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MEMBERS

2.1 INTERNAL FORCES COMPUTATION

Consider a body of arbitrary shape acted upon by several external loads (Fig.

2.1). In statics, we would start by determining the resultant of the applied loads to

determine whether or not the body remains at rest. If the resultant is zero, we have

static equilibrium a condition generally

prevailing in structures. If the resultant is

not zero we may apply inertia forces to

bring about dynamic equilibrium. Such

cases will be discussed later under dynamic

loading. For the present, we consider only

cases involving static equilibrium.

Generally speaking, when loads are

applied to a certain mechanical structure or

machine, each component of such a

structure or machine is subjected to external

Fig. 2.1

loads of different values (Fig. 2.1). Under

the action of the external loads, internal forces occur inside the involved component

(assimilated to the arbitrary body represented in Fig. 2.1). If these internal forces reach

critical values the body (component) will fail.

One of the methods commonly used for the determination of internal forces in

strength of materials is known as the method of sections. In fact the problem remains

the same like that presented in the previous chapter: what does every point of the body

(generically represented in Fig. 2.1) ,,feel when the body is subjected to external

loads in mechanical equilibrium?

Fig. 2.2

Fig. 2.3

arbitrary point of the body and with an arbitrary orientation (Fig. 2.2). In this way two

distinct segments of the body will occur (Fig.2.3), the left surface (SL) and the right

surface (SR) representing the internal plane surfaces of the body, originally in contact.

Since the body represented in Fig. 2.2 is in equilibrium, neither of the two segments of

21

Strength of Materials

Fig. 2.6

Fig. 2.3 can be in equilibrium. If we want to

bring the segment II for example in the same state it is in Fig. 2.2, the action of

segment I on segment II (which actually exists inside the body represented in Fig. 2.2)

has to be considered. This action may be

reduced at the centroid O of surface SR to

a resultant force R and a resultant

moment M (Fig. 2.4).

In other words R and M represent

the action of segment I on segment II, as

a global mechanical effect occured at the

level of the entire section SR. In fact this

mechanical effect develops inside the

body represented in Fig. 2.2. Furthermore

it is to be noted that M and R represent

Fig. 2.4

the effect of the external loads acting on

the segment I (i.e. P1, Pn, M1 Fig. 2.2) which develops inside the body at the level of

SR.

The resultant force R and the resultant moment M are called internal forces.

Under the action of M, R, P2, Pk, Mk the segment II of the body is now in mechanical

equilibrium (as it really is in the actual state of Fig. 2.2). Now using the adequate

equilibrium equations for segment II, the values of internal forces R and M can be

derived.

A similar reasoning may be also applied to the segment I of the body, on which

internal forces R and M develop (Fig.

2.5). From action and reaction

mechanical law we may write:

R = - R,

M = - M.

Let us now apply the above

reasoning to a loaded statically

determinate member (Fig. 2.6). It is to be

mentioned that a statically determinate

member is a member for which all

reactions can be completely computed

Fig. 2.5

from statics alone.

After computing the specific reactions (YA, YB, ZBetc) corresponding to the

supporting points A and B, the member represented in Fig. 2.6 is in fact a body

subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium. Passing an exploratory

plane at some arbitrary point of the member, perpendicular to the axis of the member,

and considering only a segment of the

member (just like in the preceding

discussion) the internal forces R and M

are revealed (Fig. 2.7).

We do also attach to the segment

considered in Fig. 2.7 a coordinate

22

system whose origin is taken at the centroid O of the exploratory cross section (SR).

Ox is the axis of the member while Oz and Oy represent the axes to which the

exploratory cross section of the member is reported.

For convenience, the internal forces M and R are resolved into components that

are normal and tangent to the cross section considered, within the chosen coordinate

system (Fig. 2.8) - R resolved into components N, Ty and Tz, while M into components

Mx, Miy , Miz.

Fig. 2.7

Fig. 2.8

Each component reflects a certain effect of the applied loads on the member and

is given a special name as follows:

N: axial force (R component along Ox axis, or, more briefly, x axis). This

component measures the pulling (or pushing) action perpendicular to the section

considered. A pull represents a tensile force that tends to elongate the member,

whereas a push is a compressive force that tends to shorten it.

Ty, Tz: shearing forces (R components along y axis and z axis respectively). These are

components of the total resistance to sliding the portion to one side of the exploratory

section past the other. The resultant shearing force (acting on zOy plane) is usually

denoted by T, and its components by Ty and Tz to identify their directions.

Mx: twisting couple (twisting moment or torque) (M component along x axis). This

component measures the resistance to twisting the member and is commonly given the

symbol Mt.

Miy, Miz: bending moments. These components measure the resistance to bending the

member about the y or z axes and are often denoted merely by Miy and Miz.

The quantities N, Ty, Tz, Mx, Miy, Miz are also called internal forces. Each of

them produces a certain type of mechanical effect on the involved member:

23

Strength of Materials

N : axial loading ;

T , T : shearing loading ;

y z

M t : torsion ;

M iy , M iz : bending .

The simultaneous presence on the current member cross section of two or more

types of internal forces determines a combined loading.

Although the type of coordinate system used within such analysis is, in a way,

controversial, we shall use the following sign convention:

N, Ty and Tz should be considered positive if orientated to the opposite sense

of the axes;

Mt, Miy and Miz should be considered positive if orientated to the sense of the

axes.

