Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 167

AVERTISSEMENT

Ce document est le fruit d'un long travail approuv par le jury de


soutenance et mis disposition de l'ensemble de la
communaut universitaire largie.
Il est soumis la proprit intellectuelle de l'auteur. Ceci
implique une obligation de citation et de rfrencement lors de
lutilisation de ce document.
D'autre part, toute contrefaon, plagiat, reproduction
encourt une poursuite pnale.

illicite

Contact : ddoc-theses-contact@univ-lorraine.fr

LIENS

Code de la Proprit Intellectuelle. articles L 122. 4


Code de la Proprit Intellectuelle. articles L 335.2- L 335.10
http://www.cfcopies.com/V2/leg/leg_droi.php
http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/infos-pratiques/droits/protection.htm

IoffePhysicalTechnicalInstitute
oftheRussianAcademyofSciences
DivisionofPlasmaPhysics,
AtomicPhysicsandAstrophysics
HighTemperaturePlasmaPhysicsLaboratory

UniversitdeLorraine
CollegiumSciencesetTechnologies
EcoledoctoraleEMMA

Thse

prsentepourlobtentiondutitrede

DocteurdelUniversitdeLorraine
enPhysique

parNataliaKOSOLAPOVA

Recontructionduspectreennombredondesradiaux
partirdesdonnesdelarflectomtriedecorrlationradiale

Soutenancepubliquele16Novembre2012

MembresduJury:
Rapporteurs:

Dr.VictorBULANIN

SPbSPU,SaintPetersburg,Russie

Dr.DominiqueGRESILLON

CNRS,Palaiseau,France

Dr.AlexeyPOPOV

IoffeInstitute,SaintPetersburg,Russie

Dr.MichaelIRZAK

IoffeInstitute,SaintPetersburg,Russie

Dr.RolandSABOT

CEA,SaintPaullsDurance,France

Directeurdethse:

Pr.StphaneHEURAUX

InstituteJeanLamour,Nancy,France

Codirecteurdethse:

Pr.EvgeniyGUSAKOV

IoffeInstitute,SaintPetersburg,Russie

Examinateurs:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

InstituteJeanLamourUMR7198CNRS
LaboratoiredePhysiquedesMilieuxIonissetApplications
FacultdesSciences&Techniques54500VanduvrelsNancy

IoffePhysicalTechnicalInstitute
oftheRussianAcademyofSciences
DivisionofPlasmaPhysics,
AtomicPhysicsandAstrophysics
HighTemperaturePlasmaPhysicsLaboratory

UniversitdeLorraine
CollegiumSciencesetTechnologies
EcoledoctoraleEMMA

Thesis

presentedforobtainingthetitleof

DoctoroftheUniversityofLorraine

inPhysics

byNataliaKOSOLAPOVA

Reconstructionofmicroturbulencewavenumberspectra
fromradialcorrelationreflectometrydata

Publicdefenseonthe16thofNovember2012

MembersoftheJury:

Referees:
Dr.VictorBULANIN

SPbSPU,SaintPetersburg,Russia

Dr.DominiqueGRESILLON

CNRS,Palaiseau,France

Dr.AlekseyPOPOV

IoffeInstitute,SaintPetersburg,Russia

Dr.MikhailIRZAK

IoffeInstitute,SaintPetersburg,Russia

Dr.RolandSABOT

CEA,SaintPaullsDurance,France

Supervisor:

Pr.StphaneHEURAUX

InstituteJeanLamour,Nancy,France

CoSupervisor:

Pr.EvgeniyGUSAKOV

IoffeInstitute,SaintPetersburg,Russia

Examinators:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

InstituteJeanLamourUMR7198CNRS
LaboratoiredePhysiquedesMilieuxIonissetApplications
FacultdesSciences&Techniques54500VanduvrelsNancy

Natalia Kosolapova
email:n.kosolapova@mail.ioffe.ru

Nancy,France
November16,2012

____________________________________________________________________________Summary

Reconstruction of microturbulence wave number spectra from radial correlation


reflectometrydata

Summary:Turbulenceissupposedtobethemainsourceofanomaloustransportintokamaks
which leads to loss of heat much faster than as it is predicted by neoclassical theory.
Development of plasma turbulence diagnostics is one of the key issues of nuclear fusion to
control turbulent particles and energy transport in a future fusion power station. Diagnostics
based on microwaves scattered from plasma attract attention of researchers as nondisturbing
and requiring just a single access to plasma. The phase of the reflected wave contains
information on the position of the cutoff layer and density fluctuations. Correlation
reflectometry is now a routinely used technique providing information on plasma
microturbulence.Althoughthediagnosticsiswidelyspreaddatainterpretationremainsquitea
complicated task. Thus, it was supposed that the distance at which the correlation of two
signals received from plasma is suppressed is equal to the turbulence correlation length.
However this approach is incorrect and introduces huge errors to determined plasma
microturbulenceparameters.
Theaimofthisthesisistodevelopananalytical theory, togive a correct interpretationof
radialcorrelationreflectometry(RCR)dataandtoprovideresearcherswithsimpleformulaefor
extracting information on microturbulence parameters from RCR experiments. Numerical
simulations based on the theory prove applicability of this theoretical method and give an
insight for experimentalists on its capability and on optimized diagnostic parameters to use.
Furthermore the results obtained on three different machines are carefully analyzed and
comparedwiththeoreticalpredictionsandnumericalsimulationsaswell.

Keywords:TokamaksPlasmasTurbulenceReflectometryCorrelation

_____________________________________________________________________________Rsum

Recontruction des spectres microturbulence en nombre dondes partir des donnes de la


rflectomtriedecorrlationradiale

Rsum: La turbulence est suppose tre la source principale du transport anormal dans les
tokamaks,quiconduitlapertedechaleurbeaucoupplusrapidementqueceluiprditparla
thorienoclassique.Dveloppementdediagnosticsddislacaractrisationdelaturbulence
du plasma est lun des principaux enjeux de la fusion nuclaire pour contrler les flux de
particules et de transport dnergie de la centrale lectrique de fusion avenir. Les diagnostics
bass sur la diffusion des microondes induite par le plasma ont focalis lattention des
chercheurs comme outils non perturbants, et ncessitant seulement un accs unique de faible
encombrementauplasma.Leprincipedebaseestlilaphasedelonderflchiequicontient
des informations sur la position de la couche de coupure et les fluctuations de densit. La
rflectomtriecorrlationconsidreici,maintenantcourammentutilisedanslesexpriences,
est la technique fournissant de linformation sur le plasma microturbulence. Bien que le
diagnostic soit largement rpandu linterprtation des donnes reste une tche assez
complique. Ainsi, il a t suppos que la distance laquelle la corrlation des deux signaux
reus partir du plasma est supprime est gale la longueur de corrlation de turbulence.
Toutefois, cette approche est errone et introduit des erreurs normes sur lvaluation des
paramtresdelamicroturbulenceduplasma.
Lobjectif de cette thse fut dabord le dveloppement dune thorie analytique, puis de
fourniruneinterprtationcorrectedesdonnesdelarflectomtriedecorrlationradiale(RCR)
et enfin doffrir aux chercheurs des formules simples pour extraire des informations sur les
paramtresde turbulence partir dexpriencesutilisantla RCR. Dessimulations numriques
basessurlathorieonttutilisespourprouverlapplicabilitdelamthodethorique,pour
donnerunaperuauxexprimentateurssursescapacitsetpouroptimiserlesparamtresdu
diagnostic lors de son utilisation en fonction des conditions de plasma. De plus, les rsultats
obtenus sur trois machines diffrentes sont soigneusement analyss et compars avec les
prdictionsthoriquesetdessimulationsnumriques.

Motscls:TokamaksPlasmasTurbulenceSpectroscopiederflectanceCorrlation

__________________________________________________________________________

:
, ,
.

. ,
,
.
.
,

, . ,
, , ,
, , . ,
.
,

(),
. , ,

. ,
, ,
.

______________________________________Contents

I.Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1
1.1. Theworldenergyproblem ...................................................................................................... 3
1.2. Nuclearfusion:energysourceforthefuture ........................................................................ 4
1.3. Thetokamak............................................................................................................................... 7
1.3.1.

Tokamaksinthiswork ................................................................................................ 8
1.3.1.1.

ToreSupra..................................................................................................... 8

1.3.1.2.

FT2 .............................................................................................................. 10

1.3.1.3.

JET ................................................................................................................ 11

1.3.1.4.

ITER ............................................................................................................. 12

1.3.1.5.

Mainparametersofmachinesmentionedinthiswork........................ 13

1.4. Turbulenceinfusionplasma ................................................................................................. 14


1.4.1.

Howfluctuationscauseanomaloustransport ....................................................... 15

1.4.2.

BohmorGyroBohm(driftwave)scalingforturbulence .................................... 17

1.4.3.

Theoreticaldescriptionoftheturbulencewavenumberspectrum .................... 18

1.4.4.

Examplesofturbulencewavenumberspectra ...................................................... 20

1.4.5.

Turbulencesuppression ............................................................................................ 21
1.4.5.1.

Radialelectricfieldshear.......................................................................... 21

1.4.5.2.

ZonalFlows ................................................................................................ 22

1.5. Turbulencediagnostics........................................................................................................... 22
1.6. Radialcorrelationreflectometry............................................................................................ 24
1.7. Scopeofthiswork ................................................................................................................... 26

II.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry ................. 27
2.1. Propagationofelectromagneticwavesinplasmas ............................................................ 29
2.1.1.

Approximationsandrestrictionsused.................................................................... 29
2.1.1.1.

Stationaryplasma ...................................................................................... 29

2.1.1.2.

Coldplasmaapproximation..................................................................... 30

2.1.1.3.

Highfrequencies ........................................................................................ 30

2.1.1.4.

Anisotropy .................................................................................................. 30

2.1.1.5.

Propagationgwaves .................................................................................. 30

_____________________________________________________________________________Contents

2.1.1.6.
2.1.2.

Propagationinhomogeneousplasma..................................................................... 31
2.1.2.1.

2.1.3.

Linearapproximation................................................................................ 31

Perpendicularpropagation ...................................................................... 32

Propagationininhomogeneousplasma ................................................................. 34
2.1.3.1.

WentzelKramersBrillouinapproximation...................................... 34

2.2. Plasmadensityfluctuations................................................................................................... 35
2.3. MechanismofbackandforwardBraggscattering............................................................. 36
2.4. Reflectometryprinciples ........................................................................................................ 37
2.4.1.

Standardreflectometryforplasmadensityprofilemasurements ...................... 37

2.4.2.

Fluctuationreflectometry.......................................................................................... 40

2.5. Basicassumptionsandequationsin1Danalysis ............................................................... 41


2.5.1.

Reciprocitytheorem................................................................................................... 41

2.6. Scatteringsignalincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile ................................................. 45


2.6.1.

Asymptoticformsofthecharacteristicintegral..................................................... 47
2.6.1.1.

Contributionofthepole............................................................................ 47

2.6.1.2.

Contributionofthebranchpoint............................................................. 48

2.6.1.3.

Contributionofthestationaryphasepoints .......................................... 48

2.6.2.

Asymptoticformsofscatteringsignal .................................................................... 49

2.6.3.

Numericalcomputationexample ............................................................................ 50

2.6.4.

WKBrepresentationofAiryfunction ..................................................................... 51

2.6.5.

Longwavelengthlimit .............................................................................................. 51

2.7. Scatteringsignalincaseofarbitraryplasmadensityprofile ............................................ 52


2.7.1.

Numericalcomputationexampleforparabolicplasmadensityprofile ............ 54

2.7.2.

ShortsummaryonvaliditydomainofHelmholtzequationsolutions .............. 55

2.8. TheRCRCCF........................................................................................................................... 56
2.8.1.

RCRCCFforlinearplasmadensityprofile............................................................ 56

2.8.2.

RCRCCFforarbitraryplasmadensityprofile ...................................................... 58

2.9. TurbulencespectrumreconstructionfromtheRCRCCF ................................................. 60


2.10. DirecttransformformulaeforRCR ...................................................................................... 62
2.10.1. Forwardtransformationkernel................................................................................ 62
2.10.2. Numericalsimulationexampleofforwardkernelusage..................................... 63
2.10.3. Inversetransformationkernel .................................................................................. 65

Contents_____________________________________________________________________________

2.11. Ideas for a combined diagnostic using reflectometry and other density fluctuation
diagnostic.................................................................................................................................................. 66
2.11.1. ForwardandinversetransformsforICF ................................................................ 67
2.12. Summary .................................................................................................................................. 69

III.Numericalmodeling .................................................................................... 73
3.1. Numericalmodel..................................................................................................................... 75
3.1.1.

NumericalsolutionofunperturbedHelmholtzequation. ................................... 75

3.1.2.

Reflectometrysignalpartialamplitudeintegralcomputation ............................ 76

3.1.3.

SignalCCFcomputation ........................................................................................... 77

3.1.4.

TurbulencewavenumberspectrumandTCCFreconstruction .......................... 78

3.2. Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile ................................................. 78


3.2.1.

ReconstructionofturbulencespectrumandCCFforlargemachine.................. 78
3.2.1.2.

CCFandspectrumreconstructioninconditionsrelevantto

experiment................................................................................................................... 83
3.2.2.

ReconstructionoftheturbulencespectrumandCCFforsmallmachine .......... 87
3.2.2.1.

StandardconditionsofreconstructionatFT2 ...................................... 88

3.2.2.2.

Optimizedreconstructioninmorerealisticconditions ........................ 88

3.2.3.

AmplitudeCCFcomputation................................................................................... 89

3.2.4.

Inhomogeneousturbulence ...................................................................................... 90

3.3. Omodeprobingincaseofdensityprofileclosetoexperimentalone ............................ 92


3.3.1.

ToreSupralikeplasmadensityprofile ................................................................ 92

3.3.2.

Plasmadensityprofilewithasteepgradient ......................................................... 93

3.4. SyntheticXmodeRCRexperiment ...................................................................................... 95


3.5. Summary .................................................................................................................................. 97

IV.Applicationstoexperiments....................................................................... 99
4.1. Generalremarksondataanalysis....................................................................................... 101
4.1.1.

Reflectometergenericscheme ................................................................................ 101

4.1.2.

Quadraturephasedetection ................................................................................... 102

4.1.3.

Probingrangeandstep............................................................................................ 103

4.1.4.

Statisticalanalysis .................................................................................................... 103

4.2. ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra ......................................................................... 104


4.2.1.

ReflectometersatToreSupra.................................................................................. 104

_____________________________________________________________________________Contents

4.2.2.

Phasecalibration ...................................................................................................... 105

4.2.3.

Dataanalysisandinterpretation............................................................................ 107

4.2.4.

4.2.3.1.

Probingwithequidistantspatialstep ................................................... 107

4.2.3.2.

Probingwithexponentiallygrowingspatialstep ............................... 109

Summary ................................................................................................................... 114

4.3. ExperimentalresultsobtainedatFT2tokamak............................................................... 115


4.3.1.

RadialcorrelationreflectometersatFT2.............................................................. 115

4.3.2.

OmodeprobingfromHFS..................................................................................... 116

4.3.3.

XmodeprobingfromHFS ..................................................................................... 118

4.3.4.

Summary ................................................................................................................... 120

4.4. ResultsofexperimentalcampaignatJET .......................................................................... 121


4.4.1.

RCRdiagnosticatJET.............................................................................................. 121

4.4.2.

Experimentalresults ................................................................................................ 123

4.4.3.

4.4.2.1.

Shot#82671dataanalysis ....................................................................... 124

4.4.2.2.

Shot#82633dataanalysis ....................................................................... 128

Summary ................................................................................................................... 128

Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 129


Futureplans ..................................................................................................................................... 131

Appendix............................................................................................................. 133
AppendixA.Stationaryphasemethod ....................................................................................... 133
AppendixB.4thorderNumerovscheme ..................................................................................... 134

References .............................................................................................................................................. 137

Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 151

ChapterI

Introduction
_____________________________________________________________________________________

InthisChapterwegiveashortoverviewofworldenergyresourcesandestimatethefuture
energy needs of the world. The most reliable future energy source, nuclear fusion, is briefly
surveyed. One of the ways to produce energy from fusion magnetic confinement and the
tokamak,themostlikelydeviceforthefuturepowerstationarereviewed.Wealsodescribethe
impact of anomalous transport caused by microturbulence on the fusion device performance
and discuss advantages and disadvantages of contemporary turbulence diagnostics. We
concludetheChapterIbydescribingthescopeofthiswork.

_________________________________________________________1.1.Theworldenergyproblem

1.1.

Theworldenergyproblem

Asthepopulationoftheworldhaspassedthe7billionmarkandcontinuestogrowmore
thanlinearlyintime[1],thedemandforenergyisbecominganevermorecriticalchallenge.At
present day the world annual primary energy (before any conversion to secondary forms of
energy) consumption is about 15TWyr [2]. The World Energy Council [3] projects that by the
year2050theworldwideenergydemandwillbedoubleitspresentlevel.Thereforeinthe21st
centurytheprevalenttaskistosatisfytheneedfornewlongtermsourcesofenergy.
About 90% of energy consumption is satisfied nowadays by burning fossil fuels such as
coal,naturalgas,andcrudeoil[4,5].Thesesourcesarenotconsideredenvironmentfriendlyfor
creatingairpollutionduetothereleaseofgiganticquantitiesofCO2.

Figure1.1.EvolutionoftheCO2concentrationintheatmosphere.ThelevelofCO2 hasincreasedrapidly
duringthelast200years.DatapointsaremeasurementsonairbubblesentrappedinAntarcticicecores.
IcecoredataoverlapnicelywiththeatmosphericrecordtakenatManuaLoa,Hawaiisince1958[5,6].

CO2 is a greenhouse gas, a higher concentration of it in the atmosphere leads to a


continuousincreaseoftheworldsaveragetemperatureduringthetwolastcenturies,fromthe
beginningofindustrializationinthe19thcenturywhensteamengineshavebeeninvented(see
figure 1.1.). In the year 2008 the CO2 concentration has reached the value of 385ppm and
continues to grow [5]. Consequently, this changes the ecosystem in a very short geological
timescale what is a very risky geophysics experiment. Moreover, at the current rate of

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

consumptiontheworldsstockofoilwillendinthenearest4050years,ofnaturalgasin6070
years.Theestimatedsourceofcoalisenoughfornext250yearshoweverthiswontsatisfythe
worldsfutureenergydemand[2,4,5].
The first alternative to burning fossil fuels is renewable energy sources, among them are:
solar heating, ocean thermal, wind, waves, hydro electricity, tidal power, geothermal heat,
biofuel, wood, etc. Currently the contribution of this kind of sources to the world primary
energyproductionisonlyabout1.3%[4].Themosteffectiveareconsideredtobesolarheating,
wave power and hydroelectricity. Unfortunately the exploitation of renewables is limited by
naturalconditionsattheexactlocation.RenewableenergysourcesdonotdirectlyproduceCO2;
theemissionofgreenhousegasesisreleasedinlifecycleandisindirect.Hencetheuseofland
and indirect emissions are the two negative aspects of renewables which should not be
forgotten.Althoughthesenonfossilenergysourcesarelargeandinexhaustibletheyhaveonly
limitedpotential.
Thesecondalternativeisnuclearenergy(fissionandfusion).Nuclearpowerintheformof
fissionproduceslargeamountsofinexpensivefuel.Unfortunatelyitisnotfavorableaswelldue
to the highly radioactive waste created and not stored properly. In addition, known uranium
(U235)sourceswillberunoutin5080years[7].Itcouldbestretchedbyextractinguranium
fromseawaterorbytransformationofnonfissileelementstofissileelements(breederreactions
usingU238andTh)howeverthesafetyandenvironmentalproblemsoverbalance.
Nuclearfusionistheyoungestandlessdevelopedenergysourceneverthelessitpromisesto
producesafe,environmentfriendlyandinexhaustibleenergy.Thisshouldbethebestsolution
ofthestaggeringtasktodevelopnewenergysourceformankind.

1.2.

Nuclearfusion:energysourceforthefuture

The idea of controlled thermonuclear fusion appeared in the middle of 20th century. Basic
principleswereborrowedfromthemostfamousthermonuclearreactortheSun[8,9].Inthe
process that powers the Sun the four protons are combined to produce helium, releasing
globallyenergyinthreesteps:

p p D e e

D p 23 He
3
2

(1)

He He He 2 p
3
2

4
2

The idea to realize controlled nuclear fusion on Earth was evoked by analogy with solar
fusion production. However it is impossible to reproduce solar conditions on Earth. The
probabilityofthefusionreactionistoosmallduetoextremelylowvalueoftheprotonproton
crosssectionreaction[10]andiscompensatedbyspacescalesofSunandotherstars.Bylooking
4

__________________________________________1.2.Nuclearfusion:energysourceforthefuture

atthecrosssectionsoffusionreaction(seefigure1.2.),onEarththeleastdifficultfusionreaction
isbetweenthehydrogenisotopesdeuteriumD(thestableisotopeofhydrogenwithanucleus
consisting of one proton and one neutron) and tritium T (the radioactive isotope of hydrogen
withanucleusofoneprotonandtwoneutrons):
2

D 3T 4 He(3.5MeV ) n (14.1MeV )

(2)

Theproductsofthereactionareneutralheliumwhichcarriesonethirdoftheresultenergyand
high energy neutron. The energy of neutron can be converted into heat. Other possible
candidatesfornuclearfusionare:

D 2 D 3 He(0.82 MeV ) n(2.45MeV )

D 2 D 3T (1.01MeV ) 1H (3.02 MeV )

D He He(3.6 MeV ) H (14.7 MeV )


3

(3)

Thecrosssectionsofthesereactionsareshowninfigure1.2.TheDTreaction(2)hasthehighest
cross section at lowest temperature and is easier to be realized. Usually the DT reaction is
accompanied by side reactions, the most important of which are DD and TT reactions
howeverthesereactionscouldbeneglectedduetosmallfusioncrosssection.
Theenergyproductionofreaction(2)usingdeuteriumcontainingin1lofwater(33mg)is
equal to that of 260l of gasoline. Deuterium can be cheaply extracted from ordinary water.
Tritiumisaradioactiveisotopeofhydrogenandhasarathershorthalflifeabout12.3years[7]
and does not exist in nature. It can be produced as a product of nuclear reaction between
neutrons produced in DT reaction (2) and lithium [7] which is like deuterium a widely
available element [11]. Thus, sources for nuclear fusion present on Earth seem to be
inexhaustible.

Figure1.2.Crosssectionsversuscenterofmassenergyforkeyfusionreactions[7,12].

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

To launch the nuclear reaction in Earth conditions we need to heat atoms to high enough
temperatures.Duringthisprocesselectronsseparatefromnucleiandthegasturnsintoplasma,
the fourth state of matter. The term plasma was introduced 80 years ago by I. Langmuir to
describethechargeneutralpartofagasdischarge[13].Itisahighenergyelectricallycharged
mixture of ions and electrons. It is quasi neutral if the scale of plasma system is much larger
thanDebyeradius[14]andinfluencedbyelectricandmagneticfields.
PlasmaisbyfarthemostcommonformofmatterintheUniverse.Itmakesupover99%of
the visible universe. Stars, stellar and extragalactic jets, and the interstellar medium are
examples of astrophysical plasmas. In our solar system, the Sun, the interplanetary medium,
magnetospheres and ionospheres of the Earth and other planets, as well as ionospheres of
cometsandcertainplanetarymoonsallconsistofplasmas.Whileplasmaisthemostabundant
phase of matter in the Universe, on Earth it only occurs in a few limited places. It appears
naturallyonlyinlightningandtheaurora[14].Plasmacanalsobeobservedinwelding,electric
sparks and inside fluorescent lamps. In nuclear fusion plasma is used as a fuel for
thermonuclearenergyproduction.
To get energy from fusion, plasma is heated to very high temperatures. It is necessary to
reach firstly a point where plasma temperature can be maintained against the energy losses
solely by the particle heating. A steady state is achieved with equal external adsorbed
power Pext andfusionpowerproduced Pfus ,thisiscalledbreakeven.Inthiscasethepower
enhancementfactor Q Pfus Pext 1 .Ifitispossibletoturnofftheexternalheating, Pext 0 (or

Q ),theignitionisachievedandthereactionbecomesselfsustaining[16].
The requirement for the plasma burn to be selfsustaining is called Lawson criterion [17].
The product ne E* , where ne is the peak plasma electron density and E* is the global energy
confinement time, is a measure of quality of the plasma confinement. The socalled fusion
product(ortripleproduct) ne E* T isalsowidelyusedforcharacterizingtheperformanceof
fusion devices. It combines requirements on the two quantities, ne E* and temperature, which
both have to be large for ignition, into a single quantity. It is the function of the temperature
only.Foridealconditionsattheminimumthecriteriontakesaform[7]:

ne E* T 3 1021 m 3keVs

(4)

Severalwaystoachievetheaboveconditionsexist,mainlyinertialfusionthatusesinertiaof
the pellet [1820] and magnetic fusion that exploits magnetic fields to confine plasma [7, 21],
and a wide variety of other fusion concepts developed over the years as well. The magnetic
confinementisrealizedinseveraltypesoffusiondevices,thetwomainofthemarestellarator,
firstlyproposedbyL.Spitzerin1951[22],andtokamakbrieflyreviewedinthisthesis.

_____________________________________________________________________1.3.Thetokamak

1.3.

Thetokamak

Tokamak (from Russian ,


, toroidal camera with magnetic coils) is the predominant device in
thermonuclearfusion.ItistheearliestfusiondevicewhichwasfirstlyproposedbyI.Tammand
hisformerpostgraduatestudentA.Sakharovin1950[2326].
Principalschemeofatokamakisshowninfigure1.4.Itisatoroidaldevicesurroundedby
magnetic coils. The primary transformer circuit is situated in the center of toroidal camera;
plasma itself forms the secondary winding of the transformer. The poloidal magnetic field,
created by a toroidal current I p flowing through plasma, adds a vertical component to the
magnetic field, giving the magnetic field throughout the vessel a twist. This configuration
imposes to the particles that have drifted towards the outside of the ring to go back into the
centre,preventingtheplasmafromescaping.Plasmaisheatedbythetoroidalcurrentsocalled
Ohmic heating however it is not enough to reach Lawson criterion and additional heating is
required[2729].

Figure1.4.Schematicdiagramofatokamak[30].

In 1958 the first machine T1 started in USSR. In 1968 T3 tokamak has reached the
temperature of plasma of 10 million degrees and tokamaks became the most spread
thermonuclearmachinesintheworld[26].
At present time there are more than 200 of tokamaks in the world [31]. Mostly it is
experimentaldevicesfocusedonaquitenarrownucleartask.ThemostfamousinRussiaareT

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

10 (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow) [32], FT2, Tuman, GlobusM (Ioffe Institute, Saint
Petersburg)[33].InUSAtheNSTXinPrincetonandDIIIDinSanDiegoarethemostexplored.
In Europe the largest tokamaks are JET and MAST in Culham, UK [30], and Tore Supra in
Cadarache,France[34]whichutilizessuperconductingcoils.
A drawback of the tokamak concept is that it has to operate in pulsed mode. A tokamak
needs very strong toroidal fields and the strong currents flowing through the magnetic coils
generate a lot of heat to increase the plasma current induced by an increasing current in the
poloidalcoils.Afusionpowerplantbasedonthetokamakdesignwillonlyoperateefficientlyif
it employs superconducting magnet coils. One of the first tokamaks using superconducting
coils are EAST, an experimental superconducting tokamak, situated in eastern China [35] and
KSTAR[36]launchedin2008inSouthKorea.JT60hasbeenoperatinginJapanuntil2010when
itwasdissassembledtobeupgradedtoJT60SAalsoequippedwithsuperconductingmagnets
[37].
Superconducting systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct
currentinasuperconductingcoilwhichhasbeencryogenicallycooledtoatemperaturebelow
its superconducting critical temperature. Tokamaks with superconductor coils are focused on
reaching the steady state regime of operation which requires realtime control of transport.
Theserequirementsarefollowed byenhancedneedinsensitivediagnostics able to follow the
turbulenceintimeandspace.Thepresentthesisisexactlydevotedtothedevelopingofsucha
diagnostics which can be applied to determine plasma turbulence characteristics and may
becomeanelementoftherealtimecontrolsystem.

1.3.1.

Tokamaksinthiswork

Inthissubsectionwebrieflydescribethetokamaksmentionedinthisthesis:ToreSupra,FT
2,JETandfuturenuclearfusionreactorITER.Theresultsofnumericalmodelingperformedfor
all thesedevicesareshowninChapterIV.InChapterVwediscusstheexperimentsperformed
atFT2,ToreSupraandJETtokamaks.

1.3.1.1.

ToreSupra

ToreSupra(frontviewisshowninfigure1.5.)isalargemachine(R=2.25m,a=0.72m)with
superconductingtoroidalmagneticcoils(Bt=4.5T)andactivelycooledfirstwalloperatingsince
1988situatedatthenuclearresearchcenterofCadarache,BouchesduRhneinProvence,one
ofthesitesoftheCommissariatlnergieAtomique(CEA).
ToreSupraisspecializedtothestudyofphysicsandtechnologydedicatedtolongduration
plasmadischarge.Itnowholdstherecordofthelongestplasmadurationtimeforatokamak6
8

_____________________________________________________________________1.3.Thetokamak

minutes30secondsandover1000MJofenergyinjectedandextractedin2003.Itallowstotest
criticalpartsofequipmentsuchasplasmafacingwallcomponentsorsuperconductingmagnets
thatwillbeusedinitssuccessor,ITER,demonstratingthecapabilityofToreSupratorunlong
pulsesonaregularbasis.AnewITERrelevantlowerhybridcurrentdrive(LHCD)launcherhas
allowed coupling to the plasma a power level of 2.7MW for 78s, corresponding to a power
densityclosetothedesignvalueforeseenforanITERLHCDsystem[38].
AssoonasthepurposeofToreSupraistoobtainlongstationarydischarges,thetwomajor
questions are addressed: noninductive current generation and continuous heat and particles
removal.Thephysicsprogramthereforehastwoprincipalresearchorientations,complemented
by studies on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, turbulence, and transport. The first
physicsprogramconcernstheinteractionofelectromagnetic(LowerHybridandIonCyclotron)
waves with the hot central plasma. All or part of the plasma current can be generated in this
manner,thuscontrollingthecurrentdensityprofile.Thesecondphysicsprogramconcernsthe
edgeplasmaanditsinteractionwiththefirstwall.TheoriginalityofToreSupraistheergodic
divertor,whichperturbsthemagneticfieldattheplasmaedgebycreatingachaoticmagnetic
field region, resulting in outfluxes of hot plasma collected on neutralizers. Highly radiative
layershavebeenobtainedwiththisdevice,whilepreservingagoodparticleextractioncapacity.

Figure1.5.FrontviewofToreSupra[34].

A detailed description of the machine can be found on the official CEA website [34]. Tore
Suprahasbeenstoppedforupgradesince2011.

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

1.3.1.2.

FT2

The relativelty small (R=55cm, a=8cm) experimental machine FT2 tokamak (from Russian
2, Physical Tokamak 2) is situated in Ioffe Institute, Saint
Petersburg, Russia (front view is shown in figure 1.6.). The tokamak possesses exceptional
features: due to the small plasma current (Ip=22kA) the poloidal magnetic field is small
comparedtothetoroidalfield(Bt=2.2T).ThisleadstopoloidalLarmorradiithatcanbeseveral
centimetres, of the order of the minor radius. FT2 also has a large toroidal ripple with the
rippleloss region extending deep into the bulk plasma. With this wide ripple loss region, a
largenumberoftrappedparticlescansufferapromptlossevenathalfminorradius.[39]
After its construction in 1980 many interesting and important results were obtained, in
particular, in Hmode physics, lower hybrid (LH) heating [40, 41] and current drive [42] and
parametricinstability.TheauxiliaryheatingisprovidedbyLHwaves[42].Thisallowsreaching
centraltemperaturesofupto700eVforelectronsand400eVforions.Thedensityoftheplasma
pulses is sufficiently high to disable any current drive. It turned out that strong heating
significantlyaffectstransportprocessesinplasma.Aspontaneoustransitionintoanimproved
confinementmodehasbeenfoundduringlowerhybridheating(LHH)[44].Theanalysisofthe
effect of the radial electric field on the formation of transport barriers both inside and at the
edgeoftheplasmacolumnhasbeenstudiedin[41].Itwasshownthattheprofileoftheradial
electric field can be significantly affected by the combined action of LH heating and an
additionalrapidincreaseintheplasmacurrent.

Figure1.6.FT2tokamak,frontview[33].

ForfurtherinformationthereaderisaddressedtotheIoffeInstituteofficialwebsite[33].
10

_____________________________________________________________________1.3.Thetokamak

1.3.1.3.

JET

TheJointEuropeanTorus(JET),locatedatCulhamCentreforFusionEnergy(CCFE),UK,is
theworlds largest(R=3m,a=0.9m)andmostpowerful(P=16MW)tokamakandthefocalpoint
of the European fusion research programme [30, 44]. Designed to study fusion in conditions
approachingthoseneededforapowerplant,itistheonlydevicecurrentlyoperatingthatcan
usethedeuteriumtritiumfuelmixthatwillbeusedforcommercialfusionpower.
Since it began operating in 1983, JET has made major advances in the science and
engineeringoffusion,increasingconfidenceinthesuitabilityofthetokamakforfuturepower
production. The worlds first controlled release of deuteriumtritium fusion power has been
realized at JET in 1991 and the world record for fusion power of 16 MW which equates to a
measuredgain Q 0.7 hasbeenreachedin1997.

Figure1.7.OverviewofJETdiagnostics[44].

