
1.3 Accessible and responsive
subordinate judiciary
1.4 Gender justice mechanism
in place
1.5 Regular laws of Pakistan
and KP enforced in PATA

19

Recommended law
reforms enacted
NAR amended to
ensure appeals to PHC
and SCP
Based on review,
formulate and
implement follow up
AJP reforms
Modern case
management system
including provision for
suitable increase in
court numbers
operationalized
PHCs monitoring and
evaluation function
strengthened
Public awareness
raised about law
reforms and
constitutional rights
Human, organizational

Human, organizational
and technical
capacities of the
subordinate judiciary
enhanced
Judges, lawyers,
business persons and
publics awareness of
law reforms enhanced
Public awareness of
PHCs monitoring and
evaluation functions
including PGR
enhanced
Gender Justice
strategy notified.
Family courts at all
District HQ increased
Number of female
judges enhanced

Human, organizational
and technical capacities
of the subordinate
judiciary enhanced
Gender Justice strategy
implemented
Total cost: $10 m

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10
enhanced
Gender Justice
strategy drafted

Security
1. Effective provision of
security, empowered State
Limited capacity for
Civilian law enforcement
provide security services
agencies (LEAs) and provision
of responsive, equitable
Lack of adequate
security, and law and order
response to security
services
threats
1.1 Improved security
situation
1.2 Reduced human
trafficking and money
laundering
1.3 Security challenges
countered

Frequent insurgency
against citizens,
communities and
government institutions

1. Capacity enhanced for security Resources and


policy, coordination, and law
capacity adequately
and order led by State civilian
enhanced to
LEAs and enhanced security
effectively
mechanisms at local level
operationally NACTA
Necessary budgetary
1.1 NACTA operationalized
allocations to increase
1.2 Adequately resourced
personnel specially
investigation centres/units
local youth and
with effective forensics
females in civil LEAs to
capacity operationalized in all
provide adequate
districts
security
1.3 Civil LEAs capacity enhanced Civilian LEAs
(to effectively counter
strengthened with
security challenges)
additional resources,
1.4 Civil LEAs capacity enhanced
equipment and
(to effectively counter
training and their
human trafficking and money
employment terms
laundering)
and conditions
1.5 No. Of personnel in civil LEA
reviewed
including youth and female Regulation of
increased
electronic
1.6 Police-population ratio in
communication
conflict
ridden
areas
through the PEMRA
improved
operationalized

20

12/10

12/11

12/12

and technical
capacities of the
subordinate judiciary
enhanced

Civil LEAs trained to


Human, organizational Transition from military
effectively counter
and technical
security to civil security
insurgency, human
capacities of the LEAs
arrangements initiated
trafficking and money
enhanced
Arms production in
laundering.
Regulatory framework
Darra Adam Khel
PEMRAs capacity
Notified and
regulated
enhanced to
implemented to
Community policing
effectively regulate
regulate arms
implemented
electronic
production at Darra
communications
Adam Khel
Total cost: $ 10 m
Strategy drafted and
Pilot programme for
announced to
community policing in
withdraw military
selected areas
personnel from civilian
implemented
LEAs
Community policing
implemented
No. of females
inducted into the LEAs
enhanced

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Outcome
Baseline

No prosecution service
1.1 Justice gap reduced to <
in FATA
10% (No of convictions
compared to number of
Limited prosecution
state prosecutions)
capacity
1.2 No of cases declined for
want of sufficient
No. Of cases resulting in
evidence/recommended to
convictions in 2009
be dropped on public
interest grounds
No training programmes
and facilities for
prosecution services

12/11

12/12

At least 50% of Civil


LEA personnel trained
to deal with
insurgency and human
trafficking money
laundering.
Community policing
integrated with
policing practice with
budgetary allocations
and provisions of
human, technical and
organizational
resource

1.7 Electronic communications


effectively regulated
1.8 Community policing
institutionalized

Prosecution
1. Effective, capable and
responsive prosecution
system

12/10

1. Criminal prosecution service


law reviewed and
organizational, human and
technical capacities enhanced
1.1 Code of conduct and Manual
of training for Prosecutors
developed
1.2 No. Of trained prosecutors
enhanced
1.3 Operational independent
monitoring service for
prosecution services
operationalized
1.4 Training facility for
prosecutors operationalized

Prosecution services
An independent
Human, organizational
law reviewed to
prosecution
and technical
provide for sufficiency
monitoring service law
capacities of the LEAs
and public interests
enacted
enhanced
tests and effective use Training facility for
Law enacted and an
of prosecutorial
prosecutors
adequately resourced
powers ensuring
operationalized
independent
prosecutorial
Code of conduct for
Monitoring service for
autonomy
prosecutors laying
prosecution services
An independent
down provisions for
reporting to the
prosecution
enabling amicable
Provincial Assembly
monitoring service law
resolution of
operationalized
drafted
disputes/jirgas with
Training facility for
provisions for
prosecutors approved
protection of
with financial
vulnerable groups and

21

Human, organizational
and technical
capacities of the
prosecution services
enhanced
Human,
organizational and
technical capacities of
the prosecution
monitoring service
enhanced
Total cost: $ 10 m

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10
allocation
75% prosecutors
trained in
prosecutorial decision
making and
prosecution skills
Development of
guidelines providing
for effective
prosecution of cases
of violation of social
regulation issued and
enforced and
enforcement
personnel trained in
the same

Correctional services (Prison, Probation and Parole services)


1. Provision of
Outcome
detention/prison facilities
Baseline
complying with
internationally accepted
Limited capacity of
standards
correctional services
1.1 Detention/ prison facilities No prisons, probation
inline with local and
and parole services in
international standards
FATA
1.2 Use of probation and parole Low use of non-custodial
enhanced
sentences

capacity Prison-specific training


developed and
delivered to all levels
1.1 Prison legislative framework
of prison staff
updated
Application of bail
1.2 Policy
on
non-custodial
provisions and
sentencing adopted
sentencing policy
1.3 An independent monitoring
reviewed to
service for prisons reporting to
encourage nonthe
Provincial
Assembly
custodial sentencing
operationalized
Separate high security
1.4 Reduced no. of under trial
detentions and
prisoners (UTPs)
prisons
1.5 Segregated detentions and
operationalized
prisons
Awareness raised of
1.6 Increased use of probation
prison population on
and parole
bail provisions
Training and
rehabilitation
programmes
1. Prison
System
strengthened.

22

12/10

12/11

12/12

women.
A manual of guidance
for prosecutors issued
also providing for
enabling
reconciliation/protecti
on of vulnerable
people
Human, organizational
and technical
capacities enhanced
ensuring gender
equality
Adequately resourced
training facility for
prosecutors staffed by
suitably qualified
professionals
operationalized
Legislative framework Legislative framework Prison Monitoring
regulating prisons
revised for governing
service reporting to
reviewed
prisons, establishing a
the Provincial
sound and sustainable
Assembly
Judicial
basis for prison reform
operationalized
instructions/policy
guided by legally
issued on the effective
3 high security prisons
established criteria
application of bail
and 3 women and
including the
provisions and nonjuvenile prisons
establishment of a
custodial sentencing
operationalized.
monitoring service
Prisoners awareness
reporting to the
raised about the use
Provincial Assembly.
Total cost: $ 10m
of bail and the
judiciary about the
use of probation and
parole, and
international prison
standards
Construction of 3 high
security prisons
meeting international

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Strategic Objective: #3 Provision of Basic Services (key goals for sector)


Transitional and administrative justice
1. Effective noncourt based Outcome
1. Establishment of an effective
complaint
redress
oversight mechanisms of PGR
mechanism/s
for Baseline
and FOI rights and provisions,
responsive service delivery
and review public grievance
in use.
redress (PGR) law
Weak public grievance
1.1 # citizens complaints
redress systems
submitted and resolved
1.1 Civic and executive oversight
1.2 Public aware of PGR and Lack of access to public
mechanisms operationalized
FOI provisions
1.2 Number of citizens applications
information
under FOI laws enhanced
1.3 FOI implemented
Lack of awareness of
1.4 Public awareness campaign on
PGR & FOI provisions
PGR and FOI implemented
1.5 Ombudsman officers for Levies
& Security (FATA) and Police &
Security (KP) operationalized

23

12/10

conducted for inmates


Judges/Magistrates
awareness raised on
probation, parole and
international prison
standards

standards initiated
Construction of 3
womens and Juvenile
prisons meeting
international
standards initiated
Prison training
curricula reviewed in
line with local and
international
standards
Prison training
infrastructure and
facilities managed by
prison training
professionals
modernized

Public and officials


awareness raised on
PGR, FOI through
formal & informal
institutions
Law/s drafted and/or
revised to establish
effective PGR system
Costed time-bound
strategy notified to
implement PGR
provisions
FOI law in line
international FOI
standards drafted
Costed time-bound
strategy notified to
implement FOI
provisions
Law drafted to
establish a Police &

PGR law enacted to


establish an
adequately resourced
PGR system
FOI law enacted and
FOI strategy
implemented
Police & Security and
Levies & Security
ombudsman laws
enacted to establish
an adequately
resourced
ombudsman offices
Public awareness
campaign on PGR, FOI,
Police & Security and
Levies & Security
ombudsman offices
implemented
Review

12/11

Government and
judiciary formulated
and notified
departmental FOI and
transparency
standards
Government and
judiciary enhanced
departmental
capacities to
implement FOI and
PGR provisions
Government and
Judiciary enhanced
capacity of PGR
mechanism to resolve
complaints
Capacity of Police &
Security and Levies &
Security ombudsman
offices enhanced to

12/12

Public awareness
campaign on PGR, FOI,
Police & Security and
Levies and Security
ombudsman offices
implemented
Total cost: $8 m

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

12/10

Security and Levies &


recommendations
Security Ombudsman
implemented to
offices to address malstrengthen MIT
administration and
monitoring and PGR
abuse of
functions for judicial
powers/process
services
Costed time-bound
Public awareness
strategy notified to
campaign on PGR, FOI
implement levies and
implemented
police ombudsman
provisions
8. PHC reviewed MITs
performance to
strengthen monitoring
and PGR viz. judicial
services
Strategic Objective: #4 Counter radicalization and reconciliation (key goals for sector)
Legal empowerment and communication

24

12/11
resolve complaints
Public awareness
campaign on PGR, and
FOI implemented

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

1. Human rights protected and Limited State


access to justice increased
organizational and
citizens; capacity to
1.1 . ROL institutions providing
assert Fundamental and
equitable justice and safety
human rights.
by proactively reaching out
to the poor and vulnerable Low access to justice by
1.2. Empowered Citizens able
citizens (poor, women,
to assert their rights and
children and
claims
marginalized groups)
1.3 Number
of
court
references
to
ADR Lack of effective
mechanism
provision of legal aid.
1.4 # of Jirga decisions
converted
into
court
decrees
Lack of an institutional
1.5 # of Jirga decisions
relationship between
appealed before the court
formal and informal
justice systems

Outputs

07/10

1. Capacity building for


Fundamental and human rights
protection ,and for access to
justice at State organizational
and local citizens levels.
1.1 Fundamental and human right
protection
mechanism/s
operationalized
1.2 Legal
aid
services
operationalized
1.3 Para-legal
network/s
developed
1.4 Capacity of informal system
developed to deliver fair
justice services
1.5 Institutionalized relationships
between formal and informal
justice system operationalized
1.6 Communication strategy to
inform citizens about their
rights implemented

25

Capacity enhanced
for legal aid provision
(viz. Bar Associations,
CSOs special focus of
womens
organisations)
Para-legals trained
Government and
judiciary guidelines
notified for
government
departments/
judiciary to proactively
and constructively
engage with paralegals and civil society
Government
departments and
judiciary notified
monitorable legal
empowerment policy
and strategies to
proactively reach out
to the poor and
vulnerable
Simple
explanations/easy to
understand local/Urdu
language versions of
laws published to
promote legal literacy
Effective
communication
strategy implemented
to raise public
awareness of rights
and entitlements, and
inform about legal
empowerment
strategies

12/10

12/11

12/12

Training programme
Departmental and
Departmental and
for legal aid and
judiciarys capacities
judiciarys capacities
paralegals
enhanced to
enhanced to
implemented
effectively implement
effectively implement
legal empowerment
legal empowerment
Government
strategies
strategies
departments and
Judiciary implement
Rules drafted and
Government and
legal empowerment
notified for section
judiciary annually
policies and strategies
89A of the civil
review through third
to reach out to the
procedure code, and
party evaluation
poor and vulnerable
small claims and
departmental
minor offences law
performance against
Local departments
accommodating jirgas
notified LE targets
periodically reporting
making results public
to the Government
and public against
Total cost: $5m
annual Legal
Empowerment targets
An umbrella body
established to
streamline/improve
provision of legal aid
programs taking place
in the province
Increased
dissemination of legal
material/increased
public awareness6.
Para-legals trained on
constitutional rights
and protections
Study
Capacity developed of
recommendations
judicial and legal, LEA
implemented
professionals and Jirga
members on
constitution
provisions, regular,
customary and Islamic
law

Transitional Results Framework: Rule of Law Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10
Simplified versions of
commonly used
provincial and federal
laws published in Urdu
and/or local languages
Jirga members
awareness raised on
constitutional rights
and protections
Comprehensive study
conducted to explore
harmonization,
shortcomings,
complementarities
and propose
recommendations for
strengthening
Fundamental Rights
and ROL frameworks

26

12/10

12/11

12/12
Total cost: $2m

3.

AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK RESOURCES

Consultations in the affected areas indicate that lack of income-earning opportunities is a


primary driver of conflict. Hence generating jobs is paramount to the peace-building effort.
Agriculture and livestock are the dominant sectors in KP and FATA. The immediate priority in
crisis-affected areas is the speedy restoration of agricultural productivity, primarily through
replacement of lost assets. Beyond this immediate restoration, interventions will need to be
tailored to the specific agro-climatic conditions. In areas with good soil and water resources
commercial production has to be promoted, while in low rainfall areas small-scale, subsistence
level agriculture needs to be supported.
3.1

Situation analysis

Dominance of Agriculture Sector - KP and FATA are predominantly agrarian economies, with
livelihoods predicated on agriculture and livestock. In KP agriculture accounts for around 22
percent of the provincial GDP (divided about equally between crops and livestock) but about 44
percent of employment; 80 percent of the population relies on agriculture directly or indirectly
for a large part of their income.11 In FATA almost all employment is agriculture related. In both
areas, the major economic activity of women is related to agriculture, although this is often takes
the form of unpaid family labor.
Farming Systems - There are two distinct farming systems within the area covered by the PCNA.
In locations with extensive areas of flat lands and good water supply, such as Swat and Buner,
agriculture is a profitable activity with good income potential, particularly from horticulture
(fruit and vegetables). In other parts with limited water, agriculture is only practiced in a few
valleys and the rural economy is mainly pastoral, with low quality rangelands providing more
than 70 percent of the total fodder and forage requirement. Yields are substantially lower than
national averages and dependant on rainfall. Scattered natural forest, along with trees planted by
farmers around their fields and homesteads, provide much of the fuel for household use. In
addition to the settled agricultural population, there are also a significant number of transhumants
(Gujars) who specialize in the rearing of sheep and goats. The gradual but steady land
degradation due to unregulated grazing and unsustainable forest use has exacerbated the
vulnerability of subsistence agriculture.
Small-scale, Subsistence Farming - KP and FATA are dominated by small farmers with less than
5 acres (2 ha) of land and a few livestock. In areas which lack good land and water resources,
agriculture alone cannot provide the income and employment needed to create prosperity. Many
of these households experience food deficits and rely on remittances to meet their needs. The
traditional pattern of migration entails young men leaving for jobs in other parts of the country or
abroad, while women, children and the old remain behind and rely on farm production for most
of their meat, milk, vegetable and fruit consumption, as well as for much of their cereals.
Commercial Production - Areas with good land, water and transport links have already started
the development of a viable commercial agriculture, and modest prospects for growth are
11

Pakistan: NWFP Economic Report 2005.

27

apparent. In Swat, as well as in pockets in other districts and FATA, the commercial production
of fruits and vegetables has expanded rapidly over the last two decades and sales in urban centres
of Peshawar, Islamabad/Rawalpindi and Lahore have become an important source of income. In
a number of these key pockets, particularly in Swat, private investments by some of the medium
to larger farmers have resulted in the creation of profitable value chains. However, the full
economic benefits of commercial agriculture development have not been fully exploited by the
local economy. For example, much of the harvesting, packing, storage and marketing is done by
people from outside the area. Local small farmers and the landless who are under/unemployed
- are often not used in these activities representing lost employment opportunities.
Government Support: Facilities and Infrastructure, Services - The sector has generally been
neglected over the past years, resulting in poor quality and availability of services provided by
the Government. The line departments dealing with agriculture are organized in top down
structures, lack the requisite skills and resources, and do not work closely with the communities,
NGOs and the private sector. The line departments are also ill equipped to provide support to
diversification, commercialization and value added agriculture. Civil society and community
organizations, which are currently implementing various livelihood projects, lack technical
knowledge, skills and resources and are not well-positioned to provide much needed technical
advisory services. The current provincial agriculture research system lacks resources and is
poorly organized.
Limited Investment (Opportunities) Public spending on agriculture has been very limited. In a
number of pockets, particularly in Swat, private investments by some of the medium to larger
farmers have resulted in the creation of profitable value chains. However, much of the area is
dominated by small farmers who have not benefited from this development. Many of these
households are food deficient and rely on remittances. Their investment capacity is limited and
rarely extends beyond purchase of some livestock, and repair and improvements to the house.
Credit flows from institutional sources such as the Agriculture Development Bank are limited
and commercial banks are required by the State Bank not to lend in FATA. These factors have
led to a sense of backwardness and deprivation and contributed to the susceptibility to conflict.
Legal/Policy Constraints - A number of policy, institutional, and legal issues constrain sector
performance and have contributed to the conflict. Notable among these is the land tenure,
property rights and land records management system. The land use rights of tenant farmers and
share croppers are usually not well-defined and almost never formalized or documented. As a
result, these relations are often subject to arbitrary and exploitative decisions by landowners. The
existing land registration system is also archaic and non-transparent - in FATA land ownership
has not even been defined. The situation not only creates conflicts but also discourages farmers
to invest in land. It also contributes to land fragmentation by making it difficult to consolidate
land holding by preventing the emergence of a land market. Under the existing Seed Act only
provincial seeds corporations are allowed to multiply and sell the seed varieties released by
public research organizations the private sector is not permitted to do so.
Impact of Crisis - The current crisis, which began in 2004, has resulted in major damage to the
agriculture sector and exacerbated the pre-existing structural problems. The major losses
occurred as animals were abandoned or sold at distress prices; standing crops could not be
28

harvested; irrigation, animal shelter, and fish ponds and hatcheries were damaged or destroyed;
and stocks of seed, fertilizers and feed were lost. Government facilities including veterinary
hospitals, offices and research facilities were also damaged, destroyed, looted or vandalized.
Forest and rangeland areas, which are a critical source of both fuel and fodder for the local
population, were also affected by the conflict due to uncontrolled cutting of trees on both public
and private lands, and damage to irrigation and soil and water conservation structures.
Agriculture in the crisis-affected areas has important linkages to national supply chains. There
has been disruption of the local supply network with damage to shops, stores and sheds and there
has been a reluctance of traders, input suppliers, private service providers and transporters to
work in the area, especially when farm-gate sales were inhibited by militant pressures on contact
with women. As a result market linkages and information flows that underpin market-driven
development have been disrupted. However, conflict has not affected the capacity of large
national suppliers to meet the needs of the affected areas, for example for animals, medicines,
seeds and fertilizers, as well as for financial services, or to absorb their output of meat, eggs,
fruits and vegetables.
Needs Assessment/Consultation Findings - The CAF identified agriculture (including livestock)
as a critical sector for restoring employment and livelihood opportunities across the region and
its key role in addressing backwardness and deprivation in the area. Discussions with
Government staff and NGOs working in the area suggest that communities expect to receive
compensation for the losses suffered as a result of the conflict, which in the case of agriculture
mainly relates to livestock. There is also an expectation that Government investment needs to be
increased and services strengthened, in line with those in other parts of the country. More
critically there is a widespread perception among communities that future development needs to
be more equitable than in the past when the major beneficiaries were the rural elites. A
particular effort will have to be made to target the poorer households that have been excluded
from past development efforts, including very small landholders, the landless and transhumants.
3.2

Priority interventions

Overview - The immediate priority in crisis affected areas is the speedy restoration of agricultural
productivity, primarily through replacement of lost assets. Beyond the immediate restoration of
agriculture, interventions will need to be tailored to the specific agro-climatic conditions. In
areas with good soil and water resources12, there is a need to set agriculture on a commercially
viable, market-oriented growth path which maximizes incomes and employment opportunities.
By contrast, in low rainfall areas the limited water resources mean that agriculture tends to be at
subsistence level and cannot be a major source of income and employment. Those who can,
mostly young males, will continue to leave these areas in search of better prospects. The only
viable strategy for agriculture here is to improve conditions for those (mainly women and older
people) who, for social or economic reasons, cannot migrate.
Short-Term Restoration of Agricultural Production - The immediate priority in crisis affected
areas is the speedy restoration of agricultural productivity, primarily through replacement of lost
assets. Livestock, feed, seeds, fertilizer and farm tools need to be quickly provided. Along with
12

In many arid areas there are small to medium pockets with good soil and water where these interventions apply.

29

this, Government facilities need to be restored to provide essential services, particularly related
to animal health and irrigation. Activities such as training and livestock vaccination campaigns,
which require face-to-face contact between rural communities and Government, should also be
prioritized as these would help build knowledge, understanding and trust. Efforts must be made
to ensure completion of these activities within the first six months of PCNA implementation.
Quick, transparent and pro-poor quick impact assistance will help convince people that there is a
direct economic dividend from stopping conflict.
Enhanced/Commercial Agriculture Production - In areas with good agricultural potential,
essential elements of a medium- to longer-term agriculture strategy are: the introduction of
improved crop, livestock and water management technology; expanded commercial production
of high value crops, both in terms of area planted and range of crops; good agricultural practices,
particularly reduced use of pesticides; strengthening of farmers groups that can help in
technology transfer, rural development, marketing and purchase of inputs; public investment in
irrigation, environmental management and soil and water conservation; and creation of a strong
off-farm sector that works in close tandem with primary producers to pack, process and trade
agriculture inputs and produce moving in and out of the area. Some of these can be home based
and therefore can be done by women. These will require a supportive policy environment and
institutional framework and substantially greater public spending. A critical element in the
development of the area has to be an increased flow of private investment. Such investment,
including by local farmers, entrepreneurs and traders, will need provision of short-, medium- and
long-term credit by micro-credit institutions, and commercial and development banks.
Strengthen Agriculture based livelihoods-. This can be done through the provision of good
services, quality agriculture inputs, tools and implements, and promotion of income generating
activities such as silk worm rearing, bee keeping, etc. For this, particular attention is needed to
ensure that culturally-sensitive arrangements are made concerning outreach workers providing
relevant advice and support. Enabling households to accumulate livestock and poultry would
also strengthen their asset base. Lastly, better management of common use resources, mainly
forests and grazing lands, is also needed and will require collaboration among communities as
well as with the Government.
Enhanced Subsistence Agriculture - In areas where agriculture is primarily subsistence level,
crop and livestock systems are needed that make best use of the resources to provide food items,
particularly those that are nutritionally important such as milk, meat, fruit and vegetables which
need to be produced locally. This concerns women in particular, as they play a critical role in
livestock care and household food security. Essential elements of a strategy for these areas
would include: provision of good services; quality agriculture inputs, tools and implements;
better animal husbandry; improved technologies for crop production; water management and
harvesting; promotion of income-generating activities such as silkworm rearing, bee-keeping,
etc.; and rangeland improvement. Enabling households to accumulate livestock and poultry
would also strengthen their asset base. Better management of common use resources, mainly
forests and grazing lands will require collaboration among communities as well as with the
Government. Micro-credit, for both on-farm and off-farm activities will be essential to
supplement household incomes.