From the preceding discussion, it is obvious that the internal effect of a given

loading depends upon the selection and orientation of the exploratory section. In

particular, if the loads act in a single plane, say the xy plane as is frequently the case,

the six components of Fig. 2.8 reduce to only three namely, the axial force (N), the

shearing force (T) and the bending moment Miz. This in why, in case of plane problems

(when plane members are subjected to loads contained in the same plane) the internal

forces refer to only three components whose positive sign convention should be taken

as follows:

Fig. 2.9

The positive sign convention represented in Fig. 2.9 should be used for plotting

the axial forces, shearing forces and bending moments diagrams. As it will be

explained later, the positive sign convention corresponding to the face SR is used when

the member is covered from the left to the right while the positive sign convention

corresponding to the face SL is used when the member is covered from the right to the

left.

BENDING MOMENT

24

distributed load p per unit length (Fig. 2.10a), and let C and C be two points of the

a.

b.

Fig. 2.10

We shall detach the portion CC of the beam and draw its free body diagram

(Fig. 2.10b). The forces exerted on the free body include a load of magnitude pdx and

the internal forces at C and C as shown. The shear and bending moment at C will be

denoted by T and M respectively, and will be assumed positive while the shear and

bending moment at C will be denoted by T + dT and M + dM respectively. Since the

shear and bending moment are assumed to be positive, the internal forces will be

directed as shown in Fig. 2.10 b. It is also to be mentioned that since the distance dx

between C and C is considered infinitely small, the load p may be assumed uniformly

distributed per length dx and may be replaced by a resultant pdx, (Fig. 2.11).

Fig.2.11.

the summation of forces about the vertical direction is zero:

Fy 0 T dT pdx T 0 .

We write

pdx dT

.

Dividing by dx the two members of the equation, we have:

dT

p.

dx

(2.1)

25

Strength of Materials

M C ' 0 M dM pdx

dx

M Tdx 0 .

2

2

p dx

being an

2

dM Tdx .

dM

T

dx

(2.2)

d 2 M dT

p.

dx 2

dx

(2.3)

The above presented relations may be successfully used for plotting the shear

and the bending moment diagrams. Generally speaking, internal forces diagrams (i.e.

diagrams of axial forces, shearing forces, torsion and bending moments) are a

graphical representation of the successive values of axial force N, shearing force T,

torque Mt and bending moment Mi in the various sections against the distance

measured from one end of the involved member.

In particular, relations (2.1), (2.2) and (2.3) bring us several important rules

concerning the shear and bending moment diagrams:

The distributed force p measures the tangent slope of the shear curve (shear

diagram). If p = 0, the shearing force will be constant;

It should be observed that Eq. (2.1) is not valid at a point where a concentrated

force is applied. At such a point the shear curve is discontinues and a sudden

change occurs in the diagram. The value of the sudden change in the shear diagram,

when a concentrated force is applied, equals the value of that concentrated force;

Equation (2.2) indicates that the slope

dM i

of the bending moment diagram is

dx

equal to the value of the shearing force. This is true at any point where the shearing

force has a well defined value, i.e. at any point where no concentrated load is

applied;

Equation (2.2) does also show that T = 0 at points where M is maximum. This

property facilitates the determination of the points where the beam (a member in

bending is often referred to a beam) is likely to fail under bending;

If a concentrated couple is applied at an arbitrary point of the beam, a sudden

change in the bending moment diagram occurs, the change value being equal to the

applied concentrated moment (couple);

26

Equation (2.3) shows that the shear and the bending moment curves will always be,

respectively, one or two degrees higher than the load curve. For example if the load

curve is a horizontal straight line (the case of an uniformly distributed load p), the

shear curve is an oblique straight line and the bending moment curve is a parabola.

If the load curve is an oblique straight line (first degree), the shear curve is a

parabola (second degree) and the bending moment curve is a cubic (third degree).

With the above rules in mind, we should be able to sketch the shear and the

bending moment diagrams without actually determining the function T(x) and M(x)

along the member, once a few values of the shear and the bending moment have been

computed. The sketches obtained will be more accurate if we make use of the fact that,

at any points where the diagrams are continuous, the slope of the shear curve is equal

to (- p) and the slope of the bending moment curve is equal to T.

For plotting the internal forces diagrams, the following steps have to be

covered:

a) Denoting of the important points. An important point of a member is a point where

a certain change (geometrical, loading, etc) occurs. The supporting points are

usually denoted by capital letters A, B, C, etc. and the other important points by

figures 1, 2, 3 etc.;

b) Two successive important points define a portion of the member;

c) Determination (when necessary) the magnitude of the reactions at the supports;

d) A covering sense of the member has to be chosen (from the left to the right, from

the right to the left or both);

e) For each distinct portion of the member a current cross section at distance x from

one end of the involved portion has to be considered;

f) For the current cross section considered, each distinct internal force (N, T, Mt, Mi)

has to be mathematically expressed as a function of x: N(x), T(x), Mt(x), Mi(x);

g) Plotting the functions N(x), T(x), Mt(x), Mi(x) along the entire member, the internal

forces diagrams are finally obtained.

DIAGRAMS

2.3.1 AXIAL FORCES DIAGRAMS

Example 1

Draw the axial force diagram for the horizontal member with one fixed end

and uniform cross section, shown in Fig. 2.12.