In the core of the machine is the vacuum vessel where the fusion plasma is confined by
meansofstrongmagneticfields(Bt=4T)andplasmacurrents(Ip=5MA).Adivertoratthebottom
ofthevacuumvesselallowsescapingheatandgastobeexhaustedinacontrolledway.Heating
at JET is realized by a flexible and powerful plasma auxiliary heating system, consisting of
Neutral Beam Injection (NBI, 34MW), Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH, 10MW) and
Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD, 7MW). A high frequency pellet injector for plasma
refuelling and for ELM pacing studies, a massive gas injection valve for plasma disruption

11

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

studiesareamongJETfacilitiesaswell.Remotehandlingfacilitiesallowsadvancedengineering
worktobeperformedinsidethevacuumvesselwithouttheneedformannedaccess.
Animpressiverangeofdiagnosticshasbeendevelopedovertheyearsformonitoringand
analysisofJEToperations.JETissurroundedbymorethan100differentdiagnosticsystems(see
figure1.7)and60ofthemareinuseduringanaverageexperimentcapturingupto18GBofraw
dataperplasmapulse.ThedatacouldbeanalysedusingremoteaccessfacilitiesofCCFEdueto
theJET facilitiesarecollectively usedbyall Europeanfusionlaboratories under theEuropean
FusionDevelopmentAgreement(EFDA).
JET possesses unique capabilities to operate with beryllium plasmafacing components
mirroringthematerialchoicesoffuturefusionreactorITER.Inrecentyears,JEThascarriedout
muchimportantworktoassistthedesignandconstructionofITER.Aftermorethan25yearsof
successful operation, JET is still at the forefront of fusion research and is closely involved in
testingplasmaphysics,systemsandmaterialsforITER.Today,itsprimarytaskistopreparefor
theconstructionandoperationofITER,actingasatestbedforITERtechnologiesandplasma
operatingscenarios.
FormoreinformationpleaseseetheEFDAwebsite[44].

1.3.1.4.

ITER

DespitetheprogresscontinuouslyachievedonJETandotherfusionexperiments,itisclear
that a larger and more powerful device would be necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of
nuclearfusionenergyonareactorscale.Thisisthepurposeoftheresearchanddevelopment
project ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), an international nuclear
fusionresearchandengineeringproject[46].Itisthefirstattemptofthehumanitytobuildthe
worldslargestandmostadvancedexperimentalnuclearfusionreactor.
ItisbeibgbuiltatCEACadarachefacilityinthesouthofFrance.Theprojectisthefirststep
on the way from experimental reactors to first DEMOreactor and finally to the electricity
producing power plant. The project is funded and run by seven member entities the
European Union (EU), India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and the United States. The
history of ITER began in 1985 when the Soviet Union, European Union, Japan and the USA
have built the collaboration to develop the hugest tokamak in the world. In 2006 the ITER
agreement was officially signed and in 2007 entered into force, the ITER Organization was
established.
The schematic view of the tokamak is shown in figure 1.8. The heart of ITER is a
superconducting tokamak facility with striking design similarities to JET, but twice the linear
dimensions. It will have a plasma volume of around 840m3. It is designed to produce

12

_____________________________________________________________________1.3.Thetokamak

approximately 500MW of fusion power sustained for more than 400s. ITER will be the first
fusionexperimentwithanoutputpowerhigherthantheinputpower.

Figure1.8.ITERschematicview[46].

The ITER program is anticipated to last for 30 years 10 years for construction, and 20
years of operation. Since 2007 it is technically ready to start construction and the first plasma
operationisexpectedin2019[46].

1.3.1.5.

Mainparametersofmachinesmentionedinthiswork

Table1.1.MainparametersofITER,JET,ToreSupraandFT2.
ITER

JET

ToreSupra

FT2

Majorradiusofplasma,m

6.21

3.0

2.25

0.55

Minorradiusofplasma,m

2.0

1.25

0.72

0.08

Volumeofplasma,m3

837

155

25

Plasmacurrent,MA

15

57

1.7

0.04

Magneticfield,T

5.3

3.4

4.5

2.2

300s

1080

minutes

0.06

DT

DD/DT

DD

HH/DD

10

8 10

8 10

6 1019

0.1..0.5[7]

0.4[47]

0.01[33]

500MW

50kW/10MW

kW

>10

Durationofpulses,s
Typeofplasma

20

Plasmadensity,m
3

Plasma

density

gradient

19

19

length,m
Thermonuclearpower
Q

13

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

1.4.

Turbulenceinfusionplasma

Magnetically confined fusion plasma is a more complex system than the neutral fluid. In
plasmas there are at least two fluids, electrons and ions, which cause great number of
instabilities.Microinstabilitiescausefluctuationsofelectricandmagneticfieldswhichinitsturn
cause fluctuations in velocities and particle positions therefore microinstabilities have an
influence on transport. Turbulence is induced by incoherent motion appearing from
instabilities.Itisratherfrequentphenomenoninplasmaexperiments.Observationsshowthat
plasmaisafluctuatingmediuminallitsparameterssuchasdensity,magneticfield,potential
and temperature. Various instabilities that cause turbulence present in various regions of
plasmawithdifferentcharacteristics:SOL,edgeandcore.
Drift wave microturbulence is considered nowadays to be the main source of anomalous
transport in tokamak which usually results in loss of heat much faster than it is predicted by
neoclassical approach. In figure 1.9. a comparison between neoclassical and turbulence
thermodiffusionalcoefficientsisshown.

Figure1.9.Comparisonbetweenneoclassical(collisional)thermodiffusionalcoefficient(dashedline)and
anomaloustransporte(bluesquares)andi(redcircles)coefficient.

Anomalous(turbulence)transportisnotfullyunderstoodnowadayshoweveritaffectsthe
performanceofcontemporaryfusiondevicesandremainsoneofthemostcomplexproblemsin
plasma physics. In plasmas, there are two types of fluctuations which can induce anomalous
transport:electrostaticandelectromagneticfluctuations.
The central role of microturbulence in anomalous transport has stimulated intensive
analyticalandexperimentalinvestigations.Thetwotypesofturbulencecitedbeforehavebeen
observedinexperimentshoweverthereisnoexactseparationwhichofthetypesisresponsible
foranomaloustransport.Inrecentyearsstudiesonplasmaturbulencehavebeenfocusedupon
smallscalefluctuations[47,47],longscalefluctuations[4950]andmesoscalefluctuationssuch
14

________________________________________________________1.4.Turbulenceinfusionplasma

as zonal flows and streamers [5254]. The mechanism of turbulence suppression is not well
studiedyetaswell.
In this work, turbulence is considered only through plasma electron density, and only
effectsandthedetectionofdensityfluctuationswillbestudied.

1.4.1.

Howfluctuationscauseanomaloustransport

ThissubsectionisbasedonworksofN.Bretz[56]andD.W.Ross[57,58].Weshortlyrecall
sometheoreticalbackgroundofanomaloustransportformation.Ageneralizedformofplasma
transportcoefficientsandanomalousfluxesofquasilineartypecanbewritten:

i Dn
Q j jT n j

T j
r

n j
r

DT

jnT j

T j
r

Vn j j

(5)

n j

5
Vn jT j kbT j j Q j
r
2

(6)

where total fluxes consist of a sum of terms arising from Coulomb collisions (neoclassical
transport) and terms arising from fluctuations (anomalous transport) and apply only to
transportbetweenclosedfluxsurfaces.Inthisexpression j and Q j areambipolarparticleand
energyfluxes,respectively,Dand areparticleandenergydiffusioncoefficients,respectively,
andVisaconvectionvelocity.Thesubscriptireferstoparticlespecies(electronorions)andthe
superscript tofluctuationquantitieswhichmaybeelectrostatic, E ,ormagnetic, B .

In terms of measurable quantities the particle flux is j j E j B where the E B


driven particle flux has the form j E n j r with r c E B . Similarly, for energy
flux, Q j Q j E Q j B one has Q j E

3
kb n j E T j
2

3
B kbT j E n j
2

B . Fluctuating

quantities are represented by density, n , temperature T , electric field, E , and magnetic


field, B . Subscripts r, , and represent radial, poloidal, and toroidal coordinates ...
denotesanensembleaverage,and kb is Boltzmanns constant.Oneexpects the electromagnetic
particle diffusion term to be negligible due to electromagnetic thermodiffusional coefficient
which is proportional to parallel velocity is much smaller than electrostatic thermodiffusional
coefficient proportional to turbulence correlation time (except at high nT B 2 0 ). Many
expressions for energy flow due to electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations are found in
literature.
When both ne and E can be measured simultaneously, the average convection flux
E
Qconv

5
kbTe E ne B canbecalculateddirectlywithoutfurtherassumptions.However,in
2

15

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________
casesofwavescattering,reflectometry,ECE,andBESonly ne or Te canbemeasured,and
additionalassumptionsaboutthetypeoftransportprocesshavetobemadeinordertoestimate
fluctuationdrivenfluxes.
Expressions for these fluctuation terms have been derived for a number of specific
turbulence processes. One that has been considered in detail is that due to electrostatic drift
waves which are driven by gradients in plasma pressure and are typically unstable over
significant regions of the plasma cross section. For all electrostatic modes one has

ne

ne sin e kbTe and k E where isthephaseanglebetween ne and ,

plasma potential. Particle flux can be written j E neTe ce

2
e

ne2 k sin where

Te ce cTe eB with the electron thermal speed Te kbTe me , and ce Te ce , the


electron cyclotron radius. Theoretical expressions exist for and depend on specific form of
turbulence. Limiting expressions can be obtained from additional assumption of strong
turbulence,calledthemixinglengthlimit: ne ne 1 k r Ln 1 , sin 1 ,andisotropy: k r k
where Ln d ln ne dr ,tofind:

Dn E strong turbulence Te ce ( ne ne )

(7)

Typicalconditionsofthetokamakcoreimplythatdensityfluctuationlevelsof ne ne 1% can
leadtoalossthatexceedsneoclassicalprocesses.Asaresult,observationsoffluctuationsinthis
rangealongwithdriftwavemodelshavebeenusedtoestimatecoretransport[58].
A similar estimate of the particle diffusion coefficient can be made from general random
walk arguments using average step size and correlation time across the magnetic field [59].
Thus,

Dn E (random walk) Lnc nc

(8)

where Lnc and nc arecorrelationlengthandtimefordensityfluctuationsacrossthefield.


There are other electrostatic modes that have been investigated as a source of anomalous
transport: resistive/neoclassical MHDlike modes driven by field curvature and ripple,
viscosity,andplasmacurrent; electromagneticskindepthmodes[61];andthermalinstabilities
attheplasmaedge[62].ComparedtodriftwavesMHDlikemodesarecharacterizedbylonger,
andskindepthmodesarecharacterizedbyshorterwavelengths.However,theaccumulationof
many past experiments has focused attention on modes that have frequencies and wave
numberscharacteristicofdriftwavesinthecoreoflargetokamaks,thatis, f e e 2 20kHz
and k 1 s 5cm 1 .
There are a number of mechanisms that can give rise to anomalous transport. Different
mechanismsmaydominateatdifferenttimesandindifferentregionsinplasma.Somemodes
cause transport and some do not. Experimentally, one sees MHD and turbulent processes
16

________________________________________________________1.4.Turbulenceinfusionplasma

occurringsimultaneously. In addition tokamak plasmas can havetoroidal and poloidal flows.


Instruments must be able to distinguish different modes in moving plasma. Finally, the
fluctuationamplitudesthemselvesaresmall.Intheplasmacoretypically ne ne 1% .Inthe
edge one has ne ne 30% (for an example see figure 1.10). Thus, measurement techniques
need to be accurate and be able to separate broadband turbulence from significantly higher
levelsofnarrowband,MHDlike,activity.

Figure.1.10.RadialprofileofdensityfluctuationsatdifferentdensityatToreSupra[63].

Summarizing, to access to physics of turbulence generation one needs to measure


fluctuating quantities: density, n , temperature T , electric field, E , potential and
magneticfield, B .Inthisthesismeasurementsof ne willbediscussed.

1.4.2.

BohmorGyroBohm(driftwave)scalingforturbulence

In absence of a fundamental, firstprinciples turbulence theory, heuristic, mixing length


rules are often utilized to estimate size scaling of turbulent transport [64]. This approach
invokes a random walk type of picture for diffusive processes using the scale length of
turbulenteddiesasthestepsizeandthelineargrowthtimeoftheinstabilityasthesteptime.It
predictsthatiftheeddysizeincreaseswithdevicesize,thetransportscalingisBohmlike,i.e.,
localionheatdiffusivityisgivenas:

cT

eB

(9)

17

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

On the other hand, if the eddy size is microscopic (on the order of the ion gyroradius), the
transportscalingisgyroBohm,i.e.,localionheatdiffusivityisgivenas:

GB * B

(10)

where * i a is ion gyroradius i normalized by the tokamak minor radius a. There is a


long history of confinement scaling studies that have correlated the thermal and/or particle
confinementwitheitherBohmordriftwavescalinglaws.Theissueisstillactivelydebatedasto
whichtransportscalingistooccurundergivenconfinementconditions[65].

1.4.3.

Theoreticaldescriptionoftheturbulencewavenumberspectrum

A better understanding of turbulence transport requires precise comparison between


experimentalobservationandtheory.Macroscopiceffectsgivegeneralinformationonturbulent
motion. It is clear that only macroscopic parameters or characteristics without detailed
investigationofwavenumberandfrequencyspectraandoscillationamplitudedonotallowto
determine the exact type of turbulent motion which is in charge of given microscopic
phenomenon. The turbulence energy spectrum function n2 describing fluctuation energy
repartition over different spatial scales contains information on characters of underlying
instabilities and mechanisms involved in energy transfer between different scales. Energy
transfertowardssmallerscalesiscalledthedirectcascade,towardslargerscalesitiscalledthe
inverse cascade. The wave number spectrum is the one of the few quantities that can be
measured in a tokamak and allows a highly detailed comparison between experiment and
theory[66].
Severalmodels describing turbulence spectralcharacteristicsexist:the dressed testparticle
model of fluctuations in plasma near equilibrium, 2D fluid turbulence and 3D model [67]. In
this work we consider the 2D model as soon as the simplest fluid model in the first
approximationgivesagooddescriptionofturbulencebehaviorinplasmas.
Well known 3D Kolmogorovs theory of high Reynolds number turbulence (K41 theory)
gives the spectrum scaling of the direct cascade 5 3 [68, 69]. However, the behavior of the
spectrumisdimensionallydependent.Inmagneticallyconfinedtoroidalplasmasthemagnetic
field B has two components: a toroidal component Bt produced by toroidal field coils and a
poloidal component B produced byatoroidalplasmacurrent.At firstapproximationplasma
turbulencemovingperpendiculartothemagneticfieldcanbeconsideredastwodimensionalin
poloidalcrosssectionofthetokamaksupposingcentralsymmetry.Experimentally,a2Dfluidis
realizedbyathinbutwidelayerwheremovementsaremainlyhorizontal.
In this work KraichnanLeithBatchelor (KLB) model of statistically stationary forced
homogeneousisotropic2Dturbulenceisconsidered[69].Thistheorypredictsexistenceoftwo
18

________________________________________________________1.4.Turbulenceinfusionplasma

inertial ranges: an energy inertial range with an energy spectrum scaling of 5 3 and an
enstrophyinertialrangewithanenergyspectrumscaling 3 .Theexistenceoftwoconserved
quantities complicates the construction of theory. Energy and enstrophy are injected into the
flow by some external forcingatsome intermediatewavenumber range min f max .The
mostofenergytransferstowardslow andformstheinversecascade,themostofenstrophy
transfers downscale towards high and is called the enstrophy cascade of direct cascade.
Energydissipatesatlargescaleduetofrictionbetweentheboxsizevorticesandtheboundary,
theenstrophydissipatesatsmallscalesduetomolecularviscosity[71].Theinverseenstrophy
and forward energy cascades are neglected however in reality there are small fractions of
upscaleenstrophyfluxanddownscaleenergyflux.
KLBtheorygivestheenergyscalesas:

5 3 , min f

n 3

f
max
2

(11)

Later R. Kraichnan has made logarithmic corrections taking into account nonlocality of
interactions[72].Infigure1.11theschematicwavenumberspectrumisshown.

Figure1.11.Schematicofenergyspectrumfordualcascade.

Thesimilaritybetweenfluidandmagnetizedplasmaislimited.Injectionappearsatvarious
differentscalesandthedevelopmentoflargescalestructuresinteractingwiththebackground
fluctuations impact the saturated state of turbulence [66]. For example, observations of wave
numberspectrumshowthatthespectrumiscomposedoftwopowerlawsathighk: 3 and

7 [47].

19

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

Figure1.12.TherangeofpoloidalwavenumberscoveredbyITG,driftwaves,TEMandETGmodes
ofturbulence.Largescalesaredominant.

Alargevarietyofmodescanbecomeunstable;theydifferinparticularbytheirtypicalscale.
The most common are ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode (typical scale longer than ion
Larmorradius i 1mm 1cm ),thetrapped electron mode(TEM)also of thesame order, the
smaller scale electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode (typical scale of the order of electron
Larmorradius e 10 m 100 m )[47].Theturbulenceatthelargestscalesisbelievedtobe
responsiblefortransport.Infigure1.12thescalerangesoftheseinstabilitiesareschematically
shown.

1.4.4.

Examplesofturbulencewavenumberspectra

Though the theory gives main dependencies in the turbulence wave number spectrum, it
couldbedifferentfromthatoneshownintheprevioussubsection.Thus,asitwasmentioned,
inplasmaalotofprocessestakeplace.Innumericalsimulationsthereisnothingtodowithout
assumptions.Thereforevariousshapesofspectraareusedinnumericalmodelingofturbulence.
Inoneofthefirstworksaddressingtothe1Dsimulations[73]theperturbationoftheform
of a wave packet located at x0 with a magnitude n0 , a spatial period extending over a
regioncharacterizedbyawidth :

ne ( x ) n0e ( x x )
0

sin 2 ( x x0 )

(12)

Andthespectrumtakesaform:

n2 ( n02 3) e l

2 2
c

(13)

where lc is the correlation length. This spectrum falls off rapidly with increasing and is
roughly consistent with theoretical drift wave models and with microwave scattering
measurements of density fluctuation spectra in tokamak plasmas [7376]. The same shape of
turbulence spectrum is used in works [77] and [78]. In the second work, another type of
localizedperturbationhasbeenstudied:
20

________________________________________________________1.4.Turbulenceinfusionplasma

n0 sin[k f ( x x f )], x x f w f
n( x )

(14)

0, x x f w f

where w f isthehalfwidthoftheperturbationcenteredaround w f and k f isthefluctuating


wavenumber.
In [77] in case of spatiotemporal turbulence the spectrum is introduced in the following
way:

ne ( x ) n0 g ( x ) sin( k j x xj ) sin(mt tm ) exp( k 2j lc2 8) exp( m2 tc2 8)

(15)

j ,m

g ( x ) accounts for a smooth inhomogeneous distribution of the fluctuation amplitude. The


temporalcorrelationfunctionforasetofsamplesisalsoGaussian, exp( t 2 tc2 ) .
SomeotherkindsofturbulencespectrawillbepresentedandcommentedinChapterIV.

1.4.5.

Turbulencesuppression

Intheimprovedconfinementregime(Hmode)[79]crossfieldlossesofparticlesandenergy
arereducedduetotransportbarrierswhichareformedbyshearedpoloidalplasmaflowsand
located closetotheplasmaedge.TheHmodeformationisstillnotclearlyunderstoodaswell
asturbulence suppressionorproperties modifications of fluctuations.Some ofmechanisms of
suchaneffectarebrieflydescribedinthissubsection.

1.4.5.1.

Radialelectricfieldshear

In1988S.I.ItohandK.Itohhaveintroducedtheradialelectricfield Er intotheexplanation
of the Hmode confinement regime [80] and therefore have shown its importance. A
spontaneousbifurcationof Er nowadaysisusedasatheoreticalmodeltoexplaintheimproved
confinement.

The electric field created a fluid like motion is known as E B drift. The E B drift
velocityisgivenbytheexpression:

E B


EB

B2

(16)

Theelectricfieldcanbedeterminedfromtheradialforcebalance:

Er , j B , j B

1 dp j

e j dr

(17)

wherejisanyplasmaspeciesandthelasttermisoftencalledthediamagneticcontributionto
the Er .

21

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

In 1990 Biglari, Diamond and Terry have developed a model showing analytically that a
possibleturbulence quench mechanismisasufficientlystrongshear intheradialelectricfield

Er [81]. The BDT model explains Hmode reduced turbulent transport due to accumulated
experimentalevidence.Itshowsthattheelectricfieldstabilizesnonlinearlyturbulentmodesin
plasma. The model also explains the formation of edge and core transport barriers. The
importantresultofthisworkisthatturbulencesuppressiondoesnotdependonthesignof Er
orits radialshear Er .TheBDTcriterionforsheardecorrelation(whenshearingrateexceeds
decorrelationtime)takesaform:

Er
t

B
k Lr

(18)

where t is the turbulent decorrelation frequency, Lr is the radial correlation length, k is


the poloidal wave number of turbulence. If the Er shear is strong, it can drive perpendicular
plasma shear flows that break turbulent structures into smaller ones, thus reducing radial
correlationlengthsandsuppressingturbulence.

1.4.5.2.

ZonalFlows

Zonal flows (ZFs) are low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with finite radial wave
number [54, 55]. Since they are poloidally symmetric, they do not drive radial or crossfield
transport.ZFsgaintheirenergyfromalltypesofmicroinstabilitiesthrough vv nonlinearity
and regulate the amplitude of the latter by shearing them. Since ZFs are electrostatic
fluctuations,thecausedvelocityshearistimevarying,howeverthetimescalestaysaccessible
to diagnostics studied in this thesis. The increase in the zonal flow fraction in turbulence
contributestoalesseningofanomaloustransport.Theinteractionbetweenzonalflowsanddrift
wavesplaysanessentialroleindeterminingplasmaturbulenceandtransport[54].

1.5.

Turbulencediagnostics

The importance of plasma turbulence in plasma magnetic confinement has been clearly
shown in the previous subsection. It is a strong motivation for researchers to develop
diagnostics to measure fluctuations in tokamaks. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES), Heavy
IonBeamProbes(HIBP),Langmuirprobes,electromagneticwavescatteringandreflectometry
systems are measuring plasma density fluctuations. In this section we shortly discuss
advantagesanddisadvantagesofthesemethods.

22

____________________________________________________________1.5.Turbulencediagnostics

Langmuirprobesaretheoldestandmostwelldescribeddiagnostic[82,83and84].Probes
measure simultaneously electron density ne , temperature Te , plasma potential and their
fluctuations.Probesareusedroutinelytoestimatefluctuationdrivenenergyandparticlefluxin
thetokamakedgeandtheshearlayerindivertedplasmas.Applicationofprobesisrestrictedto
thelowtemperatureplasmaboundarywheretheleveloffluctuationsissignificantlyhigh,the
impact of impurities is rather noticeable as well; this leaves a lot of questions to researchers.
Good spatial resolution and slow time scale due to capacity do not take into account the
turbulentfluxontheinterpretationmodelasitshouldbe[85].
HIBP are used to measure simultaneously fluctuations of plasma potential and electron
density [8688]. This is a collimated beam of neutrals or singly charged ions which ionizes in
plasmaproducingsecondaryionsthathaveorbitslargerthantheminorradius.HIBPisnotas
sensitive to high fluctuations due to its finite sample volume. There is also uncertainty in
radial location measurements. Furthermore, the HIBP systems are complex and rather
expensive and do not really permit to have absolute measurement due to lack of knowledge
duringtheparticletrajectory.
BESisatechniquemeasuringdensityfluctuationsbyobservingthelightemittedfrombeam
atomsorionsthathavebeenexcitedbycollisionswithconstituentsofthebulkplasma[89].The
detectable fluctuation levelis limited byphotonstatistics,atomicexcitationprocess and beam
stability,andduetothisfacttheabsolutevalueofdensityfluctuationsisnotaccessible.Wave
number spectra in radial and poloidal directions can be acquired from cross correlation
measurementsinthesedirections.UnfortunatelythediagnosticisrathersensitivetotheMHD
activity.
Coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves is used to measure properties of electron
densityautocorrelationfunction[84].Thediagnosticisbasedonrefractiveindexprinciples.The
calibrationofscatteringsystemsisnotstraightforwardandintroducesuncertaintyinestimates
of electron density fluctuations. The main drawback of the diagnostic is that the frequency
tends to be so low that the beam suffers from considerable refraction by the plasma. Also,
diffraction limits the minimum beam size obtainable. Moreover, fluctuation wave numbers
greater than 2ki are not obtainable so relevant parts of the spectrum may not be accessible
with low ki microwaves. Measurements are limited primarily by low spatial resolution at low
values of and by practical requirements on machine access to sample a variety of plasma
locationsand .
Reflectometry refers to the reflection of an electromagnetic wave from a plasma cutoff
where the plasma refractive index vanishes [90, 91]. Fluctuation measurements in the plasma
interior using reflectometry are relatively straightforward to perform but rather hard to
interpret. The phase delay is most sensitive to density fluctuations located near the reflection
layer. However, it is also sensitive to fluctuations along the entire radiation path, and so the

23

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

localizationofthemeasurementisnotthesameasifonewereprobinganoscillatingmirrorat
the cutoff position. Moreover, standart one channel reflectometry methods provide no wave
numberresolution.

1.6.

Radialcorrelationreflectometry

On purpose to determine wave number spectrum or at least the turbulence correlation


length radial correlation reflectometry (RCR) was proposed. Firstly this method was used for
ionosphere [92]. Although the first experiments using microwave reflectometry were carried
outmanyyearsago[93,94]itisonlyinrecentyearsthatthetechniquehasbeendevelopedto
the point where quantitative information can be routinely obtained on tokamak plasmas. R.
CanoandA.Cavalloin1980[90]proposedtoapplyitfortokamaksandfirstexperimentswere
held on theTFR tokamak using the ordinary mode of propagation in 1985 by F. Simonet [91]
andlaterwaswidelyspreadallovertheworldfusiondevices.NowadaysRCRisawidelyused
methodformeasuringelectrondensityofplasmaandturbulencepropertiesintokamak[56,84,
9597].

Figure1.13.Launchingthetwomicrowavestotheplasmasimultaneously.

In this method microwaves with frequencies f 0 and f 0 f are launched simultaneously


intoplasma alongthedensitygradientandreflectedatthecutoff layer(seefigure 1.13.).The
first frequency f 0 is called reference frequency and is fixed; the second sweeping
frequency f 0 f is swept. The coherence decay of the two reflected signals As ( f 0 ) and

As ( f 0 f ) with growing difference of probing frequencies f cross correlation function


(CCF)isstudiedbysuchadiagnostic:

24

_____________________________________________________1.6.Radialcorrelationreflectometry

CCF ( x )

A ( f )
s

A ( f )
s

As ( f 0 )
As ( f 0 )

A ( f
s

f ) As ( f 0 f )

A ( f
2

f ) As ( f 0 f )

(19)

where x x ( f 0 f ) x ( f 0 ) .
Thisdiagnosticisanattractivealternativetoothersmentionedbeforeandpossessesawide
rangeofpossibilitiestomeasureplasmadensityprofileanditsfluctuations[98].Itisoftenused
forfluctuationmonitoringindischarges,inparticular,anomaloustransportsuppressionstudies
inbetterconfinementregimes.Thediagnosticisnotfocusedonlyonedgeorcoremeasurements
andisrelativelycosteffective.Technicalsimplicity,aswellasexperimentalgeometryallowing
singleportaccesstoplasma,isamongitsattractivemerits.Anotheradvantageofthemethodis
highlocalitythesensitivityoftherefractiveindextochangesinelectrondensityisthegreatest
nearthecutoff,sothereflectedphaseandamplitudevariationscarrytheinformationonlocal
densityfluctuations.
Taking into account that RCR utilizes perpendicular incidence of microwave onto the
plasmaitisessentiallythat1Dexperimentalgeometryislesssensitiveto2Deffects,compared
toDopplerreflectometry[99101]orpoloidalcorrelationreflectometry[102104].TheRCRhas
thebenefitoftheplasmacurvaturetoreducethe2Ddependenciesasitwasshownforclassical
reflectometry[105].
As soon as RCR measures directly the scattering signal and not density fluctuations
themselves the diagnostic requires accurate and reasonable procedure of data interpretation.
Formerly it was naively supposed that the distance between cutoff positions at which the
correlation of two reflectometry signals is suppressed should be equal to the turbulence
correlation length, however this assumption is incorrect. It has already been shown in 1D
numericalcomputationsperformedusingtheBornapproximationperformedbyI.Hutchinson
in[95]thatthescatteringsignalCCFdecaysspatiallymuchmoregraduallythantheTCCF.This
gradualdecayofRCRCCFwasattributedin[95] tothecontributionofsmallanglescattering
offverylongscalefluctuations.
Later this observation was confirmed also in fullwave 1D [77] numerical modeling for
small level of turbulent density fluctuations (see figure 1.14.). Moreover, a surprisingly high
RCR correlation length was observed in experiments [106]. However, no simple theoretical
descriptionofthisbehaviorwasprovidedin1Dgeometry,norwaysto overcomethisdifficulty
indeterminingtheturbulencecorrelationlengthorspectrum.
AcomplicatedanalyticaltreatmentoftheRCR performedin2Dgeometryinlinear(Born)
approximationforlinearplasmadensityprofileandOmodeprobing[107]alsoresultedinthe
prediction of slow (logarithmic) decay of coherence, which was confirmed by 2D numerical
computations[108,109].Ashasbeenshownin[77,108]afasterdecayofcoherenceoccursonly

25

ChapterI.Introduction________________________________________________________________

athighenoughfluctuationamplitudeleadinginagreementwithanalyticalprediction[110,111]
tostrongreflectedwavephasemodulation.

Figure1.14.LargedifferencebetweenRCRCCFcorrelationlength ls andTCCFcorrelationlength lc
in1DBornapproximationfullwavecomputations[77].

Unfortunately even knowing the problem people are still using the erroneous approach
duringthelasttwodecades[112].ItisevidentthatcorrectRCRdatainterpretationisneeded.

1.7.

Scopeofthiswork

In this dissertation deep study of the RCR diagnostic is performed. Addressing firstly to
analyticalapproachweaimtodescribethedependencyofthescatteringsignalfromplasmaon
turbulencewavenumberandfurtherexplainthediscrepancybetweenthecorrelationfunction
ofmeasurementandthefluctuationcorrelationfunctionin1Dgeometry.Moreover,numerical
modeling performed in Born approximation is compared to analytical asymptotic expressions
ofRCRsignal andCCFbehavior.Therelationbetweenturbulencewavenumberspectrumand
signalRCRCCFisproposedandtestedinexperimentnumericalmodelingandfurtherinreal
experiments.
Thisworkisorganizedasfollows:inChapterIIwerecall reflectometrybasicsanddescribe
the theory of RCR. In Chapter III the examples of numerical simulations held for different
machinesarepresented;wealsogivetheinsightonexperimentalsetting.ChapterIVpresents
experimental results obtained on small FT2 and huge Tore Supra machines. Chapter V
summarizesresultsofthethesis.

26

ChapterII

Theoreticalbackground
ofradialcorrelationreflectometry
_____________________________________________________________________________________

InthisChapterwefirstlydescribepropagationofelectromagneticwavesininhomogeneous
plasma,reflectometrybasicsandthewaytointroduceplasmadensityfluctuations.Further,the
one dimensional theory of radial correlation reflectometry is presented. The analytical
expression for the RCR CCF is given. The simple relation between the RCR CCF and the
turbulence wave number spectrum is derived. We also present formlue aloowing direct
transformationsbetweenRCRCCFandTCCF.

27

28

_____________________________________2.1.Propagationofelectromagneticwavesinplasmas

2.1.

Propagationofelectromagneticwavesinplasmas

ThissectionisbasedonV.L.GinzburgdevelopmentinCGSunits[92].
PropagationofanelectromagneticwaveinamediumisdescribedbyMaxwellequations:

D 4

B 0

1 B
E

c t

4 1 D
H

j
c
c t

(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)

Where E and H areelectricandmagneticfieldsofthewavecorrespondingly; and j are

chargeandcurrentcorrespondinglycreatedbyexternalsourcesrelatedtothepolarization P in
theusualway:

j
t

(24)
(25)

Theserelationsenforcechargeconservation:

j 0
t

(26)

In plasma as in any dielectric, the relations between fields and their induction take the
followingform:

D E 4 P

B H 4 M

where M ismagnetization.Thelinearrelationbetween j and E isgivenbyOhmlaw:

j E

(27)
(28)

(29)

where istheconductivitytensor.

2.1.1.

Approximationsandrestrictionsused

Toobtainageneraldescriptionofelectromagneticwavepropagationinplasmaitisneeded
tousesimplifyinghypothesesandapproximations.

2.1.1.1. Stationaryplasma

Temporalvariationsoftheplasmaoccuronatimescaleconsiderablybiggerthantheperiod
ofthewavessignifyingthattheplasmaisstationaryonthewavetimereference.

29

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

2.1.1.2. Coldplasmaapproximation

At present, most fusion experiments operate at plasma temperature below 5 keV. Waves
traveling at phasevelocities close to thespeed of light are concerned. In this casethe thermal
velocity of electrons is much less than the phase velocity Te ph 1 . Cold plasma
approximationisusedtodescribethepropagationof mostelectromagneticwavesintokamak
plasma. The meaning of the approximation is that thermal motion of particles is neglected
comparingtothemotioncausedbypropagatingelectromagneticwave[113,114].
It is also assumed that there is no collisional damping (or Landau damping) on the time
scale of plasma electrons as required for cold plasma approximation. Electrons are initially
consideredatrest,exceptformovementinducedbywavefields.