30

Restoration of Government Facilities and Improved Service Delivery Speedy rehabilitation of


damaged structures such as line department offices, fruit and forest nurseries, repair of damaged
irrigation and water storage structures and veterinary hospitals is needed. However, this
rehabilitation has to be accompanied by a refocusing and restructuring of how services to the
sector are provided. The capacity of line departments needs to be built, and partnerships
strengthened with community-based organizations and civil society to efficiently deliver
services. There is an urgent need to restructure the provincial agricultural research system and
strengthen its collaboration with public and private sector partners/research institutions to define
the technical packages compatible with the sustainable development of the area. A critical
aspect of this is building the capacity of the Government to effectively monitor sector
performance. In all areas there is a pressing need to provide basic services such as drinking
water and a minimal level of food security and nutritional support.
Involving People - There is a need to develop and strengthen community organizations, notably

male and female farmers organizations. Such organizations are essential as a conduit for
provision of services and other forms of assistance, such as livestock for restocking, as well as a
means to involve farmers in shaping the programmes and keeping them informed about actions
being taken. The strong involvement of viable COs in relief, rehabilitation and development
would help address the inequity and lack of transparency that have characterized much of past
development. It would also create a mechanism to target vulnerable groups such as women, the
landless and transhumants. The full benefits of community mobilization can be achieved if there
is a full commitment by the Government and all donors to use them for delivery of services.
Strong coordination would be essential for this, as well as to ensure that this community
mobilization happens and that Government is able to provide clear and comprehensive reporting
on actions being taken. In all cases, it will be important to ensure that there are both male and
female outreach workers to provide support, for this to reach target groups equitably.
Skill Development Efforts to increase literacy will need to be complemented by training
programmes for adults and young men and women in farm-related technical and managerial
skills. Such training will help farmers enhance their knowledge and skills and could also
contribute to increasing their self-esteem and pride in farming. Training in farm-based activities
should be complemented by training in off-farm activities to help provide a skill base both for
those who wish to migrate and for home based cottage industries.
Improved support services Some services, such as vaccination against epidemic disease and
disease surveillance, will need to be provided by the public sector. However, there are a range of
other services where support will be best provided by public-private partnerships with farmers
associations, traders, input suppliers and credit institutions. In all cases, it will be important to
ensure that there are both male and female outreach workers to provide support, for this to reach
target groups equitably.
Gender Considerations-The current crisis has exacerbated womens isolation, significantly
reduced their income earning opportunities, and increased the number of female-headed
households. This situation requires special attention to women needs, particularly in female
headed households where economic difficulties have been an incentive for militant recruitment.
Enabling and expanding rural womens livelihood opportunities will reduce their vulnerability
and ease their transition out of the crisis condition. However, in order to improve gender
dynamics in the conflict area, gender considerations must be integrated into all agricultural and
31

rural development policies, programs and institutions, particularly in terms of mechanisms to


reach women.
Policy Reforms - Many necessary policy reforms relate to the extension of existing laws and
regulations to FATA, such as removal of the restriction on commercial banks to operate there.
The Seed Act also needs to be amended to allow the private sector to sell seeds produced by
public sector research bodies which would create home-based and farm-based businesses. Land
tenure, records and administration are major issues across FATA and KP; complex and multifaceted, addressing these will need long term efforts in defining land rights and improving land
records. However, some action under the PCNA will be essential. Launching a process of
review of land tenure issues would be a key signal to the crisis affected populations that the
Government does have the political willingness to take up difficult but critical issues.

32

Transitional Results Framework: Agriculture Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Activities

Baseline

Outputs

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society (key goals for sector)
1. Farmers and FFs are using
Public expenditure 1. State agriculture service restored
Government services to
in agriculture
enhance agricultural
sector
Indicator
productivity and practices
# of damaged essential Government facilities
Number of newly
repaired, operational
Indicators
adopted
technologies
Farmers/FF perceive new
2. Relevant government departments and
practices and services
Activities Strengthened
Monitoring and
designed to meet their needs
evaluation reports
Indicators
No. of new technologies,
cropping methods, adopted
# staff trained/certified in crops, animal health,
as productive and useful
and forestry & rangeland
Annual budget/expenditures of agriculture
departments increases by X %
3. Key policies for agricultural sector reviewed
and improved
Indicators
# of new policies/directives issued
Preparation of key policy reviews (studies,
workshops, etc.) and submissions
4.

Monitoring and evaluation system developed


and institutionalized in planning cells and
relevant line departments

12/10

12/11

Repair and rehabilitation of


damaged facilities related to:
livestock ($1.9 mil); crops
($0.4 mil); irrigation and
flood control ($0.3 mil); and
forestry and rangeland ($1.8
mil)
Total: $4.4 mil
($1.9 mil for FATA; $2,5 mil
for KP)

Repair and rehabilitation of


damaged facilities related to:
livestock ($1.2 mil); crops
($0.2 mil); irrigation and
flood control ($0.4 mil); and
forestry and rangeland ($1.2
mil)
Total: $3.0 mil.
($1.5 mil for FATA and $1.5
for KP)

Training and capacity building


of key government
institutions in: livestock ($0.3
mil); crops ($0.4 mill); and
forestry and rangeland ($0.8
mil)
Total: $1.5mil
($0.6 mil for FATA and $0.9
for KP)

Training and capacity building


of key government
institutions in: livestock ($0.6
mil); crops ($0.2 mill); and
forestry and rangeland ($0.5
mil)
Total: $1.3 mil
($0.6 mil for FATA and $0.7
for KP)

Preparation of key policy


reviews (studies, workshops,
etc.) and submissions
Total: $0.2mil
($0.1 mil for FATA and $0.1
for KP)

Preparation of key policy


reviews (studies, workshops,
etc.) and submissions
Total: $0.6mil
($0.3 mil for FATA and $0.3
for KP)

Conduct baseline assessment


of target populations
Total: $0.25 mil
($0.1 for FATA; $0.15 for KP)
Strategic Objective: #2 Stimulation of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities (key goals for sector)
1. Agriculture sector is
Sector GDP
1. Early recovery of agriculture sector facilitated
revitalized in the form of:
and tangible peace dividends provided in the
(i) Commercial agriculture
Rural incomes
form of direct benefits to rural communities
promoted, and

33

Supporting recovery of
livestock through: restocking
($64.3 mil); provision of feed
and fodder($2.6 mil); repair

Supporting recovery of
livestock through restocking
($128.5 mil); provision of
feed and fodder ($5.2 mill);

12/12

Training and capacity building


of key government
institutions in: livestock ($0.5
mil).
Total: $0.5 mil
($0.2 mil for FATA and $0.3
for KP)

Preparation of key policy


reviews (studies, workshops,
etc.) and submissions
Total: $0.2mil
($0.1 mil for FATA and $0.1
for KP)

Supporting recovery of
livestock through restocking
($128.5 mil); provision of
feed and fodder($5.2 mil);

Transitional Results Framework: Agriculture Sector


Outcome
Outcome
(ii) Agriculture- based
livelihoods of poor rural
families strengthened
Indicators
Increased production from x
to y
Increased agriculture trade
Agriculture value added
Rural income from X to Y

Baseline

Activities
Outputs

12/10

12/11

12/12

Indicators
# and type of lost animals restocked
# tons feed and fodder provided
# repair of animal shelters
# & type of animals vaccinated

of animal shelters and


poultry/ dairy farms ($2.4
mil); vaccinations($0.5 mil)
Total:$69.8 mil
($28.0 mil for FATA and $41.8
for KP)

repair of animal shelters and


poultry/ dairy farms($4.8
mil); vaccinations ($1.0 mil)
Total:$139.5 mil
($56.0 mil for FATA and $83.5
for KP)

repair of animal shelters and


poultry/ dairy farms ($4.8
mil); vaccinations($1.0 mil)
Total:$139.5 mil
($56.0 mil for FATA and $83.5
for KP)

#/amount of seeds/fertilizers/tree seedlings


distributed
# and types of tools and implements distributed
# and type of post harvest/storage facilities
repaired and made operational

Supporting recovery of crops


through: distribution of
seeds, fertilizer, tools and
implements ($12.7 mil);
provision of tree seedlings
($1.3 mil); repair of post
harvest/storage facilities
($1.0 mil).
Total: $15.0 mil
($5.6 mil for FATA and $9.4
for KP)

Supporting recovery of crops


through: seeds, fertilizer,
tools and implements ($12.7
mil); repair of post
harvest/storage facilities
($1.1 mil).
Total: $13.8mil
($5.4 mil for FATA and $8.4
for KP)

# and benefiting areas of damaged public


irrigation and flood control schemes repaired

Repair of damaged public


irrigation and flood control
schemes
Total: $9.5 mil
($3.2 mil for FATA and $6.3
for KP)

Repair of damaged public


irrigation and flood control
schemes
Total: $6.4 mil
($2.2 mil for FATA and $4.2
for KP)

# of fisheries facilities repaired

Rehabilitation of fisheries
Total: $0.6 mil
($0.6 mil for KP)

Rehabilitation of fisheries
Total: $0.5 mil
($0.5 mil for KP)

sq. kilometers reforested and rangelands


improved

Reforestation and
rehabilitation of forest and
rangelands
Total: $28.4 mil
($5.6 mil for FATA and $22.8
for KP)

Reforestation and
rehabilitation of forest and
rangelands.
Total: $28.4 mil
($5.6 mil for FATA and $22.8
for KP)

34

Reforestation and
rehabilitation of forest and
rangelands.
Total: $14.2 mil
($2.8 mil for FATA and $11.4
for KP)

Transitional Results Framework: Agriculture Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Baseline

Activities
Outputs

12/10

2. Agriculture-based livelihoods of poor rural


families strengthened through community
mobilization, group formation, services
provision, technical support and finances
Indicators
# of groups formed or strengthened
# of farmer groups (men and women) provided
services, technical support, input packages
# of groups and amounts provided in matching
grant support, and # of farmers and amount
provided access to micro-finance and

3. Commercial agriculture promoted through


farmers organizations, technological and
other support for high value crops, and
funding
Indicators
# of farmers groups formed/ strengthened
# of farmer organizations supported through
different types of technical support such as
groups training, on-farm demonstrations, study
tours, fairs, etc.
# and amount of funds provided for venture
capital and small enterprises development
A market information and sustainable
technology support system created

35

12/11

12/12

Support to community
mobilization and group
formation
Total: $3.5 mil
($1.5 mil for FATA and $2.0
for KP)

Support to community
mobilization and group
formation
Total: $5.2 mil
($2.2 mil for FATA and $3.0
for KP)

Support to community
mobilization and group
formation
Total: $4.0 mil
($1.6 mil for FATA and $2.4
for KP)

Promotion of Livelihoods
through: service provision;
technical support; facilitation
for access to microfinance
services and market;
matching grants
Total: $10.0 mil
($4.0 mil for FATA and $6.0
for KP)

Promotion of Livelihoods
though: service provision;
technical support; facilitation
for access to microfinance
services and market;
matching grants)
Total: $20.0 mil
($8.0 mil for FATA and $12.0
for KP)

Promotion of Livelihoods
through: service provision;
technical support; facilitation
for access to microfinance
services and market;
matching grants)
Total: $20.0 mil
($8.0 mil for FATA and $12.0
for KP)

Support to
strengthening/establishment
of farmer organizations
Total: $3.0 mil
($1.2 mil for FATA and $1.8
for KP)

Support to
strengthening/establishment
of farmer organizations
Total: $2.0 mil
($0.8 mil for FATA and $1.2
for KP)

Promotion of high value


crops through: introduction
of new technologies,
Improvement of market
information
Total: $16.0 mil
($6.4 mil for FATA and $9.6
for KP)

Promotion of high value


crops through: introduction
of new technologies,
Improvement of market
information
Total: $32.0 mil
($12.8 mil for FATA and $19.2
for KP)

Promotion of high value


crops through: introduction
of new technologies,
Improvement of market
information
Total: $32.0 mil
($12.8 mil for FATA and $19.2
for KP)

Transitional Results Framework: Agriculture Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Baseline

Activities
Outputs

12/10

12/11

12/12

Training. in management of
community organization; and
in marketing and business
for: small commercial
farmers ($1.0 mil); and
nutrition, household food
storage for subsistence
farmers (S0.5 mil)
Total: $1.5mil
($0.6 mil for FATA and $0.9
for KP)

Training. in management of
community organization; and
in marketing and business for
small commercial farmers
($2.0 mil); and nutrition,
household food storage for
subsistence farmers ($1.0
mil)
Total: $3.0 mil
($1.2 mil for FATA and $1.8
for KP)

Training. in management of
community organization; and
in marketing and business for
commercial small farmers
($1.5 mil); and nutrition,
household food storage (for
subsistence farmers ($1.0
mil)
Total: $2.5 mil
($1.0 mil for FATA and $1.5
for KP)

Special training for youth in


commercial agriculture,
agriculture enterprise
development, marketing, etc.
Total: $0.5 mil
($0.2 mil for FATA and $0.3
for KP)

Special training for youth in


commercial agriculture,
agriculture enterprise
development, marketing, etc.
Total: $1.5 mil
($0.6 mil for FATA and $0.9
for KP)

Special training for youth in


commercial agriculture,
agriculture enterprise
development, marketing, etc.
Total: $1.0 mil
($0.4 mil for FATA and $0.6
for KP)

Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation (key goals for sector)


1.

Rural communities
embrace sense of equity
and fairness both in
comparison with outside
the region and within the
community through
opportunities provided to
farmers and the rural poor.

Income of farming
households

1. Targeted training provided for individual


farmers

Rural poverty

Indicators
# of farmer group leaders and office bearers
trained
# and types of farmers (men and women,
commercial and subsistence) trained

2. Targeted training provided for youth


Indicator
# of targeted rural youth trained.

36

4.

NON-FARM ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Opportunities for non-farm economic development and livelihoods in KP and FATA are limited
due to poor economic conditions, low levels of urbanization and a small, relatively
uncompetitive private sector. These constraints will take time to overcome, but immediate
dividends can be obtained by supporting renovation and up-gradation of existing firms, and
through large-scale reconstruction projects. Numerous sectors have strong potential for growth,
which could be realized through supportive interventions as well as promotion of institutional
mechanisms for effective private sector development.
4.1

Situation Analysis

Challenging Business Environment Enterprise surveys conducted before April 2009 when the
crisis intensified, indicate that electricity and taxes are key constraints on their activities. Doing
Business in Pakistan 2010 highlights a relative lack of competitiveness in the region for nonfarm growth. Peshawar is the best place for Doing Business in KP but recent work by the
World Bank on the sub-national business environment shows that it is one of the weaker cities in
Pakistan when it comes to the regulatory climate, for example registering property and paying
taxes. There has been little focus on reform in these areas at provincial or municipal level, and
they are likely to have deteriorated with the widening of the conflict. In addition the business
environment requires security and rule of law. The absence of these impedes basic operations of
the private sector and serves as a major obstacle to new investment.
Weak Private Sector - The formal private sector is very small both in terms of size and number
of firms. Available data suggests that there is only one firm in the affected areas that employs
more than 250 people. This has important implications for innovation and competitiveness:
larger firms tend to be more productive and more innovative.13 Moreover, firms in KP are less
productive than firms elsewhere in Pakistan.14 These two factors mean that such firms are at a
significant competitive disadvantage, particularly compared with Karachi-based firms. In FATA
the challenge is particularly acute: not only is the base there very small but, according to the
WFP survey15, levels of damage appear to be higher than KP.
Some key observations from the PCNA database include:
In FATA as a whole, there are only 4,000 people working in formal industries out of a
population of 6 million;
In KP there are 1,552 industrial units reported with 310 of these in Buner, Lower and
Upper Dir, Shangla and Swat (BDSS). Their estimated employment is approximately
30,000 out of a population of 3.5 million;
In KP in BDSS 220,000 people were recorded as having non-farm employment;
Workers under the age of 30 account for 60 percent of those officially listed as
unemployed.
Female labor force participation in KP as a whole is approx. 21 percent.

13

World Bank Enterprise Survey: Pakistan (2007)


Ibid
15
WFP report
14

37

Limited Urbanization Initial conditions for creating jobs are weak as there are no major
agglomerations in the affected areas. Mingora in Swat is the only town with population over
100,000, and there are a handful of other towns with more than 20,000 residents. Official
statistics suggest that only 5 percent of the population in the affected areas is urbanized.
Importance of Remittances (esp. in Rural Areas) - Remittances play a critical role in supporting
livelihoods in KP and FATA. Their importance is indicated by the high levels of out-migration
of male workers. The 2007/08 Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey
found that the average household in KP received remittances equivalent to about 20 percent of
consumption expenditure, far higher than in other provinces. Remittances are especially
substantial in rural areas. The World Bank study Bringing Finance to Pakistans Poor (2009)
estimated that in rural areas of Pakistan these amounted to about US$5.5 billion in 2008. These
substantial sums are transferred both informally through the hundi/hawala system, and formally
through banks and other financial institutions.
Artisanal Mineral Sector Artisanal (precious stones and building stones) mining is an
important contributor to off-farm economic development, but has significant further potential
that is untapped to date. It has been estimated that national marble production can be increased
by 5,000 percent. A combination of low technology and regulatory/property rights issues have
constrained investment in the sector. The lack of investment has led to little use of modern
technology and as a result, substantial waste, which has left the sector in a low level equilibrium,
even before the intensification of the conflict.
Impact of Crisis Sectoral reviews reveal that the crisis has caused extensive damage to
productive assets, sharply reducing economic activity. For example, the mineral sector has faced
a precipitous decline in output: of Only in Buner district, out of more than 300 marble mines that
were operational before the crisis, only 25 are in operation at present, and production is less than
5 percent of previous levels (in large measure due to a ban on the use of dynamite).
Consequently most of the 367 marble processing units are closed in that district. The story is
similar for the other districts of KP and FATA. Tourism, one of the mainstays of the Swat
economy before the crisis, has come to a virtual stand-still, with a loss of some 40,000 jobs. The
damage to related assets will also take years to restore. While the findings in several other
sectors are similar, it is worth noting that the construction sector has strong growth potential in
the near-term, as reconstruction accelerates.
4.2

Priority Interventions

Short-Term Restoration/Upgrading of Firms - It is through direct support to firms that relatively


immediate impacts are possible. Renovation, expansion and upgrading of existing businesses
can generate jobs. The challenge is to design these interventions in a way that avoids moral
hazards. There are two approaches: 1) supply-based business development services, and 2)
demand-based matching grants. The approach proposed is a blend of the two. Matching grants
tend to minimize moral hazard, especially when they are reimbursement-based. The grants
would also be available to industry associations. However, in the case of some renovations,
because the entrepreneur lost everything, matching will not be possible except through sweat
equity - provision should be made for such cases. Up-gradation would include provision of day38

care facilities to encourage women to join the workforce. A challenge fund16 open to anyone
(NGOs, international firms, etc) is also suggested to target market responses to specific
challenges notably employment of youth and women.
Support to Access Finance Finance is available to enterprises through many existing
programmes: by government, donors, NGOs as well as the commercial banks themselves. There
is no shortage of capital; the challenge lies in moving it to those in need. Provision of finance in
rural areas to small consumers is very expensive and there is limited capacity to carry this out
among existing finance providers. Hence efforts are proposed to increase financial literacy, and
provide support to existing and potential new delivery systems.
Investment Sources - Job creation in the private sector depends on investment; likely sources of
this include the diaspora, local investors, donor risk-mitigated investors and foundation-type
investors. Investment is a function of risk and reward. Initially, investors best able to define and
mitigate risk will be positioned to take advantage of investment opportunities in the affected
areas. This risk mitigation could be through local cultural and social connections, such as for the
diaspora, or through more formal mechanisms, such as the political risk insurance provided by
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and Overseas Private Investment
Corporation (OPIC). Some non-governmental entities could also have a greater capacity to take
risks because they are funded and mandated for that purpose.
Promotion of Institutional Mechanisms for Private Sector Development - Institutionally, there
are three important areas that need to be addressed for effective private sector development: 1)
overall coordination, 2) public-private dialogue and 3) local economic development and
empowerment. Coordination is needed across a broad range of actors: a number of ministries
within the federal and provincial governments, as well as at district level and with donors.
Public-private dialogue is generally a key success factor in strengthening the private sector: in
this regard the emphasis placed on consultation with the private sector by the Prime Minister is a
positive sign. Finally, it will be important to support local initiative to solve local problems.
Availing Opportunities to Unlock Potential at Sectoral Level In many sectors there is
considerable potential; often the means (opportunities) to unlock this have been identified and
are well known. But for various reasons (including limited political will, capacity, and
resources) they are never implemented. Typically, initiatives to unlock sectoral potential fall
within three broad groupings: (i) support to resolve regulatory and institutional impediments
(address coordination failures), e.g. to resolve the mining sectors need for explosives; (ii)
support to upgrade know-how and technology (address information failures), e.g. provide
training in new mining technologies; and (iii) support to resolve key infrastructural constraints
that are specific to the sector (address public goods failures), e.g. build rural roads which will
have enormous benefits (these are covered in the infrastructure component of the PCNA).
Opportunities and initiatives needed within specific sectors are detailed below:

16

Challenge funds differ from other grant programs, in that they focus on a specific outcome and make the grant
award subject to a competitive process.

39

a) Agro-Industry Given the strong agriculture base in FATA and KP, agro-industry is the
sector with the greatest potential to contribute to employment and growth. Farming, the
prime economic activity in the affected areas, is addressed as a separate sector in the
PCNA. Nonetheless there are two aspects relevant to the private sector which will
dramatically benefit farmers: one, general measures to improve the business climate
these will enhance the efficiency of all product markets; two, facilitating access to
finance.
b) Niche Manufacturing - Large-scale manufacturing of the kind that could absorb
substantial amounts of labour is unlikely because of fundamental productivity
disadvantages (high transport costs, absence of suppliers, low levels of agglomeration).
However, opportunities remain in niche manufacturing such as textiles, handicrafts and
furniture, particularly where local raw materials such as gemstones, building stones,
wood, and animal fibres are available. Existing capabilities in silk fabric weaving in
Swat, woollen shawls in Islampur, and furniture manufacturing are also important. The
key to revitalizing these sectors is a strong emphasis on market linkages. It should also
be noted that niche manufacturing provides a significant opportunity to generate
employment for women, particularly in cottage type industries.
c) Tourism This sector is particularly important in Swat, but has suffered badly in the
crisis. Security is a necessary condition for the return of tourists and progress in this area
will take time. Involving stakeholders and consulting them can help improve the security
situation. However, the challenge is what to do in the interim period to maintain the
existing stock of tourism assets and ready the sector for the eventual upturn when peace
is restored.
d) Construction - As in most post-crisis situations the construction sector will boom; it has
the greatest immediate potential for job generation. The core challenge is to ensure that
the benefits accrue locally in terms of employment, skills development and sector
capability. A two-pronged approach is required. The first prong involves designing
procurement in a way that allows maximum participation of locals, and also builds skills
and other construction capabilities at the same time. One model developed by UNDP has
particular promise the contractor is required to sub-contract, e.g. a rural roads project,
to a number of local subcontractors and train them in construction and project
management skills. The second prong addresses sector level issues. Access to finance
in terms of working capital and performance bonds, as well as vocational skills, are the
main challenges here.
e) Power - Pakistan has huge power needs and the provision of this power from FATA and
KP through hydro and other renewable technologies represents a win-win. The
construction and operation of power facilities will generate jobs and income. This does
not have to be large-scale remote locations can benefit from solar and other innovative
technologies. Furthermore, the availability of power will itself address one of the private
sectors greatest constraints and thereby make a major contribution to a better business
climate. This is covered in more detail in the infrastructure sector summary.