27

Strength of Materials

a.

b.

Fig. 2.12

Step 2 main portions of the member: 1 - 2; 2 - A;

Step 3 the magnitude of reactions may be determinated using the condition of

mechanical equilibrium:

Fx = 0 P + 2P - XA = 0 XA = 3P ;

Step 4 the covering sense of the member: let us say it is from the left to the

right;

Step 5 we first consider the first portion of the member (1 -2) and an exploratory

current cross section located at distance x from end 1 of the portion.

Looking to the left one can conclude that the single axial force

component acting upon the current cross section considered is equal to P.

For any value of x this component remains constant. This is why, for

portion 1 - 2, the axial force will be constant (N P). The corresponding

axial force diagram of portion 1 - 2 has to be hachured perpendicularly to

a reference horizontal line. Since the covering sense of the member was

chosen from the left to the right, the positive sign convention I has been

used (Fig. 2.12a).

In the same manner, the axial force for the second portion 2 - A of the member

is:

N 2-A = P + 2P = 3P = ct.

It is to be mentioned that portion 2 - A for example, could have been covered

from the right to the left as well. In such a case the current cross section is taken at

distance x from A and, looking to the right, we have:

NA-2 = XA = 3P (the same value as above).

When covering the member from the right to the left, the positive sign

convention II should be taken (Fig.2.12b).

The above presented algorithm for plotting the axial forces diagrams remains

unchanged even if the loading or the geometry are much more complicated or the

internal forces are not axial but shearing forces or bending moments.

The following examples will be accompanied by no supplementary

explanations.

28

Fig. 2.14

2.13

Example 2

Draw the axial force diagram for

the member supported and axially

loaded as shown in Fig. 2.13.

Portion 1 - 2 or, more simple, 1 - 2:

N(x) = 0;

Portion 2 - A:

N(x) = 3P = ct.

Example 3

Draw the axial force diagram for the member shown in Fig. 2.14.

Fx = 0; XA - 20 - 10 - 52 = 0;

XA = 40 kN.

Portion 1 - 2:

N(x) = 20 kN;

Portion 2-A:

x 0;

x 2 m;

N(x) = 20 + 10 + 5x = 30 +5x ;

N 2 30 kN ;

N A 40 kN .

Fig. 2.15 shows a simply supported beam that carries a concentrated load P,

being held in equilibrium by the reactions YA and YB. For the time being we neglect the

mass of the beam and consider only the effect of load P. Applying the method of

sections, let us assume that a cutting plane d - d, located at a distance x from point A,

divides the beam into two segments.

Fig.2.15

The free-body diagram of the left segment (Fig. 2.16) shows that the externally

applied load is YA . To maintain equilibrium in this segment of the beam the internal

forces occurring at the level of the exploratory section d - d must supply the resisting

forces necessary to satisfy the conditions of static equilibrium. In this case, the

external load is vertical, so the condition Fx= 0 (the x axis is horizontal) is

automatically satisfied.

29

Strength of Materials

Fig. 2.16

Since the left segment of the beam is in equilibrium, the resisting shearing force

T acting on the left segment has to be numerically equal to YA. In other words, the

shearing force in the beam may be determined from the summation of all vertical

components of the external loads acting on either side of the section. However, it is

simpler to restrict this summation to the loads that act on the segment to the left of the

section. This definitions of the shearing force (also called vertical shear or just shear)

may be expressed mathematically as:

T Fy L ,

(2.4)

the subscript L emphasizing that the vertical summation includes only the external

loads acting on the beam segment to the left of the section being considered.

In computing T, when the beam is covered from the left to the right, upward

acting forces and loads are considered as positive (see also the sign convention

presented in the preceding section). This rule of sign produces the effect shown in Fig.

2.17, in which a positive shearing force tends to move the left segment upward with

respect to the right segment, and vice versa.

Fig. 2.17

For a complete equilibrium of the free-body diagram in Fig. 2.15 and Fig. 2.16

the summation of moments must also balance. In this discussion YA and T are equal,

thereby producing a couple Mi that is equal to YAx and is called the bending moment

because it tends to bend the beam.

Analogous to the computation of T at the current cross section, the bending

moment is defined as the summation of moments about the centroidal axis of any

selected cross section of all loads acting either to the left or to the right side of the

section, being expressed mathematically as:

Mi M L M R ,

(2.5)

where the subscript L indicates that the bending moment is computed in terms of the

loads acting to the left of the section, while the subscript R referring to loads acting to

the right of the section.

Why the centroidal axis of the exploratory section must be chosen as the axis of

bending moment may not be clear at this moment; this will be explained later.

To many engineers, bending moment is positive if it produces bending of the

beam concave upward, as in Fig. 2.18.

30

Fig. 2.19

Fig. 2.18

We prefer to use an equivalent convention, which states that the upward acting

external forces cause positive bending moments with respect to any section while

downward forces cause negative bending moments. Therefore, if the left segments of

the beam is concerned (Fig. 2.16), this is equivalent to taking clockwise moments

about the bending axis as positive, as indicated by the moment sense of YA. With

respect to the right segment of the beam (Fig. 2.16) this convention means that the

moment sense of the upward reaction YB is positive in counterclockwise direction. This

convention has the advantage of permitting a bending moment to be computed, without

any confusion in sign, in terms of the forces to either the left or the right of a section,

depending on which requires the least mathematical work. We never need think about

whether a moment is clockwise or counterclockwise; upward acting forces always

cause positive bending moments regardless of whether they act to the left or to the

right of the exploratory section.