2.1.1.3. Highfrequencies

Ionandneutralparticlemotionisneglectedaswellduetherelation me mi 1 assoonas
high frequency electromagnetic waves ci are studied. Only electrons contribute to the
plasmadielectrictensoroverthetimeofflight.

2.1.1.4. Anisotropy

Wesuppose theanisotropyisintroducedonlybyexternalmagneticfield B0 .Inthiswork


inhomogeneous anisotropic plasma is considered where refractive index depends on the
propagationdirection.

2.1.1.5. Propagationgwaves

The electromagnetic wave propagating into plasma is supposed to be monochromatic. It


couldbedescribedinusualway:


E E0 exp( it )

(30)

where 2 f is the microwave angular frequency of the wave. The phase velocity,

ph k givestherateofpropagationofapointofconstantphaseonthewave.Ifthewave
frequency oramplitudeismodulatedthewavepossessesthegroupvelocity gr k .The
dispersion relation ( k ) contains information on phase and group velocities, propagation
region, reflection points, resonance points, damping, wave growth. Another property of the

30

_____________________________________2.1.Propagationofelectromagneticwavesinplasmas

electromagnetic wave is polarization which is defined by the orientation and phase of the

electricfieldofthewave E .Therearethreetypesofpolarization:linear,circularandelliptical.

2.1.1.6. Linearapproximation

Assoonasrestrictionsofsmallamplitudewavesareimposeditispossibletoapplylinear
theoryofperturbations.Alltheperturbations f ofthequantityfinthisworkareassumedto
besmallaswell f

f 1 .Thispermitstouselinearrelationstodescribewavepropagation

inplasmaknowingthattheinputpowerofreflectometerisnotabletomodifythebackground
plasmaparameters.

2.1.2.

Propagationinhomogeneousplasma

Taking into account approximations introduced in 2.1.1., we consider plane wave

propagationintheuniformandhomogeneousplasmainexternalmagneticfield B0 .According
tolinearapproximationweperformFourieranalysisofMaxwellequations.Bytakingthecurl
of the eq. (22) and combining it with the eq. (23) and transforming operators ik and

t i weobtainthewaveequation(Helmholtzequation):

2
k (k E ) 2 E 0
c

(31)

where isthedielectrictensorrelatedtotheconductivityasfollows:

Eq.(31)canberewritteninaform:

NN N

where N k

1 E 0

is the refractive index and k0

(32)

(33)

the vacuum wave number. Eq. (33) is

representedbythefollowingmatrix:

xx N 2 cos2

i xy

2
N cos sin

i xy

N 2 cos sin E x

0
xx N 2
(34)
Ey 0
2
2

zz N sin E z
0

where is the angle between external magnetic field B and wave vector k . This system
consistsofthreescalarequationsandpossesses anonzero solutiononlyifthedeterminantof
thematrixisequaltozero.Thus,thedispersionrelationisobtained:

det NN N 2 1 0

(35)

31

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

Theelementsofthesystem(34)arethefollowing:
2
pe
xx yy 1 2
ce2

xy yx

ce pe
2 ce2
2

(36)

2
pe
zz 1 2

xz zx zy yz 0

where

pe

istheplasmaangularfrequencyand f pe

(37)

pe
istheplasmafrequency.And
2

ce

4 ne e2

me

eB

me c

(38)

istheelectroncyclotronangularfrequency.

2.1.2.1. Perpendicularpropagation

In reflectometry experiments in toroidal plasmas electromagnetic waves are usually

launchedandreceivedwiththewavevector k perpendiculartotheexternalmagneticfield B0 .
Inthiscasetwotypesofwavesarepossible:ordinarymodeandextraordinarymode.

2.1.2.1.1.

Ordinarymode(Omode)

It is a wave with a linear polarization, the electric field of the wave is parallel to the

externalmagneticfield E B0 (seefigure2.1.).Thismodeisnotsensibletothemagneticfield

B0 . The wave propagates as it was in unmagnetized plasma. In this case the refractive index

takesthesimplestform:

N 2 1

2
pe

(39)

The refractive indexof thewavedetermineswhetherthewavewill propagate ( N 2 0 ) or be


reflected( N 2 0 ).Fortheordinarymodetherefractiveindexneverreachestheinfinity.Thus,
the wave propagates in plasma if its frequency is greater than the plasma frequency pe .

32

_____________________________________2.1.Propagationofelectromagneticwavesinplasmas
The cutoff position is determined by the condition pe . For a given frequency it is
possibletodeterminethecriticaldensityabovewhichthewavedoesnotpropagateanymore:

nc

me 2

4 e 2

(40)

2.1.2.1.2.

Extraordinarymode(Xmode)

Theelectricfieldofthiswaveisperpendicular totheexternalmagneticfield E B0 (see


figure 2.1.). The propagation of the wave depends not only on the plasma density but on the
magneticfieldaswell.Therefractiveindextakesaform:
2
2
pe

pe
1 2
2

N 2 1

2
pe
ce2
1 2 2

(41)

For theextraordinarywave two cutoffpositions take place. The condition for theleft (lower)
cutoffpositionis:

1
2
ce ce2 4 pe

(42)

Theconditionfortheright(high)cutoffis:

1
2
ce ce2 4 pe

(43)

Iftherefractionindexreachesinfinity( N 2 )theextraordinarywavewillbeabsorbedatthe
upperhybridresonance:

2
UH ce2 pe

(44)

Theextraordinarywavepropagatesif N 2 0 ,i.e. L UH and R .

Figure2.1.Geometryofordinaryandextraordinarywaves.

33

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

2.1.3.

Propagationininhomogeneousplasma

In practice, plasma in a tokamak is not homogeneous. Plasma density profile has a


maximum peak in the centre of the machine and is equal to zero at the edge. Moreover, the
fluctuationsoftheplasmausuallytakeplace(willbediscussedinthenextsection).Tosimplify
themodelwesupposethatplasmaisstationaryandtherefractiveindexdependsonlyonradial
position.Wealsosupposethatplasmaisinhomogeneousonlyinone(radial)direction.
TheHelmholtzwaveequation(31)ismodifiedinthecaseofpropagationininhomogeneous
plasma:

d 2 E ( x, )
k 2 ( x ) E ( x, ) 0
dx 2

(45)

wherethewavevectorandtherefractiveindexdependonradialposition:

k 2 ( x)

2
c2

N 2 ( x ) k02 N 2 ( x )

(46)

2.1.3.1. WentzelKramersBrillouinapproximation

Naturally,nopracticalplasmaoranyothermediumsatisfiestheconditionofbeinguniform
throughout all space. It is important to consider, then, what happens when there are spatial
gradients in electromagnetic properties. If properties of plasma vary sufficiently slowly, then
locallythewavecanbethoughtofaspropagatinginanapproximatelyuniformmediumand,
hence, behaving as if all the previous treatment applied. Thus, for any frequency and
propagationdirection,thereislocallyawelldefined k andarefractiveindex N corresponding
tolocalvaluesofplasmaparameters.Undertheassumptionthatspatialvariationsaresmallthe
WentzelKramersBrillouin(andsometimesJeffreys,henceWKBorWKBJ)approximationis
applied to solve the Helmholtz equation (45). The idea of WKB approximation operating the
geometric optic or eikonal approximation is to generalize the analytical solution of the case if
thelengthoftheinhomogeneityinplasmaismuchhigherthanlocalwavelength.Itmeansthat
therefractiveindexisvariedslowlyandtheequationcouldbesolvedlocally.
Thesolutionoftheelectricfieldissearchedintheform:

E ( x, t ) E0 ( x ) exp(i ( x )) exp( it )

(47)

Itshouldsatisfythefollowingequation:

d 2 E0
d 2
dE d
d

2i 0
[ k 2 ] E0 0
iE
0
2
2
dx
dx
dx dx
dx
2

(48)

Assuming that the electric field amplitude E0 ( x ) varies slowly comparing to its phase,
eikonal ( x ) ,thesecondorderterm
34

d 2 E0
isnegligible.Inthiscaseweobtaintheequationin
dx 2

_________________________________________________________2.2.Plasmadensityfluctuations

d
which each termisequaltozero.Namely, k
0 resultsinexpressionfortheelectric
dx
2

fieldphase:

( x ) k ( x )dx

(49)

d 2
dE d
Thesolutionoftheremainingequation E0 2 2 0
0 givestheexpressionforthe
dx
dx dx
electricfieldamplitude E0 ( x )

E0
E0

,intermsofwavevector:
d
k ( x)
dx

E ( x, t )

E0
exp[ i k ( x )dx ]exp[ it ]
k ( x)

(50)

E0
exp[ ik0 N ( x )dx ]exp[ it ]
N ( x)

(51)

Intermsoftherefractiveindex:

E ( x, t )

Thisapproximationisvalidifthesecondordertermisnegligiblecomparingtootherterms:

d 2 E0
d 2
d 2 E0
dE0 d

E
and

0
2
2
2
dx
dx
dx
dx dx

(52)

d 2k
dk
dk
k
and
k 2
2
dx
dx
dx

(53)

d 2 2
d

1
2
dx
dx

(54)

itmeans:

Intermsofwavelength:

These conditions are conditions of the geometric optics and are valid if the wavelength
varies slowly at the distance equal to the wavelength. The plasma properties should vary
slowlyatthescaleofthewavelength.
The WKB approximation is valid far from the cutoff. In the vicinity of the cutoff layer
whentherefractiveindexgoestozerotheWKBapproximationisnomorevalidandtofindthe
solutionitisnecessarytotreattheequationnumerically.

2.2. Plasmadensityfluctuations

Weintroducedensityfluctuationstoplasmaas:

n( r ) n ( r ) n( r )

(55)

35

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________
In inhomogeneous plasmas density fluctuations are described by the function n( r ) . Plasma
density fluctuations are described by magnitude n0 ( r ) , wave number , frequency 2 .
Oneofthemainspatialcharacteristicsiscorrelationlength lc .
The frequenciesofmicroturbulenceinvolvedareofthe orderofthediamagneticfrequency,
i.e.verylowcomparedto ci .Thustheimpactonthefrequencyshiftonthedispersionrelation
ofthescatteredwavecanbeneglected.
Wesupposeplasma densityfluctuationstobesmall n ( x ) / nc 1 andslowlychangingin
time.Inthiscasethefluctuationpartcanbetreatedasaperturbation(Bornapproximation).The
Fouriertransformgivestherelationbetweenfluctuationsinrealspace andtheirimageinwave
numberspace n :

n n( x )e i x dx
n( x )

(56)

1
n e i x d

(57)

Wealsosupposethatturbulenceisstatisticallyhomogeneous.UsingWienerKhinchintheorem
we obtain the expression for the correlation function of random Fourierharmonics averaged
overtimeoroverensemble(randomphasesamples):

n , n '* 2 n2 ( ')

(58)

where nk '* conjugate Fourierharmonic; nk2 wave number spectrum; ( k k ') Diracs
deltafunction.Takingintoaccounttherelations(56)and(58)weobtaintheexpressionforthe
turbulencespatialcrosscorrelationfunction(orTCCF):

TCCF ( x ) n( x ) n( x ')

dk 2 ik ( x x ')

nk e
2

(59)

2.3. MechanismofbackandforwardBraggscattering

In1Dgeometrythescatteringprocessesareforwardscatteringandbackscattering[78,115].

The injected wave into the plasma described by wave vector ki and angular frequency i

interacts with the fluctuations characterized by wave vector and frequency 2 . Part of
energyissubtractedfromthewaveandredistributedintospace.Themechanismofscatteringis

similar to Bragg scattering in crystals. The scattered wave possesses a new wave vector k s
whichdeterminesitspropagationdirection:


k s ki

Thescatteringangle (between k s and ki )obeystheBraggrule:

36

(60)

___________________________________________________________2.4.Reflectometryprinciples

2 ki sin

(61)

Ifthisrelationissatisfiedtheturbulencewavenumber becomesresonantandthecoupling
betweenwaveandfluctuationsismaximal.
In case of stationary incident wave two turbulent wave vectors are involved into Bragg

scatteringprocess, and .In1Dtherelation(61)takesaform:

2 ki ( x B )

(62)

where ki ( xB ) isthevalueofthewavevectorattheresonanceposition xB .In1Dtheincident


andscatteredwavehaveequalfrequenciesandoppositewavevectorsforbackBraggscattering
and similar wavevectors for forward scattering at the scattering point. In case of ordinary
mode this relationtakesplaceonlyforturbulencewavenumbersless than twovacuumwave

numbers of the incident wave 2

i
c

. Bragg backscattering of the probing wave leads to

phasefluctuationsofthereflectometersignal.Theforwardscatteringcomponentofthesignal
contributes very little to the received signal phase perturbation, especially if antennas are far
fromplasma,howevernonlinearcontributionsfromforwardscatteringattheedgeofplasma
influenceonthereflectometrysignalin2Dapproach[116].

2.4. Reflectometryprinciples

Reflectometrymeasurementsarebasedonthereflectionofthemicrowave(withfrequency
from1to300GHz)launchedtoplasmafromthecutofflayer.Ifthereflectedwaveisdetected,
itispossibletouseittodiagnosetheplasmadensity.Thephaseofthereflectedwavecontains
informationonthepositionofthecutofflayeranddensityfluctuations.

2.4.1.

Standardreflectometryforplasmadensityprofilemasurements

In figure 2.2. the principal scheme of one channel reflectometry experiment is shown. A
wave launched into plasma is reflected from the cutoff layer, and detected again near its
launch point. It might be thought, by analogy with radar, that the phase or group delay
providesasinglenumberthatisdirectlyproportionaltothedistanceofthecutofflayerfrom
thelaunchingpoint,independentofthedensityprofileelsewhereinplasma.Itisimportantto
emphasize that this is not the case. The analogy with radar breaks down because plasma
betweenthelaunchingpointandthereflectionpointacts,asitdoesininterferometry,toalter
the phase delay. In other words, we must take into account the plasma refractive index of all
alongthewavepath,unlikeradar,inwhichtherefractiveindexisunityeverywhere[84].

37

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

Figure2.2.Reflectometryschemeinplasma.Thewaveisreflectedfromthecutofflayer.

Asitisshowninfigure2.2.theprobingwavepropagatesinthedirectionofplasmadensity
gradient(inradialdirection)fromtheperipherytothecenterofplasma.Intheregionfromthe
plasmaboundarytothecutoffpointthe geometricopticsapproximationisvalidandlaunched
and scattered waves are independent. Far enough from the cutoff position xc the geometric
opticapproximationisvalidandtheelectricfieldofthewaveisdescribedbythequasiclassical
solutions of the wave equation (45). Namely, behind the cutoff the electric field of the wave
takesaform(inWKBapproximation):

exp k ( x ) dx
x

k ( x)
c

(63)

andbeforethecutoffitisthesumofincidentandreflectedwaves:

B
C
exp i k ( x ) dx
exp i k ( x ) dx
k ( x)
k ( x)
0

(64)

ThetaskistofindthephaseofthereflectedwaveortherelationbetweenamplitudesA,B
andC.
TheWKBformofthephasedifferencebetweenpoints1and2is:

1 2

N ( x)dx

(65)

Inthevicinityofthecutofflayerthewavelengthisestimatedas

n( x )
1
nc

(66)

and subsequently the geometric optics approximation is not valid there. It is necessary to
connect thesolutions at the point x xc where n ( xc ) nc . Nominally WKB solutions are not
valid in the vicinity of the cutoff and as it is well known one should extend solutions
analyticallyinupperandlowerhalfplanesofthecomplexvariablefarenoughfromthecutoff
38

___________________________________________________________2.4.Reflectometryprinciples

point [117, 118]. The squared wave number is linearized around an interval centered on the
reflectionpointandthesolutionofequation(45)isexpressedintermsofAiryfunction[119].
Phase shift between launched and reflected waves occurs to be equal to 2 and
correspondinglythefullphaseshiftattheplasmaboundaryis[92]:

xc

N ( x )dx
2
c

(67)

This equation states that the phase is just what would be obtained from simpleminded
application of the WKBJ approach, regarding the cutoff layer as a mirror, except that an
additional 2 phasechangeatreflectionmustbeincluded.
Todeterminethecutoffpositionusingthephaseshiftgenerallyspeakingitisnecessaryto
know the plasma density profile. However for close to linear plasma density profiles the
integralinthephaseexpressioncouldbeestimatedas:

xc

incaseofOmodereflectometryusing

n( x )

dx 0.5 xc
nc
c

(68)

2
pe
n( x )

.
2
nc

Plasma density profile along the reflectometers wave path can be deducted from phase
measurementsatdifferentfrequencies.Forordinarymodethe Abelintegraltransformisused
toobtainanexplicitanalyticsolution.Forallrelevantfrequenciesthefunction ( ) couldbe
constructed by interpolation for example. Substituting the Omode expression for N(x) into
expression(67)afterdifferentiatingwithrespectto weexpresstheresultintermsofvacuum
wavelength 2 c :

d
dxc
2
d
cd *

*d *
*2 2

(69)

where * 2 c . The most convenient expression for the cutoff position for a given
*

frequency canbedetermined:

xc ( ) a

d
d*

0 d * 2 *2
c

(70)

Thepositionofthecutoffisdeducedfromphasedelayforallfrequencieslessthan .
We would like to notice also that the quantity we require for the inversion is actually the
derivative of the phase delay with respect to frequency. This quantity is precisely the group
delay,thatis,theroundtriptimeitwouldtakeapulseoramodulationenvelopetopropagate
outtothereflectionlayerandback:

1 d

2 d

(71)

39

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

IncaseofXmodereflectometrythereisnoanalyticalformulaforthecutoffpositionsand
theequation(67)shouldbetreatednumericallyusingBottlierCurtetmethod[120].
Sweeping reflectometry providing information on plasma density profile in the gradient
regionalongthepathofthereflectometrywaveisbasedonthisprinciple,forexample[121].

2.4.2.

Fluctuationreflectometry

Fixedfrequencyfluctuationreflectometryprovidesinformationontokamaklowfrequency
turbulence. Technically this method is simple and requires only single access to plasma.
However due to one dimensional scattering geometry interpretation of fluctuation
reflectometryresults,ingeneral,isaverycomplicatedtask.Thephasedelayismostsensitiveto
densityfluctuationslocatednearthereflectionlayer.However,itisalsosensitivetofluctuations
alongtheentireradiationpath,andsothelocalizationofthemeasurementisnotthesameasif
one were probing an oscillating mirror at the cutoff position (despite the fact that many
publishedanalyseshaveadoptedthisanalogy).
Roughly the principle of fluctuation measurements could be described as following. In
presenceofplasmadensityfluctuations(55)therelationbetweenthefluctuationcharacteristics
and received signal characteristics can be found. The received signal phase contains two
componentsaswell:

(t ) (t ) (t )

(72)

The expression (67) describes the first slow changing phase term. Supposing that fluctuation
amplitudeissmall n nc lc rc fluctuatingpartofthephaseisobtainedintheframeofWKB
approximationbycalculatingtheslowphasevariation[73]:

(t , )

2 n( x, t )
xc

nc

dx

k0 ( x, )

(73)

Usually the interpretation of fluctuation reflectometry results is based on the assumption


that the signal originates due to backscattering in the vicinity of the cutoff layer. Thus it is
possibletoobtaintherelationbetweendensityfluctuationandscatteringsignalcharacteristics
and estimate turbulence frequency spectrum and its level. The attempt to confirm this
assumption was undertaken by numerical [73] and analytical treatment [115] of the
reflectometryproblemperformedin1Dmodel.In[115]thefluctuationreflectometryhasbeen
addressed analytically, in the framework of the one dimensional WKB analysis. A singular
dependenceofscatteringefficiencyonthefluctuationwavenumberwasdemonstratedforthe
lineardensityprofile.Howeveritwasassumedtherethatthesingular(inverseproportionalto
fluctuationwavenumber As 1

40

)behaviorofthescatteringefficiencysaturatesduetothe

_______________________________________2.4.Basicassumptionsandequationsin1Danalysis

violationoftheWKBapproximationatsocalledAirywavenumber 2 c 2 L n

13

,whereLn

isthedensitygradientscalelength.Thisconclusionappearstobeerroneousthatpredetermines
the subsequent difficulties of onedimensional theory in interpretation of experiments and
numericalmodeling.

2.5. Basicassumptionsandequationsin1Danalysis

TakingintoaccountthatRCRusesperpendicularincidenceofmicrowaveontoplasmaand
essentially 1D experimental geometry is less sensitive to 2D effects, compared with Doppler
reflectometry or poloidal correlation reflectometry, we analyze it in the frame of 1D model
simplifyingcalculationsandallowinginvestigationofthearbitrarydensityprofilecase.
As it was already introduced in subsection 2.1.1., we use cold plasma approximation to
describe microwave propagation in plasmas. Plasma is supposed to be an isotropic media;
anisotropy is introduced only by external magnetic field. The electromagnetic wave
propagating into plasma is supposed to be monochromatic and stationary. Plasma density
fluctuationsaresupposedtobesmall n n 1% andthelinear(Born)approximationandthe
perturbation theory could be applied. Plasma is supposed to be frozen, i.e. the turbulence
correlationtime c 10 s exceedstheprobingtime 1ns .
Supposingprobingwavepropagationstrictlyinthedirectionofplasmadensitygradientwe

2
describetheOmodeprobingbyHelmholtzequation(45),where k 2 ( x ) 2 c 2 1 pe
2 is

a probing wave vector, pe 4 e 2 n( x ) n x me is the plasma frequency; n ( x ) is the


background density profile; n x represented as (57) stands for turbulent density
perturbations,where isa turbulence densityfluctuationwavenumberand n isturbulent
fluctuation amplitude; is a probing angular frequency. Under assumption that density
fluctuationsaresmalltheperturbationtheorymethodsareused.Equation(45)canberewritten
intheform:

d 2 2 n( x )
2 n( x )
Ez
2 2 1
Ez 2
c
nc
c
nc
dx

(74)

wherethecriticaldensityatthecutoffpositionisgivenby(40).

2.5.1.

Reciprocitytheorem

Inparticular,thescatteringsignalamplitudeinlinear(Born)approximationcanbeobtained
with the help of straightforward approach based upon the reciprocity theorem in the form

41

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

introduced in [122]. This approach refers to a radiation received by antenna from hot
inhomogeneousplasmaconfinedinalaboratorydevice,inatokamak.Thissubsectionisbased
ontheworkperformedbyA.D.PiliyaandA.Yu.Popov[122].

The radiation electric E (; r ) and magnetic H (; r ) fields with a frequency are


governedbytheMaxwellequations:

rotE ; r H ; r 0,
c

4
i

rotH ; r D ; r
js ; r
c
c

(75)

where js ; r istheradiationsourcecurrentand D istheelectricdisplacementvector.Inthe


caseofthecollectivescatteringthesourcecurrentresultsfromnonlinearcouplingbetweenthe
incidentradiationandfluctuatingplasmaparameters.Forspontaneousnoiselikeemission,the
sourceisthefluctuatingcurrentofnoninteracting(bare)electrons.Weassumelinearrelation

between D and E , D E withthedielectricoperator definedaccordingto

Di ; r

ik ; r , r Ek ; rdr

(76)

This relation is applicable to any medium, including hot inhomogeneous plasmas as well as
dielectrics and metals. Thus, equation (75) with a proper dielectric operator describes the
radiationfieldsintheentirespace.
The required solution to equation (75) is determined by the demand that the fields are

continuesfunctionsofcoordinatesandrepresentasymptoticallyat r outgoingwaves.

Figure2.3.(a)Schematicofexperimentalarrangementforemissionregistration.
(b)Imaginaryarrangementforlaunchingantennabeam(E(+),H(+)).

42

_______________________________________2.5.Basicassumptionsandequationsin1Danalysis

Supposethattheradiationisreceivedbyamicrowaveantennaandtransmittedthrougha
plasmafreesinglemodewaveguidetoaregistrationdevice(seefigure2.3).Thenfarfromthe
antennamouthwithinthewaveguide,

E
E ( out )
A( )

H
H ( out )

(77)

where A( ) isthesignalamplitudeand E ( out ) , H ( out ) aretheelectricandmagneticfieldsof


thefundamentalwaveguidemodepropagatingoutwardfromplasmavolumeandnormalized
tounitenergyfluxby

c
[ E ( out ) ( H ( out ) )* ] dS 1

(78)

where dS is the surface element in the waveguide crosssection. The symbol of the real part
before the integral is omitted because the integrand is a real function due to the waveguide
mode properties (see, for example, [123]). Equation (78) implies perfect matching with the
receiver.
At sufficiently small source current, the scalar amplitude A( ) depends linearly on the

vector js .Themostgeneralformofthisrelationis

A( ) js (; r ) g (; r )dr

(79)

whereintegrationisovertheplasmavolume.Thevectorweightfunction g (; r ) is,obviously,
related to the Green function of equations (75). Finding this function satisfying proper
boundaryconditionsrepresentsthemaindifficultyinthesignalcalculation.
Alternativelytheamplitudecanbecalculatedinthefollowingway.Imaginethattheplasma
in the experiment on the emission measurement is replaced by a fictitious medium whose
dielectricoperator, T , isobtainedbytranspositionofthedielectricoperatoroftherealplasma:

ikT ; r , r ki ; r, r

(80)

Suppose, further, that an electromagnetic field E ( ) (; r ), H ( ) (; r ) is produced in this


transposed plasma by radiating unite microwave power at the frequency through the
receivingantenna,(seefigure2.3.(b)).Then
1
g E ()
4

(81)

Toprovethisclaim,note,thataccordingtoitsdefinition, ikT satisfies,asafunctionof ,

theKrammersKronigrelationsandvanishesat r r . Thesefeaturesguaranteethatthe
transposed plasma is physically realisable. Suppose, further, that in the real plasma all

oscillationsatthefrequency aredamped,i.e. Q 0 foranyelectricfield E .Here

Q ( )

A
E (; r ) (; r , r) E (; r)drdr
8

(82)
43

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

is

the

RF

power

dissipated

in

the

whole

plasma

volume

with

A (; r , r) (; r , r) (T (; r , r )) / 2i being the antiHermitian part of (; r , r ) .

Writing similar relation for the transposed plasma and changing variables r r in the

integral, we obtain again equation (82) with E replaced by E . Thus the transposed plasma
possessesthesamepropertyofstabilityastherealplasma.
Taking into account these generalfeatures ofthetransposedplasmawecan conclude that
thewaveequation

rotE ; r H ; r 0,
c

rotH ; r T E ; r 0
c

(83)

inthisplasmahasphysicallyreasonablesolutionsdeterminedunambiguouslybytheboundary
conditions.
Inmetallicanddielectricobjectssurroundingtheplasma,includingthechamberwalls,the

dielectric operatorkernel ik ( r , r ) hastheform ik ( r , r) ik ( r r ) ,where isascalar.


Hence, T hereandEq.(9),similartoequations(75),isvalidintheentirespace.

The particular solution E ( ) , H ( ) to equations (83) which determines, according to

equation(79),thesignalamplitudehasasymptotically,at r ,theform

E ( ) E ( in )
E ( out )
R

H ( ) H ( in )
H ( out )

(84)

in the antenna waveguide and represents outgoing waves (or vanishes) elsewhere. Here

( E ( in ) , H ( in ) ) istheincident(travelingtowardtheplasma)waveguidemodenormalisedsimilar

toequation(78)andthecoefficientofreflection R isaconstantwith R 1 .Nowmultiplyboth

equations (75) by H ( ) and E ( ) , respectively, and equations (83) by H and E . Summing


fourobtainedequalitiestermbytermobtain

div E H ( ) H E ( ) i

()
c

( ED

4 ( )
DE ( ) )
jE
c s

(85)

Integrate this equation over a large volume V bounded by a surface S0 assuming


formally that the waveguide feeding the antenna goes through the surface. The volume
integralinthelefthandsideoftheequationtransformintothesurfaceintegral:
() () 3
() ()

div E H H E d r E H H E dS
V

S0

(86)

Outside the waveguide, solutions of equations (75) and (83) can be considered in a small
area of the surface as plane waves propagating in the same direction. Then two terms in the
surface integral cancel out each other. The only contribution comes from the part S wg of the

surface S0 inside the waveguide where the fields E ( ) , H ( ) include waves propagating
44

________________________________2.6.Scatteringsignalincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

opposite to E , H . This contribution can be easily evaluated using known properties of the
waveguidemodes(see,forexample,[123])andequation(78):
() ()

E
H H E dS (16 / ) A( )

S wg

Intherighthandside,thevolumeintegral

()

( ED

(87)

DE ( ) )d 3r

(88)

vanishesduetotherelations(2)and(6).Now,equatingremainingterms,obtain

A( )

1 ()
j E dr
4 s

(89)

Comparingthisexpressionwithequation(79)obtainequation(81).Becauseofitsrelationtothe

fictitious antenna radiation, E ( ) will be referred to as the antenna beam. Equation (89)
represents a formulation of the reciprocity theorem for the case of emission and relates the
weightofa given pointinthesignalformationtotheantennaabilitytoilluminatethispointin
thetransposedplasma.Inobtainingequation(89),noassumptionsconcerningthenatureof

theemittingsubstancehasbeenmadeexceptgeneralnonlocalrelation(76)between E and D .
Thus equation (89) is valid for any medium, including arbitrary inhomogeneous hot

magnetized plasma. The function E ( ) ( r ) in equation (89) is an exact solution of the wave
equation(83),whichcanincludecutoffsandresonances.
Thereciprocitytheoremtakesinonedimensionalcasetheform:

As

(0)
1
j
x
E
(
)
( x )dx
s
4

(90)

Thenonlinearcurrententeringtheexpressionisgivenby

e 2 n( x )
js i
Si E (0) ( x )
me

(91)

where Si and As is an incident and scattered wave energy flux density correspondingly.
Finallytheexpressionforthescatteringsignalamplitudetakesaform

As ( )

i Si
16

n( x )
nc

(0)

(, x ) dx
2

(92)

wheretheintegrationismadefromtheplasmaedge(x=0).

2.6. Scatteringsignalincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

Firstly,weconsiderthelineardensityprofilecase n( x) nc x L .Theclassicalsolutionofthe
unperturbedequation(45)takesaform:

E (0) ( x ) 2

4
Ai x L
c

(93)
45

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

where Ai

x L is the Airy function [119] and Lc

2 is the Airy scale length


1/3

[107]characterizingthedistancebetweenthecutoffandthefirstpeakoftheAiryfunction(see

Ai(x)

forexamplefigure2.4.).

0,0

0,00

0,02

0,04

0,06

0,08

0,10

0,12

x, m
Figure2.4.Airyfunction, L 0.09m, f 40GHz,

0.005m .

UsingtheintegralrepresentationofAiryfunctionthescatteringsignalcanbecalculated.In
ordertosimplifytheexpressionforthescatteringsignal(92)wesubstituteintotheequation(92)
theintegralrepresentationoftheAiryfunction[119]:

1
Ai ( z )
2

i(

t3
tz )
3

dt

(94)

where z x L .Thustheexpressionforthescatteredsignalamplitudeisobtainedinthe
followingform:
t3

p3

2 1 i 3 tz i 3 pz n i L z d
As ( ) i 2 Si 2
e
dtdpdz
e e
2
c 4 2 L/
nc

(95)

Introducing new variables in the following way u=t+p, v=tp, we obtain the integral
representationas:
u3 1

2 1 1 i 12 4 uv
As ( ) i 2 Si 2
e
c 4 2 2 L/

uz z

n
nc

ei L dtdp

d
dz
2

(96)

Integralsovervandzcanbeeasilyevaluatedhere,providing

and

46

1
i uv 2

e 4 dv e

2 u

(97)

________________________________2.6.Scatteringsignalincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

i ( u k )

i ( u k ) z

dz

L/

i (u k )

(98)

underconditionIm(u)>0.Finallytheexpressionforscatteredsignalamplitudetakesaform

As ( ) i 2 Si

u3 L
i u
12

1
e
n d
du
2

c 4 2 u u nc 2
2

(99)

AssumingtheplasmasizelargerthatAiryscale(L>> ),thecharacteristicintegral

I ( )

u3 L
i u
12

e
du
u u

(100)

canbecalculatedusingthestationaryphasemethod[124](seeAppendixA).

2.6.1.

Asymptoticformsofthecharacteristicintegral

TakinginaccounttherestrictionIm(u)>0wedeformtheintegrationcontourasitisshownin
figure 2.5. The integration contour has two stationary phase points u1 2 L and

u2 2 L and the branch point u3 0 . The shading in figure 2.5. shows the domain of
exponentialgrowth.

Figure2.5.Theintegrationcontouroftheintegral.

2.6.1.1.

Contributionofthepole

Firstly we examine the contribution to the integral by pole. In case | | 2 L (or

| | 2 c )thecontourdoesnottouchthepole,intheresultthereisnocontribution.Incase
1 | | 2 L thecontributiontotheintegralbypolecouldbeestimatedas

47

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

I ( ) 2

( )3
i L
12

(101)

anddescribestheBraggbackscatteringcontributionto

This expressionisproportionalto 1

thescatteringsignal.Incase | | 2 L theBraggbackscatteringtakesplacedirectlyatthe
plasmaboundarywithawavenumber | | 2 c .

2.6.1.2.

Contributionofthebranchpoint

Whencalculatingthecontributionofthebranchpoint u3 0 itisnecessarytonotethatthe
phaseisdifferentattwosidesofthecut.Incase | | 1 itispossibletoneglect u in
denominatoroftheintegral(100),thanweobtaintheintegralintheform

I ( ) I1 I 2

3
i
4

L
t

3
2

e dt

L
t

dt 2e

3
4

(102)

Theintegralscalesas 1 withthewavenumberandismuchsmallerthancontributionofthe
pole.Otherwiseif | | 1 theparameterindenominatorcouldnotbeneglected,nevertheless
wemayassumethecubictermintheexponenttobesmall.Underthisassumptionitispossible
toexpresstheintegralintermsoftheerrorfunction

I ( ) 4 ei L erf i L

where we use for the error function the definition erf ( x )

(103)

e s ds . This expression can be


2

furthersimplified,forinstancefor 1 1 L weobtain

I 2 ei L

(104)

whereasat | L | 1 theintegraltakesavalue:
i

I 4 e 4 ei L L

(105)

2.6.1.3.