40

f) Retail and Commerce - The sheer number of retail and commerce enterprises is striking,
making this a very important sector. Overall, it has managed through the crisis
reasonably well, but those shops that the Taliban disapproved of were completely
destroyed, including barber shops and video outlets. Apart from encouraging the
rehabilitation of damaged stores, there is little that can be done in terms of sector-specific
interventions to encourage additional employment. General improvements in the
business environment can help. As wealth and incomes rise in the affected areas, the
demand generated will flow through to this sector. On the trade side, as customs and
transport infrastructure improves on the Afghanistan border, commercial opportunities
are likely to arise. This large sector provides entry-level opportunities for a critical group
to the peace-building effort - young men.
g) Private Delivery of Public Services Public-private partnerships to deliver services can
both strengthen the private sector and mobilize assistance to improve service delivery.
IFC, for example, have advised that private sector providers of educational services
would be very interested in educational PPPs. There are three requirements to encourage
PPPs: (i) an organizing capability to define the PPP and implement it; (ii) some viability
gap type funding to cover the difference between actual revenues and the revenues
required to justify a private investment; and (iii) an incentive and regulatory system that
encourages and allows PPPs.
Promotion of Information Communications Technology (ICT) ICT is one component of
infrastructure that is relatively inexpensive to deploy and has the potential to dramatically
improve productivity, for example by enabling mobile banking, facilitating the provision of
market information, improving access to government services, augmenting education and health
services, and making possible tele-working (Information Technology Enabled Services or ITES).
Women can particularly benefit from ICT. This could be as simple as basic data entry for a
family business that hitherto had prohibited women from working. The use of ICT will also be
important to encourage the public sector transformation towards more e-governance and for the
success of PCNA itself.
Specific Measures to Support Employment of Women - While young men have mobility and can
take jobs abroad or in towns and cities, it is virtually impossible for women to follow similar
paths. Cultural norms in the affected areas mean that most women are required to stay in close
proximity to their homes. As first steps to overcome this challenge, initiatives proposed in the
PCNA are aimed at empowering womens participation in economic decision-making through
promotion of cottage-based industries and tele-working. As well as the more typical cottagebased industries of sewing, knitting and embroidery, the former could include other value-added
products from marble and granite mosaic, handicrafts and inlay (MHI). In addition, special
programmes will be required to develop womens work and entrepreneurial skills, provide secure
and sensitive places of work, and support key information-sharing networks. There are
successful examples of such programmes from similar societies elsewhere in Pakistan and from
neighbouring countries.
Labour Policies and Programmes A compound growth rate of 15 percent per annum needs to
be achieved in the affected areas over the next ten years. This will take time to materialize;
41

hence mitigation measures are needed to bridge the short- and medium-term jobs gap. The first
group of measures relate to improved labour and product market access. Labour market policies
that can encourage domestic and international labour mobility will help, and reinforce the present
reality that employment opportunities for workers in the affected areas are often to be found
elsewhere in Pakistan and abroad. The hub of the affected areas is the major city of Peshawar;
thus a strong and growing Peshawar can also contribute. Labour policies and programmes that
can reduce unemployment are also needed; these include regulatory reforms, development of
institutional capacity, jobs-for-work programmes, vocational training, and specific measures for
disaffected youth and women. The creation of product markets through administrative measures
is something else that can help. Furthermore, as discussed with public works, Government
procurement can be organized in a way that favours the affected areas, and private procurement
can be incentivized to draw upon these areas.
__________________________
Risks - There are many risks associated with these planned interventions. The key risk is
governance - grant programmes, cash for work, and many of the other planned interventions
have the potential for moral hazard. Equity (or lack of it) is another: there is always the risk that
these programmes will not be administered in an equitable and fair way and key targeted groups
might miss out. Implementation will be a challenge and will require special measures in FATA
where, as previously noted, the private sector base is very small and levels of damage high.
People who are excluded will continue to feel resentment, particularly as meaningful job
generation from the private sector will take time to crank up. Finally, if security declines or
cannot be maintained, many of these measures cannot be implemented.
These risks can be mitigated through strong systems, stakeholder participation and close
monitoring. The proposed sequencing will help, with an initial focus on recovery, working with
the existing base and implementing a substantial cash-for-jobs programme. Given its weak
private sector, the focus in FATA will have to be on skills development and public works
programmes. Specific measures that can mitigate resentment on the part of excluded people
include:
All stakeholders not just business elites - involvement in public-private dialogue;
Stakeholder involvement in the management and monitoring of programmes - the face of
implementation. The implementation strategy relies on existing providers, mainly NGOs;
The many targeted interventions proposed which, for the most part, aim at women and
critical young men.
Monitoring is particularly important as there will be a need to amend and recalibrate
interventions based on a constantly evolving business environment.
An important lesson
generally, and particularly in post-crisis situations, is the need for flexibility. Circumstances
change, unthought-of potential interventions emerge, opportunities present themselves,
programmes that appear sound on paper do not work and either need to be cancelled or adjusted,
the security situation changes for the better or for the worse. Given this flux, a strong monitoring
capability is required and is embedded in the institutional recommendations made above.
Links to Other Sectors It should be stressed that progress on revitalizing private sector activity
in general, and meeting the jobs imperative in particular, will depend to a considerable extent on
42

initiatives covered in other parts of the PCNA. Enhancing agricultural productivity is essential
for the livelihood of the majority of the population. Boosting education and skills training is at
the core of productivity and sustainability of jobs in the affected areas. Expanding public works
programmes as a part of an infrastructure rehabilitation programme is essential to absorb those
who are unable to find jobs in the short-term, as well as restore essential infrastructure services.
Community development has an important role to play in ensuring adequate social protection.

43

Transitional Results Framework: Non Farm Economic Development Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society
Key goals for sector: Ensure that state is proactively responsive to the needs of private sector
Limited
1.1 Improved coordination achieved
1.1.1 Institutional capability
institutional
between:
strengthened for private sector
capability
development
Public and private sectors
Across public sector departments
Indicators
No. of meetings held by the PSD
Indicators:
Committee
No. of reforms implemented through
No. of PPD dialogue programs
PPD dialogue
implemented
No. of new initiatives implemented
No. of LED established and/or
enhanced
1.2

Improved private sector role in


delivery of public services

Indicators:
4 districts in KPK and FATA with
established PPP models for the delivery
of services

1.2.1 Public-private partnerships


developed
Indicators
No. of PPP projects approved
No. of people trained for better service
delivery (Disaggregated by gender)
No of available health and other basic
services

12/10

`Establishment of a
Private Sector
coordination
committee, and a
technical working
group

Implement a
program of PublicPrivate Dialogue in
affected areas

Develop an
institutional and
regulatory model that
allows for private
service provision

Creation of a
Viability Gap Fund
($20m)

Strategic Objective: #2 Stimulation of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities


Key goals for sector: Create employment opportunities by technical training and by unlocking the potential of key economic sectors
Outcome
2.1 Private sector rehabilitated and
2.1.1 Matching Grants Program
Establish grant scheme
Baseline
expanded
established for providing financial
for firm renovation,
support for renovation, expansion
replacement and
Indicators:
and up-gradation of affected
upgrading
businesses.
No. of businesses registered and started
($20m)
3000 enterprises meeting criteria
Indicators
renovated & operational
Criteria for the beneficiaries of grant
25% of local contractors hired for
scheme developed
infrastructure rehabilitation
Structure of Integrated Firms and Public
No. and volume of loans generated for
Works programs finalized
micro, small & medium enterprises
(MSMEs) Disaggregated by gender,
farm/non-farm
Support the financial
2.1.2 Improved Access to Finance for
No. of new bank branches in rural KPK
institutions to increase
non-farm private sector
and FATA
their outreach through

200,000 new financial sector users


supporting their
Indicators
(disaggregated by gender)

44

12/11

Establishment of
business
development
services
Expand public
works programs as
part of infrastructure
rehabilitation
program

Improve the
payment
infrastructure
through expanding

12/12

Establish Local
Economic
Development
Departments to
promote economic
development at the
local level

Peshawar based
Integrated firms
program for new
markets development
($25m)

Transitional Results Framework: Non Farm Economic Development Sector


Activities
Outcome
100,000 new telecom beneficiaries using
mobile banking (disaggregated by
gender)

Outcome
Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Regulatory measures implemented for


existing and planned access to finance
programs
Targeted micro & SME programs
implemented
2.1.3 Improve financial literacy and
delivery systems
Indicators
No. of beneficiaries provided with
toolkit(disaggregated by gender)

2.2

Increase in investment including


diaspora

Indicators
$100m investment mobilized
(foreign/local)
2.3

Potential expansion of the key


sectors of the crisis-affected areas
3 economic sectors with functioning
value chains
$30m investment in 2-3 sectors

2.4

Employment opportunities
created/expanded with an emphasis
on skilled and unskilled youth

Indicators
250,000 persons employed in decent
work 17(disaggregated by gender and
age group ) across KPK and FATA
60,000 new jobs created in 2-3 sectors
(disaggregated by gender)

2.2.1 Improved investment climate


Indicators
No. of new enterprises registered
Indicators as per investment climate
surveys
2.3.1 Detailed sector analysis reports
focus on restoring value chains
connecting broken market linkages
Indicators
Recommendations implemented to
improve value chains in 2-3 key sectors

2.4.1 Labor Market Governance reforms


established (Labor Law & the
regulatory environment, industrial
relations)
Indicators
No. of reforms and incentives program
implemented and enforced by the
Government in FATA and KPK
2.4.2 Demand driven employable skills

17

12/10
operational costs
($5m)
Establish a financial
literacy program using
existing providers of
financial services
($2m)

12/11

12/12

the telecom and


communications
network

Establish a promotion
and investment
facilitation unit that
targets investors,
particular diaspora
Grants to Industry
Associations to
conduct sector analysis
studies covering
policy, infrastructural
and information failure
recommendations
($2m)
Review/amend Govt.
policies that constrain
the mobility of
workers from the
affected areas
The
capacity development
of Labor Market
Stakeholders
(Employers, Workers,
Government) to ensure

Conduct detailed value


chain analysis of the
key sectors identified
in sector analysis
studies ($5m)

Implement
employment
guarantee scheme
(cash for work
program ($30m)
Employment
Centers established
($3.5m)
Reorient
government
procurement/contrac

Establish challenge
fund to support
entrepreneurship for
more jobs ($10m)

Decent work sums up the aspirations of people in their working lives their aspirations for opportunity and income; rights, voice and recognition; family
stability and personal development; and fairness and gender equality

45

Transitional Results Framework: Non Farm Economic Development Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Gender disaggregated beneficiaries of


incentives programs
% of men trained under TREE and
Integrated Vocational Training employed
% of women trained under TREE and
Integrated Vocational Training employed
Employment Centres established, each in
Peshawar, Mingora and two more
districts in FATA
% of local contractors hired for
infrastructure rehabilitation

Outputs

07/10

12/10

developed. Job-Creation" and


"Working-Conditions" should be
promoted together to ensure "Social
Justice" and subsequently have an
effective peace-building,
Indicators
No. of women graduating from ILO and
UNDPs training program
No. of young men trained under the ILO
and UNDP programs
Criteria for implementing employment
guarantee scheme established

2.4.3 Employment facilitation


Indicators
No. of employment centres established
No. of jobs provided through
employment centres (disaggregated by
gender)
No. of persons provided employment
counselling and guidance (disaggregated
by gender)

application
of International Labor
Standards through
national legislation as
a means to achieve
social justice and
sustaining peace
Labor statistics
through LMIS, to
enable government and
the development
agencies to focus
accurately on labor
needs
Encourage GCC to
incentivize hiring more
workers from affected
areas
Implement TREE
program for skill
building of youth
($5m)
Train local enterprises
through Integrated
Work/Vocational
Training program of
UNDP18 ($ 5m)

12/11

12/12

ts to focus on local
jobs
Establish a womens
employment
generation fund that
supports through
grants skill building,
critical
infrastructure
($10m)

Strategic Objective: #3 Provision of Basic Services


Key goals for sector: Provision of basic services is facilitated through Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
3

Widespread use of ICT for


providing services to local people
and generating new employment
opportunities for locals; with a
special focus on women

Indicators:
Widespread use of ICT for providing
services to local people and generating

1. Outcome
Baseline

3.1.1 Developed infrastructure for


increasing cellular coverage
Indicators
Population included through increased
coverage (disaggregated by gender)
No. of telecenters established
No. of households getting

18

Support increased
coverage of cellular
coverage and telecenters

Develop a challenge
fund to identify new
applications with a
specific window for
women
($10m)

Training will be systematically linked and integrated with other critical interventions such as, access to markets, appropriate technology, microfinance,
entrepreneurship development and follow up technical assistance

46

Transitional Results Framework: Non Farm Economic Development Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Outputs

07/10

services through ICT programs


No. of businesses benefiting from ICT
programs

new employment opportunities for locals;


with a special focus on women.
No. Of households getting services
through ICT programs
No. of businesses benefitting from ICT
programs
Percentage of trained women employed

3.1.2 Youth trained and employed for


digitizing government data
Indicators

No. of women trained

Percentage of trained women


employed

12/10

Employ men and


women to digitize
government data for
the broader egovernment agenda

Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation


Key goals for sector: Provide local communities the opportunities for training and quick income generation
4.1

Youth trained in employable skills

Outcome
Baseline

4.1.1 Training programs planned


and conducted for youth
Indicators
No. of training programs
No. of trained persons
(disaggregated by gender)

4.2

Role of women In non- farm private


sector development is improved

47

Implement TREE
program for skill
building of youth, as
per ILO methodology
($5m)
Train local enterprises
through Integrated
Work/Vocational
Training program as
per UNDP
methodology
($2m)
Establish a womens
employment
generation fund that
supports through
grants skill building,
critical infrastructure
(as above in 2.2)

12/11

12/12

5.

EDUCATION

The poor quality of education provision in FATA and KP is reflected in the poor development
indicators for the region. Lack of education and skills greatly strengthens the hand of militants (i)
by limiting work opportunities particularly for young men, and (ii) by enabling them to present
their narrative about the marginalisation of communities, Islamic ideology and so on as
legitimate. Educational institutions, particularly of girls, have been and continue to be the
special target of terrorist attacks. Key focus areas for intervention include: restoration of
damaged infrastructure; curriculum revision to ensure education is relevant to peoples and
market needs; promotion of adult literacy; and community oversight of education delivery.
5.1

Situation Analysis

Education indicators - Shortcomings in education delivery in KP and FATA are apparent from
development indicators, which lag far behind those of other provinces. In KP literacy rates
before the crisis were 49 percent overall (68 percent for males; 33 percent for females) and in
FATA 17.4 percent (29 percent for males and just 3 percent for females)19. As well as very
pronounced gender gaps, there were also significant urban-rural differences: in KP the rural
literacy rate was 29 percent.
School education - EMIS data for KP indicated major problems with primary education
provision and continuation of education beyond primary schooling. The ratio of middle to
primary schools was 1:8 (1:9 for girls), high to middle schools was 1:1.5 (1:2.2 for girls), and
higher secondary to high schools was 1:5.9 (1:5.2 for girls), i.e. the situation is worse for girls
education. The Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) in KP suggested around 1.59 million children were
out of school. In FATA the data shows similar poor provision: middle to primary school ratio of
1:8 (1:10.8 for girls); high to middle of 1: 1.7 (1:3.6 for girls) and higher secondary to high of
1:17.8 (1:7.2 for girls). GER indicates over 600,000 primary school age children in FATA were
not attending school20.
Drop-out rates from primary school are high: up to 5th grade there were 49 percent early drop
outs in KP (57 percent for girls) and 67.8 percent in FATA (66.9 percent for girls). These are
children who then either have to repeat the same grade, or who remain illiterate/under-educated
and cannot gain employment. The overall transition rate from primary to secondary education
was 76 percent in KP (71 percent for girls). One of the major reasons for the high rate is that, if
no facilities are available within a reasonable distance for education beyond grade 5, parents
prefer to let their children (especially girls) drop out early. The poor quality of schooling is
indicated by poor learning achievement scores: a study conducted by the National Education
Assessment System (NEAS) at levels grade 4 and 8 found scores in languages, maths, science
and social studies were below national averages.
Poor facilities, materials and lack of teachers were common problems. Most schools in rural
areas were missing basic facilities such as drinking water, electricity, washrooms and seating.
Lack of teaching materials affected teaching-learning quality, while frequent teacher
19
20

PSLM Data 2007-08 for KP and FATA Education Database


FATA Education Database

48

absenteeism/non-availability contributed to low attendance and high drop-outs. One factor in


this, particularly for female teachers and students, was lack of transport services. Other factors
influencing education quality include: lack of accountability mechanisms for teachers and other
staff; poor quality of teacher training, absence of pedagogic support programmes and obsolete
learning-teaching methodologies; weak institutional capacity and management of institutions;
and political interference in appointments and transfers of teachers and supervisory staff.
The lack of a satisfactory state education service leads to more private schools and use of
madrassas.
Education curricula These have been found to be poor both in terms of ensuring employable
skill development and promoting peace-building. The new National Education Policy (NEP) and
national curricula 2006 and 2007, provide for development of attitudes and skills that promote
peace-building, sympathy, co-existence, and tolerance. The NEP also emphasises the need for
quality education, curricula reforms, matching education with market, and technical vocational
training. Despite these provisions, currently very low importance is given to human rights and
civic education. The KP Textbook Board (KPTBB) started implementing the revised national
curricula, but the process is slow because of capacity gaps in the Board, ineffective textbook
publishing and the fact that teachers and others are unaware of curriculum changes. FATA does
not have a textbook board of its own and uses either textbooks prescribed by the Federal
Ministry of Education or textbooks developed by KPTBB.
Adult /Non-formal education According to the KP Education Sector Plan there are 7 million
illiterate people in the 9-39 years age group. Several providers of adult literacy and non-formal
education are targeting these people. They include the Elementary Education Foundation (EEF)
in KP, National Education Foundation (NEF), National Commission for Human Development
(NCHD), the Ministry of Social Welfare and several NGOs. However, there appears to be
negligible coordination between these. 0.93 Million adults are currently enrolled in 11,862
centres in KP, with a further 1.25 million completing literacy courses (over 60 percent of them
women). EEF plans to open a further 11,000 centres between 2010 and 2012. But in FATA
there are only 96 centres enrolling 2,112 adults (gender breakdown?). Moreover, no visible
impact of these programmes is reported.
As well as poor primary schooling provision, adult literacy rates are low because of lack of
political will and consistency in policy and programme for adult education; financial constraints;
weak monitoring and evaluation mechanisms; lack of trained women literacy teachers; absence
of uniform national curricula and quality materials; and ineffective strategies.
Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) - TVET also suffers from problems of
access and quality. In KP there are 642 institutes providing TVET (106 government and 536
private sector), of which 11.5 percent are for females. The focus is on technical, vocational and
commerce-management skills. Female participation is low, in large part because of the limited
scope for female employment. Potential exists to develop womens skills that can support family
income. In FATA there are 13 technical institutes (4 female, 1 co-ed) enrolling 1,599 students.
Options for women are limited: 960 students are enrolled in the 4 female institutes but these have
only 12 female staff members; women are not admitted to the 9 Government Technical Institutes
49

nor to the 6 Government Colleges of Management Sciences. They can receive training in the 57
Womens Skills Development Centres offering courses in tailoring, knitting and embroidery.
The existing TVET system offers basic, skilled and master level courses. Most courses are run at
a basic level because of lack of equipment, curriculum and trained staff. The peculiar
governance structure and land ownership laws make FATA an unattractive option for private
investors. Banks also do not give loans to businesses in FATA, so TVET there remains seriously
underdeveloped. While no specific data exists on outcomes, there is general agreement that
TVET programme graduates do not easily find employment in the market. The TVET system is
supply-driven: out-dated curricula, lack of coordination, lack of relevance, weak market
linkages, and low quality all lead to poor employability potential. Industries draw their labour
force from the open market outside TVET. In many cases it was seen employers prefer to
provide on-job training to unskilled labour; they see this as a more sustainable option than hiring
under-skilled and experienced TVET graduates, who also demand higher salaries and tend to
leave for better jobs once trained.
Education management Recent capacity gap assessments conducted in the KP Elementary and
Secondary Education Department and the FATA Directorate for Education found weaknesses in
all areas. Decentralisation has resulted in lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities between
provincial and district administrations. The absence of strategic plans and objectives reduces
operational planning to merely an exercise in acquiring some funds through PC1 forms, delinked from strategic priorities and objectives. The organisational culture does not promote high
performance. Managers lack appropriate skills and experience, and the management cadre also
suffers from political interference in promotions and transfers.
Human resources lack appropriate training in management, administration and modern
pedagogy. There is no cohesive policy framework for teacher education, career paths,
promotions, professional development and appointments. Financial management is weak, so the
limited resources that are available are not optimally utilised. Monitoring and evaluation is
virtually non-existent because of the large number of schools to be supervised and managed,
with lack of appropriate powers and resources, including enough female supervisors enabled to
visit schools frequently within their sector. Communication is poor and ineffective, both
internally and externally: coordination between different management tiers is weak; ParentTeacher Councils (PTCs) exist in government schools in KP but not FATA, but have no say in
school management. Moreover, PTCs are predominantly Father-Teacher Councils; the interface
with teachers of girls schools is thus often difficult, and mothers often lack the opportunity and
skills to act effectively as MTCs, even for girls schools.
Madrassa education - The number of madrassas has been on the increase since the Soviet Union
invasion of Afghanistan. In 2009/10, 4,680 registered madrassas (18.9 percent for females)
were operating in KP with a combined enrolment of 195,303 students (16.3 percent female),
taught by 14,486 teachers (18.6 percent female). FATA had 179 registered Mosque schools with
63 teachers and 11,945 students in the 2008/9 school year. All institutions, teachers and students
were male. No reliable information exists on non-registered schools though the common
understanding is that these greatly outnumber registered madrassas. Madrassa governance is
further complicated by the existence of five different schools of religious thought, making
50

coordinated action difficult. The Interior Ministry recently announced the establishment of an
umbrella organisation over and above these five Wafaqs of religious education, which should
help this problem.
No formal studies or reports are available on quality of madrassa education, but this can be
gauged from the focus on rote memorisation and religious education; in addition, employable
skills development is not part of the madrassa education. The focus is also on only imparting the
teachings of the particular juristic school and refuting those of all others. Students are taught to
follow only ones own school and the acceptance of a different point of view, on merit, is
impossible. This is called Taqlid, is higly encouraged and in the name of it, all independent
scholarship, discussion and research is discouraged among the students. Most of the madrassa
students thus graduate into a particular world view instead of a person who is open to arguments
on merit.
The GoP tried to promote registration in 2001 by announcing incentives for this. Several
mosques managements applied for registration to take advantage of these but no renowned
madrassa. According to PK EMIS data 2007-08, the share of madrassas in overall GER at
primary level was only 3 percent for boys out of a total of 93 percent, and 1 percent out of 67
percent for girls. While there has been a manifold increase in madrassa enrolment, enrolment in
private and public schools was 31 times higher for boys and 67 times for girls. This situation
raises at least three main questions: (i) how has such a small percentage been able to contribute
significantly to such a huge crisis; (ii) why do parents send their children to madrassas; and (iii)
if given a choice between a formal private/public school and madrassa, what percentage of
parents would still send their children to the latter?
Impact of crisis The crisis has severely damaged the already deficient basic education facilities
and infrastructure and further weakened the education system. Educational institutions have
been among the major targets of terrorist attacks, in particular those for girls. Students and
teachers, again particularly girls and women, have been direct victims of the attacks on
educational facilities. The crisis has also caused trauma, disruption, and disorder in peoples
lives; already weak confidence in state institutions has considerably deteriorated.
In KP and one PATA agency of Kala Dhaka, 343 schools (100 boys, 233 girls) have been
destroyed and 275 (80 boys, 195 girls) partially damaged, affecting 0.98 million students (38.5
percent girls) and 27,765 teachers in KP (information for Kala Dhaka not available). In FATA,
141 schools (53 girls) have been destroyed and 174 (19 girls) partially damaged. The total
number of students in all FATA agencies is 0.35 million (around 26 percent girls) students and
16,069 teachers. Officially almost 100 percent of damaged institutions are functioning as the
Government has encouraged teachers, students and parents to continue educational activities. No
reliable statistics are available on the actual numbers of schools operating, but anecdotal
evidence suggests very few. Moreover, they are operating mostly under risk. The number of
TVET facilities damaged due to the crisis is not available but latest reports indicate none of the
TVET institutions in FATA are functioning.