The definition of shearing force and bending moment may be summarized

mathematically as follows:

T Fy L Fy R ;

Mi M L M R ,

in which positive effects are produced by upward forces and negative effects by

downward forces.

This rule of sign will be used exclusively hereafter. To avoid conflict with this

rule, we must compute vertical shear in terms of the forces lying to the left of the

exploratory section. If the forces acting to the right of the section were used, it would

be necessary to take downward forces as positive so as to agree with the sign

convention shown in Fig. 2.17.

Example 1

Draw the shear and bendingmoment diagrams for the cantilever beam

shown in Fig. 2.19. (A cantilever beam is

a beam with a fixed end, subjected at its

free end to a single concentrated force P).

We observe that the internal forces

exerted on a current cross section at

distance x from the free end 1 are

represented by:

31

Strength of Materials

Fig. 2.20

a

= - P (see the positive sign convention);

a bending moment

x 0 M i 0 ;

Mi = - P x: x M 1 P .

iA

values corresponding to the bendingmoment diagram are represented above the

reference line. In this way the bendingmoment diagram shows us how the

involved beam deforms under the action of

the external loads.

Example 2

Draw the shear and bendingmoment diagram for a simply supported

beam AB, of span subjected to a single

concentrated load P (Fig. 2.20) the case

of Fig. 2.15.

We first determine the reactions at the supports from the free-body diagram of

the entire beam (Fig. 2.20); we find that:

YA

Pb

Pa

YB

;

.

For the portion A - 1, cutting the beam at distance x from end A, we have:

T = YA = constant;

x 0 M i 0;

Mi = YA x:

x a M i 1 YA a

P b Pab

a .

Pab

at x = a,

we note that the shear has a constant value. Even if the problem is quite simple, it is

more convenient to cover the second portion of the beam from the right to the left.

Therefore, cutting the beam at distance x from end B and using the adequate

sign convention we have:

B - 1:

T YB

Pa

x 0 M i 0;

B

Mi = YB x:

Pab

x b M i1 .

32

We can now complete the shear and bending-moment diagrams (Fig. 2.20). For

portion B - 1 the shear has a negative constant value while the bending moment

increases linearly from M = 0 at B to

Pab

at 1 (for x = b).

Remarks

If a concentrated traverse force acts at a section of the beam, a sudden change in the

shear diagram at that section occurs, the sudden change value being equal to that

concentrated force. In our case of Fig. 2.20, at point 1, the sudden change is:

Pb Pa P a b P

P.

If, for a certain portion of the beam, the shear is constant, the bending-moment

diagram is linear;

Covering the beam from the left to the right within the portion A - 1 and then from

the right to the left within the portion B - 1, and since at point 1 there is no

concentrated moment, there will be no sudden change in the bending-moment

diagram at point 1. This is why we have obtained the same value of the maximum

bending moment at 1;

The covering sense of the beam, when plotting such diagrams, has no importance. It

may be chosen from the left to the right, or from the right to the left or combined, as

it is convenient to us;

When designing a beam like that presented in Fig. 2.20, we must note that the

strength of the beam is usually controlled by the maximum absolute value Mi max

of the bending moment in the beam (in our case

M i max

Pab

).

We note from the foregoing example that, when a beam is subjected only to

concentrated forces, the shear is constant between the applied forces while the

bending-moment varies linearly between the forces. In such situations, therefore, the

shear and bending-moment diagrams may easily be drawn, once the values of T and Mi

have been obtained at sections selected just to the left and just to the right of the points

where the loads and reactions are applied.

Numerical examples

1. Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for a simply supported beam subjected to two

concentrated loads (forces) as shown in Fig. 2.21.

Determination of the reactions at the supports

Fy= 0 ; YA -5 - 10 + YB = 0 YA + YB = 15 kN ;

MA = 0 ; YB 4 - 10 3 - 5 1 = 0 YB = 8,75 kN ;

33

Strength of Materials

MB = 0 ; YA 4 - 5 3 - 10 1 = 0 YA = 6,25 kN .

Fig. 2.21

Portion A - 1

T = YA = 6,25 kN ;

x 0

Mi = YA x; x 1m

M iA 0 ;

M i 6,25 kN m .

1

Portion 1 - 2

T = YA - 5 = 6,25 - 5 = 1,25 kN ;

M i = YA (1 + x) - 5x .

This means that

x 0 M i 6.25 kN m ;

1

x 2 m M i2 6,25 1 2 5 2 8,75 kN m.

For the last portion it is much more convenient to cover the beam from the right to the left.

Portion B - 2

T = - YB = - 8,75 kN;

M i = YB x

x 0

M i 0;

B

1

m

i2 8,75 1 8,75 kN m .

We obtain therefore the shear and bending-moment diagrams shown in Fig. 2.21.

2. Draw the axial force, shear and bending - moment diagrams for the beam shown in Fig. 2.22.

34

2.22 can be drawn in a

simplified manner as shown in

Fig. 2.23.

As in preceding example, the

reactions are determined by

considering the entire beam as

a free body, they are:

Fig. 2.22

YB = 2,5 kN.