Contributionofthestationaryphasepoints

The stationary phase points contribution u1 2 L and u2 2 L is given by the


expression

48

32
4
I 2i cos L
4
3

(106)

________________________________2.6.Scatteringsignalincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

which physically describes the scattering from plasma boundary. It could be noticed that this
itemismuchsmallerthancontributionofthepolebecauseofthelargeparameter L / 1 in
denominator.

2.6.2.

Asymptoticformsofscatteringsignal

Changeofvariablesandintegrationleadstotheexpression forthescatteringsignalinthe
form

As

R( )

n d

nc 2

(107)

where

R( )

i Si
e
8 3 2 c 2
2

u3 L
i u
12

e
du
u (u )

(108)

Asaresultofthepart2.6.1,thepartialamplitude R ( ) takesthefollowingsimpleform

i
e 12
2
,
1 2 c
i Si 2 i 4 i L

R( ) 3 2 2 e e
8 c

erf i L
4
, 1

The expression (109) describes Bragg back scattering; it scales as 1

(109)

with the turbulence

wavenumberasitwaspredictedin[115].Incase | | 2 L theBraggconditionisfulfilled
( 2k ( x ) )for 2 c andthescatteringtakesplacedirectlyattheplasmaboundary.
The expression for the partial amplitude R ( ) can be simplified using asymptotic
representation for the error function. Furthermore, in the intervals 1 L 1 and

1 L correspondingtosmallanglescatteringitcanbewrittenaccordingly

,
i Si 2 i 4 i L
R( ) 3 2 2 e e

8 c
i

4
4 e L ,

1 L 1

(110)

1 L

Asitisseenfromequation(110)forwavenumbersofAiryrangeandsmallerthesingular
dependence 1

persistsaswell,incontradictionwithunjustifiedassumptionmadein[115]

byB.B.Afeyanin1994:

1
, 1

As
Const , 1

(111)

49

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

It is necessary to stress that in the analysis presented in this Chapter this singular
dependenceon saturatesonlyat 1 L whererelation(110)holds.

2.6.3.

Numericalcomputationexample

In order to check the accuracy of asymptotic expressions for the partial amplitude R ( )
(109)and(110)numericalcomputationsofintegral(108)wereperformed.Figure2.6.showsthe
comparison of numerically computed absolute value of the integral (108) (the calculation
parameters are as follows: L 0.08m , 0.00464 m, f 45GHz ), expression (109) and a

. It can be seen that proposed asymptotic form (109) describes the

simple dependence 1

behaviour of the integral perfectly even for large wave numbers. In general the behaviour of

dependence.For | | 2 L it

bothasymptoticformandintegraliswelldescribedby 1

is no longer possible to satisfy the Bragg condition within the plasma slab therefore the
behaviourofintegralanditsasymptoticrepresentationisdifferent(figure2.6.(a))inagreement
with results of 1Dnumerical computations [125] , where it wasstatedthatthewave numbers
higherthantheBraggdetectionlimitdonotcontributetothephasefluctuations.Figure2.6.(b)
illustratesalsothesingularitysaturationatsmallwavenumbers 1 L .Inspiteofthefact
there is no simple analytical description of the partial amplitude R ( ) for 1 the
numericalcalculationsshowthatthefunctionissmoothanditsbehaviourcanbedescribedby
proposedanalyticalasymptoticform(109)alsointhisregion.
0

10

10

R()
asymptotic

(b)

lg(R())

lg(R())

R()
asymptotic
1/sqrt()

(a)
-1

10

-2

10

8 2c10

0,0

12

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

Figure 2.6. The comparison of absolute values of analytical approximations (109) and the partial
amplitude R ( ) directlyusing(92)showninrelativeunitsinrange 0 2 c (a)and 0 3 (b).
The dependence 1

is represented in (a), the double vacuum wave number 2 c is shown by

verticaldashedlinein(a).

50

________________________________2.6.Scatteringsignalincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

2.6.4.

WKBrepresentationofAiryfunction

Unfortunately the above simple asymptotic expressions for the partial amplitude were
obtained using the technique specific for the linear density profile, which is not applicable
directly to the arbitrary profile case. Nevertheless, the asymptotic representations (109) and
(110) can be derived in the framework of more general approaches not utilising the integral
representation for the Airy function and formula (108). Namely, the asymptotic form (109)
corresponding to the Bragg backscattering can be obtained using the WKB representation of
Airyfunctionwhichprovidesforthefield E (0) thefollowingexpressions

4 2
E (0) ( )
c

E (0) ( )

sin( | |3/2 )
3
4 ,
4 | |
2
3/2
3

2 2 e
,
4
c

(112)

(113)

Hereitisassumedthattheexperimentalschemeiscalibratedtoprovidethesameprobingwave
phaseatthecutoffnotdependingonfrequency.Thiskindofcalibrationisthemostbeneficial
fortheRCRexperiment.
Substituting this formula into equation (92) and performing integration there using the
stationary phase method we obtain for partial amplitude R ( ) the expression (109) valid for

1 .Intheoppositecasethestationaryphasemethodisnolongerapplicable.Theentire
integration interval including the cutoff vicinity where (110) is not valid contribute to the

R ( ) .Howeverinthiscasewemayapproximateinthetransparency

(0) 2

16 c 2 , 0

(114)

andobtainaftertheintegrationoverthisregionexpression(110)for R ( ) .

2.6.5.

Longwavelengthlimit

Itshouldbenotedthatinthelongwavelengthlimit 1 wemayalsodirectlyapply
the WKB approximation to describe the fluctuation contribution to the reflected wave phase.
The solution of (45) may be written in this case as a superposition of incident and reflected
waves:

i
e L c

4 2
Ez
c

x n( x )

1
dx i
L
nc
4

c
L

x n( x)
3
1
dx i
L
nc
4

E0

x n( x )
4 1
L
nc

(115)

51

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

This form is valid everywhere except the very neighbourhoodof the cutoffpoint.Inthecase
theturbulencelevelislowenough,sothatthereflectedwavephaseperturbationsaresmall

( )

n( x )
dx
1

c 0 nc 1 x L
xc

(116)

the fluctuation reflectometry signal is given by simple expression E i ( ) E z . When we


substitutethedensityperturbationFourierspectrumthereweobtainthephaseperturbationin
thefollowingform

( )

n( )
nc

ei x dx d

1 x L 2

(117)

We utilize the substitution s 1 x L to calculate this integral. Finally, the corresponding


expressionfor R ( ) obtainedfrom(117)coincideswiththeexpression(109).

2.7. Scatteringsignalincaseofarbitraryplasmadensityprofile

Plasma density profile in a tokamak in general is not linear; therefore the theoretical
descriptionofthewavepropagationintotherealisticplasmadensityprofileisrequired.
We analyze the arbitrary profile case by means of approximate methods introduced in
previous sections for investigation of the linear density profile case. Supposing the density
profile to be monotonous, we find the solution of the unperturbed Helmholtz equation (45)
usingWKBapproximationintheform

E (0) ( x )

x
4 2

sin k x dx
x
4
c
c

k x

(118)

E (0) ( x ) gives the distribution of the probing wave electric field in plasma in the case of unit
incident energy flux density as it was shown in part 2.5. When substituting E (0) ( x ) into the
integral(92)wederive

As

R ( )

n d

nc 2

(119)

wherethepartialamplitude R ( ) mayberepresentedas
3
i 2 k ( x ') dx ' i

i 2 k ( x ') dx ' i
2
2
x
x
x
i x i
2 c

c
c
xc
xc
i S e
e
e

R ( ) 3 i2 2
ei x dx
dx
ei x dx (120)
8 c 0
4k ( x )
2k ( x )
4k ( x )
0
0

Hereweintegratefromtheplasmaedgetothecutoff( x xc ).Thelargestcontributionto
(120)at 1 n 2 c isprovidedbythefirstorthethirditemundertheintegral(120).
52

_____________________________2.7.Scatteringsignalincaseofarbitraryplasmadensityprofile

Here n Ln c
2

2 1/3

1 dn( x )
and Ln
.
nc dx x x
c

We use the stationary phase method (see Appendix A) analogous to part 2.6.2. for an
asymptoticevaluationoftheintegral(120)inthiscase.Stationaryphasepoint xB isdetermined
bytheequation

4
2

n ( xB )
1

c
nc

(121)

correspondingtoBraggbackscatteringconditions.
Neglecting the contribution of the second term we obtain the expression for the partial
amplitudeintheform:

2
i Si
i

R( ) 3 2 2

8 c 4 2

xB

k ( x ') dx ' i xB i 2

i 2

xc

1 e

1 dn ( x )
nc dx x

2
xB

i2

k ( x ') dx ' i xB i

xc

1 e

1 dn( x )
nc dx x

(122)

1 n 2 c

2 c 1 n

Intheoppositecaseoflongscalefluctuations,at 1 ,thesecondtermin(120)provides
thedominantcontributiontotheintegralwhichisgivenby

i S 2 i
R ( ) 3 i2 2
8 c 4 2

xc

ei x dx
dx,
n( x )
1
nc

1 n

(123)

Itissignificantthatfor 1 Ln 1 n themaincontributiontotheintegralovercoordinate
in (123) is provided by the vicinity of the cutoff, where the density profile is linear and it is
quitenaturallythatthepartialamplitudeinthiscaseisgivenbytheexpression R ( )

For 1 L thesignalscatteringdoesnottakeplaceonlyinthecutoffvicinitysothatthe
profilecannotbesupposedlinear,thereforetakinginaccount ei x 1 for 1 L n ,weobtain
theexpression(123)intheform

i Si 2 i

R( ) 3 2 2
8 c 4 2

xc

dx
dx,
n( x )
1
nc

1 Ln

(124)

53

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

2.7.1.

Numericalcomputationexampleforparabolicplasmadensityprofile

In case of parabolic plasma density profile n ( x ) nc

(1 (1 x Lpl ) 2 )
(1 (1 L0 Lpl ) 2 )

, (where plasma

characteristic length is Lpl 0.9m , the cutoff position L0 0.7m , probing frequency

f 55.7GHz , Airy scale length n 0.008m ) we compare the partial amplitude directly
computed fromtheHelmholtz equation using (92) and its approximation(122)(figure 2.7.). It
canbeseenthattheasymptoticform describes theabsolute valueaswell asrealandimaginary
parts of the partial amplitude rather precisely for 1 n (figure 2.7.(b)). Therewith only in
the very vicinity of zero (figure 2.7.(a)) and in the domain where Bragg condition is not
fulfilled(figure2.7.(c))thebehavioroffunctionanditsasymptoticformdiffers.

R()

0,1

R()

R() Re
R() Im
abs(R())
asymptotic (12a) Re
asymptotic (12a) Im
abs (asymptotic (12a))

0,0

0
-0,1

(a)

0,0

0,1

(b)

0,2

1,0

1,2

1,4

R()

0,02

0,00

(c)

-0,02
16

18

2c

20

Figure2.7.Thecomparisonofreal,imaginarypartsandmodulesofanalyticalapproximation(123)(solid
lines)andnumericallycalculatedpartialamplitude R ( ) ((a)(c))(dottedlines)showninrelativeunits,
theverticaldashedlineshowsthevalue 2 c in(c).

54

_____________________________2.7.Scatteringsignalincaseofarbitraryplasmadensityprofile

The comparison of the partial amplitude directly computed from the Helmholtz equation
using (92) and its approximation (123) is shown in figure 2.8., where L0 0.304m ,

f 42.9GHz and n 0.007203m . In the range 1 one can observe that the asymptotic
formprecisely coincideswiththepartialamplitude.However,thepartialamplitudecouldnot
bedescribedbytheformula(123)for 1 n 2 c ,asitisseeninfigure2.8.(c).
Thereby it is possible to draw a conclusion that both the approximations (122) and (123)
couldbeutilizedtodescribethescatteringsignalpartialamplitudewithasufficientaccuracy.
0,2

R() Re
R() Im
abs(R())
asymptotic (12c) Re
asymptotic (12c) Im
abs (asymptotic (12c))

R()

R()

0,0

0
(b)

(a)

0,0

0,1

-0,2
1,0

0,2

1,5

2,0

R()

0,05

0,00

-0,05

(c)

12

2c

13

Figure2.8.Thecomparisonofreal,imaginarypartsandmodulesofanalyticalapproximation(123)(solid
lines)andnumericallycalculatedpartialamplitude R ( ) ((a)(c))(dottedlines)showninrelativeunits,
theverticaldashedlineshowsthevalues 1 L n in(a)and 2 c in(c)

2.7.2.

ShortsummaryonvaliditydomainofHelmholtzequationsolutions

Incaseoflinearplasmadensityprofiletheprecisesolutionoftheunperturbedequationis
theAiryfunction.Inpresenceofsmallfluctuations n n 1% thelinear(Born)approximation

55

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

isvalidandtheperturbationtheorycouldbeapplied.Theanalyticalsolutionderivedinpart2.6
describesthescatteringwaveuptothecutoff.
TheWKBrepresentationoftheAiryfunctionhasbeenusedasanotherapproachtoobtain
the solution of the perturbed equation (45). The WKB approximation and its limitations were
described in subsection 2.1.3.1. In case of arbitrary plasma density profile the only way to
obtainanalyticalsolutionistoapplyWKBapproximation.Inthevicinityofcutoffwhereitis
nomorevalidthebehaviorofscatteringsignalhasnoanalyticaldescriptionandthesolutionof
theequation(45)isgivenbynumericalcomputations.

2.8. TheRCRCCF

In this section we derive the analytical formula expressing the RCR CCF in terms of the
turbulencespectrumforbothlinearandarbitraryplasmadensityprofiles.Inordertocarryout
the correlation analysis expressions for scattering signals at different probing frequencies are
used. The correlation decay of two scattering signals with growing difference of probing
frequenciesisstudied.WeintroducetheRCRCCFas

CCF ( )

A ( )
s

As (0 )

A ( )
s

As ( )

(125)

where averaging is held over ensemble. Thus, we choose one reference frequency 0 and
changetheprobingfrequency .

2.8.1.

RCRCCFforlinearplasmadensityprofile

Incaseoflineardensityprofileappealingtotheformulaforscatteringsignalandassuming
statistically homogeneous turbulence for which the relation (58) holds, we finally obtain the
expressionfortheRCRCCFintheform

CCF ( )

R ( ) n e
2

L0

(126)

where

and

L0

R( )
2

Si
16

0 L L0 ,

L0 L

0
c4

1
,

4 erf

1 2 c

i L0 erf *

i L

(127)

L0 and L are the cutoff positions for reference and probing

frequenciescorrespondingly.Expression(127)forthepartialamplitudecanbesimplifiedasit
56

_____________________________________________________________________2.8.TheRCRCCF

was done for the equation (109) using asymptotic representation (110) in the intervals

1 L 1 and 1 L itcanbewrittenaccordingly

R( )
2

Si
16

L0 L

0
c4

1
1 L 1
,

4 L L , 1 L
0

(128)

The 1 factor in the function is responsible for underlining the contribution of small angle
scattering off long scale fluctuations into the RCR signal. It is important to stress here that
asymptotic expression (128) correctly describes the behaviour of R ( ) also at higher wave
2

numbers 1 2 c . Using the proposed asymptotic form (109) for scattering signal we
obtainthefollowingrepresentationoftheCCFintermsoftheturbulencespectrum

D 1 CCF ( L)

n2 ei ( L0 L )erf

i L0 erf *

i L

(129)

where

S
D i2
4


LL 0
0

c4

(130)

The 1 singularity in this formula saturates for small wave numbers due to the term

erf

i L0 erf *

i L .ThedependenceofCCFontheprobingwavecutoffpositioncanbe

obtainedinexperimentbysweepingtheprobingfrequency.

CCF Re
CCF Im
Asymptotic Re
Asymptotic Im

1,0

CCF

0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

L, m

Figure 2.9. The comparison of analytical approximations (127) (dashed line real part and dotted line
imaginary part) and the CCF (solid line real part and thin dotted line imaginary part) numerically
calculatedinBornapproximation. L0 0.4m , f 0 95GHz ,Gaussianspectrum, lc 0.02m .

57

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

To check the approximate formula (128) we compare it after normalization to the CCF
calculatedusingtheBornapproximationformula(92).Therandomdensityfluctuationistaken
intheform

n( x )

jNs

n
j 0

in which n jq n0 e

jq

cos( jqx j )

(131)

jq 2 lc2
4

corresponds to the Gaussian turbulence correlation function

possessing correlation length lc 0.02m and phases j were randomly distributed in the
interval [0, 2 ] .TheaveragingisperformedoverensembleofNs=1000randomphasesamples.
Thecalculation parametersareasfollows: L0 0.4m ; f 0 95GHz .Theresultofcomparisonis
showninfigure2.9.illustratingtheapplicabilityoftheproposedformulaforthewideprobing
range.
Formula (128) can be used to compute the signal CCF for different spectra in order to
comparetoCCFobtainedinexperimentsandtodeterminerealturbulencespectraasaresultof
fitting procedure. However we demonstrate in section 2.9 the possibility of strict analytical
inversionoftheintegralrelation(128)andderiveaformulawhichallowscorrectwavenumber
spectrumreconstructionfromRCRexperimentaldata.

2.8.2.

RCRCCFforarbitraryplasmadensityprofile

IncaseofthearbitraryprofilewederivetheexpressionforthesignalCCFreferringtothe
formulae (122)(124) for scattering signals in arbitrary profile case. Thus, we multiply the
scattering signals for reference and probing frequencies. Subject to shortwave case let us
considerthedifferenceoftwosignalexponents.
xB 0
xB

2 k ( x ')dx ' k0 ( x ')dx ' i ( xB 0 xB )


x

xc
c

(132)

UtilizingTaylorseriesexpansionweobtain

xB (0 ) dk ( x ')
k
(
x
',
)
dx

'

x
d
xc
c

xB

0 dx ' k ( x ', 0 )

dx
d

xB 0

(
)
0
0
x k ( x ', 0 )dx ' (133)

Using Bragg condition we consider 2k ( x ', ) . Mention that xB (0 ) xB 0 and

dxB
d

xB xB 0
wederive:
0
xB 0

2( 0 )

xc

where
58

dk ( x ')
d

dx ' 2td ( )( 0 )

(134)

_____________________________________________________________________2.8.TheRCRCCF

td ( )

xB ( )

xc

k ( x ')
dx '

(135)

is the probing wave propagation time between the cutoff and the Bragg resonance point. In
case of long scale fluctuations satisfying condition 2 c 2 n the density profile
betweenthecutoffandtheBraggresonancepointcanbeconsideredaslinear,sothatthedelay
timeinexpression(134)takesaform

td ( )

L0

20

(136)

TheexpressionforRCRCCFtakestheform:

CCF ( )

2
R ( )n2 ei 2 td ( )( 0 )d

(137)

where

2
R ( )

Si 0
2048 2 c 4

nc 0nc
1
,
dn( x ) dn( x )

dx xB 0 dx xB

4
1

Ln 0 Ln ,

0
c
(138)

1
1

Ln 0
n

Analogoustoformulae(122)(124)weconsiderlimitsofthelongscalefluctuationsandobtain
theexpressionforthepartialamplitudeintheform:

2
R ( )

Si 0
2048 2 c 4

xc 0 ei x0 2 td ( )0 dx0 xc e i x 2 td ( ) dx
,

n
x
n
x
(
)
(
)
0
0
0
1
1

nc
nc
xn 0 2 t ( )
xn 2 t ( )
e d 0 dx0 e d dx
,

n( x0 ) 0
n( x )
0

1
1
nc
nc

1
1

xnc
n
(139)

1

xnc

Atsmallfluctuationwavenumber 2 c 2 n the Braggbackscatteringpointislocated


close to the cutoff ( xc xB xc 1 ), where we may approximate the density profile by the
lineardependence.Thepropagationtimeinthiscaseisgivenby expression(136).In(139)the
additional dependence on wave number is hidden in the dependence of the Bragg
backscattering point xB ( ) . However at 2 c 2 n in case the density profile can be
supposed linear, formula (139) in the region 1 xnc 1 n smoothly transforms into the
region 1 xnc andcoincideswith(122)(124).Inthiswavenumberdomainequation(137)
appearstobesimilarto(126).

59

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

2.9. TurbulencespectrumreconstructionfromtheRCRCCF

Inthissectionthemainresultofthisthesisisderived.
Essentially, the formula (129) shows that the expression for CCF in case of linear density
profilelookssimilartoFouriertransformofthefunction n2 .ItdiffersfromFouriertransformof
turbulencespectrumonlybecauseofweakdependence of theerrorfunction erf

i L onthe

probing wave cutoff position. Inversion of integral equation (129) giving the expression for
turbulencewavenumberspectrumcanbeobtainedafterconvertingitintotheAbelequation.
Wetreattheintegralequation(129)byapplyingFouriertransformandobtain

1
2

CCF ( L) iLy
e4
e
dL

L
2

d
2 i ( L L )
*
n e 0 erf

i L0

e
1

i L p2

dp eiLy dL

(140)

Leftpartoftheequation(140)canbedenotedas

1
F ( y)
2

Expressingtheinternal

iL ( y p 2 )

CCF ( L) iLy
e dL
L

(141)

dL astheDirac functionwefind

F ( y)

4 1

e
2

n2 erf *

i L0 ei L0

UsingtheDirac functionfeatureswesubstitute

e4
n2 y
F ( y)
2 0 1 p2

Aftervariableexchange t

yL
i 02
e 1 p

dp

1 p2

(143)

y
theequation(143)takesaformoftheAbelequation:
1 p2

erf * itL0
2
n
e itL0 dt , y 0
t
i

t ty
e 4 y

F ( y)

4 y erf * itL
0
2
e itL0 dt , y 0
nt
t yt

ThesolutionoftheAbelequationisfoundas

60

(142)

y
andobtain
1 p2

yL0
erf * i
1 p2

y
1 p2

y
1 p 2

dpd
1 p2

(144)

________________________________2.9.TurbulencespectrumreconstructionfromtheRCRCCF

n2 4e

e i L0
d
F ( y)
dy , 0
*

erf i L0 d y

i L
F ( y)
d
e 0
dy , 0
erf * i L d y

(145)

Changingvariables p y andsubstitutingtheexpression(141)into(145)weobtain

n2

e i L
d
*
erf i L0 d
0

1 CCF ( L) iL ( p )
L e dLdp
p

(146)

Integraloverpthereistakenexplicitly
i

dp iLp 2e 4
e
p
L

s2

ds e

(147)

Differentiating the expression (147) over finally we obtain the expression for the wave
numberspectrum:
1

n D
2

erf *

CCF ( L)e
i L

iL

d L

(148)

where L L L0 is the distance between the cutoff positions for reference and probing
frequencies.Formula (148)isoneofthemainresultsofthisthesis.Itsuggeststheprocedureof
wavenumberspectrumreconstructionfromRCRexperimentaldata.
Infigure2.10.forthesameparametersasinfigure2.6.weshowtheweightingcoefficient

S ( )

erf

i L0

(149)

inregion 1 thisfunctionbehavesas S ( ) .

Re S(k)
Im S(k)
abs S(k)

Re S(k)
Im S(k)
abs S(k)

10

15

0
0,0

20

cm

-1

0,2

0,4

0,6

cm

-1

Figure2.10.(a)Function S ( ) ;(b) S ( )

at 1 .

61

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

Multiplication by the function S ( ) will result in shortcoming of 1D theory as n2 (0) 0


leading to inaccuracy of spectrum reconstruction. Nevertheless as we show in Chapter III by
numerical simulations in most RCR experiments the suggested formula gives rather precise
reconstructionofturbulenceproperties.
SofarasweusetheBornapproximationtoderivetheformula(148)itisapplicableonlyat
lowenoughfluctuationamplitudewhenthereflectedwavephasemodulationisnotstrong.The
correspondingcriteriaofthelinearregimeproposedin[110]and[111]takesaform:

2 x c lc n 2

2
c

ln

xc
1
lc

(150)

ItshouldbenotedthattheexpressionforCCF(137)obtainedinarbitraryprofilecasetakesa
form of nearly Fourier transform as well. Therefore one may expect that inverse Fourier
transformofCCFgivenby

S ( q)

CCF ( ) e

iqL0

0
0

d 0

(151)

canbeusedforturbulencespectrumreconstructionfromexperimentaldata.

2.10.

DirecttransformformulaeforRCR

This sectionaddressesthetheoreticalexpressionforintegralkernel,whichconvertsdirectly
the correlation function CCF (L) into the twopoint CCF of plasma turbulence C (r ) should
be quite useful for experimentalists in order to compute TCCF avoiding error accumulation
duringtwostepconversion.Inversetransformationisalsodiscussed.

2.10.1. Forwardtransformationkernel

Expression(148)allowstocomputetheturbulenceradialwavenumberspectrumfromthe
signal CCF measured in experiment. The TCCF C ( r ) is related to the spectrum by Fourier
transformation
2 /c

C (r )

n2 e i r d

(152)

2 / c

whereintegrationisheldwithinBraggbackscatteringlimits 2 c 2 c .
WeproposetheintegraltransformationtocomputetheTCCFstraightfromthesignalCCF
onpurposetoavoidtheerroraccumulatedduringnumericalprocedureofturbulencespectrum
reconstructionandfurtherFouriertransformationandtoprovideasimpleformuladetermining
TCCFdirectlyfromreflectometrymeasurements.

62

_________________________________________________2.10.DirecttransformformulaeforRCR

When substituting the expression (148) for the spectrum into the expression (152) the
expression for a forward transformation of signal CCF into the TCCF in a simple form of
convolutionisobtained
1

C (r)

A CCF (L ) K (r L )d L

(153)

L and a wave number variable L are normalized to the


where a spatial variable L
0
L0

referencefrequencycutoffposition.Integrationisperformedovertheintervalwherethesignal
CCFisdefined.Thecoefficient

8 3 2 ei 2 6

A
1 L
4
Si
L0

5 2

(154)

is calculated from the expression for the coefficient (130) taking into account the relation

forlinearplasmadensityprofileandAiryscale.
L
0
The expression for the forward transformation kernel is given in the form of Fourier
transform:

2 / c

)
K (r L

2 / c

)
i ( r L

i 2 sign ( )

e
d
*

erf
i

(155)

Theconvertedfunctionisperformedbyanantisymmetricfastoscillatingcomplexfunction,
which gives after being processed by Fourier transform, the real function of the kernel. The
integration limits depend on the probing frequency which in its turn is related to the

) forlinearplasmadensityprofile.
distancebetweenthecutoffpositionsas 0 (1 L

2.10.2. Numericalsimulationexampleofforwardkernelusage

To illustrate possibilities of this method, we simulate a case close to FT2 tokamak


experiment with the following parameters: linear plasma density profile, reference cutoff
position L0 0.08m , reference probing frequency f 0 45GHz and Gaussian radial wave
number spectrum n2 lc e

lc2 2 / 4

, where correlation length is lc 0.004m . In this case, Airy

scalelengthisequalto 0.0045m .
Infigure2.11.anexampleofcomputationofforwardtransformationkernel K (r) inrelative
units versus normalized distance from the cutoff position is shown. As it is seen the kernel
represents oscillatory behavior which comes from integration limits corresponding to Bragg
backscatteringlimits.Verticaldashedlinesexpresstheinterval L0 L L0 wherethesignal
CCF is defined. The kernel has two characteristic scales. One is the sharp peak near the zero

63

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

separationlimit.Theotheristhelongandlogarithmictail,whichhascharacteristicscaleofthe
globaldensitygradient.
1,0
0,5
0,0
-0,5
-1,0
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

r /L 0

Figure2.11.Thekernelofnormalizedforwardtransformationshowninrelativeunits versusnormalized
distancefromthecutoffposition.Verticaldashedlinesexpresstheinterval L0 L L0 .

reconstruction of TCCF
input TCCF

0,5

0
-0,2
-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0
L/L 0

0.05

0.1

0.15

Figure 2.12. An example of TCCF computed using forward transform shown by red line marked with
circlesversusnormalizeddistancefromthereferencecutoffposition.

In figure 2.12. we demonstrate the conversion of the signal CCF into the TCCF. Formula
(153) is applied to the signal CCF which is computed using formula (129), the result of the
conversionisshownbythinsolidlinemarkedwithcircles.ThecomputedsignalCCFwasgiven
in figure 2.9. This reconstructed TCCF is compared to the initial Gaussian TCCF (thick solid
line). It is confirmed that the operator equation is able to reproduce the TCCF, although the
signalCCFisassociatedwiththelongtail.ThesignalCCFisdefinedon thefiniteintervaland
possesses a subsequent discontinuity at L L0 (see figure 2.14, green line) which causes
oscillations(inthescalelengthsshorterthan c )incomputedTCCF.
64

_________________________________________________2.10.DirecttransformformulaeforRCR

We would like to stress that the experimental signal CCF is measured on finite distance
betweenprobingfrequencycutoffsaswellasonfiniteprobinginterval.Inthiscaseoneshould
applynumericalproceduresofinterpolationandextrapolationbyexponentialfunctiontoavoid
discontinuities;anexplicitdemonstrationofsuchprocedureswillbegiveninChaptersIIIand
IV.Weshouldalsonotethatsimplifyingtransformationthusadditionalcomplexityassociated
withintegrationofrapidlyoscillatingfunctionsisintroduced.

2.10.3. Inversetransformationkernel

Inverse procedure of transformation is also based on formula (129). We substitute the


expressionfortheradialwavenumberspectrumasaFouriertransformationoftheTCCFinto
equation(129):

1
n
2
2

L0

C ( r )e

i r

dr

(156)

L0

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

-1

-0.5

0
r/L 0

0.5

Figure2.13.Thekernelofthenormalizedinversetransformation.

Integration here is held over the interval where the TCCF is defined. The expression for the
inversetransformationtakesthefollowingform
1

) B
CCF ( L
C (r ) U (r L )d r

(157)

is
wherethenormalizedcoefficient B

4
Si L0 1 L

B
8 3 2

52

(158)

andtheexpressionforthekernelisdescribedby

65

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

)
U (r L

2 / c

d i ( r L )
e
erf

/c

erf *
i L
0

L
)
i ( L
0

(159)

that seems to be similar to Fourier transformation however this kernel possesses the
dependence on L in the argument of complex conjugate error function. Integration is
performedinBraggbackscatteringlimitsaswasmentionedintheprevioussubsection.
Figure 2.13. shows the normalized inverse transformation kernel U (r ) in relative units
versus normalized distance from the cutoff position. The function decays logarithmically
thereforethelongrangetailisintroducedintothesignalCCFcomputedusingformula(157).

2.11.

Ideas for a combined diagnostic using reflectometry and other

densityfluctuationdiagnostic

In this section we consider correlation between the reflectometry signal and other local
fluctuation measurement such as HIBP in order to simplify the procedure of data processing
andtoopennewapproachesofreflectometryusage.Thereasonforthispredictionisprovided
bydifferentbehaviorofcomplementarydiagnosticsensitivitytolongwavelengthfluctuations,
which was supposed homogeneous, whereas for reflectometry it is growing towards small
wave numbers. It is also necessary to stress that nowadays no experiment exists for applying
thisnewkindofturbulencecharacterization.
Werepresentthecorrelationbyintercorrelationfunction(ICF) ICF (L) where L0 denotes
the position of local measurement and L indicates the position of the reflection for
reflectometry.Itisshownthatthelongrangetailofcorrelationwhichismuchlongerthanthe
correlationlengthofturbulencepersistsin ICF (L) (seefigure2.14.),howeveritdecaysfaster
thanthat of CCF (L) . Wepropose formulaeto compute wave numberspectrum andspatial
TCCFfromthesemeasurements.
TheinteresttodefineexpressionsofICFistochangethedependenciesofCCF,andifitis
possible to reduce the contribution of the long wavelength in the CCF as it will be shown. In
this subsection we develop theoretically the method of data interpretation of combined
reflectometryandotherlocaldiagnostics(e.g.HIBP).WeintroduceICFas

ICF (L) n( L0 ) As* ( L0 L)

(160)

between the reflectometry signal As ( L0 L) and one other local fluctuation measurement

n( L0 ) in linear regime, n( L0 ) n( L0 ) 1% . We also assume that reflectometry and other


fluctuationdiagnosticmeasurementscanbeheldsimultaneously.
Wemodifyformula(129)accordingtotheexpressionforICFinthefollowingway:

66

____________________________________________________2.11.Ideasforacombineddiagnostic

P 1 CCF (L)

n2 e iL erf *

i ( L0 L)

(161)

wherethecoefficient P isequalto

Si
P
2

L0 L

c2

(162)

0,5

0
-1

-0,5

0
r /L 0

0,5

Figure2.14.ComparisonofTCCF(redline),ICF(greenline)andsignalCCF(blueline).Horizontal
dashedlineshowsthe1/eCCFlevel.

Infigure2.14.weshowthecomparisonofGaussianTCCF(redline),ICF(greenline)given
by expression (160) and signal CCF (blue line) given by expression (129) versus normalized
distance between fluctuation measurement and the cutoff position of the probing frequency.
Horizontal dashed line shows the 1/e CCF level. Signal CCF demonstrates slow logarithmical
decay.ThedependencyoftheICFonthewavenumberisnomoresingularanditdecaysfaster
comparingtothesignalCCFhoweveritisstillnotpossibletodeterminetheTCCForatleast
turbulence correlation length directly from the measurements.In the present paper we give a
method to determine spatial TCCF from the ICF. Similarly to computations performed in
section2.9wederiveanexpressionfortheradialwavenumberspectrumintermsofICF:

n e
2

i (1 sign ( ))
2

P CCF (L) e i ( L0 L ) d L

(163)

2.11.1. ForwardandinversetransformsforICF

WederivetheexpressionsfortheforwardandinversetransformsoftheICFintoTCCF.