51

5.2

Priority Interventions

Universal basic literacy and numeracy Adult literacy programmes will be restarted or
expanded, ensuring that they include strong peace elements. Entry points are the numerous
existing literacy programmes.
Improved education delivery Damaged school infrastructure will be rehabilitated, including
the provision of emergency covers, such as tents. Incentive programmes for teachers and
students will be launched to encourage teachers to stay in hardship posts. If the shortage of
qualified teachers is not addressed, the staffing problem will continue to undermine state school
education. In the longer term, reconstruction of destroyed schools and infrastructure will be
undertaken. In areas where no school is functioning, a voucher system will be piloted where
students can use vouchers to attend private schools that meet minimum government criteria.
Entry points are the Damage Needs Assessment and reconstruction programmes.
School system oversight Monitoring and supervision of education will be enhanced by
strengthening community and parental oversight mechanisms to improve downward
accountability. In KP Parent Teacher Councils (PTCs) will be strengthened in the affected
districts by restructuring PTCs and making them a more effective vehicle for parent oversight,
and by training utilising methods and materials suitable for illiterate or semi-literate adults. In
FATA where PTCs do not exist, a mechanism for community oversight of schools will be
developed suitable to the local culture and local governance system. Entry points in KP include
on-going donor initiatives to strengthen PTCs as well as the governments own initiative. For
FATA, entry points are more difficult and coordination with the governance sector will be
essential to create a dialogue with the community jirgas.
Education to impart practical skills To ensure education gives people useful skills, in the
short-term literacy programmes will be modified to include practical skills. This will serve the
dual purpose of, one, making the programmes more useful in the eyes of the participants and
thereby increasing enrolment; and, two, making graduates of the programmes more employable
or better able to make economic contributions to their families and society. Entry points include
the reactivation and expansion of adult literacy programmes as well as on-going curriculum
reform.
Womens skill development A wide variety of literacy programmes will need to be introduced
to reach women and impart skills that they can use for income generation or to reduce family
expenditures through self-production. Entry points include the existing adult literacy
programmes and community radio.
Provision of marketable skills to young people Linking TVET to available and emerging
market opportunities is a top priority since unemployed youths are the prime resource pool for
militant recruitment. Getting them gainful and legitimate employment will contribute greatly to
reducing the frustration that the radical groups have tapped into. In the short-term, quick courses
will be run aimed at providing as many youth and unemployed adults as possible with useful
skills. This output has a strong link to infrastructure as it should emphasise construction skills
training to meet the substantial reconstruction demand. In the medium-term, existing course
52

content will be aligned to meet market demands. Entry points include the adult literacy courses
and the massive reconstruction that has already started in the affected areas.
Curriculum development and management for peace-building These are long-term reforms
which are currently underway. However, additional modules can be inserted in curricula to
address peoples needs more quickly. More importantly, the new curricula being introduced, as
well as the accompanying textbooks and teaching/learning material, will be analysed from a
peace perspective and modifications introduced as needed. The problem with the curriculum has
not only been with the lack of peace-building material, but also with the presence of material that
feeds conflict and promotes myopia, hate and fear. Entry points are the new National
Curriculum and the new Textbooks and Teaching and Learning Materials policy.
Teacher sensitization and training for peace-building Improvements to quality of the
curriculum need to be matched with an improved quality of teaching staff, for children learn
attitudes not so much from textbooks as they do from the opinions and behaviour of their
teachers. Teacher-training for peace is therefore crucial, and a course on peace and conflict
should be made part of the curriculum of all teacher training programs.
Raising public awareness of human values and peace Literacy programmes will be revised to
guarantee that they teach human values and are peace-oriented. This will be complemented with
mass media campaigns with strong peace messages. Entry points are the on-going and revived
adult literacy programmes as well as community radio/media.
Madrassa reform and peace-oriented religious education These are problematic since
reforming madrassas is something that has been on the states agenda for some time, but with
mostly limited progress. Each one of the five schools of thought related to madrassas wants its
interpretation included, to the exclusion of others interpretations, in the standardised curricula.
Moreover little information is available about the large number of unregistered madrassas.
Some are along the lines of community schools run by peaceful Muslims, while others are linked
to radical organisations. A third complication in reforming madrassa education is the limited
influence of the state. All madrassas refuse state funding as they do not want to open the door to
state interference.
Entry points for reforming madrassas are thus very limited. One of the first steps is to gather
reliable information on unregistered madrassas, but given the strength of religion in the country
and the weakness of the state and lack of trust of citizens of their government, it is unlikely that
the Government could successfully perform even a simple census and receive reliable
information. The Government can and should, however, work with the five wafaqs to create a
system where madrassas regulate themselves, since the limited number of radicalised madrassas
creates problems for the whole madrassa system. Curriculum reform is also an entry point, as
discussed above. Despite the disagreements between the five schools of thought, it would be
possible to introduce a curriculum where certain topics are common, while a portion of it is open
to respective interpretations. Another possibility is the sharing of resources: the state provides
teachers for secular topics with religious topics taught by madrassa teachers. Combined schools
could even be piloted. In both cases steps need to be taken to ensure these schools teach
peaceful interpretations of Islam.
53

Transitional Results Framework: Education Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society
Key goals for sector: Ensure that the education system is responsive to the needs of the populace
1. Universal basic literacy and numeracy 1. Outcome
1. Non-literate school leavers and adults are
achieved enabling citizens to make
Baseline 2009
provided with low cost means to learn to read and
informed decisions
literacy rates
write
INDICATORS:
according to age
INDICATORS:
1.1 Increase in literacy rates (by gender)
cohort and gender
1.2 Numbers of adults (by gender) enrolled in
1.2 Newspaper/print media/book
literacy programs
sales/use of library books/number of books 2. Baseline survey
1.3 Numbers of youth (by gender) enrolled in
in households increases, print media
needed
literacy programs
circulation rates rise
1.4 Availability of basic literacy courses
3. Baseline survey
1.5 Enrolment in NFE courses (as percentage of
NOTE: Other Strategic Objectives in this
needed
illiterate) not to decline as literacy rates increase)
sector also address the issue of
responsiveness of the state. Strategic
2. PTCs functioning in KP
Objective #3 contributes to this strategic
INDICATORS:
objective in the medium to long-term
2.2 Percentage of schools with functioning PTCs
through obligatory schooling (a public
2.3 Statute of PTCs in KP revised to strengthen
service). Strategic Objective #2 addresses
oversight role
access to skills and technical training which
are needed for employability.
3. Community education councils created in FATA
INDICATORS:
2. Parental / community oversight of
3.2 Mechanism for community oversight in FATA
school system strengthened
approved and established
INDICATORS:Percentage of PTC members
who know the roles and responsibilities of
PTCs (random sample)
2.2 Increase in participation of females in
PTCs
2.3 Percentage of schools with
functioning education councils
2.4 Percentage of education council
members who know the roles and
responsibilities of the council (random
sample)
2.4 Participation of females in education
councils
3. Education opportunities impart
practical and useful skills
INDICATORS:

4. Essential education statistics readily available to


the public
INDICATORS:
4.2 Number and variety of active methods used to
divulge information on the performance of the
education sector increases (covering all types of
schools)
4.3 Web-based information up-to-date (reduction
in time between beginning of reporting period and
availability of that information via the internet)
4.4 Disaggregated school performance data
published
4.5 Scope and detail of education statistics
increases 4.5 Decrease in response time between
request and supply of information
5. Inclusion of basic literacy in skills training

54

a. Assess # of potential
candidates (esp. women)
in the target group
($ 2,000)
b. Advocate for higher
budgets for education
($ 3,000)
c. Regionally specific
awareness campaigns on
the value of literacy and
its role in peace, tolerance
($ 24,000)
d. Support (NCHD, EEF) in
preparing to expand adult
literacy centres in KPFATA.
($ 2,000)
e. Review and prepare
literacy materials (include
ethics & practical
component.
($ 24,000)
f. Support (NEF) the
expansion of NFBE home
school network,-esp. for
girls.
($ 2,000)
g. Identify locations for
NFBE schools
($ 2,500)
h. Recruit & train adult
literacy teachers (w/
peace and practical
components).
($ 41,765)
i. Design financial support
system for needy children
to attend school beyond
primary (particular
emphasis on females)

2011

a. Begin 6-month adult


literacy classes (w/
functional component
($ 110,000)
b. monitoring/ evaluation
initiated simultaneously
($ 45,000)
c. Pilot distance learning
literacy program (radio,
television, dvd, mobile
phone, etc.)
($ 24,000)
d. Develop peace-themed
media campaign for non
and semi-literates
($ 24,000)
e. Pilot a scheme for
educated persons to tutor
an uneducated family
member/friend
($ 80,000)
f. Research why teenagers
drop out of school and
what would it take for
them to stay in school/
complete their education
($ 11,000)
g. Continue advocating for
increased budget for
education
($ 3,000)
h. Continue awareness
campaigns on the value of
literacy and its role in
peace, tolerance
($ 24,000)
i. Continue recruiting and
training adult literacy
teachers
($ 42,000)

2012

a. Continue adult
literacy classes
(with functional
component)
In Feb 2011
b. Prepare material
and trainers for
skills training (for
neo-literates i.e.,
those becoming
literate by June
2011).
In July 2011
c. Begin 3-4 month
skills training
classes for neo
literates (from the
first batch of
literacy graduates)
d. Set up libraries
for neo literates
e. Identify reforms
needed based on
the survey of why
teenagers drop-out
f. Strengthen and
support community
education councils
in FATA
g. Continue
publishing
education statistics
h. Continue

Transitional Results Framework: Education Sector


Activities
Outcome
3.1 Percentage of graduates of NFE
programmes employable in semi-skilled and
skilled professions
3.2 Percentage of school graduates who
feel confident about entering the work
force

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

INDICATORS:
5.2 Percentage of skills training courses that have
integrated basic literacy and numeracy components
5.3 Number of persons (by sex) attending skills
training courses that include literacy elements
6. Integration of TVET into all post-primary literacy
and training programmes INDICATORS:
6.2 Amount of time spent in each program on
practical, employment-related skills training (as
percentage of whole)
6.3 Increase in availability and use of literacy
materials with TVET content integrated

($ 2,000)
j. Survey why parents send
their children to madrassa
or private schools
($ 100,000)
k. map existing initiatives
in the area
($ 1,000)
l. Engage w/ community
leaders on female
education (recruit
moderate religious
leaders)
($ 2,500)
m. Advocate for inclusion
of literacy in the EMIS
data
($ 2,500)
n. Training for curriculum
writers, textbook authors,
etc
($ 200,000)
o. Capacity enhancement
of NFE providers
(particularly planning &
logistics)
($ 12,000)
p. Functionalize and
Strengthen PTCs in KP.
($ 2,500)
q. Create PTCs in FATA
and PATA schools ($
2,353)

Strategic Objective: #2 Stimulation of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities


Key goals for sector: Prepare a workforce and entrepreneurs that has relevant skills necessary for todays and tomorrows market

55

2011
j. Implement financial
support system for needy
children to attend school
beyond primary
($ 353,000)
k. Survey why parents send
their children to madrassah
or private schools
($ 100,000)
l. Continue dialogue with
community leaders on
female education
($ 2,500)
m. Revise EMIS to
accommodate literacy data
($ 12,000)
n. Capacity enhancement
of NFE providers
(particularly planning &
logistics)
($ 12,000)
o. Functionalize and
Strengthen PTCs in KP.
($ 12,000)
p. Create PTCs in FATA and
PATA schools
($ 6,000)
q. Conduct survey to
measure change in use of
books, literature, media
for enhancing literacy
($ 3,529)

2012
advocating for
increased budget
for education
i. Evaluate
initiatives launched
in the first year &
prepare policy
briefs
j. Evaluate that PTCs
in KP, FATA and
PATA
schools are fully
functional and
performing their
roles appropriately
k. Conduct survey
to measure change
in use of books,
literature, media
for enhancing
literacy

Transitional Results Framework: Education Sector


Activities
Outcome
1. Young adults (15-29 years of age) are
equipped with marketable skills to enable
them to enter the productive workforce
INDICATORS:
1.1 Uptake of graduates of TVET institutions
by industry
1.2 Uptake of HS graduates by industry
1.3 Percentage of employees in selected
sectors with formal training
2. Women have opportunities for learning
socially-allowable skills and trades
INDICATORS:
2.1 Percentage of household income
provided by women increases
2.2 Number of women who contribute
financially to the family increases
NOTE: This Strategic Objective has strong
links with livelihood sectors (farm and nonfarm). Output 3 has a strong link to
infrastructure as it should emphasize
construction skills training in response to the
substantial reconstruction needed. In
addition, community radio networks could be
used to teach women over the air or
otherwise transmit information related to
prices, markets, learning opportunities, etc.

Outcome Baseline
1. Outcome
Baseline survey
needed
2. Baseline survey
needed
(geographic)

Outputs
1. Market-based TVET programs improved and
expanded
INDICATORS:
1.1 Number of facilities operating
1.2 Capacity increase (in terms of students)
1.3 Skills areas in which training is offered increases
2. TVET expanded to make it more accessible to a
broader range of students
INDICATORS:
2.1 Degree of implementation of program targeting
school leavers who have not completed 8 years of
schooling
2.2 Degree of implementation of a program targeting
H.S. graduates who do not go to university
3. Short-term skills programs implemented to rapidly
enable the employment of out of work youths and
young adults (both sexes)
INDICATORS:
3.1 Number of programs launched
3.2 Number of students enrolled
3.3 Number of students successfully completing the
courses
3.4 Uptake of graduates of these programs by industry

56

07/10

2011

2012

a. Assess the number of


potential candidates in
the target groups of grade
8 pass and HS pass
($ 2,000)
b. Assess market demand
for types of employable
skills required
($ 2,000)
c. Identify training
providers & assess their
capacity and capacity
needs
($ 2,000)
d. Prepare materials and
trainers for TVET training,
based on market demand
($ 3,500)
e. Design a stipend/
scholarship system for
orphans & children of
families that have lost a
wage-earner
($ 2,000)
f. Design a program of
financial aid to needy
families to send a child to
TVET
($ 2,000)
g. Establish demonstration
TVET schools
($ 315,000)
h. Develop concept linking
TVET to credit
($ 2,000)
i. Map TVET facilities
needing rehab/
reconstruction
($ 2,000)
j. Reconstruction & rehab.
of TVET facilities
($ 3,235,000)

a. Assess the capacity &


capacity needs of TVET
providers
($ 5,000)
b. Begin functional
literacy courses and TVET
($ 182,500)
c. Publicize results of
demonstration schools
($ 2,500)
d. Pilot distance learning
program for TVET (radio,
television, dvd, mobile
phone, etc.)
($ 23,500)
(Refer to 1c)
e. Establish a system for
needy TVET students to
work while attending
classes (PPP)
($ 167,647)
f. Develop system for
recognition of prior
learning as means for
Technical/Vocational
certification
($ 2,500)
g. Implement stipend/
scholarship system for
orphans and children of
families that have lost a
wage-earner
($ 121,000)
h. Implement program of
financial aid for children
of needy families to
attend TVET
($ 607,000)
i. Implement credit
program for TVET
graduates
($ 2,735,000)

a. Continue literacy
courses and TVET
b. Evaluate the
short-term skills,
stipends, credit and
other programs
initiated in the first
year, prepare policy
briefs
c. Expand distance
learning program
d. Continue scheme
subsidizing working
TVET students
e. Evaluate the
effectiveness of
mechanisms linking
markets to TVET
programs, propose
revisions if needed

Transitional Results Framework: Education Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10
k. Training for curriculum
writers, textbook authors,
etc.
($ 201,000)
l. Capacity enhancement
of TVET providers
(particularly planning &
logistics)
($ 11,000)

Strategic Objective: #3 Provision of Basic Services


Key goals for sector: Ensure that all boys and girls learn essential skills, values, attitudes, critical thinking and problem solving abilities.
1. Boys and girls take advantage of their
1. Outcome
1. Boys and girls are afforded schooling
a1. Identify government
schooling opportunities
Baseline 2009 GER opportunities within a reasonable distance from
educational facilities to be
and NER
home (including madrassas teaching practical
reconstructed or
INDICATORS:
education and private/public schools)
rehabilitated.
1.1 Increase in GER/NER
($ 2,500)
1.2 Decrease in drop out rates (from
INDICATORS:
a2. Reconstruction &
obligatory schooling grades)
1.1 Decline in % of students receiving lessons in
Rehab. of damaged schools
1.3 Improved year-to-year transition rates
shelterless schools or in unsuitable buildings
($ 2,912,000)
1.4 Successful completion rate increases
1.2 Decline in % of absenteeism of teachers
b. Implement scheme to
1.3 Increase in % of students whose travel time to
motivate teachers to return
NOTE: This Strategic objective focuses on
school is less than the 2009/10 average (random
to work, especially
obligatory schooling, a required basic
sample survey)
targeting women
service. It complements Strategic Objective 1
($ 2,500)
which includes non-obligatory educational
2. The educational opportunities are of such quality
c. Implement a scheme to
opportunities
that they are attractive to parents and students.
motivate students to
INDICATORS:
return to school in areas
2.1 GER/NER compared to non-govt schools remains
where they are not
at least stable
($ 2,500)
2.2 Percentage of parents whose children attend
d. Prepare media campaign
schools surveyed with a positive view of government
for use in schools (TVs,
schools
posters, etc.)
3. Teachers are capable of teaching a new national
($ 24,000)
curriculum 2006 & 2007
e. Pilot a program to
INDICATORS:
provide vouchers to
3.1 Policy decision made with regards to adoption of
children to attend schools
2008 National Curriculum
where govt schools are not
3.2 Percentage of teachers with training in studentfunctioning
centred teaching
($ 39,500)
3.3 Percentage of teachers utilizing the methodology
f. Prepare in-service
in classrooms (random sample of observation reports) program for teachers on
peace and human values.

57

2011

2012

j. Reconstruct/ Rehab.
TVET facilities
($ 3,294,000)
k. Capacity enhancement
of TVET providers
(particularly planning &
logistics)
($ 12,000)

a1. Reconstruction &


Rehab. of damaged
schools &TVET facilities to
continue
(Cost included in a2 in the
column under 7/10)
a2. Stock school libraries
with peace-relevant
works and literature from
moderate Islamic scholars
($ 163,000)
b. Pilot career counselling
in middle and secondary
schools
($ 59,000)
c. Continue scheme to
motivate teachers to
return to work, especially
targeting women
($ 213,000)
d. Continue scheme to
motivate students to
return to school in areas
where they are not
($ 42,500)
e. Implement media
campaign for use in
schools
($ 24,000)
f. Continue pilot program
providing vouchers to

a1. Reconstruct. &


Rehab. of damaged
schools &TVET
facilities to
continue
(Cost included in a2
in the column
under 7/10)
a2. Evaluate
motivation schemes
targeting students
and teachers
b. Continue media
campaign
c. Continue pilot
voucher program
d. Integrate peace
and values modules
into regular inservice and preservice programs
e. notify
requirements for
peace content in
textbooks & TLM

Transitional Results Framework: Education Sector


Activities
Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

07/10

Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation


Key goals for sector: Ensure that all Pakistanis value and appreciate peace and have a positive attitude towards others
1. Students learn with peace oriented
1. Outcome
1. Textbooks and teaching/learning materials used in
curriculum and textbooks and
Baseline
schools includes strong peace messages
teaching/learning materials
INDICATORS:
1.1 Percentage of required disciplines for which new
INDICATORS:
textbooks are available
1.1 Number of references to peace and
1.2 Number of disciplines for which new TLM are
human values in the textbooks used
available
1.2 Amount of time students are exposed to
1.3 Percentage of madrassa that use new textbooks &
peace messages during the school
TLM
day/semester/year/career
1.4 Ratio of peace to radical images and references
increases
2. Religious education is peace oriented
INDICATORS:
2. Teachers implement peace elements of new
2.1 Availability of peace-oriented textbooks
curriculum
and teaching/learning materials for use in
INDICATORS:
Madrassas and for religious education in
2.1 Percentage of teachers trained in new curriculum
public and private schools
2.2 Percentage of teachers trained w/peace modules
2.2
2.3 Teacher pre-service education includes peace
modules
3. The population has a greater awareness
of human values and peace
3. Standardized examinations cover peace-relevant
INDICATORS:
and peace-specific topics
3.1 Number of newspaper articles providing
INDICATORS:

58

2011

($ 2,500)
g. Training for curriculum
writers, authors, etc.
($ 201,000)
h. Capacity enhancement
of RITEs and in-service
providers
($ 12,000)

children to attend schools


where govt schools are
not functioning
($ 13,500)
g. Implement in-service
program for teachers on
peace and human values.
($ 38,000)
h. Develop criteria for
peace content in
textbooks & TLM
($ 7,000)
i. Capacity enhancement of
RITEs and in-service
providers
($ 12,000)

a. Review of existing
textbooks & TLM for peace
content.
($ 4,706)
b. Initiate preparation of
charts, banners,
pamphlets, sermons, etc.
with peace messages.
($ 24,000)
c. Recruit heroes to
disseminate peace
messages (in particular for
children)
($ 21,176)
d. Train (pre- & in-service)
teachers in peace-oriented
lessons
($ 45,588)
e. Initiate a dialogue with
the religious schools of
thought/ Wafaq-ulMadarass
($ 2,353)

a. Continue with the


activities b, c, d
($ 37,647)
b. Develop textbooks and
TLM with strong focus on
peace & tolerance
($ 12,000)
c. Follow-up on
conference with different
religious schools of
thought, initiate
discussion of curriculum
reform
($ 4,706)
d. Distribute the
compendium of peaceful
cultural & Islamic
teachings
($ 4,706)
e. Revise existing
educational materials for
peace content.
($ 11,765)

2012

a. Continue with
the activities b, c, d
e. Begin madrassa
and mosque school
registration
campaign
f. notify
requirements for
peace content in
textbooks & TLM
g. Continue writing
and poster
competitions based
on values.

Transitional Results Framework: Education Sector


Activities
Outcome
positive examples of human values and
peace
3.2 Number of electronic media articles
providing positive examples of human values
and peace (or ratio of peace compared to
inflammatory messages)

Outcome Baseline

Outputs
3.1 Increase in number of questions on PEAS/NEAS
that refer to peace or respect to human values
3.2 Increase in number of students who get the peace
questions correct
4. The populace in general is informed on human
values and peace
INDICATORS:
4.1 Hours per month of public service announcements
promoting peace and tolerance
4.2 number of billboards or posters use for promoting
peace
4.3 Increase in support given to NGOs and CBOs that
support

59

07/10

2011

f. Develop compendium
consisting of cultural &
Islamic teachings on peace
& tolerance
($ 2,353)
g. Initiate writing and
poster competitions based
on values.
($ 22,353)
h. Training for material etc.
($ 201,176)
i. Begin census of nonregistered and mosque
schools
($ 24,000)
j. Capacity building of
Ministry of Religious
Affairs
($ 12,000)

f. Distribute media with


peace messages.
($ 4,706)
g. Disseminate peace
messages
($ 3,529)
h. Continue in-service and
pre-service in peaceoriented lessons
($ 45,588)
i. Continue writing and
poster competitions based
on values.
($ 22,353)
j. Conclude census of nonregistered and mosque
schools
($ 24,000)

2012

6.