-A

Portion 1

Fig. 2.23

N 10

2 cos 45 10 kN ;

T 10

Mi

1 A

2 sin 45 10 kN ;

10 2

2

x 10 x :

2

x 0 M i 0 ;

1

x 1m M i A 10kN m.

Portion A - 2

N 10

2 cos 45 10 kN ;

T 10 2 sin 45 Y A

10 22,5 12,5 kN ;

2

1 x Y A x

2

101 x 22,5 x :

M i A 2 10 2

M i A 10 kN m ;

x0

x 1 m M 2,5 kN m .

i2

It is more convenient to us to cover the last portion of the beam from the right to the left.

35

Strength of Materials

Portion B 2

N X B 10 kN ;

Fig. 2.24

T YB 2,5 kN ;

M iB 0 ;

x0

x 1 m M i 2 2,5 kN m .

M i B 2 YB x 2,5 x :

We can now complete the axial force, shear and bending-moment diagrams of Fig. 2.23. We

note that the axial force has a constant value along the beam; the shear has also constant values

between the important points of the beam while the bending moment varies linearly. At points

(sections) where concentrated forces act, sudden changes in the shear diagram occur (whose values

equals the applied concentrated forces). Since there are no concentrated moments on the beam there

will be no sudden changes in the bending-moment diagram.

Example 3

Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for a beam, simply supported

at its ends and subjected to a uniformly distributed load p (Fig. 2.24).

Due to the symmetry of loading and geometry, the reactions are:

p .

YA YB

2

x from A and note that:

T YA px

p

px :

2

p

x

0

;

T

;

A

x ; T 0;

2

x ; TB 2 .

M i YA x p x

x p

px 2

x

2

2

2

x 0;

x ;

M A 0;

M B 0.

Within the calculus, the distributed load over the current portion of the beam has

been replaced by its resultant px applied at the midpoint of the involved portion.

Since at the midpoint of the beam the shear equals zero, the bending moment

reaches a maximum value at that point:

p p

2 2 2 2

2

M max M i

p2

.

8

We do also note that the shear diagram is represented by an oblique straight line (Fig.

2.24), while the bending-moment diagram by a parabola. In the section where T = 0,

36

Fig. 2.25

the

maximum value.

bending-moment

has

Example 4

Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for a beam, simply supported

at its ends and subjected to a linearly distributed load (Fig. 2.25).

The entire beam is taken as a free body, and, from the conditions of equilibrium,

we write:

Fy = 0 ; YA YB

p0

;

2

p0

0;

2

3

p

YA 0

;

6

MA = 0 ; Y B p 0 2 0 ;

2

3

p

YB 0 .

3

MB = 0 ; YA

equilibrium (Fy = 0) we check that

the values already obtained for YA and

YB are correct.

Now writing the mathematical expressions of the shear and bending-moment at

an arbitrary section at distance x from end A, we have:

px x

;

2

px x

x

x

.

2

3

T YA

M i YA

px

p0

px

p0

x

,

T YA

px x

p

p p x2

x x

0 p0 0 0

;

2

6

2

6

2

37

Strength of Materials

Fig. 2.26

Fig. 2.27

x 0;

x = ;

M i YA x

p0

;

6

p0

TA =

TB

p 0 2

2

p x x x p0

p x p0 x 3

x x2

x p0

0

2

3

6

6

6

6

x 0;

x = ;

= -

M iA = 0 ;

M iB = 0 ;

The shear curve is thus a parabola while the bending-moment curve is a third degree

function. The shear curve intersects the x axis at a distance given by equation:

T 0

p0 p0 x 2

0 x

.

6

2

3

bending moment occurs at

dM i

dx

(and thus

,

3

since T

of x:

p

p

0

0

6

3 6 3

3

Mi

p0 2

.

9 3

Example 5

Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for a simply supported beam,

subjected to a concentrated moment M0 applied at point 1 (Fig. 2.26).

The entire beam is taken as a free body and we have:

38

p0

3

YA

Fig. 2.28

M0

M

; YB 0 .

The negative sign of YB indicates that the real sense of this reaction is opposite to that

represented in Fig. 2.26.

The shear at any section is constant and equal to M0 / . Since a concentrated

moment (couple) is applied at 1, the bending-moment diagram is discontinuous at 1; the

bending-moment decreases suddenly by an amount equal to M0.

Remark

The concentrated moment in Fig. 2.26 symbolizes for example the action of two

equal and opposite concentrated forces as shown in Fig. 2.27, where M0 = P d.

A complex sample problem

Sketch the shear and bending-moment diagrams for the simply supported beam shown in

Fig. 2.28.

free body, we determine the reactions as

follows:

Fy = 0 ;YA + YB + 5 - 10 1 = 0;

YA + YB = 5;

MB = 0 ; 5 3 -10 1 2,5 + YA 2 + 15 = 0;

YA = - 2,5 kN;

MA = 0 ; 5 1 -10 1 0,5 + 15 - YB 2 = 0;

YB = 7,5 kN.

Using the first equation of equilibrium

(Fy = 0) we check that the two values

obtained for YA and YB are valid.

Next we draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams. The sketches obtained will be more

accurate if we make use of the fact that, at any point where the curves are continuous, the slope of

the shear curve is equal to -p while the slope of the bending-moment curve is equal to T.

Portion 1 - A

T 5 10 x :

x 0;

x 1 m;

T1 5 kN ;

T A 5 kN .