67

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

Thus,wesubstitutetheexpressionforthespectrum(163)intoFouriertransformation(152)
andobtaintheexpressionfortheTCCFinformofconvolution

C (r )

L0

A CCF (L)K (r L)d L

(164)

L0

wheretheexpressionfortheforwardtransformationkernelisgivenbytheintegral
2 / c

K (r L)

e i ( r L ) d

(165)

2 / c

andthecoefficient A isequalto

A e

i (1 sign ( ))
2

P 1

(166)

The expression for the inverse transformation is computed by substituting the equation
(156)intorelation(161)

CCF (L)

L0

2 C (r ) U (r L)dr

(167)

L0

wheretheexpressionfortheinversetransformationkernelispresentedbytheintegral
2 / c

U (r L)

2 / c

ei ( r L ) erf *

i L0 L

(168)

Infigures2.15.and2.16.weshowtheforwardandinversekernelfunctionscorrespondingly
in relative units versus normalized distance from the fluctuation measurement position.
VerticaldashedlinesshowtheintervalwheretheICFisdefined.

1,0

0,5

0,0

-0,5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0
r /L 0

0.5

Figure2.15.ThekernelofthenormalizedforwardtransformationforICF.

68

1.5

_______________________________________________________________________2.12.Summary

0,5

0
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0
r /L 0

0.5

1.5

Figure2.16.ThekernelofthenormalizedinversetransformationforICF.

We should underline that formulae shown in this section are derived for infinite limits
howevertheICFaswellastheTCCFaredefinedonfiniteintervalwhichcausesdifficultiesin
theory applications to the experiment. Moreover integration over wave number should be
performedwithinBragglimits.Beforeusingthe proposedmethoditisnecessarytoprocessthe
ICFinaproperwayapplyinginterpolationandextrapolationprocedures.

2.12.

Summary

InthischapterthenewanalyticaltheoryofRCRhasbeenpresented.
Existing2Dapproaches[107,126]arequitesophisticatedandaswesuppose2Deffectsdo
not strongly influence reflectometry diagnostic which is generally onedimensional, therefore
thedevelopmentof1Danalyticalapproachisevident.
In section 2.6 the analytical solution of 1D Helmholtz equation in Born approximation for
linearplasmadensityprofilehasbeenderived.Asaresultofthissimpleapproachitwasshown
that scattering signal singular dependency on fluctuation wave number saturates for smaller
wave number of the order of the inverse distance between plasma boundary and the cutoff
position 1 L that is significantly smaller than Airy scale length as it was supposed in
earlieranalyticalapproach[115]asoftheorderofAiryscalelength.Asitcould beseenfrom
figure2.17wherethecomparisonofthetwoapproachesisillustratedthedifferencebetweenthe
correctscatteringsignalfunctionandtheassumptionof[115]canreachafactorof10.

69

ChapterII.Theoreticalbackgroundofradialcorrelationreflectometry_______________________

Figure 2.17. Comparison between the new analytical scattering signal representation (red line) and
previous assumption (marked by solid violet line). Vertical violet dashed line signifies Airy scale at
whichthescatteringsignaldependencyonwavenumberwassupposedtosaturate.

The strong scattering signal dependency proportional to 1

in the region

1 L 1 missedinpreviousapproachisinchargeoflonglogarithmictailinthesignal
RCR CCF (see figure 2.9.) numerically demonstrated in [76]. In Chapter III this result will be
confirmedin1DnumericalmodelinBornapproximation.
The same exercise was performed in WKB approximation in case of arbitrary plasma
densityprofilewhichisclosertorealexperiment.InvicinityofthecutoffpositionwhereWKB
approximationisnomorevalidthescatteringsignalisdescribedbytheAiryfunction.
TherelationbetweenthesignalRCRCCFwhichcouldbemeasuredinRCRexperimentand
theturbulenceradialwavenumberspectrumistheprimarynewresultofthisChapter.Despite
the huge difference between correlation functions of signals and turbulence it gives a simple
andcorrectmethodofexperimentaldatainterpretation.Thoughthisinverserelationisderived
in case of linear plasma density profile in Omode it is applicable for smooth monotonic
experimental profiles as well as for Xmode probing and gives satisfying result as it will be
demonstrated in Chapters 4 and 5. Definitively there are restrictions for the obtained results
providedbytheinitialassumptionsmadeinthebeginningofthischapter.Thus,themethodof
RCR CCF transformation is applicable in case of small level of plasma density fluctuations

n nc 1% ,i.e.inlinearregime,howeverthisdoesnotdisparagethevalueofnewformulae.
Analytical asymptotic forms and direct transforms have been confirmed by numerical
computationsofcorrespondingintegralsandshowninfigures2.6.2.17.ofthisChapter.

70

_______________________________________________________________________2.12.Summary

Direct transforms simplifying the calculation of turbulence spatial properties were also
proposedinsection2.10.
Anotherbreakthroughofthedevelopedanalyticaltheoryistheexpansionofitsapplications
onotherfluctuationdiagnosticssuchasforexampleHIBP.Theanalyticalbasisofthediagnostic
based on simultaneous usage of one reflectometry channel and HIBP data is developed in
section2.11.Atpresentdaythereisnoexperimentexploitingsuchamethod.Certainly,when
setting up the experiment, one would face difficulties in data collection and interpretation
neverthelesstheICFgivesacommencementofthiskindofinvestigation.
Obviously there is wide field for further research and analytical theory improvement
namely connection between 1D and 2D expressions, corrections to the inverse relation due to
2Deffectswhicharethesubjectoffutureresearch.

71

72

ChapterIII

Numericalmodeling
_____________________________________________________________________________________

InthisChaptersimulationresultsaregivenfirstly,tovalidatethenewtheoryofRCRableto
accesstoturbulencecharacteristics, secondly to determine the limits and thesensitivity ofthe
radial correlation reflectometer to different parameters encountered in experiments and
possibilities of this diagnostic to detect relevant events existing in fusion plasmas. Results of
reflectometryexperimentnumericalmodelinginsimplestlinearplasmadensityprofileaswell
asinconditionsclosetorealexperimentsarepresented.

73

74

__________________________________________________________________3.1.Numericalmodel

3.1.

Numericalmodel

In this subsection the numerical code is described. The numerical model is based on the
theoreticalapproachdevelopedinChapterIIresultinginunperturbeddifferentialequation(45)
to be solved and further integral (99) and inversion relation (148) to be computed. The
programminglanguageFortranisusedtodevelopthecode.
Analytical formulae are derived in Born approximation linear regime and possess no
dependence on fluctuation amplitude therefore the numerical code is not sensitive to
fluctuationamplitudeandgivesonlylinearsolutionoftheHelmholtzequation.
AssoonasourgoalistostudytheRCRdiagnosticfromtheexperimentalpointofviewwe
choosethesetofinputparametersofthecodeclosetoexperimental.Thenumericalprocedure
consists of four parts: solution of the unperturbed Helmholtz equation; partial amplitude
calculation (calculation of the integral over ); signal CCF calculation; turbulence wave
numberandCCFreconstruction.

3.1.1.

NumericalsolutionofunperturbedHelmholtzequation.

Firstly, the unperturbed Helmholtz equation (45) with n( x ) 0 is solved numerically


applying finite difference scheme based on forthorder Numerov method. Finite difference
methodisselectedduetoitssimplicity(lesscomputingtime)andeasinesstoimplement.The
equidistantgridwiththestephisused.Thesolutionistheunperturbedelectricfield E0j ( x, j )
for the set of probing frequencies where j is the index of probing frequency. Initially the
Helmholtzequationtakesaform:

E z(2) ( x ) 4 2 N 02 ( x ) E z ( x ) 0

(169)

TosolvetheHelmholtzequationthe4thorderNumerovscheme(seeAppendixB)isused:

h2
5h 2 2
E z ( x h ) 1 4 2 N 02 ( x h ) E z ( x ) 2 4 2
N 0 ( x)
12
6

h2
E z ( x h ) 1 4 2 N 02 ( x h ) 0
12

(170)

TheHelmholtzequationisfinallyrepresentedbyamatrixequation:


E B

(171)

where is a tridiagonal matrix defined by equation (170). B is the vector defined by

boundary conditions of finite amplitude in vacuum E ( xL) 1.0 and the evanescence of the

wave behind the cutoff E ( xR ) 0.0 , thus B1 E ( xL) 1

h2 2
N 0 ( xL) , B2.. N x 0.0 . The
12

75

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

dimensionofthematrix is N x , N x ,ofthevectors E and B is N x ,1 .Thesolutionofthe


equation is found by inverting the matrix . In Fortran it is done by means of DLSLTR
function.
Inthispartwealsointroducethefollowingphysicalparametersofcomputation:
xL

leftplasmaboundary

xR

rightplasmaboundary

probingstep

j ( xL j )

probingfrequency

ne(x)

plasmadensityprofile

B(x)

magneticfieldprofile

andnumericalparameters:
Nx

thenumberofintegrationxgridpoints

h x

xgridstep

Theresultofthiscomputationisthe matrix E 1 ,..., E

containing N vectorsoflength N x

andthematrix , L containingthevector ofprobingfrequencies andthevector L of

cutoffpositions,bothoflength N x .Equidistantintervalischosenforcutoffpositions.

3.1.2.

Reflectometrysignalpartialamplitudeintegralcomputation

Substitutingtheexpressionforthefluctuations(56)totheformula(92)weobtain:

i Si
As ( )
32 2
j

n
nc

j (0 )

( j , x ) e i x d dx
2

(172)

Inthesecondpartwe firstly computethe integralover wavenumberschangingtheintegration


limitsaccordingtotheconditionsofcomputations:

I ( , k )
j

iN x

E
i 1

j (0)

( j , xi ) e i k xi hx
2

(173)

The xgrid of integration is already defined by previous computations of the matrix

E 1 ,..., E N . The grid is defined in this part with the resolution of 2 N 1 points in the

wavenumber interval 2 j c 2 j c specified by Bragg conditions.Here wedefinethe


followingparameters:

76

2 N 1

thenumberofintegration gridpoints

gridstep

__________________________________________________________________3.1.Numericalmodel

The result of this computation is the matrix M , I (1 , ),..., I (

, ) containing the

vectorofwavenumbers , k 2 j c k h , i N ... N andvectorsoftheintegralsfor


eachfrequency j andwavenumber .
Plasmafluctuationsaremodeledinthefollowingway:
k N

n( x )

k N

n2 ei k x eik
s

(174)

whereamplitude n2 isdistributedinaccordancewiththeinputturbulencespectrum,random
phases ks aregeneratedantisymmetricallyforthewavenumbers k ofoppositesignandto
thenumberofsamplesofaveragings.
Furtherwecomputethepartialamplitudesas

As ( )
j

k N

I ( j , k ) n2 ei k x eik
s

k N

(175)

Hereweintroduceonemoreparameter:
thenumberofsetsofsamplesofaveraging

Ns

N
Theresultofthispartofcomputationsisamatrix As ( )1 ,..., As ( ) s containing N s vectorsof

partialamplitudesforeachsampleofrandomphase.Finally, thesignalisrepresentedinterms
ofrealandimaginarypartsas As ( ) re( As ( )) im( As ( )) .

3.1.3.

SignalCCFcomputation

In the third part we compute the signal CCF according to formula (125). Simplifying
calculations,wenormalizeitinthefollowingway:

CCF ( j )

A ( )
s

A ( )
s

As (0 )
As (0 )

A (
s

) As ( j )

A ( )
j

As ( )
j

(176)

We chose one ofthe frequencies j to set asreference. Wealsochosethe intervalofprobing


whichcorrespondstoexperimental.Thereforenewparametersareused:

referenceprobingfrequency

probinginterval

numberofprobingfrequencies

Essentially, to compute the CCF we make the averaging numerically over random phase
samples and therefore we allow numerical modeling of experimental noise. The result of the

77

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

computation is a vector CCF ( j ( L)) CCF ( L) , vector of probing frequencies and the

vectorofthedifferencebetweenreferenceandprobingcutoffpositions L .

3.1.4.

TurbulencewavenumberspectrumandTCCFreconstruction

Inthefourthpartwedeterminethespectrumutilizingequation(148):
1

n k D
2

1 sign

erf

k
i k L0

i N

CCF (L)e
i

k L

(177)

i 1

where L L0 Lj .TheTCCFiscomputedutilizingsimplefastFourierTransform(152):

C(L )
j

k N*

n2 e i k L h*
j

(178)

k N*

Outputdataarethevectorofthewavenumberspectrumofthelength 2 N* 1 andthevector
ofturbulenceofthelength N x* .Thenewparametersofthereconstructionareintroduced:

2N* 1

thenumberofintegration gridpoints

h*

gridstep

N x*

thenumberofintegrationxgridpoints

3.2. Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

Inthissectionthecapabilitiesoftheproposedprocedureareshownnumerically.Herewe
just give qualitative criteria deduced from simulations done in cases of relevant density
gradientlengthsforactualfusiondevices.

3.2.1.

ReconstructionofturbulencespectrumandCCFforlargemachine

An example of simulations is given for large tokamak plasma where wave propagation
regionwidthismuchlargerthantheturbulencecorrelationlengthinthesimplestlinearplasma
density profile case where the parameter set satisfies fully all the validity conditions of the
theory.
Results of computations in this section are obtained under the following common
parameters: reference frequency f 0 =95.5GHz which corresponds to the reference cutoff
position L0 =0.4m ;thenumberof integrationgridpointsisalsofixedNx=10000andnumberof

78

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

wavenumberharmonicsNk=10000.Theratioofwavepropagationregionwidthtothevacuum
wavelengthinconsideredcaseis L0 f 0 c 127.3 .

3.2.1.1. Broadprobingregionandfineresolution

Firstlyweconsiderthecasewithoutlimitationsbydiagnostictechniqueparametersandwe
testcapabilitiesofthemethodassumingtheprobingtoberealizedinplasmawithintheinterval

0.8m corresponding to 20lc L 20lc , where correlation length is lc 0.02m , with


spatial probing step 0.04lc , which corresponds to the number of probing frequencies

N 1000 , and introduce the number of sets of random density fluctuation phase samples
Ns=500.

3.2.1.1.1.

SimpleGaussianturbulencespectrum

We suppose a linear plasma density profile with the Gaussian turbulence spectrum [127]
usedintheanalysis:

n2 lc e lc

2 2

/4

(179)

The choice represents the simplest singlecomponent oneparameter spectrum often used in
numericalmodelingoffluctuationreflectometryasitwasdescribedinsection1.4.3.

Re CCF
Im CCF
Gauss

CCF

1,0

0,5

0,0
-20

L/lc

20

Figure3.1.SignalCCF(realsolidblueandimaginarydottedgreen)and inputGaussianTCCF(dashed
redline)calculatedintheinterval 40lc .Horizontaldashedlineshowsthe1/eCCFlevel.

ThecalculatedCCFintheinterval 20lc L 20lc isshowninfigure3.1.,realpartby


blue solid line and imaginary part by green dotted line. Its real part is much broader than

79

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

turbulence Gaussian correlation function (red dashed curve) and asymmetric and possesses
small,butfiniteimaginarypart,shownbydottedline.The1/eCCFlevelisshownbyhorizontal
dashed black line. As it is obvious, the CCF contains information on turbulence but does not
providedirectinformationontheTCCF.Accordingly,thecalculatedCCFisverypeakedabout
zeroandshowsslowlogarithmicdecay,unliketheinitialGaussianTCCF.
AssoonasFouriertransformoversignalCCFisperformedweapplytheextrapolation
procedure to the signal CCF by exponential function in order to avoid fast oscillations of the
resulting spectrum caused by deltafunction. After extrapolation of the CCF to higher L
valuesanddataprocessingaccordingto(148)therealpartofthereconstructedspectrum takes
a form similar to the Gaussian (see figure 3.2.). The oscillations of the real part around the
Gaussian spectrum are produced by discontinuities of the extrapolation procedure at

L 20lc . A smaller imaginary part of the reconstructed spectrum is oscillating around the
zero line. Smoothing of these oscillations results in a spectrum similar to Gaussian and
possessingverysmallimaginarypart,asitisshowninfigure3.2.

Spectrum

Re spectrum
Im spectrum
Gauss
Re average
Im average

-1

-5

lc

Figure3.2.Thecomputedspectrumversusnormalizedwavenumber.Reconstructedreal(bluesolidline)
andimaginary(greensolidline)parts,averagedcurvesbydottedblackandyellowlines,inputGaussian
spectrumbyredsolidline.

It is important to note that these oscillations originated from extrapolation procedure


couldberemovedtothematchingregion L 20lc byperformingFouriertransform(152)of
the reconstructed spectrum over a wave number interval 2 0 c 2 0 c , which
corresponds to all the contribution of the Bragg scattering processes, in accordance with (59)
providingtheTCCF.Theresultofthistransformationinthesamecaseasinfigure3.2.isshown
infigure3.3.
80

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

Re CCF
Im CCF
Gauss

0,5

0,0
-10

-5

Llc

500 samples
1000 samples
10000 samples

1,0

turbulence CCF

turbulence CCF

1,0

0,5

0,0

10

-10

-5

L/lc

10

Figure 3.3. The TCCF (blue line) compared to Figure3.4.ComparisonoftheGaussianTCCF(real


Gaussian (red dashed line) given in relative units, part), Ns=500, Ns=1000 and Ns=10000, given in
Ns=500inthesameconditionsasfigure3.1.

relatedunitsinthesameconditionsasfigure3.1.

As it is seen there, the reconstructed real part of the TCCF recovers the shape of initial
Gaussian correlator at L 2lc . The finite value of the CCF imaginary part, as well as CCF
randombehaviorat L 2lc shouldbeattributedtoanimperfectaveraging.
Asitisseeninfigure3.4.,theleveloftheoscillationsofthereconstructedTCCFrealpartat

L 2lc is suppressed by increasing the averaging set from 500 to 1000 and further to 10000
samples(withreferencetomaximalsweepingstepnumber,forexample,onToreSupra[128]).

3.2.1.1.2.

Multicomponentturbulencespectra

Using the approach based on equation (148) it is also possible to reconstruct more
complicated,inparticular,multicomponentspectra.

2,0
Re
Im
input

1,0

CCF

Spectrum

1,5

Re
Im
input
RCR CCF

1,0

0,5

0,5
0,0

0,0
-0,5
-10

-5

lc

-0,5

10

-4

-2

0
Llc

Figure3.5.1.

Figure3.6.1.

81

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

Re
Im
input

Spectrum

1,5

CCF

1,0

Re
Im
input
RCR CCF

1,0

0,5

0,5

0,0

0,0
-0,5
-1,0
-10

-5

lc

-0,5
-10

10

-5

0
Llc

10

Figure3.5.2.

Figure3.6.2

1,0

CCF

Spectrum

Re
Im
Theor

Re
Im
input
RCR CCF

0,5

0
0,0

-1
-10

-5

lc

-10

10

-5

0
Llc

10

Figure3.5.3.

Figure3.6.3.

Re
Im
input

0,5

0,5

0,0

0,0

-10

Re CCF
input CCF
RCR CCF

1,0

CCF

Spectrum

1,0

-5

lc

-0,5
-10

10

-5

10

L/lc

Figure3.5.4.

Figure3.6.4.

Figure3.5.Calculatedspectrumversusnormalized Figure 3.6. Signal CCF shown in relative units.


wave number. Reconstructed real and imaginary Reconstructed real part is presented by blue line.
parts are presented by blue and green lines Input TCCF is shown by red line, RCR CCF by
correspondingly,inputspectrumbyredline.

blackline.

Infigures3.5.1.3.5.4.examplesofseveralspectraare shown.Thechoiceofthesespectra
corresponds to possible or encountered cases. The signal CCF for each spectrum has been
comparedto correspondingTCCF. The aimof these computationsisto testcapabilitiesof the
82

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

numerical method to reconstruct various types of spectra and to study the behavior of signal
CCFandTCCFdependingondistributionofspatialscalesinspectra.
AswebeganwiththeGaussianspectruminsection3.2.1.1.1weconsiderdoubleGaussian
spectrumshowninfigure3.5.1.Thisspectrumisnotableforitsdecreaseintheregion lc 3
whichcausesighchangesintheTCCFshowninfigure3.6.1.
As a more realistic example of spectrum we choose the exponential turbulence spectrum

n2 0.5lc e lc showninfigure3.5.2.observedinexperiments[47,129],withaflatpart(figure
3.5.3.)and suppressedatsmallwavenumbers lc 1 (figure3.5.4.)reproducingdiscontinuity
verywell,inordertodemonstratetheaccuracyofverysharpspectralreconstruction.Thesignal
CCF (dashed curve in figure 3.6) as in the example of previous section is also much broader
thantheinputTCCF.
Thesespectrabeingtreatedinagreementwithequation(148)(bluelinerealpartinfigures
3.5.1. 3.5.4.) coincide with the input exponential spectrum (red line), imaginary part (green
line) is oscillating around the zero line. Oscillations of the reconstructed real part of the
spectrum around the initial one are produced by input signal CCF discontinuities in the
extrapolation region and can be suppressed by increasing of number of sets of random phase
samples as it was shown in section 3.2.1.1.1. The TCCF resulting from the spectrum Fourier
transformation (blue line real part in figures 3.6.1. 3.6.4.) fits the input one, as in case of
Gaussianspectrum(seefigure3.3).ThesignalCCFshowninfigure3.6.4.possessesoscillatory
behaviorandchangessignduetospectrumsuppressionintheregion lc 1 byanalogywith
signalCCFshowninfigure3.6.1.
Summarizing we underline that numerical computations presented in this paragraph
distinctly demonstrate the capability of the proposed method to determine different kinds of
radialwavenumberspectraevencontainingdiscontinuitiesandtheassociatedCCFaccurately.
Moreoveronecouldpredicttheturbulencewavenumberbehaviorandpresentingspatialscales
relyingonthesignalCCFandTCCFdependencies.Thus,iftheTCCFrealpartisnegativethe
prediction that the turbulence wave number spectrum is suppressed for small wave numbers
couldbemade.

3.2.1.2. CCFandspectrumreconstructioninconditionsrelevanttoexperiment

The role played by simulations is essential for setting the experimental parameters. The
numerical computations are required to determine the parameters in the frame of technical
limitationsaccordingtovalidity domain and theoretical expectations. Thus, in this sectionwe
aimtoprecisetheparametersatwhichthereconstructionofturbulencecharacteristicscouldbe
heldsuccessfully.

83

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

3.2.1.2.1.

Determinationofoptimizedrealisticspatialprobinginterval

In the previous subsection we have performed reconstruction based on the signal CCF
computedinaverywideprobingfrequencyrangecorrespondingto 40lc neverpossiblein
experiments.Thustoholdnumericalmodelinginconditionsrelevanttoexperimentwereduce
theprobingintervalinordertodeterminetheconditionscriticalforreconstruction.
Figure 3.7. shows the reconstructed Gaussian TCCF for realistic cases 4lc (a) and (b).
The computations are done for theparametersof large machine. It is clearly seen from figure
3.7.(b)thattheprobinginterval 2lc isnotsufficienttoprovidethecorrelationlengthwithin
theerrorlevelof25%incontrarytotheinterval 4lc ,figure3.7.(a), wherethe errorisless
than 5%. Furthermore the shape of the TCCF can be determined from the figure 3.7. (a).
Therefore we demonstrate numerically that the probing interval corresponding to technical
possibilitieswhichalsoallowsturbulencecharacteristicsreconstructionis 2lc .

Re
Im
Gauss

1,0

Re
Im
Gauss

1,0
(b)

CCF

CCF

(a)

0,5

0,5

0,0

0,0
-4

-2

L/lc

-4

-2

L/lc

Figure.3.7.TheTCCF, 4lc (a)and 2lc (b).InputTCCFisshownbyredline,reconstructedCCF


byblueline(realpart)andgreenline(imaginarypart).

3.2.1.2.2.

Realisticspatialprobingstep

TheevaluationoftheCCFusedforthereconstructioninfigure3.1.wasperformedwithfine
spatial resolution within a wide region (1000 points within the 40lc interval), which
correspondstoprobingwithaverydetailedresolutionandinaverywiderangeunrealizablein
experiment.Inmorerealisticconditionsofonly16RCRmeasurementsthereconstructionofthe
TCCF is also feasible, as we show in figure 3.8. based on the RCR data obtained at 10lc
( 5lc L 5lc )withthesignalfrequencycutoffstep 0.08lc and 0.64lc (figure3.9.).
Comparing the result of TCCF reconstruction for the two cases it is possible to draw a
conclusionthatthoughthereconstructionfor 0.64lc possessesanoscillatorystructuredue

84

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

tospatialdiscretezationeffectanddiscrepancycausedbyextrapolationprocedure,nevertheless
it is still conceivable to determine the TCCF and correlation length therefore we consider the
probingstep 0.64lc tobeenoughforreconstruction.

CCF

CCF

0.08lc
0.64lc

1,0

Re, 0.08lc
Im, 0.08lc
Re, 0.64lc
Im, 0.64lc
Gauss

1,0

0,5

0,5

0,0

0,0
-4

-2

0
L/lc

-10

-5

L/lc

10

Figure 3.8. CCF shown in relative units for Figure 3.9. TCCF reconstructed at 10lc ,

0.08lc (bluecrossesrealpartandgreencrosses 0.08lc (blueline)and 0.64lc (cyanline).


imaginary part) and 0.64lc (cyan squares real
part and green triangles imaginary part). Input
TCCFisshownbyredline.

3.2.1.2.3.

Reconstructioninpresenceofuncorrelatednoise

In this subsection we study limitations of the reconstruction procedure associated with


broadband noise. We model it as the white noise in the following way AsN As As e

i ( j )

where AsN is the measured signal, As is the scattering signal, is the noise level, ( j )
randomuncorrelatedphase.
Here we represent the numerical simulation results obtained only for noise level of

1.0 , whereas for the wide range of parameters (noise level 0.1 1.5 ) the simulations
wereheldaswell.Figure10showstheCCFcomputedforGaussianspectrum n2 lc e

lc2 2 4

in the case of 1.0 and Ns=500 random phase samples by the solid line the real part and
dottedlinetheimaginarypart.TheCCFoscillationscouldbereducedbyincreasingthenumber
of setsofsamplesuptoNs=10000(seefigure3.10.).Itcouldbeseenthatthemaximumvalueof
CCFisdampedduetothepresenceofnoiseincomparisonwithfigure3.1.
Infigure3.12.werepresenttheturbulenceradialwavenumberspectrumforNs=500.The
Gaussianspectrumkernelisobservablethereat 5 lc 5 (shownbyverticaldashedlines)
howeverthenoiselevelatwingsisveryhigh,notallowingtheTCCFreconstruction(seehuge
oscillations in figure 3.13). We overcome the oscillations by decreasing the spectrum interval
usedfortheFouriertransform.Thus,toobtaintheTCCFshowninfigure3.14,weprocessthe

85

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________
spectrum from figure 3.12. in the interval 5 lc 5 . Therefore despite the high noise level
thereisstillapossibilitytoselectaspectrumintervalfortheFouriertransformwhichallowsto
decrease the oscillations in the TCCF. Meanwhile using the CCF computed for increased
number of samples Ns=10000 (see figure 3.11.) we are able to apply the Fourier transform
directlytotheinterval 20 lc 20 aspresentedinfigure 3.15.,thoughweshouldmention
thatthismethodisratherdifficulttoberealizedinexperiment.
0,8
Re CCF
Im CCF

0,6

CCF

CCF

0,6

Re CCF
Im CCF

0,4

0,4

0,2

0,2

0,0

0,0
-20

-10

L/lc

10

20

-20

-10

L/lc

10

20

Figure3.10.CCFat 1.0 ,Ns=500.

Figure3.11.CCFat 1.0 ,Ns=10000.

Re
Im
Gauss

Re
Im
Gauss

1,0

CCF

Spectrum

0,5
0,0

0
-0,5

-1
-10

-5

lc

-10

10

-5

10

L/lc

Figure3.12.Spectrumat 1.0 ,Ns=500.

Figure3.13.TCCFreconstructionat 1.0 ,
Ns=500,spectruminterval 20 lc 20 .

Re
Im
Gauss

CCF

0,5

0,5

0,0

0,0

-0,5
-10

Re
Im
Gauss

1,0

CCF

1,0

-5

-0,5
-10

10

L/lc

-5

L/lc

10

Figure3.14.TheTCCFreconstructionat 1.0 ,

Figure3.15.TheTCCFreconstructionat 1.0 ,

Ns=500,spectruminterval 5 lc 5 .

Ns=10000,spectruminterval 20 lc 20 .

86

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

Reconstructionintheconditionclosetoexperiment

3.2.1.2.4.

Accounting for realistic experimental conditions we select from the CCF shown in figure
3.12. only 11 points in the probing range 3.2lc ( 1.6lc L 1.6lc ) with resolution
correspondingto 0.32lc (circlesinfigure3.16.showingthepointstobetakenfromthereal
part of the CCF) and extrapolate by exponential function further (blue squares) to the region

20lc L 20lc . The TCCF reconstructed from the CCF shown in figure 3.16. is shown in
figure3.17.incomparisontoinputGaussianTCCF(redline).Thereforeweunderlinethatthe
proposed procedure gives proper correlation length and shape of TCCF even in very strict
conditions.
0,8
Re
Im

Re
Im
Gauss

1,0

CCF

CCF

0,6
0,5

0,4
0,2

0,0

0,0
-4

-2

L/lc

-0,5
-10

-5

L/lc

Figure3.16.CCFcutat 3.2lc and 0.32lc .

10

Figure 3.17. The TCCF reconstruction from CCF


showninfigure3.16.

3.2.2.

ReconstructionoftheturbulencespectrumandCCFforsmallmachine

In this section we study the feasibility of the proposed wave number spectrum
reconstruction procedure to explore quite different conditions when unlike previous casesthe
size of the probing region is comparable to the probing vacuum wavelength. This case
correspondsto astudyattheborderofthevaliditydomainanditisdonetogiveacleareridea
onthepossibleapplicationofthemethodonanexistingexperiment.
The probing frequency range is not wide enough in small machines, moreover the ratio of
wave propagation region width to the vacuum wave length is small. For example at small
researchFT2tokamakitisgivenby L0 f 0 c 5.3 wherethereferencefrequencyisf0=40.1GHz
and the reference frequency cutoff position is L0=0.04m. Nevertheless, according to
experimental results [40] a rather steep plasma density profile in FT2 tokamak could be
assumedlinearthatallowsustotesttheproposedreconstructionschemeinthistightgeometry.

87

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

3.2.2.1. StandardconditionsofreconstructionatFT2

We make firstly computations using the following parameters: central plasma density
nt=4.1019m3,probingfrequencyrangeforOmode 21.1GHz f 52.7GHz whichcorresponds
to probing interval 0.01m<L<0.07m, Gaussian radial wave number spectrum n2 lc e

lc2 2 4

correlationlength lc 0.02m ;numberofsetsofrandomphasesamplesNs=500.

1,5

1,5
Re
Im
Gauss

1,0
CCF

CCF

1,0
0,5
0,0
-0,5

Re
Im
Gauss

0,5
0,0

0,00

0,02

0,04

0,06

-0,5

0,08

L, m

-2

L/lc

Figure 3.18. Signal CCF (blue line real part and Figure 3.19. TCCF (real part by blue line and
green line imaginary part) and TCCF (red line) imaginary part by green line) compared to the
shown in relative units. Dasheddotted vertical inputTCCF(redline)showninrelativeunits.
lines show the probing interval used for
computation.

The RCR CCF computed in the corresponding interval 1.5lc L 1.5lc (solid line in
figure3.18.)possessesslowdecayasithasbeenprovedabove.Alsoitcanbeclearlyseen that
thekernelofthereconstructedTCCFfitswelltheinputGaussianTCCF(seefigure3.19).

3.2.2.2. Optimizedreconstructioninmorerealisticconditions

Secondlywereducetheprobingintervalandchangethecalculationparametersasfollows:
reference frequency f 0 31.7GHz , reference cutoff position L0 0.05m ; probing frequency
range for Omode 24.5GHz f 37.5GHz which corresponds to probing interval
0.03m<L<0.07m.The signalCCF computedintheinterval lc L lc isshowninfigure3.20.
by the blue line the real part and green line the imaginary part, red line shows the input
GaussianTCCF.AsitwasmentionedbeforethatthebehaviorofthesignalCCFandtheinitial
TCCF is different. The TCCF is reconstructed rather precisely as it is shown in figure 3.21. in

88

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

spiteofthefacttheplasmasizeinFT2isonly10wavelengthsandtheturbulencecorrelation
lengthisonlytwicelargerthenit.
Itisimportanttonotethattheprobingrangemustbenolessthan 2lc correlationlengths
to obtain 10% error reconstruction on FT2 tokamak. The discrepancy between the
reconstructedTCCFandthe inputonecouldbeexplainedasaconsequenceofsmallparameter

L / lc 1 . According to the framework of the proposed method it is applicable for higher


densities(nt=8.01019m3)subjecttoutilizinghigherfrequenciesupto80GHzandprobingrange

8lc .

Re
Im
Gauss

1,0

CCF

CCF

1,0

0,5

0,0
-2

Re
Im
Gauss

0,5

0,0

-1

L/lc

-2

-1

L/lc

Figure 3.20. RCR CCF (real part by blue line and Figure 3.21. Reconstructed TCCF compared to the
imaginary part by green line) compared to TCCF inputGaussian.
(redline).

3.2.3.