HEALTH

The health sector is weak throughout Pakistan due to numerous factors such as: low budgetary
allocations, weak management and supervision systems, inherent corruption. In FATA and crisis
affected districts of KP the already fragile health system has been further weakened by the crisis,
with damage to infrastructure, displacement of key health staff, and disruption of supply of
medicines and other essentials to health facilities. The immediate priority is restoration of
primary health care services, with a focus on maternal and child health care. Strengthened health
sector management, public awareness-raising about health issues and availability of services,
skills development of health sector personnel, and provision of psycho-social care are other
important areas of intervention.
6.1

Situation Analysis

Development Indicators and Inequities Health indicators for KP and FATA are poor. In KP
infant, under-five and maternal mortality rates are slightly lower than national averages, but
some crisis-affected districts (Shangla, Upper Dir and Hangu) have higher infant mortality rates
than the provincial average. This reflects intra-provincial inequities in service provision and has
likely served as a driver of crisis. Similarly FATA experiences higher levels of mortality vis-vis KP and the rest of Pakistan. Empirical evidence21 suggests that coverage indicators, namely
antenatal care (ANC) visits, deliveries attended by skilled birth attendants (SBA), and
immunization of women in crisis-affected districts of Malakand Division are below KP
provincial averages. Inequities in health care provision between FATA and KP, and the rest of
Pakistan, are also seen in significant differences in doctor-to-population ratios, population per
hospital bed and Lady Health Worker-to-population ratios. Larger household size, ranging from
8 in KP to 9 in FATA compared to the 6.8 national average, are likely due to inequities in
provision of family planning services in these regions.
Access by Women: Obstetric/Maternal Care Severe restraints on womens mobility seen in
many parts of KP and FATA (women almost never leave their homes) and their dependency on
men to make decision on their behalf, limits womens access to health care thereby making them
more vulnerable to morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, womens role as home carers of the sick
family members is perceived as private, individual responsibility of women, rather than the
collective responsibility of the family, they are actually the frontline health workers who
compensate for the shortcomings of health systems, at times to the detriment of their own health
and livelihoods. 22These constraints become more obvious when women are illiterate,
unemployed, widowed and dependent on family members ( all traits exacerbated by the crisis.
A quantitative study23 of a sample of 1,084 married women between 15 to 49 years in Khyber
Agency of FATA (with 91.6 percent response rate) found only about 4 percent had received
antenatal care, the majority from Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA). The most common place
of delivery was the respondents home, followed by TBA's home, and the respondents mothers
21

MICS 2001, 2008 data sets


Global Public Health, Volume 3, Issue S1 2008 , pages 75 - 89
23
JPMA, Vol. 57, No7, July 2007 Prevalence and Factors Associated with Postpartum Vaginal infection in the
Khyber Agency Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan
22

60

home; deliveries were mainly conducted by TBAs, mothers-in-law, mothers and neighbours.
Access to Skilled Birth Attendants (SBA) at the time of delivery is extremely limited in both KP
and FATA and this is coupled with lack of adequate transportation systems and emergency
obstetric care (EMOC) at secondary and tertiary levels. Studies confirm that transportation
difficulties contribute significantly to the under-utilization of maternal health services. High out
of pocket costs incurred at the time of referral is a further major reason women do not attend
secondary or tertiary care facilities.
In 2008 the Ministry of Health (MOH) launched a five-year national community midwifery
training programme to train 12,000 Community Midwives (CMWs) and deploy them in
underserved areas across the country. At present, about 6,263 CMWs are undergoing training.
In KP, course work for CMWs has been initiated in four public health schools and seven CMW
schools are under construction, while in FATA the CMW training school in Bajaur Agency is
ready for commissioning. However, potential users of CMW services have yet to recognize the
role of CMWs and still rely on the services of TBAs.
Facilities Health facilities in KP and FATA suffer from lack of equipment, medicines and
other essential supplies. Moreover the provincial Department of Health supplies medicines on a
quote basis with no consideration for needs, seasonal variations, disease outbreaks, and so on.
Physical conditions are poor: a 2008 study found that over 460 health facilities in FATA were
severely under-equipped and dysfunctional. Almost half lacked basic facilities including proper
boundary walls, and most did not have a continuous supply of electricity. Lack of medicines and
staff absenteeism contributed to under-utilization of health facilities in KP and FATA.
Staffing - The public sector is the single largest employer in both KP and FATA. KP has over
30,000 health sector employees, but there are severe inequities in distribution of these. Over 50
percent of government doctors (male and female) are concentrated in the four districts of
Abbotabad, Peshawar, Swat and DI Khan. The districts of Shangla, Buner, Upper Dir and
Hangu are chronically deficient in personnel, especially women health workers (women medical
officers, LHVs, LHWs, and CMWs etc.).
FATA has 8,101 sanctioned health sector posts with a further 400 professionals (specialists,
doctors, nurses and LHVs) outsourced by the Government of KP to work in FATA. On paper
7,548 (93 percent) of sanctioned posts are filled but field reports indicate rampant staff
absenteeism. 39 percent of Medical Officer (MO) positions in BHUs and RHCs are not filled;
LHVs in Maternal and Child Health Centres (MCHCs) are in short supply; while at secondary
care level 78 percent of female senior medical officers (SMO) posts are presently vacant. The
sanctioned specialists positions are invariably vacant despite good pay packages at market
rates (Rs.75,000 per month for a specialist); those that are filled are occupied by MOs drawn
from RHCs and BHUs. In the whole of FATA many specialities are either non-existent, e.g.
ophthalmology, psychiatry, or sparsely available, e.g. gynaecology, surgery, medicine,
paediatrics.
In FATA primary healthcare services (basic treatment of injuries, common cold, fever etc), are
being provided by local paramedics (dispensers/compounders), health technicians (HTs) and EPI
technicians. Similarly, civil dispensaries (CDs) and community health centres (CHCs) in FATA
61

are largely staffed by paramedics: out of 1,336 positions for PHC facilities, 918 are for
paramedics and almost all of them are currently filled.
Health Sector Management The Directorate of Health FATA is responsible for the health
sector, headed by a Director who has overall responsibility for policy, development planning and
monitoring. The current organizational structure is inadequate for effective management and
planning functions. The agency surgeon (AS) manages and supervises the health services in his
agency. Most senior/mid-level staff in BPS 18 and above belongs to KP and are working on a
transfer basis; their hire/deployment/posting is not under the control of the FATA Secretariat.
However, BPS 1-10 candidates are hired/posted/ transferred on the directives of the AS, while
for BPS 11-15 positions similar authority lies with the political agent (PA), and for BPS 16-17
posts with the additional chief secretary (ACS) of FATA Secretariat.
Monitoring - M&E systems exists in both FATA and KP at all levels but are not well organized
or fully functional and coordinated. M&E most importantly improves accountability. The
current Health Management Information System (HMIS) lacks appropriately skilled/trained
personnel; in both KP and FATA there are HMIS-related vacant positions. In 2006-07 the district
health information system (DHIS) was introduced but is still not fully operational. No linkages
have been established with the MIS of large preventive care programs such as EPI, TB DOTS,
MNCH and PPHI. Peoples Primary Health Initiative (PPHI) is relatively new, introduced in
2007 in over 400 BHUs of KP and FATA; its monitoring indicators include district-wise rates of
deliveries by SBAs, proportions of women using ANC services, immunization coverage of
infants < 1 year, TB case detection rates and OPD attendance per capita per year. In KP an
Essential Health Services Package (EHSP) developed during the last two years is being
inconsistently implemented in various health facilities; it will also need monitoring.
Impact of Crisis The crisis has had a severe impact on health care provision in FATA and KP.
Militants have attacked facilities, carried out vandalism (theft of expensive equipment),
coercions, killings and kidnappings of health personnel. In KP health infrastructure - over 95
percent BHUs - was reportedly damaged or completely destroyed in 4 districts: Shangla, Buner,
Upper Dir and Swat. In Swat alone more than 30 facilities were damaged. However, overall
damage was modest. In FATA 50 facilities were damaged or destroyed, of which 30 (60%) were
BHUs. As a consequence, health facility based services have been partially or completely shut
down. In FATA peripheral health facilities were shut down forcibly.
Lack of security both for the providers and users of services has been a major stumbling block.
Even where facilities are still functional, women have been unable to actually reach them
because of on-going militancy. Some who made it came to seek care for their children rather
than their own personal health needs. The crisis has thus decreased womens access to services,
aggravating medical/maternal health conditions. It has also decreased access to preventive
interventions such as immunizations. In crisis-affected districts of KP (Shangla, Buner, Upper
Dir, Lower Dir, Malakand, Swat and Hangu) and in all 7 agencies and 6 FRs of FATA, militancy
has severely affected the mobility of health staff to carry out field work. As a result home visits
of LHWs, outreach immunization programs and polio supplemental immunization activities have
been badly hampered. KP and FATA continue to be at risk for transmission of polio virus. In

62

2009, there were 89 new cases of polio detected in Pakistan; with 29 in KP and 24 in FATA,
these areas together accounted for 60 percent of all polio cases.
Despite this, the sector continued to cater to the mounting emergency care needs as well as
facilitated the UN agencies and non-state providers in provision of services for internally
displaced persons (IDPs). The crisis displaced approximately 3 million people within and
outside the province. The displacement has been transitory; most people have taken shelter with
their relatives and friends and only about 16 percent of those displaced took shelter in IDP
camps. Malakand IDPs have received considerable domestic and international attention, but the
needs of FATAs IDPs are yet to be addressed. Almost one third of FATAs approximately 3.6
million population has been displaced by the crisis; 550,000 from Bajaur and Mohmand; 80,000
from Kurram; 50,000 from North Waziristan; and 250,000 from South Waziristan, more than
half of the agencys population (FATA Secretariat figures released in July 2009). Healthcare for
over a million IDPs in particular remains severely if not entirely deficient, with an acute shortage
of basic facilities and trained practitioners, in particular women.
The crisis has adversely affected women, men and children particularly their physical, mental
and psycho-social well being; people suffer from fear, anxiety, panic attacks, feeling of
insecurity, sleeping and eating disorders, depression and sadness. The extent of such disorders is
not known as no assessment has taken place, but anecdotal evidence suggests that the conflict
has caused emotional trauma to a large civilian population. Drug use among crisis survivors is
another phenomenon that needs to be addressed.
6.2

Priority Interventions

Civil Society Engagement - It is important to prioritize activities for the rehabilitation of almost
non-functional health facilities in broad consultation with civil society representatives, and
thereby work on a plan for immediate initiatives to be undertaken in the first 6 months, followed
by short term, subsequent 24 months rehabilitation/ reconstruction and a 8-10 years view of the
goal for sustainable provision of services, infrastructure development, up-gradation and
expansion.
Security Provision - to health facilities, providers and users of services. Protection of health
facilities through civilian/community-led security systems such as by CSOs is recommended.
This would require engagement with CSOs, establishment of alternative systems such as
informal security committees, and their capacity building. CSOs would monitor the activities of
the security committees and help ensure peace. In theory the success of neighbourhood
watches would depend on a close working relationship with the police.
Health Facilities Restoration - Reconstruction of damaged/destroyed health facilities will be
undertaken and these made operational in the first 24 months. The priority will be primary
health care (PHC) services with focus on maternal, neonatal and child health care. However it
will be critical to map existing services and needs, and only reconstruct/add new facilities where
these are required. [It should be noted that reconstruction will also be a means to provide job
opportunities to local communities to support SO2.] Overlaps in catchment areas should be

63

avoided and foremost criteria should be improving accessibility; community representatives


should be taken on board in such planning.
Improved Quality of Health Care The availability and quality of PHC and secondary care
services will be enhanced by addressing supply side constraints, with a focus on: provision of
medicines and supplies to health facilities, and LHWs through provincial grants; ensuring
availability of women medical officers (WMOs) and male medical officers using the services of
post graduate students through sixeight weeks rotations and by ensuring accommodation and
security at agency and district hospitals.
Specialists - Emphasis needs to be placed on acquiring required specialists and interns, for
example: type B hospitals need 17 specialists, type C hospitals need 11 specialists, and
category D hospitals should have at least five specialists including a gynaecologist, physician,
surgeon, paediatrician and pathologist. Standardization of services at these facilities - emergency
obstetric care, hepatitis sentinel site, laboratory, waste management unit, water filtration plant,
safe blood transfusion unit, standard pharmacy unit, ambulance services and 24/7 availability of
emergency and casualty care - will be promoted. As per relocations arrangements in FATA all
SMOs and MOs of FATA have been directed to report at the secondary and tertiary care
hospitals. To respond to health emergencies in KP, a special cadre of emergency technicians
(men and women) will be trained in first aid/life saving skills and integrated in the system to
strengthen emergency room and casualty wards in crisis-affected districts.
Health Communication CSOs, FM Radio, TV channels, journalists/column writers will be used
to inform people in local languages about available services and their overall benefits to the
community. The same media will be used to transmit family health education messages aimed at
generating positive healthy behaviour and bringing about individual and collective well-being.
Speakers in radio discussions should include both men and women, so messages are grasped in a
gender-balanced manner. Health promotion through community participation will be vital for
enhancing utilization of antenatal care, skilled birth attendants, family planning and immunization,
and overall health care seeking behaviour. Child-to-Child health programs will be initiated in
schools/Madrassas targeting large schools (both boys and girls) in towns and large villages to
transmit health education and peace-building messages. Both male and female teachers will be
trained in conducting these programs. Messages on health and hygiene will include Islamic
perspectives as well.
Increased Demand for Services: Skilled birth attendance and immunization rates will be
increased through a conditional cash transfer (CCT) scheme. A pregnant woman who completes
three antenatal visits and uses SBA for delivery or a mother who ensures complete and timely
immunization of her < 1 year infant will receive a pre-determined cash incentive. In addition
each pregnant woman will be given a free voucher for transport to the health facility.
Institutional Strengthening - The State can make the health sector functional through institutional
strengthening. In FATA the institution of political agents, the FATA Secretariat and the FATA
Development Authority need revamping and their authority transferred to the line department.
There is a need to establish financial oversight mechanisms of development programmes instead
of solely relying on the political agents and tribal elites, and to include more representative and

64

independent bodies such as national non-state providers with proven track records of
technical/managerial excellence.
Health sector management systems and organizational structure will be strengthened to clearly
define roles and responsibilities; strengthening of management systems will place emphasis on
separate units for finance, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and programmatic aspects. This
will be done through contracting-in technical assistance. A prerequisite for responsive
management of DOH FATA is filling sanctioned vacant positions.
Targeted Employment of Youth Policies and measures will be implemented to help young
people (boys and girls) enter and remain in the health sector job market. Innovative
interventions will be carried out to create concrete employment and training opportunities for the
youth in the crisis-affected districts of KP and agencies and FRs of FATA. Baseline data is nonexistent so it will be important to plan surveys to collect this during the first six months (July
December 2010); this will then allow output indicators to be defined. This will also entail
coordination with the departments of education, labour, and planning and development.
Training and Skills Development Unemployed young people (male and female) will be
targeted with training programs in basic health and emergency care, providing eight weeks paid
internship at district/agency level. This training would enable them to become community first
aid volunteers, emergency response activists or CSO organizers. Furthermore, through the
process candidates will be identified for longer-term training as paramedics, health technicians,
male nurses and so on, using defined criteria. Similar training will be given to the school
teachers (male and female).
Training of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) and community level birth delivery attendants
in basic concepts of clean delivery and importance of referral (in the short term) will be carried
out until the community midwifery program is fully operational. This would also entail
provision of incentives to birth attendants for participation in training programs, and provision of
clean delivery kits.
Stipends will be given to girls in high schools for future training and engagement in the health
sector. Under the initiative, girl students from grade 8 and 9 will be given stipends to complete
10 years of school education followed by training as community midwives, lady health visitors,
lady health workers, nurses and so on (their choice). Schools for this scheme will be selected
with the consent of local communities, families and community groups.
CMWs graduating from the schools in KP and FATA need to be registered and regulated under
the rules and regulations of the Pakistan Nursing Council to practice midwifery in their
respective areas under the supervision of district/agency health authorities. Despite the growing
importance being accorded to CMWs in Pakistan, the practical aspects of their training need to
be strengthened; CMWs are currently reportedly receiving diplomas on the strength of their
theoretical training only.
Use of Non-State Partners to Deliver Essential Health Care - Locally acceptable non-state
providers will be used as partners to deliver EHSP the minimum health services package - and
65

specialty services. Large national level non-state specialist organizations of repute should be
invited to participate in service delivery, particularly in areas where such organizations already enjoy
a competitive edge. The KP DOH model in Battagram district could be used, where the non-state
providers are given responsibility for management and administration; human resource hire and
management; and finance. The non-state organization selected should be given flexibility to hire
staff from the market and provide them performance-based incentives.
Gender Analysis of Health Sector - All aspects of the health sector will be examined through a
gender lens, including recommendations of services specifically for women, ensuring that
women or men are not disadvantaged by the shifts in policies and systems, factoring gender
perspectives in employment such as job positions, ages and working conditions of women
employed in health care systems of KPP and FATA, and examining discriminatory state policies
that prevent womens participation in decision-making.
Provision of Psychosocial Care and Support - The steps which could help to prevent
radicalization and extremism are largely seen in the context of intelligence and law enforcement
agencies. However there is a need to work with communities and families and take a
psychosocial perspective to counter radicalization and extremism, e.g. interventions that increase
community support to youth, help young adults to find vocations and integrate into mainstream
society. This basic assumption has been validated in a range of public health interventions
related to violence, drug use, and HIV in highly adverse conditions. Reconciliation can also be
promoted through better provision of services and resources. The inclusion of mental health and
psychosocial support and care emerge as indispensable interventions during crisis.
In the immediate term the focus will be on provision of social and psychological support through
home visits, individual support and formation of support groups in neighbourhoods/communities.
A baseline survey to assess the magnitude of the problem will be needed. Non- health personnel,
given appropriate technical back up, have been efficient in responding to the psychosocial
distress of refugees and IDPs24. Medium-term interventions should therefore include provision
of suitable training and job creation for skilled and willing individuals. Training materials for
paraprofessionals and voluntary organizations and primary health care personnel will be needed
so they can provide psychological first aid as part of their routine activities. Psychosocial care
must become an integral part of the post-crisis response and ideally be anchored in agencyheadquarter hospitals (AHQH) of FATA and select district headquarter hospitals (DHQ) of KP.

24

WHO, mental health of refugees, IDPs and other populations affected by conflict.

66

Transitional Results Framework: Health Sector


Outcome

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society (key goals for sector)
1. State and CSOs collaborating in provision
Lack of collaboration
1. CSOs organized.
of services, building peoples trust in
between the State and
For KP
government and civil society.
Civil Society in health
1.1 community level service provision, promotion, and
services provision,
monitoring organized and capacity in place in 50%
2. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)
promotion and
RHCs and 75% BHUs of crisis affected districts
available and actively providing services
monitoring
For KP $ 23500
2.1 For KP CSO services provided at 50%
RHCs and 75% BHUs of crisis affected
For FATA
districts
Modalities for partnerships between CSOs and
administrations of RHCs, BHUs and CHCs
For FATA 1.1Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)
1.2 Training provided to CSOs on health facility
available and active in security provision at
security, emergency response and monitoring
RHCs and BHUs/CHCs
For FATA $ 23500
1.2 CSOs services available 24/7 at designated
RHCs, BHUs and CHCs.

Activities
07/10
Identify and
train CSOs on
health services
promotion

12/10

12/11

12/12

For KP
CSOs assist in
service
delivery,
promotion
and
monitoring

For KP
CSOs assist
in service
delivery
promotion
and
monitoring

For KP
CSOs assist
in service
delivery
promotion
and
monitoring

For FATA
CSOs assist in
security
provision and
monitoring

For FATA
CSOs assist
in security
provision
and
monitoring

For FATA
Develop
policy
implications
to
mainstream
CSOs in
health sector

Training youth
(male and
female) as
emergency
response
activists, first
aid providers

Male youth
training
and
employme
nt
continued

Activities
continued
from 2011

Strategic Objective: #2 Stimulation of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities (key goals for sector)
1. Youth mobilized for health sector and
employed
For KP
1.1 600 local youth (boys and girls) employed
for service delivery
1.2 1200 First aid, emergency response and
community health workers employed
1.3 300 Girls employed in community
midwifery schools
1.4 600 TBAs and tribal/family birth
attendants participating in referral system
to emergency obstetric care
1.5 300 Medical students employed as paid
interns at Tertiary and secondary
hospitals

For FATA

Shortage of locally
employed health
personnel for service
delivery in crisis affected
districts

1. Enhanced employability of male and female youth


in health sector
For KP $ 388,000
$ 1,767,000

For KP
1.1 Youth training program implemented: 1200 Youth
trained as first aid, emergency response or
community health workers
1.2 3000 Stipend provided with internship-toemployment provision
1.3 Training of 600 stipend enrollees as community
midwives (CMWs), Lady Health Workers (LHWs) or
Lady Health Visitors (LHVs)
1.4 Stipend provision to 1500 girls in high schools to
complete matriculation
1.5 600 TBAs and Tribal/Family birth attendants
identified, paid stipend and trained in clean delivery
practices at RHC/BHU level
1.6 Notification issued for paid internships for medical
students at tertiary and secondary care facilities
For FATA

67

Identify boys
and girls in high
schools in
collaboration
with DOE, CSOs
or direct
contact with
parents
Develop
curriculum for
first aid,
emergency
response and
community
work training
and
apprenticeship
modalities
Identify schools
for stipend
program via

Provide paid
apprenticeshi
p program for
male youth
three/six
months
program
Stipend
program for
girls
operational in
towns and
large villages

Girls
enrolled in
midwifery
training
program
Fourth year
students
from KPP
medical
colleges
provided

Transitional Results Framework: Health Sector


Outcome
1. Youth mobilized for health sector,
employed
1.1 Provision of employment to local youth
(boys and girls) for service delivery
1.2 First aid, emergency response and
community health workers trained and
employed
1.3 Girls trained in community midwifery
schools and employed
1.4 Medical students employed as paid
interns at Tertiary and secondary
hospitals
1.5 TBAs and tribal/family birth attendants
trained in clean delivery practices and
referring cases to emergency obstetric
care (emoc)

Outcome Baseline
Shortage of locally
employed health
personnel for service
delivery

Outputs
For FATA
1.1 6000 Youth trained, receiving stipend, with
internship and employment provision
1.2 1500 Youth trained as first aid, emergency response
or community health workers
1.3 3000 Stipends provided to girls in high schools to
complete matriculation
1.4 Training of 500 stipend enrolees as community
midwives (CMWs), Lady Health Workers (LHWs) or
Lady Health Visitors (LHVs)
1.5 Notification issued for paid internships for medical
students at tertiary and secondary care facilities
1.6 600 TBAs and Tribal/Family birth attendants
identified and trained at RHC/BHU level
1.7 2 Schools (capacity: 30 students per year) of female
and male paramedic established at two AHQH

Activities
07/10
their families
and community
groups
Enroll High
schools girls for
stipend
program

12/10
Training
provided to
TBAs and
Tribal/Family
Birth
attendants
and provided
clean delivery
kits

Provide a menu
of options for
stipend
recipients for
choices in
training and
employment

12/11
paid
internships
in DHQ and
THQ
hospitals
TBA
training
continued

TBAs and
Tribal/Family
birth attended
enlisted

Average attendance at tertiary and secondary


care hospitals increased from 50/day to 100/
day

For FATA
Advertise youth
training and
employment
programs via
FM radio,
through word of
mouth

Strategic Objective: #3 Provision of Basic Services (key goals for sector)


For KP
Antenatal care
1. Essential Health Services Package (EHSP)
coverage: 51%
accessible (available, affordable and Used)
Skilled birth

1. EHSP Capacity strengthened:


For KP $ 6,249,000

68

For KP
EHSP
implemented

For KP
EHSP
implemented

For KP
Specialist
care made

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Health Sector


Outcome
1.1 EHSP utilized in 50% RHCs and 75% BHUs
of the crisis affected districts
1.2 Specialist care including comprehensive
emergency obstetric care available and
utilized at DHQ Hospitals
1.3 Basic Emergency Obstetric care available
and utilized at RHCs and THQs
1.4 Improved public awareness of health
issues via media, child to child programs
and mother child days (survey)
1.5 Skilled attendance at birth increased to
70%
1.6 Immunization coverage in children < 1
year increased to 85%
1.7 TT2 coverage in pregnant women
increased to 70%
1.8 Average monthly attendance of women
seeking EMOC at DHQH increased from 25
to 75
1.9 Utilization of EMOC by women increased
from 5% to 25%
1.10 Utilization rate of transport to health
facility increased from 10% to 30%
2.

Improved service delivery/use by


population.
2.1 Health worker/population ratio in crisis
affected districts increased from 1/4000
population to 1.5/4000 population
2.2 Average OPD utilization increased from <
1 per capita per year to 1.5 per capita per
year
2.3 Referral by TBAs to EMOC facility raised
from zero to 20%
For FATA
1. Health services coverage/utilization
increased
1.1 Health worker/population ratio increased
to 1/1500 population
1.2 Referrals to EMOC by TBAs/Tribal or
family birth attendants increased from

Outcome Baseline

attendance : 42%
Children 12 23
months fully
immunized 76%
TT2 coverage among
pregnant women: 43%
80% services
delivered by non-state
providers
Health facilities have
user charges as a
financing mechanism
Absence of social
health insurance to
the poor and the
marginalized
83 health facilities
damaged/destroyed

Outputs

Activities
07/10

1.2 # Staff trained in EHSP implementation


1.3 Essential medicines and supplies provided for EHSP
implementation
1.4 # damaged and non functioning health
facilities(Buner, Lower Dir, Upper Dir, Shangla, Swat,
Hangu) reconstructed/refurbished and made
operational

For both KP and


FATA
Conditional Cash
Transfers
acquired

For FATA $ 8,775,000


1 50 Damaged and non functioning health facilities
reconstructed/refurbished and made operational

Vouchers for
transport
acquired

2. Social Protection Program established:


For KP $ 7,553,000
For FATA $ 6,535,000

Develop health
promotion
messages for FM
radios

2.1 Conditional Cash Transfer program for skilled


attendance at delivery, immunization of child and
mother established.
2.2 Free vouchers for transport to basic and
comprehensive emergency obstetric care obtained,
program operational
3. Health services community awareness and media
campaign implemented.
For KP $ 859,000
3.1 Health messages aired on FM radio reaching 3-6
MILLION users
3.2 300 Journalists, column writers trained in health
promotion
3.3 Child to Child program implemented at schools
3.4 Mothers and child health days held @ 1 per
month/Girls School (100 Girls school)
For FATA 859,000
3.1 Health messages aired on FM radio
3.2 Journalists, column writers trained in health
promotion
3.3 Child to Child program implemented at all schools
3.4 Mothers and child health days held at Girls Schools

69

Conduct mothers
and child health
days at girls
schools
Train FM
channels female
anchors in live
reporting health
events
e.g..mother child
days

12/10
For both KP and
FATA
NGO hired to
design and
implement
child to child
program

12/11
available in
DHQH
For FATA
Specialist
care made
available in
AHQH

For FATA
For both KP
and FATA
Damaged
health facilities Commission
reconstructed
newly
and
constructed
refurbished
facilities

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Health Sector


Outcome
1.3
1.4

1.5
1.6
1.7

1.8

1.9

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

zero to 25%
# of CHWs per 10,000 population
increased from 5 to 10
Specialist care including comprehensive
emergency obstetric care (EMOC)
available and utilized at AHQH
Immunization coverage in children < 1
year increased to 70%
TT2 coverage in pregnant women
increased to 50%
OPD utilization increased to > 10 per day
in BHUs and CHCs1.5 Skilled attendance
at birth increased to 50%
Basic Emergency Obstetric Care
(EMOC)available and utilized at RHCs and
Civil Hospitals
Improved public awareness of health
issues via media, child to child programs
and mother child days

Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation (key goals for sector)

70

Activities
07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Health Sector


Outcome
1. (Reconciliation achieved through)
improved and equitable distribution of
services and resources (SO3).
2. (Radicalization demystified through the)
use of psychosocial care/counselling
2.1 Community-based psychosocial care
(including home visits, individual,
community, neighbourhood care) made
available in crisis affected districts of the
province and FRs and agencies of FATA.
2.2 Community-based outreach psychosocial
care program anchored at DHQH of crisis
affected districts and AHQH of the
agencies and FRs

Outcome Baseline

Magnitude of problem
anecdotally speaking
is high but a baseline
would be required.