This means that at the midpoint between 1 and A (for x = 0,5 m) the shear is zero, and, therefore, the

bending-moment reaches a maximum value. It is to be mentioned that this point of maximum for the

bending moment is valid only for the involved portion (i.e. 1 - A). Within the other portions of the

beam the bending-moment could reach grater values as well. This is why, the maximum value of the

39

Strength of Materials

bending reached within a certain portion of the beam is called a local maximum. There are cases in

which a local maximum does also represent a global maximum too.

x

M i 5 x 10 x

5x 5x 2 :

2

Portion A - 2

Mi

x 0;

x 1 m;

x 0,5 m;

T 5 10 1 Y A 5 10 2,5 7,5 kN ;

5 1 x 10 1

0,5

x 0;

x 1

x :

M i 2 = - 7,5 kN m tells us that close to the end 2 of the portion A - 2, the bending moment reaches

such a value.

It will be more convenient to us to cover the last portion of the beam from the right to the

left (i.e. from B to 2):

Portion B - 2

Mi

T YB 7,5 kN ;

Y B x 7,5 x :

x 0;

x 1 m;

This time, M i 2 = - 7,5 kN m tells us that close to the end 2 of the portion B - 2, the bending

moment reaches such a value. In this way we have obtained two values for the bending-moment at

point 2: one for the portion A - 2, close to the point 2 to the left and one for the portion B - 2 close

to the same point 2 but to the right. Since at point 2 there is a concentrated moment acting on the

beam (equal to 15 kN m), the sudden change in the bending-moment diagram at point 2 is correct.

In the preceding sections we have discussed about axial forces, shear and

bending-moment diagrams. Here we shall consider members which are in torsion.

More specifically we shall learn to draw internal forces diagrams for members

subjected to twisting couples or torques.

We say that a member is subjected to torsion if at any cross section of the

member, the internal forces are represented by a torque vector directed along the axis

of the member.

To sketch the torque diagrams the method of sections may be used, as presented

in the preceding sections.

Draw the torque diagram for a member fixed at one end and subjected to

concentrated and uniform distributed torques as shows in Fig. 2.29.

40

Considering

the

entire

member as a free body we obtain the

reactions at A.

Mx 0

M A M 0 2M 0

and covering the member from 1 to

A we have:

1-2

Mt M0 ;

2-3

M t M 0 2 M 0 3M 0 ;

3-A

Fig. 2.29

M

M t M 0 2M 0 m x M 0 2M 0 0 x ;

M0

4M 0 ;

x 0 ; M 3 3M 0 ;

x ; M A 4M 0 .

We note that, in such a case, the sign used for torques is not so important. As

soon as a certain sign has been adopted for the first met torque, the signs for the other

torques have to be adopted consequently. Therefore, the torque diagrams may be

sketched above or below the reference line. Like in the preceding examples, if a

concentrated torque acts at a certain section of the member, at that point a sudden

change in the torque diagram occurs (the change being equal to that concentrated

torque). The torque diagrams are usually hachured as shown in Fig. 2.29.

The superposition principle is a

consequence of the material linear-elastic

behaviour: the effect at any point of a

linear-elastic

mechanical

structure

subjected to several loads represents the

summation of the effects produced by each

of these loads acting separately.

Using the superposition method, a

complicated problem may be solved

through a summation of simple problems.

For example, the shear and bendingmoment diagram for the beam shown in Fig.

41

b.

Strength of Materials

2.30b.

Important remark

The drawing of the internal

forces diagrams (axial forces, shear,

bending- moment or torque diagrams)

may be performed in a unique, simple

a.

and logical manner: the involved

Fig. 2.30

member is cut at an arbitrary point, the

internal force of a certain type representing the summation of all corresponding

external loads (or moments) acting to the left or to the right of the cross section

considered (and using the adequate sign convention).

In case of shear and bending moment diagrams, a particular case may also arise.

The presence of one, two or more intermediate pin connections between different

segments of a beam, offers one, two or more additional conditions for the computation

of the external reactions.

Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for the beam shown in Fig.

2.31.

Due to the presence of the intermediate pin connection at point 2, the bending

moment (as internal force) at that section is zero.

On the other hand, the

bending moment at point 2,

represents the summation of all

bending moments given by the

loads acting to the left side of

section 2. We obtain therefore:

M i2 0

YA 4a p 2a 3a 0 YA 1,5ap .

bending moment diagrams may be

sketched as if the support A and

the intermediate pin connection

would have not existed, the beam

being subjected at A by an upward

vertical concentrated external force

equal to 1,5ap. We finally obtain

the shear and bending moment

Fig. 2.31

42

concentrated loads at fixed distance from each other. For beams carrying only

concentrated loads the maximum bending moment occurs under one of the loads.

Therefore the problem here is to determine the bending moment under each load

when each load is in a position to cause a maximum moment to occur under it. The

largest of these various values is the maximum moment that governs the design of the

beam.

In Fig. 2.32, P1 ,P2, P3 and P4 represent a system of loads at fixed distances a, b

and c from each other; the loads move as an unit across the simply supported beam

with span . Let us locate the position of P2 when the bending moment under this load

is maximum. If we denote the resultant of the loads on the span by R and its position

from P2 by e, the value of the left reaction is:

YA

R

( e x ) .

then:

M i ( M ) L

M2

Fig. 2.32

R

( e x) x P1 a .

will give the maximum M2, we set the

dM 2 R

( e 2 x ) 0 ;

dx

from which:

x

e

.