AmplitudeCCFcomputation

InthissectionwepresentcomputationsoftheamplitudeCCF(ACCF)heldincaseoflinear
plasmadensityprofileaccordingtoformula:

ACCF ( )
j

A ( )
A ( )
s

A ( )

As (0 )

As (0 )

A ( )
j

As ( j )

As ( )
j

(180)

Computation parameters are the following: plasma size: a=0.1 m, reference cutoff:

L0 0.09m , reference frequency: f 0 40GHz , ( 0 2.51 1011 rad / s , 0 0.0075m ). The


radialwavenumberspectrumismodeledas:

1, 0 max

n( )

0, otherwise

(181)

Thecorrelationlengthisrelatedtothespectralwidthvia lc 2.1 / max .

89

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________
We consider several cases, the scan in the radial correlation length is lc / 0 0.4 2 , the
computedACCFsareshowninfigure3.22.1.3.22.4.1Dcomputationsshowthatalthoughthe
correlation length of the ACCF is significantly shorter than the correlation of reflectometry
signals,theACCFdecayisslowerthanTCCFforallcasesinlinearregime.Itispossibletodraw
a conclusion that the result of 1D computations differs from the result show in [130]. The
measurementofradialcorrelationlengthcannotbeobtainedfromtheamplitudesignalinthe
linearregime.

1,2

Re CCF
Im CCF
ampl CCF
Re turb CCF
Im turb CCF

1,0

0,8

Re CCF
Im CCF
ampl CCF
Re turb CCF
Im turb CCF

1,0
0,8

CCF

CCF

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0

0,0

-0,2
-0,2
-0,020

-0,015

-0,010

-0,005

0,000

0,005

0,010

0,015

-0,4
-0,06

0,020

-0,04

-0,02

L, m

0,00

0,02

0,04

0,06

L, m

Figure 3.22.1. Signal CCF, ACCF and TCCF. Figure 3.22.2. Signal CCF, ACCF and TCCF.
lc / 0 0.4 , lc 0.003m , max 700m 1 , 0.003m

Re CCF
Im CCF
ampl CCF
Re turb CCF
Im turb CCF

1,0
0,8

Re CCF
Im CCF
ampl CCF
Re turb CCF
Im turb CCF

1,0

0,8

CCF

0,6

CCF

lc / 0 1.2 , lc 0.009m , max 234m 1 , 0.003m

0,4

0,6

0,4

0,2
0,0

0,2

-0,2

0,0

-0,4
-0,10

-0,05

0,00

0,05

-0,10

0,10

-0,05

0,00

0,05

0,10

L, m

L, m

Figure 3.22.3. Signal CCF, ACCF and TCCF. Figure 3.22.4. Signal CCF, ACCF and TCCF.
lc / 0 2.5 ,

lc 0.01875m ,

max 112m 1 , lc / 0 6.67 , lc 0.05m , max 42m 1 , 0.003m

0.003m

3.2.4.

Inhomogeneousturbulence

In this section we consider inhomogeneous turbulence spectra and reconstruction of the


turbulencesuppressionininternaltransportbarriers(ITBs).Inordertoshowthepossibilityto
detect transport barriers it is very important to perform the numerical modeling in case of
90

________________________________3.2.Omodeprobingincaseoflinearplasmadensityprofile

inhomogeneous spectrum. We model the ITB in the following way: the correlation length of
Gaussianspectrumchangesfrom lc 0.01m at 0.37m L 0.43m to lc 0.02m forothercut
offs.

Figure3.23.CCF,referencecutoff L0 0.4m

Figure3.24.TheTCCFreconstruction, lc 0.01m

Figure 3.23. presents the signal CCF, vertical red lines show the probing limits

0.37m L 0.43m which correspond to the boards of the ITB. The reconstructed TCCF is
showninfigure3.24.byblackcurvepossessesthecorrelationlength lc 0.01m .Thereforewe
show the locality of the method able to reconstruct local parameters of turbulence inside the
ITB.
Probing limits shown by red lines in figure 3.25. are 0.2m L 0.8m for the reference
frequency cutoff position L0 0.5m . The shaded area shows the zone where the turbulence
spectrumchanges.Itisworthtounderlinethattheobtainedresult(figure3.26)inthepresence
of inhomogeneity fits the initial TCCF (shown by red line). Thus we demonstrate high local
sensitivity of the method to turbulence properties outside the barrier. The quality of local
parameterreconstructionisnotaffectedbypresenceofITBinsidetheprobingzone.

Figure3.25.CCF,referencecutoff L0 0.5m

Figure3.26.TheTCCFreconstruction, lc 0.02m

91

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

3.3. Omodeprobingincaseofdensityprofileclosetoexperimentalone

Thissectionisafirsttransitionstepfromtheoryandsimplenumericalsimulationstorealistic
experiments.Thus,we perform numerical simulations for Omode probing by the example of
ToreSupralikesmoothplasmadensityprofileaswellasITERlikeplasmadensityprofilewith
asteepgradientzone.

3.3.1.

ToreSupralikeplasmadensityprofile

A synthetic density profile according to experimental data [121] has been generated using
fourparametersandcanbewrittenasfollowing:

n( x ) nc 0.5 1 th x xa

where 80m 1 , xa 0.05m, xb 0.8m, a

(182)

3
m, nc 3.9 1013 cm 3 (seefigure3.27.).
2

Re CCF
Im CCF
Turb CCF

1,0

CCF

1,0

n(x), xnc

x xb 2
1

a2

0,5

0,5

0,0

0,0
0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

-0,4

-0,2

0,0

0,2

0,4

(L-L0),m

x, m

Figure 3.27. Density profile for Tore Supra as a Figure 3.28. The RCR CCF (real part by blue line
functionofradialposition.Dashedlinesshowthe andimaginarypartbygreenline)comparedtothe
computationprobinginterval.

TCCF(redline)showninrelativeunits.

Modeling is performed within the Omode reflectometer bandwidth 30GHz f 60GHz ,


whichcorrespondstoratherwideprobinginterval0.075m<L<0.719mshownbyverticaldashed
lines in figure 3.27.; reference frequency: f 0 47GHz ; reference frequency cutoff position

L0 0.36m . Averaging is performed over ensemble of Ns=500 random phase samples. The
turbulencespectrumusedintheanalysisgivenby[47]:

92

_____________________3.3.Omodeprobingincaseofdensityprofileclosetoexperimentalone

1, 1cm 1

n2 3 ,1cm 1 6cm 1
6
1
, 6cm

(183)

isshowninfigure3.29.byredline.
2
Re Spectrum
Im Spectrum
Input

1,0

Theor
Re
Im

Spectrum

Turbulence CCF

0,8

0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
-0,2

-10

-5

-0,2

10

-0,1

0,0

0,1

0,2

(L-L0),m

k*lc

Figure

3.29.

Calculated

spectrum

versus Figure3.30. TCCF (realpartbyblueandimaginary

normalized wave number. Reconstructed real part partbygreen)comparedtoinputTCCF(red)shown


(blue), imaginary part (green) and input spectrum inrelativeunits.
(red).

In figure 3.28. we present the numerically calculated signal CCF (blue line real part)
compared to the TCCF (red line). The reconstructed turbulence wave number spectrum (blue
line real part) compared to the input one (red line) is shown in figure 3.29. The same
comparisonisshowninfigure3.30.forthereconstructedTCCF(bluerealpart).Itisclearlyseen
from these figures that though the inverse relation was derived from equations for linear
plasmadensity profileitisapplicable atmore complicatedmonotonicsmooth plasma density
profile and provides the width of the spectrum, its shape and correlation length from
computations.

3.3.2.

Plasmadensityprofilewithasteepgradient

Wemodelasyntheticplasmadensityprofileshowninfigure3.31.closetoJETprofileand
baseline scenario profile at ITER machine (see figure 3.32.) by introducing the following
parameterstotheexpression(182): 100m 1 , xa 0.045m, xb 0.8m, a 2 2.55m 2 .
Calculationshavebeenperformedintwoprincipalcases.Firstlywesimulateprobinginthe
interval 0.01m<L<0.128m, at reference frequency f 0 73.3GHz . Plasma density profile is no
more linear however we apply the reconstruction procedure derived in case of linear density

93

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________

profile (148).Thereforewesupposethatlocally plasmadensity profileis linear andsubstitute


thereferencecutoffpositionwithlocalgradientscale L0 0.069m .Inputradialwavenumber
spectrum is shown in figure 3.29. by red line and is similar to that one used in previous
subsection.Probingintervalcoverssteepgradientzoneaswellastransitionzonetothesmooth
profile.Changingofgradientcomplicatesthereconstructionduetothediagnosticislocaland
provides information on turbulence properties at the position of reference cutoff.
ReconstructedTCCFcomparedtotheinputoneis showninfigure 3.33.Duetostrongplasma
density profile asymmetry we obtain some discrepancy between these two functions,
neverthelessitcanbeassertedthattheTCCFisreconstructedqualitatively.

Figure 3.31. Plasma density profile, dashed lines Figure 3.32. Profiles as a function of normalized
show the cutoff positions L0 0.069m (1) and radiusforelectron density,forbaseline(131498,in
L0 0.3m (2),

dashdotted

lines

show

the red), steadystate (131198, in black), hybrid


(131711,ingreen)andAI(133137,inblue)scenario

correspondingprobingrangeboundaries.

plasmas.Takenfrom[131].

Re Turb CCF
Im Turb CCF
Turb CCF theor

1,0

CCF

CCF

1,0

0,5

0,0

-0,10

Re Turb CCF
Im Turb CCF
Turb CCF theor

0,5

0,0

-0,05

0,00

0,05

0,10

-0,10

-0,05

0,00

0,05

0,10

(L-L0), m

(L-L0), m

Figure3.33.TCCF, L0 0.069m , 0.118m .

94

Figure3.34.TCCF, L0 0.3m , 0.2m .

_________________________________________________3.4.SynthethicXmodeRCRexperiment

Secondly we model the probing held within the spatial interval 0.2m<L<0.4m covering
smoothplasmadensityprofile,referencefrequencyis f 0 78.6GHz correspondingtothelocal
gradient scale L0 0.3m , the reconstructed TCCF (blue) coinciding to the input one (red) is
showninfigure3.32.
Computationsdiscussedinthissubsectionprovetheapplicabilityofthemethodincaseof
probing in the steep gradient zone of plasma. This result offers opportunities of measuring
plasmapropertiesinpedestalofITERandJEThugemachines.

3.4. SyntheticXmodeRCRexperiment

TillnowwehaveconsideredwavepropagationinOmode.UsuallyinexperimentsXmode
wave is used to reach the high field side of the torus. In order to test the reconstruction of
plasmaturbulencepropertiesinrealexperiment,simulationswereundertakeninconditionsof
shot #47669 performed in June 2011 at Tore Supra machine. Experimental plasma density
profileandmagneticfieldprofileareshowninfigures3.35and3.36correspondingly.
These simulations are focused on studying the quality of reconstruction in Tore Supra
experimentinidealisticconditionsnottakingintoaccountMHDactivityinthecenterofplasma
andconsideringonlytheimpactofhomogeneousturbulencetothesignalRCRCCF.

Figure 3.35. Plasma density profile, shot #47669, Figure 3.36. Magnetic field profile, shot #47669,
t=9.55s,ToreSupra.

t=9.55s,ToreSupra.

ProbingfrequencyrangewaschosenaccordingtothesettingsoftheDband(110150GHz)
Xmode reflectometer installed at the low field side of Tore Supra tokamak

135GHz f 145GHz correspondingtotheprobinginterval1.85m<x<2.15mshowninfigures


3.35.and3.36.byverticaldottedblacklines.Referencefrequency f 0 140GHz correspondsto
referencecutoffpositionR0=0.85mshowninfigures3.35.and3.36.byvertical dashedredline.
The number of frequencies is N =110 that corresponds to spatial probing step and frequency

95

ChapterIII.Numericalmodeling_______________________________________________________
step 3mm of the order f 97 MHz . The statistical averaging was held over Ns=500
randomsamples.Theinputturbulencespectrumisspecifiedas[134]:

1, 1cm 1

n2 3

, 1cm 1
1 2 2

(184)

shown in figure 3.38 by red line. The number of wave number modes N =10000 is specified
withinthewavenumberinterval 10cm 1 .
WecomputeRCRCCFnumericallyfortheseparametersinBornapproximationaccording
to procedure describedinsubsections3.1.13.1.3.FurtherweapplytothissimulatedRCRCCF
thespectrumreconstructionprocedure(148).
Infigure3.37.weshowtheXmoderefractiveindexdependencyontheradialposition.In
bothcasesofthecutoffpositionbefore(1)andbehind(2)thedensitypeaktherefractiveindex
can beassumed tobeclosetolinearassoonaswesupposethatplasmadensityprofileisclose
tolinearinthevicinityofthereferencecutoffposition.Takingthisintoaccountweuseformula
(148) derived in case of Omode probing of linear profile to realistic experimental case and
checkthecapabilityofthisprocedurenumerically.

1,5

Re
Im
Input

Spectrum

1,0
0,5
0,0
-0,5
-400

-200

-1

200

400

Figure3.37.RefractiveindexoftheprobingXmode Figure 3.38. Turbulence spectrum reconstruction


wave for cutoff positions (1) xc 2.66m and (2) compared to the input one. Black lines show the

xc 1.96m .

intervaltakenforFouriertransform.

In figure3.38. thereconstructedturbulencespectrum (bluerealpart)in comparison tothe


input spectrum (red line) is shown, the complicated 7 dependency is followed by the
reconstructedspectrumhowevertheflatpartofthespectrumisnotreconstructedperfectly.The
error level is estimated by imaginary part oscillations and reaches 30% level that could be
explained by discontinitues produces by extrapolation procedure and discontinitues in wave
numberspectrum.
96

________________________________________________________________________3.5.Summary

In figure 3.39 we show RCR CCF (blue line) which as in Omode probing case possesses
slow logarithmical decay comparing to the input TCCF (red line). The reconstructed TCCF
comparingtotheinpur oneisshowninfigure 3.40.byblack(realpart)andgreen(imaginary
part)lines.

1,0

Re CCF
Im CCF
turb CCF

CCF

CCF

1,0

0,5

Re
Im
Input

0,5

0,0

0,0

-0,2

-0,1

0,0
x, m

0,1

-0,2

0,2

-0,1

0,0

0,1

0,2

x, m

Figure 3.39. RCR CCF (blue line real part, green Figure 3.40. Reconstructed TCCF (black line real
lineimaginarypart)andinputTCCF.

part and green line imaginary part) and input


TCCF(redline).

3.5. Summary

Concluding we would like to stress that application of the proposed procedure to the
turbulencespectrumandCCFreconstructionfromRCRdatahaveledtoverypromisingresults.
Numerical modeling in conditions relevant to experiment in case of few averaging random
phasesamples,smallprobingrangeandhighwhitenoiselevelrecoverstheinputparameters.
The demonstrated possibility of fine reconstruction, at least in 1D geometry, is proving the
procedure feasibility and appealing for further optimization and tests in 2D numerical
modeling.
Basing on results of this Chapter we have determined the following parameters for
reconstruction required in experiments: number of probing frequencies N =80..150, probing
step 1..5mm andprobingfrequencystep f 50..150 MHz .
ItisalsonecessarytomentionthatthespectrumreconstructionproceduredevelopedforO
mode linear plasma density profile needs to be improved to be applied for Xmode arbitrary
profilecasetodecreaseinaccuracyofreconstruction.

97

98

ChapterIV

Applicationstoexperiments
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Previous Chapters of this thesis covered theoretical background of RCR applications and
numerical modeling of experiments which are certainly convincing however experimental
approbationofthemethodisalsorequired.Howtomovefromthetheoryandsimulationsto
therealworld?Passingfromtheoreticalmodelstorealexperimentswefaceplentyofadditional
tasksandproblems:hardwarevolatility,additionalnoise,shotconditions,technicalproblemsof
dataacquisitionandhugevolumesofdatatobeprocessed
Since there were no RCR experiments applying the new method of radial wave number
spectrumreconstructionundertakenbeforeresultsdescribedinthissectionarepreliminaryand
are focused on estimation of experimental parameters and settings. Besides that the more
ambitioustaskwastoestimateandcompareturbulenceparameterssuchascorrelationlength,
radialwavenumberspectrumandturbulencespatialCCFinsmallandlargemachinesandgive
an insightintocapabilitiesofRCRdiagnostic.Wewouldliketonoticeaswellthatthereisno
universalmethodapplicabletoallmachines;differenthardwareanddifferentplasmasdemand
uniqueapproachanditisneededtodevelopspecific softwareanddatainterpretationmethods
foreachexperiment.
Thispartofthethesisisdevotedtothreeseparatemethodsofdataprocessingobtainedat
three different machines FT2, Tore Supra and JET. Furthermore experimental results using
theproposedmethodofturbulencepropertiesdeterminationarediscussed.

99

100

____________________________________________________4.1.Generalremarksondataanalysis

4.1.

Generalremarksondataanalysis

AlthoughtheRCRsystemsinstalledatToreSupra,FT2andJETmachinesaredifferentin
terms of possibilities, constraints and specifications due to the specificity of each device.
Howeverthereflectometerprincipalschemeissimilarandthereflectometrysignalacquisition
isrealizedin thesameway aswellasstatisticalanalysis.The former numerical computations
specifygeneralexperimentalparameterssuchasprobinginterval,stepandstatisticsdepending
on experimental conditions. In this section we summarize these findings and determine
necessaryparametersfordataanalysis.

4.1.1.

Reflectometergenericscheme

Firstly we precise a simplest synthetic circuit of heterodyne reflectometer in figure 4.1.


Refectometers consist of a microwave source, transmission lines and a detection system. The
microwavesourceistypicallyasolidstateoscillatorwithafrequencyrangedependentonthe
applied voltage and semiconductor structure. Transmission lines are generally lowloss
oversizedwaveguidessincethemicrowavesourceanddetectionsystemareusuallylocatedata
greatdistancefromtheplasma.

Figure4.1.Circuitdiagramofonechannelofaheterodynereflectometer.

Figure4.2.Simplifiedradialcorrelationreflectometercircuitdiagram.Takenfrom[132].

101

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

In this Chapter three different reflectometer systems will be discussed further for Tore
Supra, FT2 and JET tokamaks. Typical scheme of twochannel correlation reflectometer is
showninfigure4.2

4.1.2.

Quadraturephasedetection

The hardware used in this thesis exploits heterodyne detection which is applied for
amplitudeandphasefluctuationsdetecting.Forfullinformationonthespectralcharacteristics
of the received signals, quadrature detection is required. The reference and received signals
enterasocalledIQdetector.Infigure4.3thecircuitdiagramofanIQdetectorisshown.

Figure4.3.CircuitdiagramofanIQdetector.

The signal received is obtained as the complex amplitude signal. It is mixed with the
reference signal and the two components are obtained: inphase (I) component and 90
quadrature(Q)component:

As ( f , t ) I ( f , t ) iQ ( f , t ) A0 ( f , t ) cos ( f , t ) iA0 ( f , t )sin ( f , t ) A0 ( f , t )ei ( f ,t )

(185)

wherefisaprobingfrequency,tisamomentoftime.

I ( f , t ) A0 ( f , t ) cos ( f , t )

(186)

Q ( f , t ) A0 ( f , t ) sin ( f , t )

(187)

Theamplitudeandphaseareobtainedfromthesignal:

A0

As As* I 2 Q 2

arctan

(188)
(189)

Sincethephaseischangingintimetheangularvelocityisgivenas:

d ( f , t )

dt

(190)

Thereceivedsignaliscomplexthereforeboththepositiveandnegativefrequenciesareresolved
andthefluctuationspectraaretwosided.InthisworktheIQdetectionisused.

102

____________________________________________________4.1.Generalremarksondataanalysis

4.1.3.

Probingrangeandstep

IngeneraltheRCRexperimentisrealizedasfollowing:thereferencefrequency is fixed,it
determinesthe reference cutoff position atwhich the turbulence parameters aredefined. The
probingfrequencyissweptwithinthespecifiedfrequencyrange.Itisimportanttochoosethe
probingfrequencystepwhichinitsturnpredeterminesprobingspatialsteps.Herewewould
liketounderlinethatequidistantspatialstepisrequiredduetosubsequentFFTappliedtothe
measured signal RCR CCF. Moreover the probing step should be less than half correlation
length. In addition as it was pointed out in Chapter III for satisfactory reconstruction the
minimumprobingrangeislimitedby 4 lc thereforeitsisneededtoestimatethecorrelation
lengthinadvance.

4.1.4.

Statisticalanalysis

In figure 4.4. the example of experiment realization is shown. Within a window the set of
steps is realized by the sweeping channel, the number of steps N (is equal to number of
probingfrequencies).Thetimeacquisitionrateprovidestheupperfrequencyseenandthetime
step the lowest one. The reference channel is synchronized to the sweeping channel. Plateau
duration t plateau andtimestep tstep determinethenumberofstepswithinaplateau:

N plateau

t plateau
tstep

(191)

sweeping channel
reference channel

f, GHz

plateaus
f0

window

t, s

Figure4.4.ProbingfrequencyevolutioninatimewindowduringRCRexperiment.

Thereceivedsignalisdiscreteanddependsontimepoint As ( f , ti ) where ti isthemoment


oftime.Thetotalnumberofpointsinawindowisdeterminedbynumberoffrequenciesand
numberofpointsperplateau:

103

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

N window N plateau N

(192)

Toanalyzeturbulencefrequenciespresentinginasignalweshouldtransformthesignalusing
FFTintoturbulencefrequencyspace.Itisevidentthatthenumberofpointsinplateauisformed
bynumberofsamplesofaveraging N s andnumberofturbulencefrequencies N :

N plateau N s N

(193)

Thesummationiscarriedoutover N s ,thisdeterminesstatisticalaveraging.Theresolutionin
turbulencefrequencyspaceisgivenby N .Thenumberofpointsinaplateauisdeterminedby
technicalsettingsofexperimenthoweveritislimitedbyplasmaconditions.Whenprobingwe
assumethattheplasmaisfrozen.Thus,thetotalwindowdurationshouldbelessthanplasma
correlation time. Therefore, the total number of points in a window is limited and we should
balancebetweenincreasing N s , N or N :

N window N s N N

(194)

In other words, N is dictated by probing range and step limits, N should correspond the
required turbulence frequency resolution, N s should be enough for satisfactory statistical
averaging.Finally, havingfixed the parameters, weobtain the signal RCR CCFdependingon
probingfrequency(orcutoff)difference f foreachturbulencefrequency separately.
Alltheseparametersaredeterminedindividuallyforeachreflectometrysystem.

4.2.

ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra

Experiments on Tore Supra were the first attempt to apply the theoretical method of
turbulencepropertiesdeterminationatrealmachine.
ToreSupramachinewasdescribedinsection1.3.1.1.Inthissectionwediscussexperimental
results obtained during the campaigns on the 24th of November 2010 and on the 23rd of June
2011.Theaimofexperimentsistodetermineplasmaturbulencecharacteristicsusingthefast
sweepingcorrelationreflectometerinstalledonToreSupra.

4.2.1.

ReflectometersatToreSupra

A list of the reflectometer systems installed at Tore Supra is given in table 4.1. For more
detailedinformationthereaderisreferredto[34].

Table4.1.ListofreflectometersinstalledatToreSupra

104

Reflectometertype

Year

Probingrange

Omode

1995[121]

2636GHz

_____________________________________________4.2.ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra

Xmode(Vband)

2003[121]2009(upgrade)

5278GHz

Omode(Vband)Dopplersetup

2004[121]

5075GHz

Xmode(Eband)

2011[133]

6090GHz

Xmode(Wband)

2003[128]2009(upgrade)

74109GHz

Xmode(Dband)fastsweeping

2010(upgrade)[121]

110150GHz

ToreSupraisequippedwithprofilereflectometerscoveringVandW bands,afluctuation
one on the D band and a Doppler setup using the V band [128]. All the ToreSupra
reflectometers have the similar design based on a heterodyne detection achieved thanks to a
SingleSidebandModulator(SSBM).TheschemeofVandWbandfastsweepreflectometersis
showninfigure4.6[121].

Figure4.6.Schematicofthereflectometers,VandWbands.Takenfrom[121].

Measurements discussed in this section were made using Dband upgrade fast sweeping
reflectometer.Thisreflectometerwasprimarydesignedtostudydensityfluctuationsbydoing
steps of fixed probe frequencies. Thanks to a fast switch, the Dband reflectometer can now
performduringthesameshotfrequencystepsandfastsweeps[135].

4.2.2.

Phasecalibration

Thewaveguidedispersionandthevacuumpropagationisremovedusingawallreflection
signal which is acquired before each shot. The calibration phase cal is extracted by
unwrapping the angle of the complex signal. Phase in vacuum for reference and sweeping
frequencies:

105

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

2( L3 L1 ) c

(195)

where L1 1.54m the inner wall coordinate, L2 3.2m plasma boundary, L3 4.4m the
positionofthereceiver.Thephasecollectedinwaveguidesiscomputedas:

wg cal

(196)

Figure 4.7. Phase in waveguides and inside the Figure 4.8. Phase in waveguides, vacuum and
plasma.

vacuumvesselwithoutplasma.

Inplasma,thephasesofXmodearegivenby:
xc

2 1

L2

dx

(197)

where xc isthecutoffpositionandthepermittivityisgivenby

p2 ( 2 p2 )

2 ( 2 p2 c2 )

(198)

Phaseofthepropagationinvacuumbetweenplasmaandreceiver:

2( L3 L2 ) c

(199)

The total phase contains thepartcollected in the waveguides,thepartin vacuum and the
partobtainedduetopropagationinplasma:

total wg

(200)

isafluctuatingphase.Asweanalyzethefluctuatingphasetheresttermsshouldbe
where
removedbymultiplyingtheweightingfunction e

i [ wg ]

Finallythecorrelationfunctioniscomputedaccordingtothephasecorrection:

CCF ( L) As (0 ) As* ( ) e i(0 0 )(( cal 0 0 )( cal ))

whereindex0correspondstothereferencefrequency.

106

(201)

_____________________________________________4.2.ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra

4.2.3.

Dataanalysisandinterpretation

In this section we describe several RCR measurements held at Tore Supra tokamak using
theDbandofXmodereflectometerfromthelowfieldsideofthetorus.

4.2.3.1.

Probingwithequidistantspatialstep

In this section the interpretation of RCR measurements held during shots #46323 and
#46333arepresented.Plasmacorewasprobedby N 80 electromagneticwavewithprobing
frequencies 115GHz f 135GHz with equidistant spatial step 0.6cm within the
probing interval 2.24m<R<2.74m ( 0 r a 0.6 ), reference frequency was f 0 125GHz
possessingprobingwavelength 0.2mm .Theparametersofprobingareasfollows: N s =250,

N =100.

19

4x10

3x10

19

ne

B, T

19

2x10

1x10

19

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

1,5

3,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

3,5

R, m

R, m

Figure4.9.Magneticfieldprofile,shots#46323and Figure 4.10. Plasma density profile, shots #46323


#46333.Verticaldashedlineshowprobinginterval.

and #46333. Vertical dashed line show probing


interval.

-14

-13

-12

-11

-10

, Hz

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

x 10

-4

-3

-2

-1

, Hz

5
x 10

Figure4.11.Signalfrequencyspectrum,shot#46323(a)andshot#46333(b).

107

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

Magnetic field profile is shown in figure 4.9, plasma density profile is presented in
figure 4.10. Vertical dashed lines show the spatial probing interval in the center of plasma.
Actually the probing interval covers the very center of plasma nd the top of plasma density
profile where strong MHD activity takes place. This strongly influences on obtained result
overlappingtheinformationinthereceivedsignalcomingfromturbulence.
Infigure4.11itisclearlyseenthatsignalfrequencyspectrumpossessesashiftof 0.5kHz,
moreoverparasiticfrequenciescouldbeobservedonthebothspectraforshots#46323(a)and
#46333(b).
0,5

0,6

abs(CCF)
5 points averaging

0,5

abs(CCF)
turb. CCF

0,4
0,3
0,2

CCF

CCF

0,4

0,3

0,1
0,2

0,0
0,1

-0,1

0,0

-0,2
2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

-0,4

-0,2

0,0

R, m

0,2

0,4

R, m

Figure4.12.Absolute value of experimentalsignal Figure 4.13. Absolute value of signal RCR CCF
RCR CCF (black squares) and smoothing (blackline)comparedtonormalizedreconstructed
TCCF(redline),shot#46323.

interpolation(redline),shot#46323.

1,0

0,8

Re
Im

0,6

abs(CCF)
5 point smoothing

0,8

0,4
0,6

0,0

CCF

CCF

0,2

-0,2

0,4

-0,4
0,2

-0,6
-0,8

0,0

-1,0
2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

2,2

R, m

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

R, m

Figure 4.14. Experimental signal RCR CCF real Figure4.15.Absolute value ofexperimental signal
(blue line) and imaginary (green line) parts, shot RCR CCF (black squares) and smoothing
#46333.

interpolation(redline),shot#46333.

SignalRCRCCFreal(blue)andimaginary(green)partsshowninfigure4.14 (shot#46333)
demonstrateoscillatorybehaviorwithslowlydecreasingamplitudewithgrowingdistancefrom
the reference cutoff position. The maximum value of the signal RCR CCF absolute value is
dampedforbothshots#46323(seefigure4.12)and#46333(seefigure4.15)duetothepresence
108

_____________________________________________4.2.ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra

of background experimental noise caused by hardware and cross talk of the probing signals.
Red line in figures 4.12 and 4.15 shows the result of the 5point averaging smoothing
interpolation procedure applied to the CCF functions in order to apply further Fourier
transformandinverseprocedure(148).
1,0
0,9

abs(CCF)
turb. CCF

0,8
0,7
0,6

CCF

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0
-0,1
-0,2
-0,3
-0,4
-0,5

-0,4

-0,3

-0,2

-0,1

0,0

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

R, m

Figure4.16.AbsolutevalueofsignalRCRCCF(blackline)
comparedtonormalizedreconstructedTCCF(redline),shot#46323.

Infigures4.13and4.16verticaldashedlineshowsthepositionsatwhichtheRCRCCFiscut
and further extrapolated by decaying exponential function. TCCF is shown by red in these
figures. Obviously the turbulence correlation length is significantly smaller than signal RCR
correlationlengthhoweverthisresultispreliminaryandallowsonlyapproximateestimationof
turbulence correlation length of the order lc 5mm at reference cutoff position R=2.45m
( r a 0.27 ) comparing to the signal RCR correlation length of the order lc 4cm . This also
impliesthatchosenspatialprobingstepistwotimeslargerthaniswasrequiredafternumerical
simulationsinChapterIII.

4.2.3.2.

Probingwithexponentiallygrowingspatialstep

RCR measurements have been held at Tore Supra tokamak (shots #4766947686) during
summer 2011 campaign using the Dband of the Xmode reflectometer installed from the low
fieldsideofthetorus.Listofshotsisshownintable4.2.

Table4.2.Listofshotsofthecampaignonthe23rdofJune2011.

Shot

Conditions

Frequencyrange,GHz,

Reference

(Numberoffrequencies)

frequencies,GHz

47669

It=1250A

133..143(20)

138,5windows

47670

5plateausIp

113..123(20)

118,5windows

47671

||

119..129(20)

124,5windows

109

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

47672

||

125..135(20)

130,5windows

47673

||

131..141(20)

136,5windows

47674

||

137..147(20)

142,5windows

47675

||

143..153(20)

148,5windows

47676

||

116..126(20)

121,5windows

47677

||

122..132(20)

127,5windows

47679

||

145..155(20)

150,5windows

47680

Ip=0.9MA,4plateausne

110..120(20),113..123(20)

115,118

47681

||

116..126(20),119..129(20)

121,124

47682

||

122..132(20),125..135(20)

127,130

47683

||

127..137(20),131..141(20)

133,136

47684

||

134..144(20),137..147(20)

139,142

47685

||

140..150(20),143..153(20)

145,148

47686

||

140..160(20),147..157(20)

150,152

47689

Ip=0.9MA

113..123(20),120..140(20)

118,130

Thetargetofthecampaignwastofollowtheevolutionoftheturbulencecorrelationlength
at fixed position depending on plasma density or plasma current. Shot #47669 was held with
stationaryparametersandwasperformedinordertoobtainresultwithmaximumstatisticsand
willbeconsideredfurther.
1.5

Ip, MA

1
0.5
0
-0.5

10

12

14

16

18

10

12

14

16

18

t, s

ne , m -3

x 10

19

2
1
0

t, s

Figure4.17.Plasmacurrentplateaus(a)andplasmadensityplateaus(b)evaluationduringshot#47670.

Duringeachofshots##4767047679plasma5plateausofplasmacurrenthavebeenrealized
(seeforanexampleofshot#47670figure4.17(a)).Asitcouldbeseenfromfigure4.17(b)(shot

110

_____________________________________________4.2.ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra

#47670) plasma density at fixed position r a 0.5 has been changed as well according to
plasmacurrent.Unfortunatelyduringeachplateauplasmaparameterswerenotstationaryand
thereforeRCRresultsarenotreliableforthissetofshots.
Firstlywediscussthedataobtainedduringtheshot#47669duetosufficientstatisticforthe
analysis, plasma density profile (t=7s, f 0 138GHz , R0 2.024m ) is shown in figure 4.18.
Blackverticallinesshowthespatialprobinginterval whichissituatedatthehighfieldside
oftheplasmaintheclosetolinearplasmadensityprofilebehaviorregion.
2.25

2.2

R, m

2.15

2.1

2.05

1.95

1.9
132

134

136

138

140

142

144

f, GHz

Figure 4.18. Plasma density profile. Shot #47669, Figure4.19.Shot#47669.Cutoffpositionversus


t=7s, f 0 138GHz , R0 2.024m .

probingfrequency.