The crisis affected the


entire population,
men, women, and
children

Lack/near absence of
services and resources
for psychosocial
services in the state
provided healthcare
system.

Non- health
personnel, given
appropriate technical
back up, have been
found efficient in
responding to the
psychosocial distress
of refugees and
IDPs

25

Outputs
1. Interventional program developed to address
psychological stress of the affected population and
life-skills needs.
For KP $ 423,500
For FATA $ 423,500
1.1 While maintaining gender balance in interventional
programs, immediate term provision of social and
psychological support
1.2 Provision of support either individually or by
forming support groups in the
neighbourhoods/communities.
1.3 The medium term interventions should include
provision of suitable skill training and job creation
for skilled/willing individuals (both men and
women)

25.

WHO, mental health of refugees, IDPs and other populations affected by conflict.

71

Activities
07/10
Develop a clear
criteria of crisisaffected
populations
Register local
residents, and
returnee IDPs

12/10
Hire
psychosocial
professional
expert to help
develop
strategies and
methodologies
Initiate services

12/11
Continue
services

12/12
Evaluate

7.

INFRASTRUCTURE

The crisis-affected areas are characterized by poor infrastructure: large sections of the population
lack access to electricity, water and sanitation facilities. Even where present, service quality is
very poor. It is critically important for the government to address basic energy needs of the
people and improve the quality of the transport network. This will ensure access to services and
generate associated economic activities. Improved access and quality to clean water and
sanitation will similarly have a positive impact on livelihoods, as well as improving health
indicators.
7.1 Situation Analysis
KP and FATA in general - and the targeted areas in particular are characterized by poor
infrastructure, acute shortage of basic services, lack of economic opportunities and serious
governance issues that collectively feed the crisis. Available data shows that large populations
still lack access to electricity, clean drinking water and sanitation, and adequate physical access
to tap social services and economic opportunities. Where some rudimentary facilities exist, the
service levels are appalling or barely functional. At the macro level, the lack of clear policies,
weak and non-performing institutions, poor planning, non-transparent decision making and the
lack of critically needed investments emerge as the biggest issues which contribute to a high
level of distrust in the state.
The infrastructure sector comprises three distinct sectors that have the potential for the highest
direct impact in the crisis-hit areas: energy, transport, and water and sanitation. Each sector has
distinct social and economic dimensions, unique institutional set-up and implementation
arrangements. For instance the energy and transport sectors are the mandate of both federal and
provincial governments, while the water and sanitation sector is the responsibility of the
provincial and local governments.
Energy - The per capita consumption of electricity and other energy resources is very low in
FATA and selected districts of KP as compared to national averages. As of today, nearly 25%
households of conflict affected zones of the KP and 22% households of FATA do not have
access to electricity and a majority of the districts in the conflict-affected zones do not have
access to natural gas. The crisis-affected zones of FATA and KP require a major development
effort by government to bring them at par with the more developed areas in the region.
Transport - The transport infrastructure in FATA and KP primarily depends on the road network,
which is one of the basic means for accessing jobs, resources, provision of services, social
development, and economic growth. The road network in crisis-affected areas of FATA and KP
is generally in poor shape: nearly 50 percent is unpaved and located in difficult mountainous
terrain serving large and scattered populations. Transportation services are entirely managed by
private service providers with poor quality and/or virtually no services in remote locations.
Inadequate maintenance has resulted in deterioration of the large asset base more than half of
which requires major rehabilitation to reconstruction. Lack of accessibility has also contributed
to physical isolation. Militants have been specifically targeting populations in isolated pockets,

72

successfully exploiting this disconnect with the mainstream and absence of political
administrative control in some areas.
Water and Sanitation (WATSAN) There is also an urgent need to improve the provision of
water and sanitation services in the selected districts of KP and all agencies of FATA and FR.
The targeted population does not have access to improved water facilities such as piped supply,
hand pumps, and wells. Women and girls have to spend considerable time fetching water. There
is a widespread lack of sanitary facilities and adequate arrangements for disposal of both solid
and liquid waste. Poor sanitary conditions have a direct impact on livelihoods. WATSAN
facilities in schools are also very poor/non-existent.
Impact of Crisis - The crisis has resulted in further deterioration of the road network as well as
increase in the cost of travel and goods. Moreover, trends show that the militants have
specifically targeted population in isolated pockets, successfully exploiting this disconnect with
the mainstream and the virtual absence of political and administrative control in such areas.
7.2 Priority Interventions
a) Energy
It is critically important for the government to address basic energy needs of the people and
thereby generate associated economic activities. Provision of reliable and affordable energy
resources, such as electricity and gas to the affected areas is possible by: (i) expanding the
distribution network at affordable price; (ii) developing local natural resources such as hydel
generation; (iii) ensuring reliability of services without discriminating on the basis of social
status or location; (iv) special assistance to cover the crisis impact, e.g. free electricity to FATA
during the transition period and free of cost distribution of 500,000 LPG cylinders and kits to the
conflict affected zone.
Expansion of Electricity/LPG Supply - The electricity network will be expanded to the conflict
affected zones through a fast track village electrification programme. As a result the annual per
capita consumption in KP will increase from the existing 429 KWh to 492 kWh, while in FATA
it will increase from 386 kWh to 388 kWh during the first 30 months period. Free electricity
supply to households in FATA is recommended to continue during the transition period. The
augmentation and expansion of distribution network through regular development schemes and
village electrification programs will increase the transformation capacity by 1,050 MVA and
electrify nearly 4,634 villages in KP and FATA region over the next 30 months. These measures
will allow the utilities to connect nearly 330,000 and 86,500 new customers in KP and FATA
thus enhancing respective access to 82% and 87% by December 2012.
LPG supply will be enhanced, as an alternative source of energy, through free distribution of
500,000 LPG cylinders and kits to provide cleaner fuel to women for cooking. This will increase
the annual per capita consumption of LPG of KP from 2.35 Kg to 4.43 Kg and in FATA from
3.03 to 5.71 kg, doubling the usage over 30 months. Meeting peoples energy needs through
these measures will have a very positive impact on women in particular, freeing them from
collecting firewood, and giving them clean energy sources non-detrimental to health.
73

Grievance Redress - To effectively address consumer complaints at least four fully equipped
complaint centres will be set up at each sub-division of Peshawar Electric Supply Company
(PESCO) and Tribal Electric Supply Company (TESCO) along with a complaint redressal
monitoring mechanism to ensure reliable supply and customer satisfaction.
Power Generation - In areas where the potential exists, off-grid local mini and micro hydel
projects will be built in collaboration with local communities. Around 600 such projects will add
about 12 MW of renewable energy (RE) capacity over the 30-month period. This will reduce
pressure on the national grid and enhance energy security for the country by increasing reliance
on indigenous resources. A pilot solar photovoltic home system (SHS) programme will be
implemented for about 3,000 households based on 100 watt per household for the remote areas in
FATA, which are not expected to get connected with the national grid in the first 30 months.
Support to Industry - Specific measures are also proposed for the conflict affected industry to
ensure reliable and affordable power. Key measures include exemption of load shedding for the
industrial zones and relaxation in payment of outstanding electricity dues through instalments.
Employment Generation - Nearly 3,000 vacancies in the PESCO and TESCO need to be filled
immediately. This is a considerable opportunity for employing qualified local youth.
Implementation of community based mini and micro hydel projects will generate nearly 2,000
jobs from 600 new projects in the KP conflict affected region. This will provide jobs to people in
the proximity of their native settlements and thus reduce migration to urban or other areas. The
restoration of reliable and affordable power will also catalyze the revival of stalled industrial and
tourism activities in the conflict affected zones. This will create several thousand secondary
employment opportunities for the local population that will not only improve the living standards
of people but also play a useful hand in defusing frustration and resentment in the unemployed.
b) Transport
Improving access and quality of the transport network in FATA and crisis-affected districts of
KP will enhance transport efficiencies, increase mobility and access to other basic services. This
will also facilitate on-farm and non-form economic activities, stimulate livelihoods and
employment opportunities. It is important to strengthen the representation and inclusion of
communities/stakeholders in development in this sector.
Restored/Expanded Infrastructure - In the short term, accelerated restoration of damaged
infrastructure will be completed. The efficiency of the existing road network will be enhanced,
targeting rehabilitation and reconstruction of poorly paved 676 km roads in FATA and 524 km in
KP. It will reduce the maintenance backlog from more than half to one-third. New rural access
roads, measuring 513 km in FATA and 435 km in KP will be constructed using basic access
approach involving local communities. Other rural infrastructure includes pedestrian bridges,
pathways, light vehicle suspension, steel and RCC bridges. In order to facilitate agriculture,
natural resources and extractive sectors, 270 km roads in FATA and 135 km in KP will be
constructed and/or improved.

74

Implementation Arrangements - Institutional strengthening of road departments will be promoted


during the transition period through the creation of dedicated project management and
implementation units at the very outset. This measure will help deliver tangible results quickly.
This will include two PMUs each in FATA and KP, supported by 12 PIUs. Regional and
district/agency road asset management unit and quality control laboratories will be established.
Road condition and inventory surveys will be outsourced.
Employment Generation - Direct employment opportunities will be created through routine
maintenance works, employing 4,290 work force. Dedicated road maintenance funds will be
provided targeting increase in local employment and livelihood opportunities. This intervention
will be labour-based and thus optimize use of local resources. Construction of small-scale
infrastructure such as unpaved roads through community contracting will also increase local
employment/livelihood opportunities.
c) Water and Sanitation
Identification of Interventions - WATSAN sector needs will be identified on the basis of
existing access to services, quality of service, type of facility, O&M support, service delivery
mechanisms and capacity of the state institutions - with a cross-cutting peace-building
perspective. Different types of interventions will be required to meet needs in differing
locations; the current proportion of population served was used to estimate the interventions and
associated benchmark costs to provide access to the un-served population. Sanitation
interventions will be selected to provide sanitary facilities and adequate arrangements for
disposal of both solid and liquid waste. In this regard, the most critical need is changing
behaviour of policy-makers and communities on their perception of sanitation practices. A
ladder approach is recommended to cater to local needs, with the eradication of open defecation
practices as entry point followed by provision of liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Water
quality testing laboratories will be established at district and agency level. Identification and
assessment of water sources for long term will be done through consulting services.
Participatory Development - Participatory development approaches will be institutionalized in
Government. Organizing and empowering community organizations (COs) will result in community
owned sustainable WATSAN facilities provided through participatory decision-making process. For
this purpose 52 participatory development units (PDUs) will be established in Public Health
Engineering Department (PHED) and Local Government and Rural Development Department
(LG&RDD) and over 24,000 COs will be formed. The COs will help establish and maintain
WATSAN facilities thus ensuring sustained water supply to approximately 4.8 million people
through 689 piped schemes, 19,046 dug/open wells and 4,700 hand pumps. About half a million
people will have access to household latrines and improved sanitation facilities. Approximately
2.5 million women and girls will be relieved from the hardship of water fetching. Support from
civil society organizations (CSOs) will be provided to the PDU staff in social mobilization and
monitoring and evaluation.

Employment Generation 286 staff will be appointed to the PDUs on permanent basis and
trained, while the community organizations will employ and train over 12,000 plumbers. The
plumbers will be paid Rs.6,000 by the respective COs through the Government O&M budget for
the first thirty months: thereafter COs will be responsible for their salaries. Large numbers of
75

people will be hired as temporary labor during construction. Time saved by women in fetching
water could also be channeled for income-generating activities.

76

Transitional Results Framework: Infrastructure Sector


Outcomes

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

Activities
12/11

12/10

12/12

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society (key goals for sector)
1. Per capita energy use
enhanced and gap between
crisis area and rest of the
country reduced
- Performance and safety
standards improved for supply
of electricity and LPG
- Established effective
complaint redressal mechanism

- Per capita annual electricity


consumption:
KP = 429 kWh
FATA = 386 kWh
- Per capita annual LPG
consumption:
KP = 2.35 Kg
FATA = 3.03Kg

- Network expansion to unelectrified areas. Per capita annual


electricity consumption increased to
492 kWh in KP and,388 kWH in FATA
- LPG supplied to conflict affected
areas to increase per capita
consumption to 4.43 kg in KP and
5.71 kg in FATA
- Four fully equipped complaint
centres established at each
subdivision of PESCO and TESCO

- Energy security of the area


enhanced through mini/micro
hydels developed with
community participation

- Existing off-grid mini and


micro hydroelectric capacity in
KP= 13 MW
- Existing SHYDO Projects are
around 90 MW
- A total of around 650
projects mainly in KP

- 575 mini/micro hydel projects


developed for generating 12 MW in
KP
- Payment of subsidies by
government to cover the cost of
supply

- FATA consumers continue to


receive free electricity until the
local economy revives and
improves their ability to pay for
electricity charges

- Government is funding
US$140 million per annum for
cost of electricity to FATA

- 3000 households get solar


energy at 100kW/hh in FATA

- Solar energy is not generated


in FATA

- Solar energy system of 300 kW


capacity installed in FATA

2. Improved governance in
transport sub-sector
development
- Beneficiary communities /
stakeholders participating in
decision making
- Contractors provided fair
opportunities in bidding process

- Minimal involvement of
beneficiaries / stakeholders in
development process and
decision making
- Procurement is less
competitive and transparent

- Policy, institutional and legal


framework for community
participation / stakeholders
formulated and implemented
through consultations/workshops
- Procurement process revised for
ensuring competition, transparency
and level playing field for all
contractors.
- revised procurement system

$1.9 million

$3.8 million

$3.8 million

$8.7 million

$53.2 million

$121.0 million

$70.0 million

$140.0 million

$140.0 million

$1.0 million

$1.0 million

Workshop findings submitted


with governments approval
obtained to pilot it for FY 11-12
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.02m,
KP= $0.04m

77

Results of pilot study


incorporated into policy
decision and operational
guidelines
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.02m,
KP=$0.04m

Implementation started on full


scale from FY 12-13
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.02m, KP=
$0.04m

Transitional Results Framework: Infrastructure Sector


12/10
Link with the SOB#3

Activities
12/11
Link with the SOB#3

12/12
Link with the SOB#3

Mega projects initiated


- Projects identified, financing
secured, studies completed

Financing agreement signed,


studies started and projects
officially announced

Studies partially completed


Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.96 m,
KP= $1.57m

Studies completed &


implementation began Consultancy
FATA/FR=$0.96m, KP=$1.57m

- Road network of C&W is not


preserved through adequate
asset management systems

Road Asset Management Directorate


each in FATA and KP established,
asset inventory & condition survey
outsourced, conducted with on jobtraining of staff

Existing AMS reviewed, with


findings submitted to
government
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.03m ,
KP=$0.07m

AMS directorate established


and first survey conducted
FATA/FR=$0.76m, KP=$1.01m
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.20m,
KP=$0.48m

AMS directorate functioning


FATA/FR=$0.18m, KP=$0.24m. First
annual rehabilitation program
based on AMS launched
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.02m,
KP=$0.1m

- Improved implementation
capacity during transition phase

- Weak absorptive capacities


resulting in time & cost
overruns and poor quality

- 2 PMUs one each in FATA/FR and


KP, 5 PIUs in KP, 7 PIUs in FATA/FR
established
- 3 regional and 7 agency MTL in
C&W (FATA/FR) established
- 4 regional and 20 districts MTL in
C&W (KP) established

PMU/PIU Established
FATA/FR=$1.26m, KP=$0.97m
Decentralized quality assurance
systems approved. Hiring &
procurement began

PMU/PIU Functioning
FATA/FR=$0.89, KP=$0.67m.
Labs established and functioning
FATA/FR=$0.51m, KP=$1.28m

4. Improved capacity of
Government institutions and
empowered community
organizations in participatory
decision making for WATSAN
service delivery.
- x percent of community
members participating in
decision making
- Sustainability of WATSAN
facilities and reliability of
service ensured through
communities' ownership
- Government plans and

- Participatory development is
not practiced in Government
departments responsible for
WATSAN services and
beneficiaries are not involved in
decision making.

Participatory Development Units


(PDUs) established26
- 33 in KP, 19 in FATA, 286 PDU
Staff recruited
Budget Allocated to the PDUs and for
O&M
- 0.70 million for KP PDUs
- 0.54 million for FATA PDUs
- 10.40 million for O&M in KP
- 6.48 million for O&M in FATA
- 0.10 million for O&M in FRs

Outcomes

Outcome Baseline

Outputs

3. People's perception that


pre-crisis services and
infrastructure is being
delivered

- Crisis resulted in disruption of


services and damages to the
infrastructure

- Damaged roads and bridges


rehabilitated/restored/reconstructed
Indicator (Linked with output of
SOB 3)

- Mega projects announced


and implemented

- Mega projects are not


implemented due to various
constraints

- Sustained management of
assets extended to regional
roads: 700 km in FR, 6000 km in
FATA, 19000km in KP

- PDU Staff Trained and certified at


Specialised Institutes for

- Activity completed in 2010

- Activity completed in 2010

- Budget Allocated
$0.28 mil for KP PDUs
1.1.
$0.21 mil for FATA PDUs 1.2.
$3.63 mil for O&M in KP 1.3.
$2.26 mil for O&M in FATA1.4.
$0.04 mil for O&M in FRs

- Budget Allocated
$0.29 mil for KP PDUs
$0.22 mil for FATA PDUs
$6.6 mil for O&M in KP
$4.11 mil for O&M in FATA
$0.10 mil for O&M in FRs

- PDUs Established
33 in KP, 19 in FATA
Staff Recruited, 162 in KP,
124 in FATA
- Budget allocated
$0.13 mil for KP PDUs
$0.10 mil for FATA PDUs
$0.17 mil for O&M in KP
$0.10 mil for O&M in FATA
$0.01 mil for O&M in FRs
- Staff Trained

26

PMU/PIU Functioning
FATA/FR=$0.89m, KP=$0.67m
Labs established and functioning
FATA/FR=$0.31m, KP=$0.78m

- PUD Staff Trained


KP 112, FATA 87

One PDU at P&DD in KP; one each at chief engineers north and south, one at each district and sub-division in PHED; one at secretariat and one at each tehsil in LGE&RDD. One each at FATA
Secretariat, agencies and sub-divisions

78

Transitional Results Framework: Infrastructure Sector


Outcomes

Outcome Baseline

policies reflect beneficiaries'


needs and priorities

Outputs

12/10
KP 49, FATA 37

participatory development
162 staff in KP
124 Staff in FATA
- Plumbers trained and certified by
CSOs, and equipped with standard
maintenance kits:
7,612 in KP; 4,740 IN FATA; 51 in FR
- CSOs contracted & support
provided to PDU and COs
-COs Formed:
15,224 in KP; 9,479 in FATA; 102
in FRs

- Plumbers trained
KP 762, FATA 474, FRs 5

Activities
12/11

12/12

- Plumbers trained
- Plumbers trained
KP 3425, FATA 2133, FRs 23 1.5. KP 3425, FATA 2133, FRs 23

- CSO support provided costing


- CSO support provided costing1.1. $4.1 mil in KP, $2.6 mil in FATA
1.6.
$0.9 mil in KP, $0.5 mil in FATA
1.7.
COs Formed
- COs Formed
KP 1524, FATA 949, FRs 16
KP 6850, FATA 4265, FRs 43 1.8.

- CSO support provided costing


$4.1 mil in KP, $2.6 mil in FATA

Detail assessment surveys


completed and preliminary
planning completed

270 km in FATA and 135 km roads


in KP substantially completed
FATA=$35.98m, KP=$18.22m

- COs Formed
KP 6850, FATA 4265, FRs 43

Strategic Objective: #2 Stimulation of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities (key goals for sector)
2300 vacant positions filled in
KP and 750 in FATA

- Currently Employed
KP = 16,700
FATA= 1,180
- Currently no jobs in RE
projects
- few job opportunities exist

- Expansions in the operations of


utilities and service companies

- 2000 new staff employed in


operation of RE Projects
- Indirect employment
opportunities in industries,
tourism and commercial
activities)

Limited employment
opportunities exist

- 575 mini/micro hydel project


installed,

- 4290 jobs created in transport


sector C&W for 30 months for
routine maintenance.

Limited employment
opportunities exist

5. Employment and livelihood


opportunities in agriculture,
natural resources and off-farm
economic development sectors
created
Increased employment and
livelihood opportunities on
small scale road infrastructure
projects
- Increase in employment

Limited/constrained conditions
effecting productive/extractive
sectors, resulting in less on and
non-form activities

Construction and improvement of


road linking non-farm and on-farm
production points
- Roads 270 km FATA, 135 km KP

Limited employment
opportunities exist

Routine maintenance performed


using labor based techniques and
employing local people
- Routine maintenance on
unpaved roads FATA/FR=1200

Routine maintenance began


through community or local
contracting

79

Surveys completed, project


approved, awarded and started
FATA=$14.13m, KP=$7.16m

Routine maintenance
FATA Cost=$4.09m
KP Cost=$3.51 m

Routine maintenance
FATA Cost=$4.50m
KP Cost=$3.86 m

Transitional Results Framework: Infrastructure Sector


Outcomes

Outcome Baseline

FATA=2190, KP=2100

- 12,403 community plumbers


employed by COs (at monthly
salary of Rs 6000)

Outputs

12/10

Activities
12/11

12/12

km, KP=1600
- Routine maintenance on paved
roads FATA/FR=990 km, KP=500
km
- Staff Recruited for PDUs, on
permanent basis at
Government salary scales
KP 165 , FATA 124

- Staff Recruited for PDUs, on


permanent basis at Government
salary scales
KP 165 , FATA 124

- PDU Staff Recruited


1.1. KP 162
1.2. FATA 124

- 286 staff employed in PHED


and LG&RDD in KP and FATA

Strategic Objective: #3 Provision of Basic Services (key goals for sector)


- 416,500 households provided
- Current Coverage
- Wider coverage of basic energy
electricity benefiting 3.2 million
- Household electrified
services with more number of
persons
KP= 2.2 million with 76%
villages electrified and customers
- New Households
coverage
connected with grid
Connected
FATA= 0.3 million with 73%
KP = 330,000 with 82%
coverage
coverage
- Current number of Villages
FATA = 86,500 with 87%
electrified
coverage
KP= 16,557 with 71%
- New villages electrified
electrified
KP= 4,712 with 91%
FATA= 3268 with 56%
electrified
electrified
FATA= 1,775 with
- Current MVA capacity of
87% electrified
T&D network
- New T&D MVA capacity
KP= 3132 MVA
added in the network
FATA = 552 MVA27.
KP= 775 MVA
FATA = 273 MVA

27

- T&D Network Expansion.