2 2

(2.6)

This value of x is independent of the number of loads to the left of P2, since the

derivative of all terms of the form P1a with respect to x will be zero.

Equation (2.6) may be expressed in terms of the following rule: the bending

moment under a particular load is a maximum when the center of the beam is

midway between that load and the resultant of all loads then on the span. With this

rule we locate the position of each load when the moment at that load is a maximum

and compute the value of each such maximum moment.

The maximum shearing force occurs at, and is equal to, the maximum reaction.

The maximum reaction for a group of moving loads on a span occurs either at the left

reaction, when the leftmost load is over that reaction, or at the right reaction when the

rightmost load is over it. In other words, the maximum reaction is the reaction to which

the resultant load is nearest.

(2D structures - FRAMES) AND SPATIAL (3D) STRUCTURES

43

Strength of Materials

The principle presented above for sketching the straight beams internal forces

diagrams may be easily extended to the plane or spacial structures. Let us consider for

example the plane beam shown in Fig. 2.33, for which we have to draw the axial force,

shear and bending-moment diagrams.

An observer "O covering the beam from 1 to A (or from A to 1, as it is easier

from the mathematical point of view) sees each straight portion of the beam as a beam

for which applies the rules presented in the preceding sections.

Therefore, for portion 1-2, at a

current section at distance x from 1, we

have (Fig. 2.33):

N 0;

T P;

x 0; M i1 0;

M i P x:

x a; M i2 Pa.

Fig. 2.33

Fig.2. 34

well. Let us suppose that the second case is being used.

44

Fig.2. 35

section located at distance x from point 2, where the observer is placed. Therefore, at

that section we have:

N P ;

T 0;

M i P a.

We note that all internal forces corresponding to the portion 2 - A are constant.

We are now in the position to draw the internal forces diagrams (N, T, Mi). It is

to be mentioned that, in such cases the diagrams are sketched with respect to a

reference line representing the x axis of the beam (the axis directed along the beam).

Analogous to the straight beams, for N and T diagrams + means above the reference

line. For the bending-moment diagrams, "+" means below and "-" means above the

reference line (from the observer's point of view). With these remarks, the internal

forces diagrams have been represented in Fig. 2.36.

Fig. 2.36

The diagrams represented in Fig 2.36 tell us what does the plane beam feel (as a

global effect) at each particular cross section, when subjected to the external load P.

We also note that it was not necessary to compute the reactions XA, YA, MA for

sketching the internal forces diagrams.

45

Strength of Materials

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

a) Draw the axial force, shear and bending

moment diagrams for the frame and the

loading shown in Fig. 2.37.

Considering the frame as a free body we

first determine the reactions:

Fx 0 x A 0 ;

F y 0 Y A YB P ;

M A 0

YB 2 P 0 YB

Y A YB

P

.

2

principle and letting an observer to cover the

beam from A to 1 and then from B to 1 we have:

A - 1:

N Y A

T X A 0;

P

;

2

M i X A x 0.

B - 2:

N 0;

T YB

P

;

2

x 0 ; M iB 0 ;

2 - 1:

P

M i YB x x ;

P

P

2 x ; M i .

22 2

N 0;

T YB P

P

P

P ;

2

2

P

P

x 0; M i2 ;

M i YB ( x) Px ( x) Px;

2

2

x ; M i 0.

1

46

Fig. 2.37

The axial force, shear and bending moment diagrams have been represented in Fig.

2.38.

Fig. 2.38

b) Draw the axial force, shear and bending-moment diagrams for the frame shown in

Fig.2.39.

In Fig. 2.39b the simplified form of the frame together with the reactions have been

represented. Considering the entire beam (frame) as a free body and using the external

reference coordinate system Oxy, we determine the reactions as follows:

Fig. 2.39

F x 0 X A 5ap 0 X A 5ap;

F y 0 Y A YB 2ap 0 YA YB 2ap ;

M B 0 YA 2a 5ap 2a p 2a a 0 YA 4ap .

47

Strength of Materials

X A 5ap ;

YA 4ap ;

Y 6ap .

B

when the reactions YA and YB were computed from MA = 0 and MB = 0. The N, T

and Mi diagrams are shown in Fig. 2.40.

Fig. 2.40

c) Draw the axial force, shear and bending-moment diagrams for the curved beam of

radius R shown in Fig. 2.41.

Although the axis of the beam is not a straight line, the principle presented

above for sketching the N, T, Mi diagrams remains valid.

The problem consists in determining the internal forces corresponding to each

particular cross section of the beam. In order to locate the current cross section an

angular parameter must be used (instead of the linear parameter x which has been

used up the now) for each particular portion of the curved beam.

Fig. 2.42

Fig. 2.43

Let us now consider the first portion 12 of the built-in arch shown in Fig. 2.41.

The axial force, shear and bending moment equations for segment 1 2 are obtained

similarly by passing a cross section aa anywhere between 1 and 2. As discussed

48

above, the cross section is located by the parameter . When varies between 0 and

90 the whole portion 1 - 2 of the curved beam is covered. The concentrated load P

which acts at section 1, transmits its effect through the segment BCDE up to the

current cross section D'E located by parameter (Fig. 2.42).