Exponentially growing distance between the cutoff positions was chosen for the
experiment(20pointsper 25cm ,correspondingto f 138 5GHz ),seefigure4.19.

n, m

-3

x 10

19

2
1
0

R=2.024m
0

10

t, s

12

14

16

18

Figure4.20.Shot#47669.Plasmadensity,R=2.024m.RedpointsshowthewindowsofRCRexperiment.

Infigure4.20theplasmadensitydependenceontime atR=2.024misshown.Thewindow
parameters are as follows: N =20, N s =100, N =100 that corresponds to the turbulence
frequency range 1MHz , time step t 1 s window duration t 2 s .We indicate the
timepositionsofthewindowsbyredcircles.Itisclearlyseenthatplasmadensityisstablefrom

111

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

t=4stillt=15s.Frequencyspectrum( f 0 138GHz )isshowninfigure4.21.Theaveragingisheld


over5windowsoftheshot#47669.

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

omega, Hz

5
x 10

Figure4.21.Shot#47669.Frequencyspectrum.

Exponentially growingsweeping frequencystepallowsfromtheonehandtomeasurethe


vicinityofthereferencecutoffpositionmorecarefullyandsimultaneouslytopaylessattention
tothetailofsignalRCRCCF.Ontheotherhandunfortunatelythischoiceofthefrequencystep
introduces additional difficulties into data interpretation. Thus the first step of data analysis
accordingto(148)isFFTappliedtomeasuredRCRCCFthatrequiresequidistantspatialstepof
measurements.InordertocompensatetheshortageofpointsintheRCRCCFthecubicspline
interpolation procedure is applied. The example of comparison between the RCR CCF before
and after interpolation is shown in figure 4.22 (real part) and figure 4.23 (imaginary part) for

160kHz .
1.5

1.5
Interpolation
Im (CCF)

Interpolation
Re (CCF)
1

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1
-0.05

-1
-0.05

0.05

R, m

0.05

R, m

Figure4.22.RCRCCFandinterpolations,real

Figure4.23.RCRCCFandinterpolations,

part. 160kHz

imaginarypart. 160kHz

Thewaveguidedispersionandthevacuumpropagationisremovedusingawallreflection
signal which is acquired before each shot. The calibration phase cal is extracted by
unwrappingtheangleofthecomplexsignalaccordingto(201).Itisclearlyseenthatafterphase
correctiontherealpartofthesignalRCRCCFalmostcoincidestheabsolutevalueoftheCCF
andimaginarypartoscillatesaroundzero(seefigure4.24).
112

_____________________________________________4.2.ResultsofRCRexperimentatToreSupra

1
Re(CCF)
Im(CCF)
Abs(CCF)

0.8
0.6
0.4

CCF

0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

x, m

Figure4.24.Shot#47669.RCRCCFrealpart(blue),
imaginarypart(green)andabsolutevalue(red). 100kHz .

The turbulence radial wave number spectrum was reconstructed according to (148) in the
rangeofturbulencefrequencies 1MHz aftertheextrapolationprocedureat R 0.02m .
The spectrum reconstructed from the experiment agrees with the behavior n2 3 for

5cm 1 10cm 1 obtained with the Doppler reflectometry technique in [47] and [66], the
spectrum growth at small wave numbers saturates for 1cm 1 5cm 1 and shows slow
decayfor 1cm 1 ,within 0.04cm 1 (seefigure4.25).
10

Re(spectrum)

turbulence CCF
abs(CCF)

0.7

k-3

0.6

k-0.35

0.5
0.4
10

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1

10

-0.2

-0.3
1

4
5
-1
, cm

7 8 9 10

-0,05 -0,04 -0,03 -0,02 -0,01

0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0.05

R, m

Figure4.25.Reconstructedturbulencewave

Figure4.26.SignalRCRCCF(blue)andTCCF

numberspectrum. 100kHz

(red). 100kHz

TCCF(redlineinfigure4.26)wascomputedasaFouriertransformofthespectrumandits
correlationlengthwasestimatedratherlow,as lc 2mm atR=2.024m.
Duringeachofshots##47680476865plasmadensityplateaushavebeenrealized.Infigure
4.27plasma densityattheposition r a 0.5 and plasma currentevaluation (shot #47685)are
shownanalogoustofigure4.17.RedcirclesmarkthetimepositionofRCRmeasurements.

113

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

1.5

Ip, MA

1
0.5
0
-0.5

10

12

14

16

18

t, s

ne , m -3

x 10

19

3
2
1
0

10

t, s

15

20

Figure4.27.Plasmacurrentplateaus(a)andplasmadensityplateaus(b)evalutionduringshot#47685.

Theanalysisofshots#4768047686showsthevalueoftheturbulence correlationlengthof

lc 0.004 0.0025m at 0.3 r / a 0.8 . It was also shown that CCF decays much faster than
thesignalCCFinagreementwiththeoreticalpredictions[106,76], L lc 5 whereLis1/eCCF
level.

4.2.4.

Summary

As an important result of the first RCR experimental campaign at Tore Supra the optimal
experimentalparametersaredeterminedandthepossiblebehavioronturbulencewavenumber
spectraandtherangeofturbulencecorrelationlengthareestimated.Theresultsobtainedafter
the processing of the data seem to be very promising however some difficulties were faced
whencomputingthespectrumanditsspatialcorrelationfunction.Thus,exponentiallygrowing
probingstepintroducesadditiondifficultieswhenperformingFFTwhileatthesametimesuch
achoiceallowstomeasureRCRCCFinwiderspatialinterval.Thechoiceofthereference cut
offpositionaswellas theprobingspatialintervalshouldbeaccountingforconditionsatwhich
theinverserelationwasderived,namelyintheregionofclosetolinearplasmadensityprofile.
During the probing window plasma parameters should be stationary, the phase calibration is
also needed. In this section wide possibilities of RCR diagnostic have been demonstrated. To
obtainmoreprecisedatafurtherexperimentsareneeded.

114

________________________________________4.3ExperimentalresultsobtainedatFT2tokamak

4.3.

ExperimentalresultsobtainedatFT2tokamak

FT2tokamakwasdescribedinsection1.3.1.2.Inthissectionwepresentthereflectometry
hardwareinstalledatthetokamak,dataanalysismethodsandresultsoftwoRCRexperiments.

4.3.1.

RadialcorrelationreflectometersatFT2

First radial correlation reflectometer was installed at FT2 tokamak in 2009 and then first
measurements in Xmode from LFS were held. Measurements from HFS started in summer
2011 and the results from this campaign are presented in this section. Currently a double
antennasetsforOandXmodeareinstalledfrombothLFSandHFSandallowmeasurements
in O and Xmodes utilizing Ka (26.5 40 GHz) and V (50 75 GHz) bands for probing
frequenciesinRCRexperiments.
Infigure4.28.theschemeof8mmradialKabandcorrelationreflectometersinstalledfrom
theHFSoftheFT2tokamakisshown[136].Thehornsareshiftedfromtheequatorialplaneof
thetokamakby16mm.Alsothehornscouldbemovedfor 20mmfromtheequatorialplane.

Ccable

Figure 4.28. Radial correlation reflectometer, 8mm . The horns are shifted by 16mm from the
equatorial plane of the tokamak. Ccable should make equal time delay in arms going to mixer IF 1 at
variedfrequencychannel.[137]

CalibrationisrealizedbytheCcableinstalledinthe probingfrequencyline.Itmakesequal
timedelayinarmsgoingtomixerIF1atvariedfrequencychannel.Mathematicalcalibrationis
alsopossibleas:

0 (td ) 0 td

(202)

115

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________
where 0 is the constant phase shift, td is the time delay, is the frequency shift between
probingchannels.
The probing is realized as follows: during a series of shots with equal conditions the
frequencyisshifted,onefrequencyseparationpershot.Hencethestatisticscollecteddepends
only on conditions of specific shot. Therefore the RCR experiment on FT2 tokamak is quite
hard to realize to compute a single signal RCR CCF it is required to launch more than N
shotswiththesameconditionsinsteadofToreSupraorJETtokamaks.

4.3.2.

OmodeprobingfromHFS

Here we present the results obtained on the 12th of July 2011. The measurements were
carried out in Omode in equatorial plane from HFS of the FT2 tokamak. The experimental
plasma density profile is shown in figure 4.29. The plasma density profile behavior in the
probingregionisclosetolinearthereforethemethoddevelopedinChapterIIcouldbeapplied.
discharges # 14 - 21
1,5x10

13

Ne , cm

-3

27 GHz
35 GHz

1,0x10

13

5,0x10

12

HFS

LFS

0,0

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

10

X , cm

Figure4.29.Plasmadensityprofile12July2011

In table 4.3 typical plasma and reflectometer parameters of the current experiment are
shown.Equidistantfrequencystepofprobingwaschosenwhatiscrudelyequaltoequidistant
spatialstepincaseofclosetolinearplasmadensityprofile(50pointsper 3cm ,corresponding
to f 0 4GHz , f 0 31GHz ). The reference frequency cutoff is defined at r / a 0.37
( x 0.055m ). the averaging was made over N s 155 samples within plateau duration of

t plateau 2ms andtimestep tstep 0.4 s .

Table4.3.Experimentalparameters12July2011

116

Parameter

Value

Bt

2.1T

________________________________________4.3ExperimentalresultsobtainedatFT2tokamak

I p

19kA

ne (0)

1.51 1013 cm 3

Te

200eV

referencefrequency f 0

31GHz

probingrange f

4GHz

probingfrequencystep f

0.1GHz

probinginterval

3cm( 1.5cm)

Theobtainedreal(blacksquaresinfigure4.30)andimaginary(blacksquaresinfigure4.31)
parts ofthesignalRCRCCFare shownfor theturbulentfluctuationfrequency160kHz.Asitis
seen in the figure, the imaginary part is much smaller than the real one; however both only
slowlydecaywithgrowingseparationof probingwave cutoffs. As itisseenfromfigure4.32
the coherence is low (less than 0.3 a.u.) due to geometry of horn, low mode selectivity of
antennaeandhighnoiselevel.Redlineshowstheresultof5pointsmoothingprocedure.The
extrapolationprocedurebyexponentialfunctionswasappliedtobothrealandimaginaryparts
at x 0.015m (seefigure4.32).
0.1587
smoothed

Re exp
Re smooth
Im exp
Im smooth

0,4
0,3

0,15
0,10

A , ( arb. un. )

0,2

0,05

0,1

0,00

-0,05

0,0

-0,10

-0,1

-0,15

-0,2

-0,20

-4

-2

f , ( GHz )

-0,25
-4

-2

f , ( GHz
)
0

Figure 4.30. Signal RCR CCF, real part, Figure 4.31. Signal RCR CCF, imaginary part,
160kHz .

160kHz .

A very wide (lasting without decay till the reflectometry Bragg limit equal to 14.7cm1 for
maximum probing frequency f 35GHz ) turbulence spectrum (real and imaginary parts)
obtainedusingproceduresoffromthemeasuredCCFisshowninfigure4.33.Theaccuracyof
spectrum reconstruction (estimatedusing the spectrum imaginary part and negative bursts of
realpart)isnothigh,lessthan1.5a.u.,howeversufficientforthespectrumwidthestimation.It
corresponds to the turbulence correlation length substantially smaller than 0.5cm. This
estimationagreesqualitativelywiththevalueoftypicalturbulencespatialscaleobtainedatFT
2 with enhanced scattering diagnostics [107] and provided for FT2 by ELMFIRE fullf

117

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

gyrokineticmodeling(seefigure4.39.). Longscalefluctuationsaresuppressedinthespectrum
for | |<1cm1, this suppression is also present in Fourier transform of the signal RCR CCF
(showninfigure4.32byredline)whichisprobablyashortcomingofthe1Dmodelusedinthe
reconstructionprocedure.Unfortunatelythespectrumdeterminedinthisexperimentdoesnot
performexplicitbehaviorandwedonotcompareitheretotheusualspectrafunctionsshown
insection1.4.4.
CCF

sp
8

1
6

0.8
0.6

sp

CCF

0.4
0.2
0

-0.2
-2

-0.4
-0.6
-0.04

-0.03

-0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

-4
-4000

0.04

-3000

-2000

-1000

1000

2000

3000

4000

k, m-1

x, m

Figure4.32.SignalRCRCCF(bluerealandgreen Figure 4.33. Turbulence radial wave number


imaginary)andTCCF(red), 160kHz .

spectrum (blue real and green imaginary),


160kHz .

ThecomparisonofsignalRCRCCFandTCCFisshowninfigure4.32.Asitisseenfromthe
figure, thesignalRCRCCFpossessesslowerdecaythanTCCFhoweverthefunctionsarequite
close. The oscillations in the signal RCR CCF and the similarity of the functions could be
explained by the suppression of wave number spectrum for low as it was shown in 1D
numericalcomputationsinthepaper[76].

4.3.3.

XmodeprobingfromHFS

Thespectrumdecayathighwavenumberswasstudiedwith60GHzXmodeprobingfrom
theHFSofthetorusonthe19thofApril2012.Theexperimentalplasmadensityprofileisshown
infigure4.34.Analogoustotheprevioussubsectiontheprobingintervalcoversregionoflinear
behavior of plasma density profile. In table 4.4., the parameters of the current experiment are
shown. Equidistant frequency step of probing was chosen what is approximately equal to
equidistant spatial step in case of close to linear plasma density profile (50 points per 3cm ,
correspondingto f 0 3GHz , f 0 60GHz ).Signalwavefrequencystep f variedfrom0.025
to 0.1 GHz The reference frequency cutoff is defined at r / a 0.37 ( x 0.055m ). The
averagingwas madeover N s 155 sampleswithinplateaudurationof t plateau 2ms andtime
step tstep 0.4 s thatcorrespondsto max 1.25MHz .
118

________________________________________4.3ExperimentalresultsobtainedatFT2tokamak

Table5.4.Experimentalparameters19April2012

Parameter

Value

Bt

1.8T

I p

19kA

ne (0)

3 1013 cm 3

Te

500eV

referencefrequency f 0

60GHz

probingrange f

3GHz

probingfrequencystep f

0.025..0.1GHz

probinginterval

3cm( 1.5cm)

The double antenna set was shifted out of equatorial plane by 1.5cm that corresponds to
poloidalprobingwavenumberof3cm1.Thecorrespondingreflectometry(Doppler)spectrum
shiftedby400kHzfromtheprobingfrequencyisshowninfigure4.35.
30ms
32ms
34ms

13

2,5x10

13

2,0x10

Ne , cm

-3

A (arb. un.)

discharges # 9-80

13

3,0x10

13

1,5x10

1,0

0,5

13

1,0x10

12

5,0x10

0,0
-8

-6

-4

-2

0
2
r ( cm )

0,0
-1500

Figure4.34.Plasmadensityprofile19April2012.

-1000

-500
0
f (kHz)

500

1000

Figure4.35.Quadraturereflectometerspectrum.

The CCF absolute value (coherence) is shown in figure 4.36. to be finite only for cutoff
separationless than0.5cm.Thesignalcorrelationlengthisdecreasingwithgrowingturbulence
frequency and reaches the value of 0.05cm at 1.2MHz. The coherence oscillations at small
turbulence frequency are produced presumably by contribution of reflection at the plasma
boundarytothefluctuationreflectometrysignal.
Radialwavenumberspectrumshown infigure4.37.Thewidthofthisspectrumisgrowing
with the turbulence frequency demonstrating a clear dispersion. The suppression of the
spectrumatverysmallwavenumbersismostlikelyrelatedtothelimitationsofthe1Dmodel
analogoustotheprevioussubsection.Theturbulentdensityfluctuationtwopointcorrelation
functionisprovidedbytheFouriertransformoftheexperimentallyobtainedspectruminwhich
only the contribution of physically sensible part within the Bragg limit is accounted for. The
resultofthistransformisshowninfigure4.38.

119

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

1200

900

18

800

/2 ( kHz )

/2 ( kHz )

1000

36

600
54

400

90
-0,6

-0,4

-0,2

0,0 0,2
x ( cm )

0,4

0,6

Figure4.36.CCFcoherence.
-0,4

/ 2 ( kHz )

/ 2 ( kHz )

-0,1

600

0,2

400

0,4

200

0,7
-0,4

-0,2

0,0

0,2

x ( cm )

Figure4.38.TCCF.

0,4

0,8
1,0
-20

-10

( cm

10

-1

20

Figure4.37.Turbulencewavenumberspectrum.

1000

0,6

800

0,4

600
300

72

200

0,2

800

-0,4

600

-0,1
0,2

400
0,4
200

0,7

1,0

1,0
-0,4

-0,2

0,0

0,2

x ( cm )

0,4

Figure4.39.TCCF,ElmFirefullwavegyrokinetic
globalmodeling.[137]

TCCF shown in figure 4.38. demonstrates decrease of the correlation length with growing
frequency. This result of the turbulence wave number spectrum reconstruction from the
experimental signal RCR CCF agrees qualitatively with the density fluctuation CCF obtained
forthe1.5higherdensity19kAFT2dischargeasaresultofELMFIREfullfgyrokineticglobal
modeling and shown in figure 4.39. However there is negative part for x 0.2cm in the
experimental function which is absent in simulations. This could be explained by the
suppressionoflowwavenumbersisexperimentallyobtainedspectrumandbyshortcomingof
1D theoryinapplicationtoFT2smallmachine.Itshouldbementionedaswellthatverysmall
correlation length values obtained numerically for turbulence frequency higher than 600kHz
aresmallerthanthecomputationgridandthereforenotreliable.

4.3.4.

Summary

Itisimportanttounderlinethatalltheresultspresentedhereareobtainedatsmalltokamak
FT2 where small radius is a=0.08m and probing wavelength is 0.004m and the relation

L0 f 0 c 2..10 .Duetosmallgeometryofthedevicethe2Deffectmakesimpactontheresulting
signalRCRCCF,moreoverthemultiplereflectionbetweencutoffandantennaetakesplacein
120

_____________________________________________4.4.ResultsofexperimentalcampaignatJET

case of equatorial plane probing and spoils the resulting CCF. Apart from this the hardware
quality should be improved. Presented results of experiments give an overview of possible
turbulencewavenumberbehaviourandcorrelationlength.Theseexperimentsarepreliminary
and allow us to estimate the experimental parameters for future attempts. Summarizing the
results we emphasize the successful application of the turbulence wave number spectrum
reconstructionprocedurefromtheRCRdataattheFT2tokamak.

4.4.

ResultsofexperimentalcampaignatJET

NowadaysJET(describedinsection1.3.1.3)isthelargestandmostpowerfultokamakinthe
world.ItssuccessorsareITERandademonstrationreactorDEMO.TheprimarytaskofJETisto
prepare for the construction and operation of ITER. Therefore it is quite important to test the
new diagnostic technologies in conditions preceding ITER. The goal of the experiments set in
March2012wastoreconstructturbulenceradialwavenumberspectrumandspatialturbulence
crosscorrelationfunctionanditscorrelationlengthusingradialcorrelationreflectometrydata
atJET.

Figure4.40.Systemlayout,KG8Creflectometer.[138]

4.4.1.

RCRdiagnosticatJET

For the RCR measurements the usage of new KG8C broadband correlation reflectometer
with I/Q detection installed at JET in February 2012 was planned. The new system suggested
broadbandoperation(75to110GHz),fastswitchingtime( 50 s fullband),highsensitivity(90

121

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

dBm),goodfrequencyresolution(100kHz),lowphasenoise(100dBc/Hzat100kHz)andno
internalcrosstalk[138].TheschemeoftheKG8Creflectometerisshowninfigure4.13.
The reflectometer operates in in X mode. The probing is realized in the midplane of
plasma(z=29cmemitter,z=25cmreceiver)JETplasma(seefigure4.14).

Figure4.41.FluxsurfacesfromEFIT.Horizontalblacklineshowsthelineofsightofthereflectometer
directedtothecenterofplasma.

UnfortunatelyinMarch2012thesystemdidnotoperatecompletelyandonlyone(masteror
reference) channel of the KG8C reflectometer was used. The sweeping (slave channel) of the
reflectometerdidnotoperate.Itwasdecidedtouseanotherreflectometer, KG8Basareference
channel.PossessinglessoperationalflexibilitytheKG8Breflectometerallowedtooperateonly
at fixed 92 GHz channel and adjustable channel 8589 GHz. Therefore the combined RCR
system was created: the reference channel KG8B (8589 GHz and 92 GHz) and sweeping
channel KG8C (75100 GHz). The correlation measurements were possible at two different
reference radial positions simultaneously however these positions were not flexible. Main
parametersoftheRCRsystemareshownintable4.5.

Table4.5.ParametersoftheRCRsystematJET

Parameter
ReferencechannelKG8B

8589GHzand92GHz

SweepingchannelKG8C

75100GHz

Sweepingtimestep

122

Value

0.5 s

_____________________________________________4.4.ResultsofexperimentalcampaignatJET

2MHz

Dataacquisitionfrequency
Timeofmeasurements

3971s(1sbeforeplasma)

Plateauduration

>10ms

4.4.2.

Experimentalresults

DuringtheMarch2012sessionseveralshotsatJETwerestudied.Asitcouldbeseenfrom
thetable4.6.onlyfewofthem(#82633and#82671)canbeanalysed.

Table4.6.ListofshotsanalysedduringMarch2012.

KG8B KG8Cmasterchannelsettings
Shot#

82540

ref

start

freq

frq,

freq,

step,

GHz

GHz

MHz

08/03/12 88/92

75.36

960

date

Nstep

30

dwell

comments

time,ms
10.0

old KG8B settings,


largestep

82584

12/03/12 88

86.4

30

100

5.0

82588

error

in

data

acquisition dwell
time10.0ms

82586

12/03/12 92

88.8

100

50

5.0

||

82633

14/03/12

81.6

480

30

10.0

goodforanalysis

82634

14/03/12

attempt

82588
87/92

82636

to

use

KG8Cmaster+slave

82637

14/03/12 87

80.16

480

30

10.0

lowdensity

82650

15/03/12 87/92

76.8

2400

10

100.0

too long dwell t,

82667
82668

toolargefrqstep
16/03/12 87

76.8

480

100.0

notvalid

82671

16/03/12

87

80.16

480

30

10.0

goodforanalysis

82672

16/03/12 87

80.16

480

30

10.0

notvalid

82673

16/03/12 87

80.16

240

60

5.0

error

82670

82674

in

data

acquisition dwell
time10.0ms

82749

26/03/12 87

84.96

480

10

10.0

notvalid

82750

26/03/12 87

76.8

1200

18

20.0

||

123

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

4.4.2.1.

Shot#82671dataanalysis

Frequencyevaluationduringasinglewindowinshot#82671isshowninfigure4.22.
pulse 82671

window

95

plateaus, 10ms, 20000pts


sweeping channel KG8C

f, GHz

90

reference channel KG8B

85

80

0.5

1.5

t, s

-4

x 10

Figure4.42.Frequencyevaluationduringasinglewindow.

During32softheshotasequenceof106windowshavebeenrealized,during1swithout
plasmaandthenfrom40still71s.ThesettingsoftheRCRsystemaregivenintable4.7.

Table4.7.ParametersoftheRCRsystem.

Parameter

Value

30

Windowduration

0.3s

Plateauduration

10ms

Ns

200

100

Numberofwindowspershot

106

Numberofpointspershot

64000000

Referencefrequency

87GHz

Sweepingstartfrequency

80.16GHz

Frequencystep

480MHz

Afterashot,64000000pointsofdataareacquiredbybothreferenceandsweepingchannelsI
and Q parts of signal. To process the data we need to choose a time window of 0.3s
(correspondingtoprobingwindowduration)duringastationaryphaseofplasma.
In figure 4.43 the plasma parameters dependence on time is shown. The magnetic field is
computedusingEFIT[139],plasmadensityprofileismeasuredbyKG10,LIDAR(magentaline
infigure4.43)andHRTSdiagnostics.Verticaldashedlinesshowthetimeofthewindowstart
124

_____________________________________________4.4.ResultsofexperimentalcampaignatJET

positions at t=48.4s and t=59.7. These two windows (#32 and #69) have been chosen due to
stationaryplasmaconditionsinLmodeandHmode.Thesamesystemsettingsgiveprincipally
differentresultswhenmeasuringinLorHmode.Plasmadensityandmagneticfieldprofiles
areshowninfigures4.44(Lmode)and4.45(Hmode).

Figure4.43.Frequency evaluationduringasingle window.Verticaldachedlineshowstimepositionsof


thetwochoosenwindowsinLmode(t=48.4s)andinHmode(t=59.7s).

n*1019 , m- 3

n*1 019 , m- 3

8
6
4
2
0

2.5

3.5

6
4
2
0

4.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2
1.5

2.5

3.5

R, m

3.5

4.5

R, m

B, Tl

B, Tl

R, m

2
1.5

4.5

2.5

3.5

R, m

4.5

Figure 4.44. Plasma density profile (red) and Figure 4.45. Plasma density profile (red) and
magneticfield,Lmode,t=48.4s.
magneticfield,Hmode,t=59.7s.

WhenprobinginLmodetheprobingwavereachesthecoreandthe cutoffpositionrange
is quitewide, 2.303m R 3.296m itcoversalmost90cm(seefigure4.46).Thespatialstepof
measurements 3cm ishigherthanexpectedcorrelationlength lc 1mm..1cm .ThereforeL
modemeasurementsrequireothersystemsettingswithlowerspatialprobingstep.
IncaseofHmodeprobingtheprobingzoneisinpedestalzoneand coversspatialinterval
of 2.303m R 3.296m (figure4.47).Inthiscasethespatialprobingstep 4mm allowsto
measure qualitatively the turbulence correlation length. Unfortunately currently the probing
frequencystepisnotpossibletoreduceduetotechnicallimitationsofthesystem.

125

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

10

10

12

x 10

12
fp
fce
fL
fR

10

fp
fce
fL
fR

10

f, GHz

f, GHz

x 10

0
2.5

3.5

0
2.5

4.5

R, m

3.5

4.5

R, m

Figure 4.46. Frequency diagram. Black line shows Figure4.47.Frequencydiagram.Blacklineshowsupper


upper
cutoff
for
Xmode.
Rmax 3.296m , cutoff for Xmode. Rmax 3.811m , Rmin 3.672m ,
Rmin 2.303m , R0 2.939m .

R0 3.761m .
pulse 82671 channel spectral diagram comparison

pulse 82671 CCF


0.4

2.5

Re
Im
Abs

0.3

KG8B*28
KG8C
2

0.2
0.1

1.5

0
1

-0.1
-0.2

0.5

-0.3
-0.4
-15

-10

-5

0
x

10

0
-1

15

-0.5

0
, Hz

0.5

1
6

x 10

Figure 4.48. Signal RCR CCF, real part (red line), Figure4.49.Channelspectradiagramcomparison.
imaginary part (blue line) and absolute value (black
line).
xcorr, KG8Cmaster & KG8B85var

pulse 82633 channel spectral diagram comparison

1.2

3.5
KG8B85var
KG8Cmaster
xcorr

KG8B*27
KG8C

0.8

2.5

0.6

0.4

1.5

0.2

0.5
-0.2
-3

-2

-1

0
t

3
x 10

-5

0
-1

-0.5

0
, Hz

0.5

1
x 10

Figure 4.50. Autocorrelation functions, KG8B85var Figure4.51.Channelspectradiagramcomparison


(blue), KG8C master (black) and cross correlation
function(red).

126

_____________________________________________4.4.ResultsofexperimentalcampaignatJET

The level of correlation between the two channels, reference KG8B and probing KG8C
appearedtoberatherlow,below0.4.MoreoverthesignalRCRCCFisdampedforsmall R
(see figure 4.48, marked by magenta circle). Possible low level of turbulence in the top of
pedestal comparing to the level of noise give this damping. However slow decay of the RCR
CCF could be observed even substantially spoiled by high level of noise. The KG8B spectra
turnedtobesignificantlysmallerthanKG8Cspectraaswellasthesignallevel.
reflectometry signals

reflectometry signals

1.5
KG8B*10, f=87GHz
KG8C, f=80.16GHz

0.6

KG8B*10, f=87GHz
KG8C, f=86,88GHz

0.4

0.2

0.5
0
-0.2

-0.4

-0.5
-0.6
-0.8
150

200

250

300

350
n

400

450

500

-1
0

550

200

400

600
n

800

1000

1200

Figure4.52.Signalcomparisonbetweenthetwochannels
pulse 47669 TS abs(CCF)

pulse 82633 abs(CCF)


1

0.8

0.9

0.7

0.8

0.6
0.7

0.5

0.6

0.4

0.5
0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1
0

0.1

8.2

8.4

8.6

8.8

9.2

9.4

9.6

f, Hz

0
1.32

9.8
x 10

1.34

1.36

1.38
f, Hz

10

1.4

1.42

1.44
x 10

11

Figure4.53.AbsolutevalueofRFRCCFdependingonnumberofsamplesofaveraging N s , 100kHz ,JET


(a) and Tore Supra (b), shot #47669. The computations are done for N s 10 (green), N s 100 (blue),
N s 500 (black)and N s 1000 (red).
TS47669 TS47669averageR Ein Ns=100
0.3
-100kHz
-80kHz
-60kHz
-40kHz
-20kHz
0kHz
20kHz
40kHz
60kHz
80kHz

0.8

0.2
0.6

0.1
0.4

0
0.2

-0.1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4
-0.1

-0.4

8.2

8.4

8.6

8.8

9
x 10

10

-0.05

deltax, m

9.2

0.05

0.1

Figure4.54.Re(CCF)fordifferentturbulencefrequencies.JET(a), 0..200kHz andToreSupra(b),


shot#47669, 100..80kHz .

127

ChapterIV.Applicationstoexperiments_________________________________________________

4.4.2.2.

Shot#82633dataanalysis

Analogoustoprevioussubsectionshot#82633hasbeenanalyzed.Autocorrelationfunctions
ofthechannelsKG8B(showninblue)andKG8C(blackline)andcrosscorrelationfunctionof
thesechannelsisshowninfigure4.50.Thelevelofcorrelationbetweenchannelsisratherlow
(<30%)andthecorrelationtimeestimatedas2*106siscomparabletothesweepingtimestep
0.5*106s.Channelspectradiagramrepresentsthesameresultasfortheshot#82671:theKG8B
signalisdampedhoweverasitisseenfromfigure4.52.wherethesignalcomparisonbetween
thetwochannelsisshownthesignalsseemtobecorrelated.
DependenceofRCRCCFabsolutevalueonnumberofsamplesforaveraging N s forJET,at

100kHz is shown in figure 4.52.(a). The same algorithm has been tested with Tore Supra
data, shot #47669 (figure 4.52.(b)). In is clearly seen that the behavior of signal RCR CCF
obtained at JET is similar that of the noise with increasing statistics in contrary to the Tore
Supraresults.
We also compare the real parts of RCR CCF for JET (see figure 4.53.(a)) and Tore Supra
(same figure (b)) for different turbulence frequencies. This result confirms the previous
conclusiononrandomnatureofthedataobtainedfromJET.

4.4.3.

Summary

Due to a problem of synchronization between the KG8B 85var/92fix channel and KG8C
master channelno relevantphysicalresulthas beenobtained.Duringtheexperimentalsession
in March 2012 no correlation between channels observed, even signals seem to be correlated.
The level of signal CCF decays when number of samples for averaging is increased (Figure
4.52.(a)), as it should be in case of white noise. The behavior of signal CCF depending on
turbulence frequency is random (Figure 4.53.(a)). That is not the case for Tore Supra
measurements, for example (Figures 4.52.(b), 4.53.(b)). This could be explained by several
reasons,suchashighlevelofnoiseandlowlevelofsignalinKG8B85var/92fixchannels;low
level of turbulence in the top of pedestal comparing to the level of noise or position of the
referencecutoffintransitionregionfrompedestaltocore.
Although there are no physical result due to the hardware default the preliminary
measurements and system settings determination have been held. Thus, these preliminary
experiments held using newly installed equipment allow to predefine the experiments
parameters set for JET such as probing frequency step and range, window and plateaus
duration according to technical abilities of RCR systems at JET. Apart from that the software
focusedonJETdataprocessinghasbeendevelopedandfullypreparedforfurtherusagewhen
thehardwareproblemsareresolved.
128

____________________________________Conclusion

Turbulenceisconsideredtobethemainsourceofanomaloustransportintokamakswhich
leads to faster loss of heating than it was predicted by neoclassical theory. Consequently it
makesmeasurementsofturbulencepropertiesimportantforbetterunderstandingofturbulence
nature. Measurements of plasma density fluctuations are the easiest and provide information
not only on the turbulence amplitude but also on its dispertion relation, frequency and wave
number spectra and phase. Although plenty of turbulence diagnostic tools are already
developed the problem of high quality turbulence properties measurements is still especially
acute.
Reflectometry is a widely used method of plasma diagnostic in tokamaks. It provides
informationonaveragedplasmadensityprofileandonfluctuationpropertiesaswell.Oneofits
applications,radialcorrelationreflectometry(RCR),studiescorrelationbetweenthetwosignals
receivedfromplasma oneatfixedfrequencyandtheotherwithgrowingfrequencydifference
with growing frequency difference. This correlation decay possesses a logarithmic slow
behavior observed in majority of experiments looking at the plasma core [106]. However,
numerical computations show that it differs from the turbulence correlation function
dependency. The discrepancy predetermined subsequent erroneous approach in experiment
datainterpretationhoweveritcouldbeexplainedanalytically.
ThisthesisisfocusedonnewcorrectRCRdatainterpretationandcoversthedevelopment
oftheinnovativemethodprovidingfromRCRdatatheturbulencecharacteristicssuchasradial
wavenumberspectrumandturbulenceradialcorrelationlengthfromthetheoreticalmodelto
experimentalvalidationonvariousmachineswithcompletelydifferentparameters.
TheoreticalbasisinBornapproximationframeworkgivesacorrectanalytical description of
RCR signal dependency on turbulence radial wave number and explains the long tail of the
signalRCRCCFinonedimensionalgeometryinlinearregime.Furthermorethesimplerelation
between measured in experiment signal RCR CCF and turbulence radial wave number
spectrumisdevelopedfromtheintegralequationobtainedforRCRCCF.Thedirecttransform
forwardandinversekernelsarealsoproposedinordertosimplifythecalculationofturbulence
parametersandreduceerrorsaccumulatingduringnumericalcomputations.
Numericalsimulationisanintermediatestepbetweenthetheoreticalapproachandthereal
worldallowingtomodelrealexperimentandestimaterequiredexperimentalsettings.Itisthe
firststepindevelopingthemethodsofexperimentaldataprocessing.
FirstapplicationofthemethodhasbeenrealizedatToreSupratokamak.Astheprevalent
results of the experiment turbulence radial correlation length was estimated in the range of
lc=0.5..0.8cm and the behavior of radial wave number spectrum for small wave numbers

129

Conclusion___________________________________________________________________________

5cm 1 withgoodresolutionof 0.04cm 1 whichagreeswithtwofluidmodeldiscussed


insubsection1.4.3wasstudiedaswell.
Later RCR experiments was realized at small FT2 tokamak and gave results consistent to
the results obtained at Tore Supra: the estimated radial correlation length was in the order of
lc=0.1..0.8cm. However additional difficulties were faced at FT2 due to small geometry of the
machine and subsequent curvature of the cutoff layer. Obviously one dimensional approach
givesroughdescriptionofelectromagneticwavepropagationinthecaseof L0 f 0 c 2..10 and
doesnottakeintoaccounttwodimensionaleffectssuchassmallanglescattering.Theinverse
transformoftheRCRCCFgivesthegeneralshapeofradialwavenumberspectrumanddoes
notallowustoexhibitacleardependency.
The last, JET experiment was planned as a test of the proposed method for further
development for ITER reflectometry systems. Unfortunately the installation of the new RCR
system was not finished and great capabilities of new fast sweeping correlation reflectometer
have not been used. The problem of synchronization between the two channels of different
reflectometers was not resolved however even having no physical result the experimental
campaign was quite fruitful. As a result of the experiment the equipments settingshave been
determinedandnecessarysoftwarefordataprocessinghasbeendeveloped.
AddressingtoapplicationstoITERweshouldalsodiscussthelimitationsofRCR.OnITER
the plasma density profiles are flat that means long probing wave path up to several meters.
Therefore the reflectometer can suffer from destructive influence of plasma turbulence which
mayleadononehandtomultiplesmallanglescatteringorstrongphasemodulationandonthe
other hand to a strong Bragg backscattering (BBS) or to an anomalous reflection [140]. This
introduces additional difficulties of reflectometry data interpretations. Fortunately RCR is
useful in case of strong phase modulation and in strong nonlinear regime due to local
monitoringofturbulencebehaviour[141].