Augmentation and expansion of
network in the form of
transmission lines and grid
stations
KP=$16.3 million
FATA=$0.5 million
- Village electrification
KP =$4.7 million
FATA=$1.8 million

FATA also share 250 MVA T&G capacity from PESCO

80

$32.6 million
$7.3 million

$28.8 million
$14.0 million

$9.4 million
$3.5 million

$9.4 million
$3.5 million

- 1 million women using safer


fuels compared with traditional
biomass

- Currently estimated
households using LPG
KP= 400,000 with around 14%
coverage
FATA= 100,000 with around
22% coverage

Provision of alternative energy


sources such as LPG equipment
500,000 new household using LPG
KP= 400,000 increasing coverage
to 27%
FATA= 100,000 increasing
coverage to 45%

Distribution of free LPG


cylinders and kits
KP =$1.4 million
FATA=$0.35 million

- Increased accessibility to rural


population reducing their
isolation
- X% population gained
access to roads

Population having no access to


all weather roads

- Low volume rural access roads


constructed. Rural road bridges
provided for unhindered movement
- FATA=513 km, KP=435 km
Rural road bridges steel/RCC
FATA=3340mtr, KP=1230mtr
Pedestrian suspension bridges
KP=2850mtr
Light vehicle village road
suspension bridges KP=2010mtr

CCB/CBOs/VDOs identification
& selection of roads completed
Steel/RCC Bridges
Detail assessment completed
and projects selected
Consultancy Cost
FATA/FR= $0.19m, KP $0.06m

- Improved transport
efficiencies by reducing paved
roads in poor condition to 33%
in FATA and KP

50% and 61% paved roads in


FATA and KP respectively of the
entire paved road network are
in poor to very poor condition

Paved roads
rehabilitated/reconstructed
FATA= 676 km
KP= 524 km

Detail assessment completed


and projects selected
Consultancy Cost
FATA/FR=$0.38m, KP=$0.30m

81

$2.8 million
$0.7 million

$2.8 million
$0.7 million

Works under progress


FATA=256 km, KP= 218 km, KP=
2430mtr suspension bridges
completed
FATA/FR=$20.38m, KP=$25.91m
Steel/RCC Bridges
FATA/FR=$10.62m, KP=$3.42m
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.85m,
KP=$0.27m

Works Completed
FATA=256 km, KP=218 km
KP=2430mtr suspension bridges
completed
FATA/FR=$22.23m, KP=$24.97m
Steel/RCC Bridges
FATA=3340mtr KP=1230mtr
FATA/FR=$27.04m, KP=$8.71m
Consultancy FATA/FR=$0.85m,
KP=$0.27m

Work under progress


FATA/FR=$24.82m, KP=$19.68m
Consultancy FATA/FR=$1.50m,
KP=$1.19m

Road rehabilitation substantially


completed FATA/FR=676km, KP=
524 km
FATA/FR=50.28m, KP=$39.88m
Consultancy FATA/FR=$1.50m, KP=
$1.19m

- 24,805 COs owning and


maintaining water and
sanitation facilities and
providing acceptable quality
water to 4.8 million people.
- 0.5 million people using
household latrines and
improved sanitation facilities
- Identified water sources for
integration and long term
WATSAN infrastructure
planning
- Approximately 2.5 mil. Women
and girls relieved from hardship
of water fetching.
- Conditions for girls enrolment
in schools improved
- x percent of women using
spare time for
productive/income generating
activities

- Water Supply coverage


KP 62%, FATA 57%, FRs 61%

Water Supply
- 14 Water Quality Testing
Laboratories established
- Population provided access to
improved water sources
2.9 mil in KP, 1.8 mil in FATA, 0.12
mil in FR

Water Supply
- 863 schemes costing $9.8 M
Implemented in KP Province
- 1,464 schemes costing $6.3 M
implemented in FATA
- 117 schemes costing $0.4 M
implemented in FR

- Sanitation
- Population provided improved
sanitation facilities
0.28 mil in KP, 0.18 mil in FATA,
0.012 mil in FR
- Awareness campaigns lodged for
eradicating open defecation
practices (reaching 4.8 mil. people)
- Hydrological assessment of
potential water sources completed
for long term interventions

Sanitation
- Schemes costing 4.5 US$M
implanted in KP Province
- Schemes costing 2.8 US$M
implanted in FATA
- Schemes costing 0.2 US$M
implanted in FR

Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation (key goals for sector)


- Provision of electricity and
LPG, improved access to
services and markets, and
access to improved WATSAN
facilities provided with the
participation of people changed
negative perception of the
people
- -- million beneficiary
population began to believe
that government cares about
basic needs of the people
- Transparent and merit based
recruitments of staff
contributed in restoring
peoples trust in State

- Government relied on top


down development approach
with no role for people.
- Limited or no opportunity for
people in decision making for
their own development
priorities.

- 4.82 million people provided


WATSAN facilities with their active
involvement in planning,
implementation and O&M, --million
provided electricity and LPG, -million provided access roads
- New jobs announced in local
newspapers
- Recruitment done on merit and
process properly recorded

82

Water Supply
- 14 Water Quality testing
laboratories established (7 each
in KP and FATA costing $ 0.16
m)
- 3,883 schemes costing $46.8
M Implemented in KP Province
- 6,587 schemes costing $30.0
M implemented in FATA
- 526 schemes costing $1.9 M
implemented in FR
Sanitation
- Schemes costing 10.1 US$M
implanted in KP Province
- Schemes costing 6.3 US$M
implanted in FATA
- Schemes costing 0.7 US$M
implanted in FR
- Consulting Services carried
out costing
$3.18 M in KP, $1.71 M in FATA

Water Supply
- 3,883 schemes costing 49.7 US$M
Implemented in KP Province
- 6,587 schemes costing $31.9 M
implemented in FATA
- 526 schemes costing $2.0 M
implemented in FR

Sanitation
- Schemes costing 9.8 US$M
implanted in KP Province
- Schemes costing 6.1 US$M
implanted FATA
- Schemes costing 0.5 US$M
implanted in FR
- Consulting services carried out
$1.4 m in KP, $ 0.91 m in FATA

8.

SOCIAL PROTECTION

Poverty, lack of employment opportunities and basic services like education and health,
ineffective governance, loss of livelihoods and lack of social cohesion all serve as crisis drivers
within KP and FATA. The condition of vulnerable groups has further deteriorated as a result of
the long-drawn crisis situation in these areas. Social protection measures are needed such as
unconditional/conditional cash/food transfers for the poorest; skills development to enhance
livelihood opportunities; establishment of peace and conflict redressal committees to promote
social cohesion. By implementing these, the Government and its partners will be directly and
visibly helping the poorest and most vulnerable households.
8.1

Situation Analysis

Human development indicators in crisis-affected areas, particularly FATA, have always been
relatively low a situation made worse by the crisis. In the context of social protection
interventions, there are a number of key problems facing people in these areas.
As per the recent survey on food security, more than half of the population is food insecure in the
crisis areas. Other poverty estimates put the poverty line close to 40 percent in the affected areas.
Economic and social vulnerability of the affected population preceded the crisis, but has been
exacerbated by indiscriminate damage of villages, loss of livelihoods, trauma of displacement
and disillusionment over the failure of support systems to respond to peoples needs.
Poor and vulnerable households need emergency social assistance to reduce the immediate
suffering resulting from the crisis and ward off the effects of livelihood loss and inflation.
Moreover, as indicated in the CERINA (2009) report and CAF, many of the affected areas are
disaster prone; if any disaster occurs, communities vulnerability and poverty is further
increased. Vulnerable groups are defined here as: youth (male and female), children, the poor,
female-headed households (for certain programmes), people with disabilities, and victims of acts
of violence.28
A second major challenge relates to social cohesion. The communities social fabric has been
severely disrupted, with destruction of social infrastructure, displacement, realignment of power
in favour of religious extremists, and loss of many tribal elders. The CERINA report shows that
the crisis has damaged law and order, and created an environment of fear and distrust among the
communities; people find it difficult to regain confidence in the social structures.
Communities have been divided during the conflict between those who supported militants and
others. This has given rise to tension and conflict in the community and within family structures.
The families who sided with the militants during the crisis are now at risk of being excluded
from mainstream economic and social life. There is a need to facilitate their engagement in
socio-economic activities through a reconciliation and peace-building process, provision of
social care services and income-generating opportunities, as well as psycho-social support. These
steps are necessary to stop further fragmentation of the society and to enhance social cohesion;
thus reducing the vulnerability of the families at risk of falling prey to militants propaganda.
28

This includes victims of bomb blasts, bombings, torture, killing by militants.

83

Young people (ages 15-29 years) comprise some 27 percent of the population in the affected
areas. The population as a whole in these areas has witnessed the crisis situation and suffered
physical and psychological trauma due to the violent incidents that have occurred. But young
men have been particularly exposed because of the militants ability to lure them into their ranks
and alienate them from mainstream society, while young women have suffered from forced and
early marriages for their protection. After the defeat of militants, the future of the young men is
particularly at risk since their training and skills are limited; they need to be rehabilitated and
reintegrated into mainstream socio-economic life. Youth are also more likely than others to be
affected by the cycle of revenge that could emerge post-crisis, between those who sided with
militants and those who did not.
8.2

Priority Interventions

The focus areas of Social Protection initiatives would be crisis-affected areas, which include
Swat, Buner, Shangla, upper and lower Dir, Malakand, Hangu, and Kala Dhaka, Frontier
Regions, and all seven agencies of FATA. FATA will need more attention as it has relatively low
human development indicators and is more vulnerable to radicalisation and militancy.
Cash/In-kind transfers To respond to the immediate needs of vulnerable populations, and
especially to mitigate the immediate subsistence needs in a post-crisis situation, fixed monthly
cash grants can be provided for a specific temporary period. Cash grants alone are insufficient to
combat poverty-related crisis drivers concerning employment and sustainable livelihoods, but
they can provide a foundation for poverty reduction programmes. Moreover, if linked to skills
development and/or work experience, they can promote employment and livelihood
opportunities.
For the crisis affected areas a cash/food transfer system is proposed targeting the poor and
vulnerable through both unconditional and conditional transfers as follows:
a) Unconditional transfers for bottom quintile29 - Unconditional transfers targeted at the
people falling well below the regional poverty line and/or classified as severely food
insecure, whether in cash or in food, are an immediate priority from a humanitarian
standpoint, as well as from a peace-building angle. The scheme will target half of the
estimated 40 percent of the population living below the poverty line, i.e. the bottom
quintile of the population. The cash/food transfers will help the chronically poor, food
insecure and vulnerable to cope with poverty, provide relief to IDPs and support recovery
of returnees. These people have practically no capabilities to benefit from opportunitycreating programmes. A monthly payment of Rs. 4,000 for a fixed period of six months
will be provided to families qualifying under extreme poverty-vulnerability criteria.

29

A conservative estimate is provided in this assessment; however, at the implementation stage, target population
may be revisited by including Family as beneficiary unit instead of household. In addition, unconditional cash
transfers are considered to be providing the foundation for other initiatives, nevertheless, depending on the pace of
other initiatives (in case of inordinate delays), target population for unconditional transfers may be increased to all
people falling below the poverty line (second quintile of the population) and/or qualifying under vulnerability
criteria.

84

b) Conditional transfers for second bottom quintile - Other eligible poor and vulnerable
households (second quintile of the total population) will receive conditional transfers, i.e.
receipt of benefits will be linked to participation in public works schemes, labour and/or
life skills training; micro-enterprise training with links to the market; and, for households
with children, to school enrolment and attendance. Coordination will be necessary both
with PCNA-related initiatives under other sectors (Non-Farm, Agriculture, Infrastructure,
Health, and Education) and with other recovery and development programmes, to ensure
maximum complementarities and cooperation.
Targeting An objective targeting mechanism ensuring maximum coverage of the poor and
vulnerable, minimising inclusion and exclusion errors, and backed up by a transparent and
efficient payment mechanism, will be ensured. Special care should be taken not to exclude
families who are or have been related to militants, if they are deemed to be vulnerable, as this
could lead to further grievance. The targeting mechanism will be strengthened by a robust
appeal and grievance redress system and provision of community/civilian oversight. An initial
three months period is required for targeting, which includes finalisation of the targeting form;
agreement on poverty cut-off and other vulnerability criteria; design and development of MIS;
and enumeration.
The Poverty Scorecard30 developed and implemented under the national safety net programme
will be adapted for post-crisis situations and implemented in the affected area, with some
additions to capture crisis-specific aspects of poverty and vulnerability. Once targeting is
completed, those qualifying under the agreed eligibility criteria will be enrolled in the
programme and a monthly payment of Rs. 4,000 will be made for six months. An estimated
220,000 households (bottom quintile) of the total population will be paid a total amount of Rs.
5,280 million (USD 62.12 M). The final target population, eligibility criteria and cost estimates
may be revised at the implementation stage.
Social cohesion The issue of tension within communities could be partially addressed through
joint community activities (project- and empowerment-related), but there may also be a need to
develop community-based mechanisms to address these internal conflicts. To improve social
cohesion, peace and conflict redressal committees will be formed in select villages - an estimated
10 percent of the 450 villages in the affected areas. Such committees will address internal
conflicts, promote the reconciliation process, and carry out disaster risk reduction measures (see
below). The emphasis will be to provide support not only to those who suffered from the crisis,
but also to provide a transparent justice system to those perceived as sympathizers of the
militants, and who are now in jails or unable to return to their homes due to fear of persecution.
Disaster risk reduction Since the crisis-affected areas are prone to disasters another
intervention also involving community forums would be using these to initiate disaster risk
reduction activities in collaboration with the relevant public departments. By increasing the
communities capacity to reduce the risk of disasters, such interventions can prevent
communities from sliding further into poverty and vulnerability. These activities would also
contribute to enhancing social cohesion.
30

Poverty scorecard is a proxy means test, where, based on PSLM, poverty is indirectly measured through
household characteristics, consumption and assets.

85

Skill development Skill development will create more durable employment opportunities, raise
productivity and earnings promote livelihoods and thereby reduce poverty. There is considerable
scope for skills training in crisis-affected areas: in construction-related professions, in
agriculture, in industry and services that have been affected by the crisis but are judged to have
potential to rebound, and in the informal sector. It is likely that skills training needs in
construction and agriculture can be quickly determined; and others explored for early follow-up.
As a general principle, training should not only focus on introducing new skills, but also on
raising productivity and earnings by enhancing existing skills.
While most of the training is likely to be more relevant for the male population, there may also
be opportunities for women working from home, for instance in handicrafts and poultry care and
agriculture. Introducing new production methods and raising the quality of handicrafts, for
example, should create opportunities in more distant markets and enhance income generation.
There are sufficient examples of conservative environments where simple distribution systems
allow womens production to successfully reach sophisticated markets. Training programmes
for women should be linked to more general educational efforts, in particular in literacy and
numeracy.
Public works programmes To promote employment for people in the affected areas,
communities will be provided with public work schemes. Links will be developed with
initiatives for non-farm economic development, and the workforce identified from the most poor
and vulnerable households. They will be provided work as conditional cash benefit to identified
households. These programmes would include Government-sponsored public works (cost for 30
months: $65.8m), socioeconomic community works ($24.51m), and skills training ($24.47m). It
is expected that this will lead to vulnerability of communities being reduced, and to their having
improved village infrastructure. This will in turn stimulate employment and generate livelihood
opportunities for men and women.
Psycho-social support To achieve the objective of counter-radicalisation and extremism,
vulnerable people will be rehabilitated through provision of psychosocial and medical support
and social care services and encouraged to take part in productive vocations through TVET.
Efforts will be made to demobilise youth and integrate them into mainstream society by giving
them training in life skills and in income-generating skills. These will be provided for both men
and women. Social care services will be aimed at: (i) providing psycho-social support to
families that are at risk of social exclusion (identified by social workers and participating
voluntarily in the programme); (ii) counselling at-risk (disaffected) youth, including those with
problems of drug addiction; (iii) extend on-going community support to disabled persons; (iv)
providing support and protection/crisis centres for children and women at risk. A support
programme for victims of conflict (victims of bomb blasts, and aerial bombings) will be
developed to provide medical, psychological and community support to address their disabilities,
physical and psychological health.
8-10 Year View For the longer term, it would not be advisable to have different social
protection regimes in different parts of the country. Either the ones introduced in KP and FATA
would be gradually scaled down, or they may be viewed as pilots for a more comprehensive
86

national social protection policy. Therefore, the longer term interventions should begin with
developing a social protection strategy not only for KP and FATA but also for other crisisaffected areas. The direct, unconditional cash transfers should be replaced gradually by
conditional benefits, such as honorarium/stipends for work for young men and women, providing
them with employment opportunities, TVET programs, and developing strategies for enhancing
livelihood opportunities for women and girls. The focus should be on behaviour/attitudinal
change of the population, developing linkages of community groups between each other and with
state line departments for increased collaboration and coordination, as well as communication
efforts to counter propaganda that tends to influence the population, particularly young men.

87

Transitional Results Framework: Social Protection Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Activities

Baseline

Outputs

07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

Strategic Objective: #1 Responsiveness and Effectiveness of the State and Civil society
2. Outcome
The extremely poor and vulnerable (male
and females) who received assistance
unconditional (cash and/or in kind) consider
themselves better off than before assistance
was provided, have better food consumption
patterns, spend relatively less on food and
can spend more on education and other
basic needs
Indicators
4. Beneficiary satisfaction (survey on
beneficiaries (male and female)
perspective on the responsiveness of the
government to their needs/vs
insurgencys claim to provide for
community, impact of the transfers on
day to day life)
5. Change in household income and
expenditure patterns on food (decrease in
share of household expenditures devoted
to food)
6. Percentage of monthly expenditure on
education particularly of girls
7. Percentage of severely food insecure
households reduced from 11 percent

8. Outcome
Baseline FSMA
2010 share of
hh
expenditures
on food and
percentage of
FI (11 percent)
Track 1
consultations
are baseline
for beneficiary
satisfaction

1. Output
20% of the targeted population in selected
areas or beneficiaries receiving benefits
(output)
Indicators
9. # Transfers made over 06 months (number of
recipients, male and female)
10.
$Value of transfers individually, total
11.
An improved transparent and
appropriate targeting and distribution system
12.
An appropriate payment mechanism is
being employed keeping in view the cultural
mobility/accessibility constraints particularly
those of FHH

1. Activity
Targeting of extremely
poor and vulnerable (first
three months)
Provision of cash and/or
in kind transfers in next
six months
13.
geo. Scope

Provision of
transfers

Provision of
transfers

Provision of
transfers

On-going

On-going

On-going

FATA and conflict


affected areas of KP
covered by PCNA
14.
cost for 06
months
$62.12 M

220000
beneficiary
households
selected
after
targeting

Strategic Objective: #2 Stimulation of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities


1. Outcome
1. Outcome
Communities have been provided with public Baseline
work schemes, opportunities; and less
(DNA)
vulnerable communities are using improved
village infrastructures after gainfully
participating in government provided civil
works projects (conditional cash transfers)

1. Outcome
Government civil works projects implemented
using local labor (women and men both)
Indicators
23.
Number of projects by type/area
24.
# of jobs by gender provided/per
estimated target population/area (gender
disaggregated)

88

Government-sponsored
public works

Cost (30 months): $65.8


M

Transitional Results Framework: Social Protection Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Activities

Baseline

Outputs

07/10

25.
socio-economic Community Works
project implemented using local labor (men
and women).
26.
# works implemented
27.
Arrangements for sustainability of
works e.g. communities (male and female
members) trained in running projects,
mobilizing resources, taking decisions, and
using linkages and networking to further social
development objectives
1.1 Life Skills and TVET training programs
established and operational
1.2 Number and themes of training courses; and
number of participants (women and men)

Indicators
15.
Net income of employed by
gender, by age of beneficiaries
16.
Improved coping strategies of
indirect beneficiaries
17.
Individuals & HHs as well as FHHs
using new infrastructure to improve their
livelihood strategies (on and non farm)
18.
Skilled workers (male and female)
in the communities are engaged in
different jobs
19.
Number of the people falling
below the national poverty cut-off score
designed by BISP employed by gender and
age in public works schemes
20.
Employment stimulated
21.
Livelihood opportunities
generated
22.
Number of temporary jobs
created in community for women and
men

Socio-economic
community works:
$ 25.41 M

Skills Training:
$ 24.47 M

Strategic Objective: #3 Provision of Basic Services


1. Outcome
Vulnerable households send their children
(both boys and girls) to public schools, as
well as TVET schools and consider
themselves better off than before assistance
was provided, have better food consumption
patterns, spend relatively less on food and
can spend more on education and other
basic needs
Indicators
Increase in primary school enrollment and
retention rates up from 20% for girls and
40% for boys in FATA and up from 40% for
girls and 66% for boys in KP
28.
Impact on grade attainment and

1. Outcome
Baseline EMIS
(MOE/DOE
database) for
education
data
FSMA for food
security
related
indicators

1. Output
Indicators
31.
Conditional Transfers provided
(coverage; gender, numbers)
32.
Monthly food ration provided to
households who send their primary school
aged children to primary school (730,000
Primary school aged students (girls and boys)
receive nutritious biscuits in schools)

Track 1 for the


beneficiary
satisfaction

1.Activity
Conditional cash transfers
for education and
vocational training
1.1 geo. Scope
1.2 cost $ 48.94 M
2. Conditional food
transfer for education
2.1 geo. Scope
2.2 cost $ 58.235 M

89

12/10

12/11

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Social Protection Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Activities

Baseline

Outputs

07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

drop-out rates, completion rates by


gender
29.
Change in enrollments and
retention rates for primary, secondary
school of girls (i.e. impact of transition
from primary to secondary), of TVET
30.
Beneficiary satisfaction (survey on
beneficiaries perspective on the
responsiveness of the government to
their needs/vs insurgencys claim to
provide for community, impact of the
transfers on day to day life)
Strategic Objective: #4 Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation
1. Outcome
Vulnerable people (women, men, youth) are
rehabilitated through provision of
psychosocial support and social care services
and are taking part in productive vocations
through TVET

1. Outcome
Baseline (to
be collected)

Indicators
33.
Demobilized youth are integrated
into mainstream society, i.e. using life
skills and training
34.
Number of trained graduating
back in community, rehabilitation
completed,
35.
Number of male youth who have
successfully completed rehabilitation
36.
Number of male youth actively
seeking rehabilitation as a result of the
success of their peers
37.
Number of households have restabilized, their vulnerabilities reduced,
youth and children are participating in
mainstream social and economic life
38.
Number of young women trained
in microenterprise (vocational/skill
training/enhancement, linkages with the
market) and earning

(CAF; CERINA;
DNA)

2. Outcome
Baseline

1. Output
Young men have received life skills, vocational
and apprenticeship training; and educational
scholarships; re-integration grants
Indicators
39.
Enrolment,
40.
Number of TVET training conducted,
number men and women trained
41.
Number of de-mobilized male youth
that are re-integrated into their families
(outcome)
42.
Number of male youth in drug
rehabilitation (including counseling on life
skills; training)
43.
Number of victims of conflict (women
and men) provided psycho-social and medical
support
44.
Number of young men and women
provided the following support:
45.
Counseling in life skills, medico-social
counseling to women and men;
46.
Training provided to women and men,
47.
Number of children (girls and boys)
supported by children support centers
48.
Number of women supported by
women crisis centers

90

1. Activity
registration of victims of
conflict,,
Provision of social care
service that include ;
I) Psycho social support;
medical support
ii) support to victims of
conflict
iii) Drug rehabilitation
iv) women crisis centers
v) support/protection
centers for children and
women at risk
49.
geo. Scope
50.
cost (US$ 150
m indicative)

On-going

On-going

On-going

Transitional Results Framework: Social Protection Sector


Outcome
Outcome

Baseline

Activities
Outputs

07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

Number of households that have completed/are


participating in guided support services
particularly FHH

2. Outcome
Socially cohesive communities are taking
decisions for collective social development
Indicators
51.
10% (450 villages) of Communities
are taking decisions to address internal
conflicts and promoting reconciliation
process, are more prepared to address
risks of disasters in coordination with the
relevant government departments
52.
Number of women included in
community decision making processes

2. Output
Social capital built
Number of community organizations including
womens groups formed and trained in conflict
and disaster risk management, and legitimized by
the government
Indicators
53.
Number and kinds of community
mobilization and empowerment initiatives
undertaken/implemented e.g.; number of
disputes resolved by communities, number of
communities trained in disaster risk reduction ,
Number of projects implemented for disaster
risk reduction

91

2.Activity
Community Mobilization
and Empowerment that
also includes;
i) Strengthening
capacities of community
regarding Disaster Risk
Reduction
ii) Peace and
development
committees
54.
geo. Scope
55.
cost $1.22M

On-going

On-going

On-going

9.

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION

Communities in KP and FATA have very limited access to information sources and little
awareness of services/other support being provided by the state or other partners. By contrast,
militant groups make skilful use of communication approaches to win public support for their
views. Communication capacity of the Government, as well as civil society organisations and
the media, needs to be strengthened to promote effective information dissemination and publicstate dialogue. Campaigns are needed to counter militant propaganda both by presenting an
alternative to extremist interpretations of Islam, and by raising public awareness of
programmatic interventions.
9.1

Situation Analysis

Current public information dissemination in FATA and KP is weak and inconsistent.


Consultations with affected communities and other stakeholders revealed that there is very little
awareness of programmatic interventions being undertaken by the state and/or development
partners. This lack of awareness is a result of top-down planning processes, limited consultation,
weak or absent laws, policy and rules for disclosure of information, weak human, technical and
technological capacity for communication among institutions, limited funds, and a yet to be
developed full understanding of the relevance of communication in governance processes.
Communities do not receive information about availability of services and access, and are not
involved in the planning or execution of interventions, thus diminishing local support and
ownership. This lack of participation feeds the belief that the state and its partners are not
responsive to their needs, hence adding to the distrust towards the state, CSOs, and other
humanitarian/development partners.
The communities in FATA are generally marked by limited access to trustworthy and reliable
information. For example, the current media capacity does not reach all audiences and does not
deliver the relevant and thematically-oriented information audiences have requested. The ability
of women to access a variety of public information sources is even more limited due to
restrictions on their movement and high levels of illiteracy limit.
Some information is needed by all, such as information on how the Government will protect
citizens from corruption, make state services accountable and responsive to local needs; reform
judicial processes. Other groups, such as farmers, need information on re-stocking programs,
better farming techniques and market intelligence/access; young men need to be informed about
employment possibilities and how to access them; parents need to know how best to prepare
their children for the future, etc.
Stakeholders highlighted that militant groupings have been skilfully using communication tools
and tactics to propagate and legitimise the militant ideology among communities in KP and
FATA. They have exploited public grievances in regard to public services and marginalisation,
and often framed messages around the social justice paradigm. They especially targeted the
marginalised and vulnerable groups, like youth, by voicing their needs and rights and offering
them a place in a society traditionally dominated by men and elders.