This means that a vertical downward load P will act at the centroid O of the

current cross section DE. It is in fact the internal force exerted on the current cross

section and may be resolved into two components: one component perpendicular to the

current cross section DE and the other one contained within the plane of the cross

section. The first component represents the current axial force (N) while the second

component represents the corresponding shearing force (T). An observer O placed at

the current cross section, using the proper positive sign convention will see that:

N P cos :

T P sin :

0; N P ;

0 ;T 0 ;

; N 0;

2

;T P .

The bending moment exerted by the concentrated load P, acting at point 1, with

respect to the centroid O of the current cross section is (Fig. 2.43):

M i P ( R R cos ) PR(1 cos ) :

0 ; M i1 0;

; M i PR.

2 2

The same reasoning may be

applied when the second portion of the

curved beam is to be covered. This time

Fig. 2.43

it will be more convenient to us to cover

the beam from A to 2. But in this case we have to compute the reactions YA and MA at

first. This will be done by considering the entire curved beam as a free body and using

the corresponding equations of

equilibrium, Fig.2.42.

F y 0 Y A P 2 P 0 Y A 3P ;

M A 0 M A P 2 R 2 P R 0 M A 4 PR .

We write:

N Y A cos 3P cos ;

49

Fig. 2.44

Strength of Materials

0 ; N A 3P ;

2 ; N 2 0.

T Y A sin 3P sin ;

0 ;TA 0 ;

2 ;T2 3P .

M i M A YA ( R R cos ) 4 PR 3PR(1 cos ) ;

0; M i A M A 4 PR ;

; M i2 PR .

2

The axial force, shear and bending moment diagrams have been represented in Fig.

2.45. It is to be noted that all the established properties of the N, T, Mi diagrams of

straight beams remains valid.

Fig. 2.45

dimensional structure) represented by a beam, fixed at one end, and subjected to two

concentrated loads P and Q at the other end, Fig. 2.46.

50

Fig. 2.46

d) Draw the axial force, shear, bending moment and torque diagrams for the 3D

beam shown in Fig. 2.46.

Although the problem seems to be a little bit more completed the basic principle

for sketching the internal force diagrams remains unchanged.

Before solving the problem there are still some important remarks to be done:

As it will be discussed later, the sign of the shearing force has no physical

consequences in designing a beam or a certain mechanical structure. This is why, in

case of complicate structures, we shall give the T sign up and we shall represent the

T diagrams as they are convenient to us;

The sign of the bending moment does also depend upon the relative position of the

observer, Fig. 2.47. Although the two beams represented in Fig. 2.47 are entirely

identical from the geometrical and loading point of view, the two corresponding

bending - moment diagrams have different signs. These signs are, after all, simple

conventions. On the other hand, it is to be observed that in both cases of Fig 2.47,

the bending-moment diagrams occupy the same position with respect to the

reference line. In other words, this means that the position of the bending-moment

diagrams do not depend upon the observer's position. The location of the bending

moment diagram with respect to the reference line corresponds to the position of

the beam fibres in tension.

51

Strength of Materials

Fig. 2.47

For this reason, in many cases, we shall not note the sign of the bending moment

diagrams and we shall represent these diagrams on the side corresponding to the beam

fibres in tension, Fig. 2.48.

Let us now return to the original

problem regarding the simple 3D

structure shown in Fig. 2.46. Covering

the beam from 1 to A and attaching a

proper coordinate system (whose Ox axis

is usually directed along the beam) to

each main portion of the beam (Fig. 2.46)

we obtain the axial force, shearing force,

bending - moment and torque diagrams

shown in Fig. 2.49. It should be noted

that, for each main portion of the beam,

Fig. 2.48

two shearing forces and two bendingmoments could exist simultaneously (about Oy and Oz axes).

We shall now conclude our analysis concerning the main types of internal forces

by observing that these diagrams are in fact a graphical representation of a global

mechanical effect occured at any particular cross section of a given member subjected

to external loads.

52

Fig. 2.49

While these diagrams represent a first and necessary step in the analysis of a given

structural member, they do not tell us whether the external loads may be safely

supported. Whether or not a given structural member will break under the external

loading clearly depends upon the ability of the material to withstand the corresponding

elementary forces occurred at the level of each particular point of the member cross

sections. This is why, after a short study of the moments of inertia within the next

chapter, some other chapters of the text will be devoted to the analysis of the stresses

and of the corresponding deformations in various structural members, considering

axial loading, shearing loading, torsion and bending successively. Each analysis will

be based upon a few basic concepts, namely, the conditions of equilibrium of the

forces exerted on the member, the relations existing between stress and strain in the

material and the conditions imposed by the supports and loading of the member. The

study of each type of loading will be complemented by examples, sample problems

and problems to be assigned, all designed to strengthen the students understanding of

the subject.

53

Strength of Materials

PROBLEMS TO BE ASSIGNED

P2

P.2.1 Draw the axial force, shear and bending moment diagrams for the members, frames and

loading shown (Fig. P.2.1).

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

Fig. P.2.1

54

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

55

Strength of Materials

r.

s.

t.

u.

Fig. P.2.1 (continued)

P.2.2 Draw the torque diagrams for the members and loading shown (Fig. P.2.2).

Fig. P.2.2

P.2.3 Draw the axial force, shear, bending moment and torque diagrams for the 3-D structures

and loading shown (Fig. P.2.3).

56

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

Fig. P.2.3

57

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