92

CSOs could be an important advocate and communication channel for communities in KP and
FATA. But stakeholders identified that service provider and research NGOs, in particular, suffer
from a lack of trust by the communities. Many NGOs have no community needs assessment
skills, do not communicate clearly with the communities about their motivations and are often
solely donor-driven in their approaches. Downward accountability and transparency among
NGOs need to be increased if they are to become trusted partners.
9.2

Priority Interventions

Overview - The Government needs to improve its own communication capacity and also forge a
partnership with CSOs and media to increase its outreach and ensure communities receive the
information they require. To counter militant propaganda and the domination of religious
interpretation by a single group, communities need access to pluralistic information and viewpoints, including various Islamic schools of thought and interpretation, such as Sufi and Hanafi
interpretations, and a revival of Pakhtoonwali culture of forgiveness and tolerance.
Providing information across all sectors will be critical to help communities develop trust that
the Government will deliver the services they need. Communities need access to dialogue
mechanisms that allow them to interface with government officials to hear about government
plans and share their needs, vision and grievances. CSOs are essential to develop such a citizenstate dialogue, and their transparency and downward accountability need to be increased so they
can become trusted partners. A comprehensive media development approach is needed so
broadcasters can produce more locally relevant information that corresponds with the needs of
communities, and is reliable and of quality.
To reach all audiences, including the illiterate, women and youth, multiple channels that reflect
the communication habits and cultural parameters of the audiences need to be employed.
Providing information pro-actively will be particularly important as reconstruction and
development efforts will take time to show concrete results on the ground.
Specific priority interventions to be undertaken to strengthen communication in KP and FATA
are as follows:
Government-led counter-radicalisation and reconciliation campaign (1-24 months) This
campaign will provide alternative viewpoints and moderate interpretations of Islam; messages of
peace, non-violence and tolerance to communities. The campaign will be based on media and
non-media tools and involve workshops, interactive seminars and meetings with tribal elders,
maliks, mosque imams, teachers, other community leaders, citizens, IDPs and militant
supporters/ sympathizers; as well as a range of cultural and community events, and products on
peace and tolerance. A special effort will be used to reach out to women, religious leaders and the
youth. This needs to go hand-in-hand with support to community-based reconciliation processes
and mechanisms that include former militant sympathizers, IDPs, combatants, etc.
Public information/awareness campaign about programmatic areas (1-18 months) - It is
expected that the PCNA will lead to a wide-range of programmatic activities across all sectors. A
public awareness campaign to inform communities about those plans, and raise awareness about
93

existing and forthcoming initiatives, will be vital to gain public support and local ownership.
Managing expectations and communicating clearly the planning processes and timelines
involved will be critical to avoid disillusionment. A comprehensive set of communication
channels will be needed to reach communities across KP and FATA and ensure that all
audiences, regardless of mobility, location or literacy have access to the information they require.
All messages will need to be carefully crafted to reflect the cultural and religious framework.
The more localised the content, the more likely it is that audiences will be responsive to the
issue.
Citizen-state dialogue on programmatic areas (6-30 months) - The dissemination of information
to increase public knowledge and awareness about programme interventions is a critical first step
that needs to be followed-up by a participatory public dialogue. Emerging initiatives and
programmes should be discussed with communities to ensure they respond to shared public
needs and have local ownership. Community-based interactions facilitated by CSOs will allow
for a real interface between government officials and communities, enabling local development
needs to be assessed and appropriate interventions designed.
Advocacy and constituency-building will be required to make civil servants, politicians,
development partners, donors, and community and religious leaders receptive to reform. A
literacy and numeracy initiative is recommended to increase knowledge and understanding of
communities about legal and other reform interventions and various cultural, religious, political,
social and economic issues. Public dialogue also has a media component as a multiplier and to
document shared views and monitor for kept promises.
Enabling CSOs to facilitate public dialogue: Civil Society Capacity Fund (CSCF) (6-30
months) - A public dialogue will depend on a successful public-non-government partnership
structure. In order for CSOs to facilitate the public dialogue they need to increase their capacity
to function as trusted community partners and be, and be perceived as, a credible interface to the
government. A series of activities will build the downward accountability and advocacy capacity
of CSOs so they become more trusted and responsive community partners one of the critical
areas highlighted in the CAF. These will enable them to play their important societal role as
speakers and advocates for community needs.
Management structure for Strategic Communication interventions (1- 30 months) Given the
current weak capacity and infrastructure of the KP Department of Information and the FATA
Media Cell, an empowered communication function needs to be established at provincial level.
Its mandate will need to be enhanced to include all strategic communication interventions such
as public information campaigns, counter-radicalization and reconciliation campaigns, support
programme development and implementation, and support a two-way dialogue for enhanced
public participation, ownership and accountability/transparency.
Strengthening the public information and outreach function of the Government in KP and
FATA (6-30 months) While it is important to jump-start the communication activities of the
government through the proposed empowered communication function, building staff capacity in
the medium and long-term will be critical to make these efforts sustainable. Professional on-thejob training and long-term mentoring will have to be provided to build the human resource
94

capacity that will allow the government to plan and execute effective communication strategies
in the future. It is recommended that an in-depth needs assessment be undertaken and a
capacity-building strategy developed for the public information function of GoKP and FATA
Secretariat.
Strengthening the professional and institutional capacity of media (6-30 months) - A set of
media development initiatives will seek to provide the population with the ability to access
pluralistic, high-quality as well as relevant information sources. The key priorities are to assist
with content production and journalistic training, support for locally produced material, support
interactive productions, provide security and conflict-sensitivity training, strengthen institutional
networks and develop support programmes for female journalists and investigative journalism.
Integration of independent media monitoring in the M&E framework (6-30 months) Engaging the public in the monitoring of PCNA-based activities is central to generating a sense
of ownership and to allow for transparency and debate about challenges and progress. Providing
for public participation in the monitoring of development activities will be particularly important
in KP and FATA to increase trust in the state and accountability. Integrating the media as an
independent monitoring tool in the PCNA M&E framework is a creative way to provide accurate
information and analysis on development programs.
8-10 Year View The communication initiatives in the PCNA are activities that can be
consolidated and strengthened in the long run; the exact shape and nature of such activities
would need to be tied closely to socio-political developments to meet the changing needs of the
communities. Possible intervention areas include allowing an independent media to operate in
FATA, community radio licensing to improve access to information (particularly in remote
areas), and strengthening civil society to promote public participation in policymaking.

95

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Activities
Outputs
07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

Strategic Objective 1: Responsiveness and effectiveness of the state and civil society (Indicator as per experience from other countries: Public opinion ratings about government performance go down in
the first year (greater awareness), then go up (greater government responsiveness)
Sector Objective: Improving the flow of information between state and citizens through dialog and participation
1. Outcome 1: State and
Baseline
1.1 Civil Society enabled
1.Design of
1. Campaign to drive
1. CSCF Grants and technical
1.CSCF Grants and technical
communities engaged in CSO
facilitator of citizen-state
CSCF
applications to CSCF
support
support
facilitated dialog on key
Very few
dialog (Civil Society
2. Mapping of
2. Sector/ thematic
thematic/governance areas
meetings
Capacity Fund)
CSOs, CSO
specific dialog
2. Community public dialogue
2. Community public dialogue
between
US $ 6 m
networks and
strategies developed
sessions for men, women and
sessions for men, women and
Indicators:
communiti
CSO capacities
on key governance
youth held on rule of law,
youth held on rule of law,
es and
Indicators:
in KP and FATA
issues, sector needs,
governance, health, education,
governance, health, education, on Citizens (men & women) feel that
governmen
3.
Baseline delivery mechanisms
on-and off farm etc
and off farm etc
government programs reflect
% increase in # of youth and
t officials
Survey
on and proposed
public demands
women focused CSOs
Knowledge,
reforms in
3. Literacy and numeracy Indicators:
Citizens (men & women) feel
Total # of project proposals
Limited
Attitudes
collaboration with
campaign executed
# of tehsil and district public
they are participating in shaping
received
awareness
Behaviour
sectors including
dialogue meetings with key
the governments response to
Total # of CSO member
of right and
4. Sector
Rule of Law,
Indicators:
community opinion leaders
their needs
participants in training
entitlement
mapping of key
Governance etc.
# of CSO members (men and
(Jirga members, madrassah
Increase in pole ratings that
program
s
stakeholders
3. Outreach material
women) trained in: advocacy
leaders, local government) held
complain mechanisms work and
Total # of partnerships
5. Baseline
needs defined and
skills; needs assessments;
# national TV dialogue with
officials are being held
established between small
data mapping
outsourced
facilitating dialogue; financial
FATA and KP representatives
accountable
and large CSOs.
exercise of the
4. Training modules
management; proposal writing
debating reform proposals
Increase of organized demand
universe of
developed
for # of community playback
organized
among the poor and vulnerable,
1.2 Thematic areas
existing
Literacy
and
theatre shows
# of hot-line
particularly women, for the
(programs, initiatives,
awareness
numeracy campaign
# of farmers group dialogue
complaints/requests received
realisation of their
reforms) are being
raising
5.Training
of
meetings
[legal/judicial/political] rights
discussed among and
organizations
Trainers workshops # of tehsil and district level
(petitions/demonstrations/)
between state, nonand efforts in
conducted
for
state/community
meetings between key
Increase of sustained public
KP and FATA.
literacy
and
stakeholders (men and
community opinion leaders
advocacy campaigns [education /
6.Baseline
numeracy campaign,
women)
(Jirga members, madrassah
governance, agriculture,
survey of
incl women trainers
leaders, local government).
employment, rule of law, etc.]
ambient level
Indicator:
# of financial allocation and
Increased use of complaint
of rights,
Indicators:
Total # of tehsil and district
performance records in
mechanism by men and women
entitlements
# of radio/campus
level meetings between
discussion programmes aired
(Legal Ombudsman)
and legal
radio CSCF
state and non # of public complaints
Increase in use of state services
awareness
announcements
state/community
hotlines established
(schools) by boys and girls
among the
# of applications
stakeholders
(education)
# of national TV dialogue with
communities,
received
FATA and KP representatives
Increased number of youth and
especially
# of youth groups
1.3 Literacy and numeracy
debating reform proposals
women focused CSOs operational
women and
applications
campaign for awareness
organized
in the area:
youth.
# of women
of men and women on
- Total # of youth groups active
# of journalists receiving

96

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

- Total # of women groups


active
- Total # of hotlines complaints
received/processed
Increased public awareness of
men and women on their rights
and entitlements under the law
and reasonable expectations
from the public system.

2.

Media provides relevant and


quality information to
communities

Indicators:
% increase in listenership of
licensed radio stations;
% increase in community
satisfaction with programs
% increase of news and

Activities
Outputs
rights, laws, policies etc.
US $ 6 m
Indicators:
Communities (men and
women) informed about:
- existing policies and laws,
government structures
and operations at the
federal and local level
including the systems in
FATA,
- basic citizen
requirements like the
CNIC, its value and usage
and how it is obtained,
- education system and its
advantages,
- development of new
policies and laws,
government
departments, alternative
education systems,
alternative farming
techniques etc and how
they will affect
communities
Total # of hotlines
established

Baseline
established
through
KAP survey

2.1 Professional and


institutional capacity of
media in KP and FATA is
strengthened:
US $ 6 m
Indicators:
Journalistic and technical
capacity of on-air
broadcasters built

07/10

12/10

12/11

Indicators:
Mapping
reports
finalized
CSCF design
finalized
Areas for
literacy and
numeracy
awareness
finalized in
close
collaboration
with other
sectors
including rule
of law,
governance
etc

groups application
# of Pashto
language
information kits
about thematic
areas produced
# of ToTs held

Pashto language material on


key subjects such as health,
education, conflict,
humanitarian, business,
womens issues, etc

1. Full mapping
of
existing/planne
d
donor
programs
in
media
development
carried out

1. Training of FM
stations to design
and
produce
thematic
current
affairs programming
on issues such as
conflict and peace,
humanitarian
reporting,
human
rights
and

1. Broadcaster staff trained to


produce news bulletins and
signature
current
affairs
programs
2.bcster staff trained to use
digital software and recording
equipment for use in the field
and program editing
3.Training and mentoring to
female journalists/mass media

2.

Baseline

97

12/12

1. Support to media organizations


to produce locally relevant
programming in Pashto
2. Training and mentoring to
female journalists/mass media
students
3. Train on-air broadcasters in
technical skills and hosting skills.
5. Strengthen press clubs in
advocacy,
networking
and

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome

information on local events in


local languages/dialects
% increase of articles accurately
exposing fraud and corruption;
% of news segments
% increase in thematic programs
% of readership of newspapers
increased
Increased number of journalists
working on beats (specific subject
reporting)
% decrease of number of
journalists killed/hurt in KP and
FATA
Total # of press club meetings
% increase in number of paid,
full-time journalists working for
radio
% increase of press club
membership
% increase in number of women
working as journalists
% increase on news and
information pieces on issues
affecting women

Outcome
Baseline

Activities
Outputs
Profile of women and
number of women raised in
media
Capacity of journalists on
safety and security in
conflict zones increased
Infrastructure and
professional/ organizational
capacity of press clubs built
Technical capacity of
journalism schools
strengthened

07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

Survey
on
Knowledge,
Attitudes
Behaviour

development
2.Training
for
bcaster staff to
produce
thematic
community
programming
4.
Training
for
women journalists in
technical reporting
skills, inc. use of
digital equipment for
electronic media in
the field
5.
Training
of
women journalists
on thematic issues
such as conflict and
humanitarian
programming,
human
rights,
politics
and
development
6.Mentoring
program for female
mass media students
7.
Organize
Roundtable
for
media owners to
formulate
safety
policies for their
journalism staff
8. Facilitate dialogue
/ advocacy with GoP
/ military to enhance
safety for working
journalists
9.
Training
for
journalists on safety
and
security
in
conflict zones
10. initiate citizen

students continues
4. Infrastructural capacity of
press clubs (facilities, technical
equipment, especially internet)
built
5. Support to press clubs to
become
skill
development
centers for journalists through
computer literacy classes, use of
e-mail, internet research etc.
6. Press clubs in KP and FATA
form umbrella association
7. Establish formal links between
journalism universities and media
industry
8. Strengthen campus radios:
built newsrooms, incl. recording
studios and production labs
9. Set up print newsroom and
provide financial and technical
support to produce university
newspapers

organizational capacity
4.
Institute
mechanism
of
internships
for
journalism
graduates within the media
industry
5.Facilitate experience sharing and
insight sessions for journalism
students with front-ranking senior
journalists
6. Further improvement of
infrastructural capacity of press
clubs
(facilities,
technical
equipment, especially internet).

2.2 Responsible, responsive,


and credible locally issuedriven interactive
programming in local
languages
US $ 1.5 m
For staffing and office
equipment etc
- Capacity of broadcasters to
generate thematic
programming built.
Indicator: (increase from
current beeline TBD)
Total number of journalists
trained (men and women)
% increase of programs in
Pashto and other local
languages
# of press clubs buildings
renovated and equipped
Total hours of campus radio
broadcasting
# of newsrooms established
Total # of male and female
press club members

98

Indicators:
# of journalists trained
# of press club members
trained in financial
management/ organizational
skills
#of meetings among press
clubs
# of female students enrolled
in mentoring program
# of university newspapers
produced
# of university radio programs
produced

Indicators:
# of journalists trained
# of mass media students
selected for internship in media
houses
# of meetings of press club
umbrella organization held
# of meeting with press club
umbrella organization and
Governor held
# of female journalists working
in FATA
# of new female journalists
working in KP
# of new press club members

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Activities
Outputs
07/10

12/10

12/11

12/12

journalism through
sms and cellphones

3. The government in KP and


FATA provide credible and
relevant information, have
institutional relationships with
CSO and media and are aware
of public opinion and trends
Indicators:
# of requests for public
information
# of media focal points in line
ministries
# of public opinion surveys
commissioned and results
published
# of invitation to press clubs
events
# of invitations to CSO events
# of press kits available in Pashto
and distributed via press clubs
per year
# of press monitoring reports
shared among provincial
departments

No current
coherent
communica
tion
strategy

3. The public information


function and outreach
function of the
government in KP and
FATA is modified and
strengthened
US $5 m

1. Full needs
assessment
carried out in
cooperation
with
GoKP/FATA
Secretariat

Indicators:
Adoption and
implementation of
communication strategy by
GoP
Total # of government
officials who participated in
training program
Total # of revised
SOPs/TORs
Total # of meetings between
PIOs and CSO/media
representatives attended
# of community
consultations

2.
Baseline
Survey
on
Knowledge,
Attitudes
Behaviour
Indicators:
Survey results
Needs
assessment
analysis

99

Indicators:
# of journalists
wearing security
gear on job
# of female
students enrolled
in mentoring
program
# of meetings with
press clubs and
security forces
# of journalists
trained
1. Capacity building
program agreed.
2. Training firm
contracted
for
capacity building of
relevant GoP staff
3. Communication
strategy developed
Indicators
# of PIO trained in
e-mail use,
internet research
skills and word
processing
# of media
monitoring
reports produced
# of content
analysis reports
produced
# of CSO-PIO
outreach meetings
Average time to

1. New SOP developed


2. PIO TORs changed
3. Training for PIO in professional
skills
4.
Communication/office
infrastructure improvements
5.Two public polls commissioned
Other activities as per needs
assessment
Indicators:
# of PIO trained in e-mail use,
internet research skills and
word processing
# of media monitoring reports
produced
# of content analysis reports
produced
# of outreach of
meetings/events
% increase of thematic
interviews with
parliamentarians and party
spokespeople

Training for PIO in professional


skills
Training GoP communication
officers, political representatives,
party spokespeople in role of
communication and
communication skills
Two public polls commissioned
Other activities as per needs
assessment
Indicators:
# of PIO trained in e-mail use,
internet research skills and
word processing
# of media monitoring reports
produced
# of content analysis reports
produced
# of outreach of
meetings/events
# of senior officials in national
TV dialogue with CSOs
# of public complain hotline
records made public on a

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Activities
Outputs
07/10

# of trend analysis in militant


propaganda produced and
response discussed

4. The public is involved in the


monitoring of development
activities

12/10

12/11

return phone calls


from calls
journalists
requesting
information
limited
reporting
on
developme
nt
programme
s/
initiatives

4. An Independent Reporting
Cooperation is established
involving the mass media
departments of four
universities, journalists
and CSOs
US $ 5.5 m

1. Civil Society
Monitoring
Framework
designed
2. Formal
cooperation
agreements
with
participating
universities
negotiated

1. Staffing
agreements
negotiated
2. IPR Steering
Committee
established
3. Students (male
and female) trained
in methodology

Indicators
- Number of press
articles/broadcast pieces on
development projects/thematic/
Indicators:
governance areas
Formal cooperation
-Tone of media coverage on
Indicators:
agreements with
government efforts (content
universities in place
First reporting
analysis)
field visit - # of
Steering Committee in place
- Distribution figures of IPRstudents involved
Program material (in
IPR mechanism staffed
in IRP
organizations and communities),
Total # of student visits and
(male/female)
number hits on Website and
reports on development
First meeting of
public comments,
programs in FATA and KP
Steering
- Number of students able to
committee
report independently on
projects/events, MTAs editorial
capacity, etc;
Strategic Objective 4: Counter-Radicalization and Reconciliation
Sector Objective: Provide pluralistic voices and view-points to communities/citizens to counter propaganda

100

12/12
monthly basis in Pashtu
average time to return phone
calls from calls journalists
requesting information

1. IPR mechanism is being fully


operational
2. IPR Hotline for public
complaints
Indicators:
IPR Web-site established in
Pashtu and Urdu
# of hits on web-site
# of university radio
programmes covering
monitoring PCNA progress
aired in Pashto
# of field visits by students
b(male/female)
# of complains received on
hotline

IPR mechanism is being fully


operational
Indicators:
# of university radio
programmes covering
monitoring PCNA progress aired
in Pashto
# of print articles based on IPR
visits
# of field visits by students
(male/female)
# of complains received on
hotline
# of reports uploaded on
websites
# of hits of web-site

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome
1. Communities have greater
awareness of religious
interpretations and messages
that challenge the Talibans
narrative
2. Community based processes
and mechanisms are facilitating
reconciliation between and
among various community
groups, including former
militant supporters, IDPs,
combatants etc.
3. Communities have greater
awareness and knowledge of
public services/plans
Indicators:
% change in public opinion
towards government and radical
groups
% increase of supporters of more
moderate mosques (attendance
Friday prayers)
% reduction of honor killings
and violent clan feuds
% of belief the government is
responding to needs of people
% increase of CSOs becoming
active in thematic areas
% Increase use of public services
% increase of community
member knowledge about
planned and ongoing
development activities and
policies (survey)
Total # of youth and women
forum discussions
% increase of community

Outcome
Baseline
Limited
research
into
current
Knowledge
, Attitudes

Activities
Outputs
1. A government led
initiative is providing
alternative view-points
and correct
interpretations of Islam;
messages of peace, nonviolence and tolerance
to communities
US $ 3.5 m
Indicators
Coherent GoP/GoKP counter
radicalisation strategy
developed and implemented
Total number of
reconciliation workshops
and interactive seminars
with tribal elders, maliks,
mosque imams, teachers/
other community leaders
total number of seminars
with religious leaders
total # of peace messages
disseminated
total # of events on peace
& tolerance
2. The Government
provides information on
planned and ongoing
activities across all line
ministries/sectors to
the public
US $ 3.9 m
Indicators:
Government succeeded in
implementing Public
information Campaign
Communities informed
about:
skills trainings, re-stocking of

07/10

12/10

1.
Militant
propaganda
content
analysis carried
out
2.
Management
structure for
strategic
communicatio
n initiatives
established
3. Feedback to
stakeholders
consulted
during preassessment
phase
4.
Comprehensiv
e KAP survey
as baseline and
to identify
audience
specific needs
8. Mapping of
moderate
opinion leaders
9. Moderate
religious
scholars run
Q&A service

1. CounterRadicalization and
peace issues publicly
discussed/messages
disseminated
2. Public Information
material production
being outsourced
3. Public Information
material
disseminated

Indicators:
First school
writing and
poetry
contest on
issues of
tolerance and
peace

101

Indicators:
# of Pashto
cultural products
(songs, poems,
stories)
programmes / CDs
# of SMS sent with
peace messages,
songs, poems
# of messages on
trucks
# of school and
cultural events on
peace and local
culture
# of discussion
sessions with the
women of
house/village.
# of
reconciliation
workshops and
interactive
seminars
# of media
material/discussio
ns on thematic
areas

12/11

12/12

1. Counter Radicalization
Campaign continues

Counter Radicalization Campaign


closes down 12/6

2.Public Information material


disseminated and campaign
closes down

Comprehensive KAP survey to


identify attitude changes

Indicators:
# of articles referring to
peaceful initiatives
# of reconciliation workshops
and interactive seminars
# of citizen journalism training
and # of competitions for
citizen journalism material
# of media material &
productions in Pashto
# of SMS sent with peace
messages, songs, poems
# of messages on trucks, radio
spots (songs, poems, stories)
# of cultural events promoting
peace and local culture
# of community discussions
(hujra) about reconciliation
- # of women groups discussing
peace and reconciliation

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome
member self-reported awareness
of choices to address their
grievances and socio-economic
problems peacefully

Outcome
Baseline

Activities
Outputs
life stock, market
intelligence for farmers,
local security mechanisms,
distance learning courses,
financial support system for
educating needy children,
farming techniques and
support to women farmers,
drug use related issues,
preventive health care,
improving chances for
employment, extension of
freedom of information act
2000 and PEMRA laws to
FATA, proposed reforms in
policies and laws, social
protection instruments and
services
3. Dissemination of
psychosocial support
messages in collaboration
with Health, Social
Protection and Education
sector
US $ 3 m
Indicator:
Number of messages
disseminated
4. Peace jirgas are
established
Indicator:
Total # of Jirga sessions for
reconciliation amongst
communities and families

07/10

12/10

# of face to
face
discussions
with the
mosque
Imams' wives
and the wife
of the head of
house/village.
# of sms and
calls providing
answers to
religious
questions and
daily life
issues
# of mosque
announcemen
ts and friday
khtuba on
tolerance,
peace
# of
community
discussions
(hujra) about
reconciliation
# of womens
groups
discussing
peace and
reconciliation
# of advocacy
meetings with
opinion
leaders to
share
messages of
peace,
tolerance

# of
leaflets/posters/h
ot-lines
# of professional
thematic
publications

102

12/11

12/12

Transitional Results Framework: Communication Sector


Outcome

Outcome
Baseline

Activities
Outputs
07/10
# of
journalists
trained in
thematic
areas
# of radio/TV
shows
thematic
areas
# of
leaflets/poste
rs/hotlines/SMS on
thematic
areas/new
services

103

12/10

12/11

12/12