The contribution of the author to this work is in developing of the theoretical basis of the
RCR, performing of the numerical modeling, participating the experimental sessions at three
machines, Tore Supra in Cadarache, JET in Culham and FT2 in SaintPetersburg and all the
dataprocessingforthesemachines.

130

_________________________________________________________________________Futureplans

Futureplans

Wewouldliketounderlinethatalthoughthetheoreticalapproachprovidesastrongbasis
for turbulence properties reconstruction it is not complete. Thus, the description of the
scattering signal and expression for the RCR CCF in two dimensional model should be
described and the 2D corrections for the inverse relation for turbulence radial wave number
spectrumarerequiredaswell.ThisshouldexplaintheRCRCCFbehaviorinasmallmachine
anddiscovertheinfluenceof2DeffectsinhugemachinesuchasITER.Furtherthecomparison
between numerical 1D and 2D computations in Born approximation as well as full wave are
needed.
Experimental applications of the method should be established. Future plans include
application of the method to study the suppression of radial correlation length due to LH
transition or shear flows. The evolution of the wave number spectrum by the RCR technique
couldbemeasuredaswell.
After the hardware improvement at JET the attempt to apply the diagnostic should be
continuedassoonasconditionsatJETmachinearetheclosesttoITER.

131

132

_____________________________________Appendix

AppendixA.Stationaryphasemethod

The main idea of stationary phase methods relies on the cancellation of sinusoids with
rapidlyvaryingphase.ItisageneralizationofLaplacemethodforthefollowingintegrals:
b

I ( x ) g (t )eix ( t ) dt

(203)

where g (t ) and (t ) arerealfunctions.Ifinsidetheintervalofintegration [a, b] apoint t c


where '( c ) 0 exists this point is called stationary point and it is possible to obtain an
asymptotic formoftheintegral I ( x ) usingtheLaplacemethod.Thestationarypointprovides
themaincontributiontotheintegral I ( x ) inthe vicinityofthestationarypoint.
If '( a ) 0 and '(t ) 0 for a t b theintegral I ( x ) canbesplittedintwo:
a

I ( x ) I1 ( x ) I 2 ( x )

g (t )eix ( t )dt

g (t )e

ix ( t )

dt

(204)

Thesecondintegral I 2 ( x ) nullifiesas 1 x if x becausethereisnostationarypointinthe


interval [a , b] . Toobtaintheasymptotical representation,thefunctions g (t ) and (t ) are
replacedbytheirTaylorseries:
a

I ( x ) g ( a ) exp[ix ( a )] exp[i

x
(t a ) p ( p ) ( a )]dt , x
p!

(205)

Theintegrationintervalisenlargedbyreplacing by ,howevertheerrorintroducedbythis
replacementnullifiesas 1 x if x andisnegligible.Substituting s (t a ) :

I ( x ) g ( a ) exp[ix ( a )] exp[i

x p ( p)
s ( a )]ds, x
p!

(206)

If ( p ) ( a ) 0 the contour of integration id turned for 2 p otherwise 2 p .Using the


substitution

s exp[i

2p

1/ p

sgn(

( p)

p !u
( a ))]

( p)
x ( a )

(207)

theasymptoticformfor x isobtained:
1/ p


p !u

I ( x ) g ( a ) exp i x ( a )
sgn( ( p ) ( a ))

( p)
2p
x (a )

(1 p )
, x (208)
p

Forthestationarypoint '' ( a ) 0 :

133

Appendix____________________________________________________________________________

exp i x( a ) sgn( '' ( a ))


4
1/2


I ( x ) 2 g ( a )
, x
1/2
''
x (a )

(209)

AppendixB.4thorderNumerovscheme

ForthesecondorderderivativeweuseTaylorseries:

h 2 (2)
h 3 (3)
h 4 (4)
E z ( x h ) E z ( x ) hE ( x ) E z ( x ) E z ( x )
Ez ( x ) O(h 4 )
2
6
24

2
3
h (2)
h (3)
h 4 (4)
(1)
4
E z ( x h ) E z ( x ) hE z ( x ) E z ( x ) E z ( x )
Ez ( x ) O(h )
2
6
24
(1)
z

(210)

Afteraddingthetwoexpansions:

Ez ( x h) 2 Ez ( x ) Ez ( x h)
h 2 (4)
(2)
E
(
x
)
Ez ( x ) O (h 4 )

z
2
h
12

(211)

Weobtainfromhere:

E z(2) ( x )

E z ( x h ) 2 E z ( x ) E z ( x h ) h 2 (4)
Ez ( x) O(h 4 )
2
h
12

(212)

We substitute this expression for the secondorder derivative (212) to the Helmholtz equation
(169):

Ez ( x h) 2 Ez ( x) Ez ( x h)
h 2 (4)
2
2

4
N
(
x
)
E
(
x
)

Ez ( x ) O (h 4 )
z
0
2
h
12

The key point of the method is to apply the operator 1

(213)

h2 d 2
to the Helmholtz equation
12 dx 2

(169):

h 2 d 2 (2)
h2 d 2
2
2
4 2 N 02 ( x ) E z ( x ) 0

E
x
N
x
E
x
1
(
)
4

(
)
(
)
z
0
12 dx 2 z
2
12 dx

(214)

Again,using(211)weobtain:

Ez ( x h) 2 Ez ( x ) Ez ( x h)
O ( h 4 ) 4 2 N 02 ( x ) E z ( x )
h2

h2 d 2
2
2
4 N 0 ( x ) E z ( x ) 0

12 dx 2

Allthetermsofthefourthorderandhigherarenegligible.Theterm

(215)

h2 d 2
4 2 N 02 ( x ) E z ( x )
2
12 dx

is approximated by using the secondorder scheme due to it has the factor h 2 . After the
expansionintoTaylorseries:

134

____________________________________________________________________________Appendix

h 2 (2)
E z ( x ) O (h 2 )
2

h 2 (2)
2
(1)
2
N 0 ( x h ) E z ( x h ) E z ( x ) hE z ( x ) E z ( x ) O ( h )
2
N 02 ( x h ) E z ( x h ) E z ( x ) hE z(1) ( x )

(216)

weaddthetwoexpansionsandsubstitutetotheequation(215)obtaining:

Ez ( x h) 2 Ez ( x ) Ez ( x h)
4 2 N 02 ( x ) E z ( x )
2
h

2
2
2
2 N 0 ( x h ) Ez ( x h) 2 N 0 ( x ) Ez ( x ) N 0 ( x h) Ez ( x h)
4
0
12

(217)

Thisisadiscreetequationwithafourthordererrorterm.

135

136

____________________________________References

1.

UnitedNations,DepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairs,PopulationDivision,
http://www.un.org/esa/population

2.

StatisticaltablesfromtheInternationalEnergyAgency(IEA),
http://www.iea.org/stats/docs/statistics_manual.pdf

3.

TheWorldEnergyCouncil,http://www.worldenergy.org/publications

4.

StatisticalReviewofWorldEnergy,http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview

5.

J. Ongena and G. Van Oost, Energy for future centuries. Prospects for fusion power as a future
energysource,Trans.FusionSci.Technol.,February2012Vol.61,No.2T,ProceedingsoftheTenth
Carolus Magnus Summer School on Plasma and Fusion Energy Physics, September, 416, 2011,
Weert,TheNetherlands

6.

F.Joos,TheAtmosphericCarbonDioxidePerturbation,EurophysicsNews,27,6,213218,1996

7.

J.Wesson,Tokamaks,ThirdEdition,ClarendonPress,Oxford,2004

8.

H.A.Bethe,EnergyProductioninStars,PhysicalReview,Vol.55,Issue1:103,January1,1939

9.

L.A.Arzimovich,Controlledthermonuclearreactions(inRussian),.,1963

10. P. A. Sturrock, T. E. Holzer, D. M. Mihalas and R. K. Ulrich, Physics of the Sun, Vol. I: The solar
interior,B.M.McCormac,Ed.,LoockheedPaloAltoResearchLaboratory,California,USA,1986
11. AnAbundanceofLithium,March2008,http://www.worldlithium.com
12. UniversityofWisconsinMadison,http://www.iec.neep.wisc.edu/operation.php
13. I. Langmuir, Oscillations in ionized gases, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., vol. 14, p. 628, 1928; also
availableinTheCollectedWorksofIrvingLangmuir,vol.5,C.G.Suits,Ed.NewYork:Pergamon,
pp.111120,1961
14. V.E.Golant,A.P.Zhilinskiy,I.E.Sakharov,Plasmaphysicsbasis(inRussian),2011
15. PlasmaPhysics:anIntroductoryCourse,editedbyR.O.Dendy,CambridgeUniversityPress,1993
16. G. Van Oost and R. Jaspers, Thermonuclear burn criteria, Trans. Fusion Sci. Technol., February
2012 Vol. 61, No. 2T, Proceedings of the Tenth Carolus Magnus Summer School on Plasma and
FusionEnergyPhysics,September,416,2011,Weert,TheNetherlands
17. J. D. Lawson, Some Criteria for a Power Producing Thermonuclear Reactor, Proceedings of the
PhysicalSocietyB,Volume70,p.6,1957
18. J. Lindl, Development of the indirectdrive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target
physicsbasisforignitionandgain,Phys.Plasmas2,3933,1995
19. J.D.Lindletal.,ThephysicsbasisforignitionusingindirectdrivetargetsontheNationalIgnition
Facility,Phys.Plasmas11,339,2004
20. J.OngenaandA.M.Messiaen,Heating,ConfinementandExtrapolationtoReactors,Trans.Fusion
Sci.Technol.49,2T,425,2006
21. W.M.Stacey,Fusion.AnIntroductiontoPhysicsandTechnologyofMagneticConfinementFusion.
Second, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition, WILEYVCH Verlag Gmbh&Co. KGaA,
Weinheim,2010

137

References___________________________________________________________________________

22. L.Spitzer,Jr.,AProposedStellarator,PMSl,USAECNYO993,1951
23. I.E.Tamm,Theoryofthemagneticthermonuclearreactor,part1,PlasmaPhysicsandtheProblem
ofControlledThermonuclearReactions(transl),NewYork:Pergamon,pp319,1959
24. A.D.Sakharov,Theoryofmagneticthermonuclearreactor,part2,PlasmaPhysicsandtheProblem
ofControlledThermonuclearReactions(transl),NewYork:Pergamon,pp2030,1959
25. I.E.Tamm,Theoryofmagneticthermonuclearreactor,part3,PlasmaPhysicsandtheProblemof
ControlledThermonuclearReactions(transl),NewYork:Pergamon,pp3141,1959
26. V.P.Smirnov,TokamakfoundationinUSSR/Russia19501990,Nucl.Fusion500140038pp,2010
27. L.A.Artzimovich,ControlledThermonuclearReactions(inRussian),1963
28. S.Yu.Lukianov,Hotplasmaandcontrollednuclearfusion(inRussian),M.,1975
29. B. B. Kadomtsev, Tokamak plasma, a complex physical system, Institute of Physics Publishing,
Bristol,1992
30. CulhamCentreforFusionEnergy,http://www.ccfe.ac.uk
31. AlltheWorldsTokamaks,http://www.tokamak.info
32. NationalResearchCentreKurchatovInstitute,http://www.kiae.ru
33. IoffePhysicalTechnicalInstituteoftheRussianAcademyofSciences,http://www.ioffe.ru
34. CommissariatlnergieAtomique(CEA)Cadarache,
http://www.cea.fr/lecea/lescentrescea/cadarache
35. EASTtokamakhomepage,http://english.hf.cas.cn/ic/ip/east
36. KSTARtokamakhomepage,http://www.nfri.re.kr
37. JapanAtomicEnergyAgency,NakaFusionInstitute,http://wwwjt60.naka.jaea.go.jp
38. B.Saouticetal.,ContributionofToreSuprainpreparationofITERNucl.Fusion51094014,2011
39. T. KurkiSuonio et al., Formation and detection of internal transport barriers in lowcurrent
tokamaks,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion44301323,2002
40. D. V. Kouprienko et al., Dynamics of the Electron Thermal Diffusivity at Improved Energy
ConfinementduringLowerHybridPlasmaHeatingintheFT2Tokamak,PlasmaPhysicsReports,
Vol.36,No.5,pp.371380,2010
41. S.I.Lashkuletal.,EffectoftheRadialElectricFieldonLowerHybridPlasmaHeatingintheFT2
Tokamak,PhysicsReports,Vol.27,No.12,pp.10011010,2001
42. S.I.Lashkuletal.,AnalysisoftheEfficiencyofLowerHybridCurrentDriveintheFT2Tokamak,
PlasmaPhysicsReports,Vol.36,No.9,pp.751761,2010
43. V.N.BudnikovandM.A.Irzak,MechanismofionandelectronLHheatingontheFT2tokamak,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion12AA135,1996
44. V. N. Budnikov, V. V. Dyachenko, L. A. Esipov et al., Improved confinement by lowerhybrid
heatingintheFT2tokamak,JETPLett.59,685,1994
45. EuropeanFusionDevelopmentAgreement,http://www.efda.org
46. ITERofficialwebsite,http://www.iter.org
47. P. Hennequin et al., Scaling laws of density fluctuations at highk on Tore Supra, Plasma Phys.
Control.Fusion.46B121,2004

138

___________________________________________________________________________References

48. A. Gurchenko and E. Gusakov, Evolution of ETG mode scale turbulence and anomalous electron
transportindynamictokamakexperiments,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion.52124035,2010
49. S.I. Itoh, Project Review Plasma Turbulence Structure Formation, Selection Rule, Dynamic
ResponseandDynamicsTransport(inJapaneese),J.PlasmaFusionRes.86334,2010
50. S.Inagakietal.,ObservationofLongDistanceRadialCorrelationinToroidalPlasmaTurbulence,
Phys.Rev.Lett.107115001,2011
51. P.A.Politzer,ObservationofAvalanchelikePhenomenainaMagneticallyConfinedPlasma,Phys.
Rev.Lett.841192,2000
52. A.Fujisawaetal.,IdentificationofZonalFlowsinaToroidalPlasma, Phys.Rev.Lett.93165002,
2004
53. T.Yamadaetal.,Anatomyofplasmaturbulence,NaturePhys.4721725,2008
54. P.Diamondetal.,Zonalflowsinplasmaareview,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion473R35,2005
55. A.Fujisawa,Areviewofzonalflowexperiments,Nucl.Fusion49013001,2009
56. N.Bretz,Diagnosticinstrumentationformicroturbulenceintokamaks,Rev.Sci.Instrum.688,1997
57. D.W.Ross,CommentaPlasmaPhys.ControlFusionXII155,1989
58. D. W. Ross, On standard forms for transport equations and quasilinear fluxes, Plasma Phys.
Control.Fusion34137,1992
59. W.HortonandR.D.Estes,Anomalousdriftwavetransportanalysisoftokamakdischarges,Nucl.
Fusion19203,1979
60. L.Spitzer,Jr.,ParticleDiffusionacrossaMagneticField,Phys.Fluids3659,1960
61. B.B.KadomtsevandO.P.Pogutse,Theoryofelectrontransportinastrongmagneticfield,JETP
Lett.39269,1984
62. D.R.ThayerandP.H.Diamond,Thermallydrivenconvectivecellsandtokamakedgeturbulence,
Phys.Fluids303724,1987
63. R. Sabot et al., Measurements of density profile and density fluctuations in Tore Supra with
reflectometry, Proc. 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 1st6th November 2004, Villamoura,
PortugalEX/P625
64. W.Horton,Driftwavesandtransport,Rev.ModernPhysics71735,1999
65. Z.Linetal.,SizeScalingofTurbulentTransportinTokamakPlasmas,Phys.Rev.Lett.88195004,
2002
66. L.Vermareetal.,Wavenumberspectrumofmicroturbulenceintokamakplasmas,CRPhysique
12115122,2011
67. P. H. Diamond, S.I. Itoh and K. Itoh, Modern Plasma Physics. Volume 1: Physical Kinetics of
TurbulentPlasmas,CambridgeUniversityPress,2010
68. A. N. Kolmogorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30 301, 1941, (reprinted in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A434 9,
1991)
69. A. N. Kolmogorov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 32 16, 1941, (reprinted in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A434 15,
1991)
70. R.H.Kraichnan,InertialRangesinTwoDimensionalTurbulence,Phys.Fluids101417,1967

139

References___________________________________________________________________________

71. G. Boffetta,A. Celani,S.Musacchio and M.Vergassola, Intermittency in twodimensionalEkman


NavierStokesturbulence,Phys.Rev.E66026304,2002
72. R.H.Kraichnan,Inertialrangetransferintwoandthreedimensionalturbulence,J.FluidMech.47
525,1971
73. N. Bretz, Onedimensional modeling of the wavelength sensitivity, localization, and correlation in
reflectometrymeasurementsofplasmafluctuations,PhysicalFluidsB4(8)2414,1992
74. E.Mazzucato,SmallScaleDensityFluctuationsintheAdiabaticToroidalCompressor,Phys.Rev.
Lett.36792,1976
75. R. E. Slusher and C. M. Surko, Study of density fluctuations in plasmas by smallangle CO2 laser
scattering,Phys.FIuids23472,1980
76. N. Bretz et al., Proc. 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics,
Amsterdam,1990editedbyK.Bethge(EPS,PetitLancy,Switzerland1990),Vol.IV,p.1544
77. G.Leclertetal.,Fullwavetestoftheradialcorrelationreflectometryanalyticaltheoryinlinearand
nonlinearregimes,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion481389,2006
78. C.Fanacketal.,Ordinarymodereflectometry:modificationofthe scatteringandcutoffresponses
duetotheshapeoflocalizeddensityfluctuations,PlasmaPhys.ControlFusion3819151930,1996
79. F.Wagneretal.,RegimeofImprovedConfinementandHighBetainNeutralBeamHeatedDivertor
DischargesoftheASDEXTokamak,Phys.Rev.Lett.491408,1982
80. S.I.ItohandK.Itoh,ModelofLtoHModeTransitioninTokamak,Phys.Rev.Lett.602276,1988
81. H. Biglari, P. H. Diamond and P. W. Terry, Influence of sheared poloidal rotation on edge
turbulence,Phys.FluidsB21,1990
82. F.Chen,PlasmaDiagnosticTechniques,editedbyR.H.HuddlestonandS.L.Leonard,Academic,
NewYork,p.113,1975
83. P.Staib,Probemeasurementsintheplasmaboundarylayer,J.Nucl.Mater.111&112,109,1982
84. I.Hutchinson,PrinciplesofPlasmaDiagnostics,SecondEdition,CambridgeUniversityPress,2002
85. M. Stanojevic et al., Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma, Plasma Phys.
Contr.Fusion47(2005)685
86. R.L.Hickok,IEEETrans.Nucl.Sci.NS2818,1981
87. Yu.N.Dnestrovskii,L.I.Krupnik,A.V.MelnikovandI.S.Nedselskii,Sov.J.PlasmaPhys.12130,
1986
88. L.I.KrupnikandV.I.Tereshin,PlasmaPhys.Rep.20146,1994
89. R. C. Isler, An overview of chargeexchange spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic, Plasma Phys.
Control.Fusion36171,1994
90. R.CanoandA.Cavallo,Proceedingsofthe5thInternationalConferenceonInfraredandMillimeter
Waves,Wurtzburg(1980)
91. F.Simonet,Etudedelarflectomtriehyperfrquenceenmodesordinaireetextraordinairepourla
mesureduprofilradialetdesfluctuationslocalesdeladensitelectroniquedanslestokamaks,PhD
thesis,UniversitdeNancyI,1985
92. V.L.Ginzburg,ThePropagationofElectromagneticWavesinPlasmas,Pergamon,Oxford,1964
93. A.I.Anisimovetal.,SovietPhys.TechnicalPhys.59,1961

140

___________________________________________________________________________References

94. R.J.ColchinORMAKTechnicalMemo93/105,1973
95. I. Hutchinson, Onedimensional fullwave analysis of reflectometry sensitivity and correlations,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion341225,1992
96. A. E. Costley et al., Recent developments in microwave reflectometry at JET (invited), Rev. Sci.
Instr.612823,1990
97. M. Gilmore, W. A. Peebles, X. V. Nguyen, Investigation of dual mode (OX) correlation
reflectometry for determination of magnetic field strength, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 655,
2000
98. E.MazzucatoandR.Nazikian,RadialscalelengthofturbulentfluctuationsinthemaincoreofTFTR
plasmas,Phys.Rev.Lett.711840,1993
99. G.D.Conwayetal.,FluctuationandreflectometersimulationstudiesonASDEXUpgrade,5thIntl.
ReflectometryWorkshop,IRW5NIFSJapan,March5th7th,2001
100. E.GusakovandA.Surkov,SpatialandwavenumberresolutionofDopplerreflectometry,Plasma
Phys.Control.Fusion46(2004)1143
101. E.Z.Gusakov,A.V.SurkovandA.Yu.Popov,MultiplescatteringeffectinDopplerreflectometry,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion47959,2005
102. A.Yu.Popov,E.Z.Gusakov,SpatialResolutionofPoloidalCorrelationReflectometry,32ndEPS
ConferenceonPlasmaPhys.Tarragona,27June1July2005ECAVol.29CP1.088,2005
103. V.A.Vershkovetal.,DirectComparisonofTurbulenceMeasurementswithLangmuirProbesand
Reflectometry at the same Radial Locations in T10 and Reflectometry Simulations with 2D Full
WaveCode,Proc.30thConf.Control.FusionPlasmaPhys.ECAVol.27AP2.56,2003
104. E.Z.GusakovandA.Yu.Popov,Measurementslocalizationinpoloidalcorrelationreflectometry,
Nucl.Fusion46S829S835,2006
105. Y. Lin et al., Plasma curvature effects on microwave reflectometry fluctuation measurements,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion43L1,2001
106. R.Nazikianetal.,MeasurementofTurbulenceDecorrelationduringTransportBarrierEvolutionin
aHighTemperatureFusionPlasma,Phys.Rev.Lett.94135002,2005
107. E. Gusakov and B. Yakovlev, Twodimensional linear theory of radial correlation reflectometry
diagnostics,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion442525,2002
108. G. J. Kramer et al., Correlation reflectometry for turbulence and magnetic field measurements in
fusionplasmas(invited),Rev.Sci.Instrum.741421,2003
109. E. Gusakov, V. Bulanin, O. Rozhdestvensky, Modelling of Radial Correlation Reflectometry in
CylinderGeometry,Proc.of3rdFranceRussianSeminarNAMES2007MetzEDPSciences133,2008
110. E. Gusakov and A. Popov, Nonlinear theory of fluctuation reflectometry, Plasma Phys. Control.
Fusion442327,2002
111. E.GusakovandA.Popov,Twodimensionalnonlineartheoryofradialcorrelationreflectometry,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion461393,2004
112. InternationalAtomicEnergyAgency,ConferenceProceedings,
http://wwwnaweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/PS/conf.htm

141

References___________________________________________________________________________

113. E. Mazzucato, Microwave reflectometry for magnetically confined plasmas, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69
2201,1998
114. H. Bindslev,Dielectric effects on Thomson scattering in a relativistic magnetized plasma, Plasma
Phys.Control.Fusion331775,1991
115. B. B. Afeyan, A. E. Chou, B. I. Cohen, The scattering phase shift due to Bragg resonance in one
dimensionalfluctuationreflectometry,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion37315,1994
116. F.daSilva,StudiesonOmodereflectometryspectrasimulationswithvelocityshearlayer,Nucl.
Fusion46S816S823,2006
117. L.D.LandauandE.M.Lifshitz,QuantumMechanics(inRussian),1963
118. A.B.Migdal,Qualitativemethodsinquantumtheory(inRussian),M.Nauka,1975
119. M. Abramovitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and
MathematicalTables,NewYork:DoverPublications,1970
120. H.BottolierandG.Ichtchenko,Microwavereflectometrywiththeextraordinarymodeontokamaks:
DeterminationoftheelectrondensityprofileofPetulaB,Rev.Sci.Instrum.58539,1987
121. F.Clairetetal.,FastsweepingreflectometryupgradeonToreSupra,Rev.Sci.Instrum.8110D903,
2010
122. A. D. Piliya and A. Yu. Popov, On application of the reciprocity theorem to calculation of a
microwave radiation signal in inhomogeneous hot magnetized plasmas, Plasma Phys. Control.
Fusion44467,2002
123. L.D.LandauandE.M.Lifshitz,ElectrodynamicsofContinuousMedia,Oxford:Pergamon,1981
124. J.Murray,AsymptoticAnalysis,NewYork:Springer,1984
125. S.Heurauxetal.,Radialwavenumberspectrumofdensityfluctuationsdeducedfromreflectometry
phasesignals,Rev.Sci.Instrum.741501,2003
126. E. Gusakov and M. Tyntarev, The twodimensional theory of reflectometry diagnostics of plasma
fluctuations,FusionEngineeringandDesign3435501505,1997
127. A.Gurchenkoetal.,ObservationoftheETGmodecomponentoftokamakplasmaturbulencebythe
UHRbackscatteringdiagnostics,Nucl.Fusion47245250,2007
128. R.Sabotetal.,AdvancesofreflectometryonToreSupra:fromedgedensityprofiletocoredensity
fluctuations,Int.J.InfraredMillim.Waves2522946,2004
129. A.Gurchenkoetal.,ObservationofturbulenceexponentialwavenumberspectraationsubLarmor
scalesinFT2tokamak,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion52035010,2010
130. E.Blanco,T.EstradaandT.Happel,Studyofradialcorrelationreflectometryusinga2Dfullwave
code, Proc. of 9th International Reflectometry Workshop (IRW9) Lisbon, Portugal, 4th 6th May
2009
131. E.J.Doyleetal.,DemonstrationofITERoperationalscenariosonDIIID,Nucl.Fusion50075005,
2010
132. M.Gilmoreetal.,LettertotheeditorDetailedcomparisonofplasmaturbulencecorrelationlength
measurementsusingmicrowavereflectometryandaLangmuirprobearray,PlasmaPhys.Control.
Fusion42L1L7,2000

142

___________________________________________________________________________References

133. F. Clairet et al., New signal processing technique for density profile reconstruction using
reflectometry,Rev.Sci.Instrum.82,083502,2011
134. P. Hennequin et al., Doppler backscattering system for measuring fluctuations and their
perpendicularvelocityonToreSupra,Rev.Sci.Instrum.,75(10):38813883,2004
135. A. Sirinelli et al., Density and fluctuation profiles obtained with the Dband reectometer in Tore
Supra,Proc.of7thInternationalReflectometryWorkshop46May2007SaintPetersburg,Russia
136. M. Kramer et al., Anomalous helicon wave absorption and parametric excitation of electrostatic
fluctuationsinaheliconproducedplasma,PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion49A167A175,2007
137. A. Altukhov et al., Turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction from radial correlation
reflectometry dataat FT2 tokamak, Proc. of the39th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics,Vol.36F,
P4.092,2012
138. L.Meneses,Groupmeetingtalk10/02/2012Culham,UK
139. GeneralAtomicsFusionTheoryandComputationalSciences,
https://fusion.gat.com/theory/Efithistory
140. E. Gusakov et al., Reflectometry diagnostics operation limitations caused by strong Bragg back
scattering,Proc.ofthe37thEPSConferenceonPlasmaPhysics,Vol.34A,P5.110,2010
141. K. Syisoeva, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in turbulent inhomogeneous plasma (in
Russian),Masterthesis,SaintPetersburgStatePolytechnicalUniversity,2012

143

144

___________________________________Publications

1.Papers:

1.1. N.Kosolapova,E.GusakovandS.Heuraux,
Numerical modeling of microturbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial
correlationreflectometry:I.Omodereflectometryatthelinearplasmadensityprofile,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion54(2012)035008,doi:10.1088/07413335/54/3/035008

1.2. E.GusakovandN.Kosolapova,
Fluctuation reflectometry theory and the possibility of turbulence wave number spectrum
reconstructionusingtheradialcorrelationreflectometrydata,
PlasmaPhys.Control.Fusion53(2011)045012,doi:10.1088/07413335/53/4/045012

1.3. S.Heuraux,F.daSilva,E.Gusakov,A.Popov,E.Beauvier,N.KosolapovaandK.Syisoeva,
Reflectometry Simulations on Different Methods to Extract Fusion Plasma Turbulence
CharacteristicsandItsDynamics,
Contrib.PlasmaPhys.51,No.23,(2011)126130,doi:10.1002/ctpp.201000050

1.4. N.Kosolapova,K.Itoh,S.I.Itoh,E.Gusakov,S.Heuraux,S.Inagaki,M.Sasaki,
T.Kobayashi,Y.Nagashima,S.Oldenbrger,A.Fujisawa,
Onturbulencecorrelationanalysisbasedoncorrelationreflectometry,
submittedtoPhys.Scripta

2.Conferenceproceedings:

2.1.N.Kosolapova,A.Altukhov,A.Gurchenko,E.Gusakov,S.Heuraux,R.Sabot,F.Clairet,
Turbulencewavenumberspectrareconstructionfromradialcorrelationreflectometrydataat
Tore Supra and FT2 tokamaks, // 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 813, 2012,
SanDiego,California,USA

2.2.A.Altukhov,A.Gurchenko,E.Gusakov,N.Kosolapova,S.Leerink,L.Esipov,
Turbulencewavenumberspectrareconstructionfromradialcorrelationreflectometrydataat
FT2 tokamak, // 39th EPS Conference on Plasma Phys. Strasbourg, 26 July 2012, ECA Vol.
36F,P4.092(2012)(4pp),http://ocs.ciemat.es/EPSICPP2012PAP/pdf/P4.092.pdf

145

Publications__________________________________________________________________________

2.3.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Modelingoftheturbulencewavenumberreconstructionusingradialcorrelationreflectometry
data with applications to FT2, JET, Tore Supra like cases, // 39th Conference on plasma
physicsandcontrolledfusion,Zvenigorod(Moscowreg.),February610,2012

2.4.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
On possibility of turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial correlation
reflectometry in Tore Supra and FT2 tokamaks, // 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Phys.,
Strasbourg,27June1July,2011,ECAVol.35G,P2.060(2011)(4pp),
http://ocs.ciemat.es/EPS2011PAP/pdf/P2.060.pdf

2.5.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
On possibility of turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial correlation
reflectometryinToreSupraandFT2tokamaks,//10thInternationalReflectometryWorkshop
(IRW10),Padova,Italy,4th6thMay2011,proceedings(6pp),
http://www.igi.cnr.it/irw10/proceedings/KosolapovaNV.pdf

2.6.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Numerical modelling of tokamak plasma microturbulence wave number spectrum
reconstruction using radial correlation reflectometry data, // New Achievements in Materials
andEnvironmentalSciences(NAMES2010)Nancy,FranceOctober2729,2010,tobepublished
inJournalofPhysics:ConferenceSeries(JPCS)

2.7.S.Heuraux,F.daSilva,E.Gusakov,A.Popov,N.Kosolapova,K.V.Syisoeva,
Numerical modeling of tokamak plasma microturbulence wave number spectrum
reconstruction using radial correlation reflectometry data, // New Achievements in Materials
andEnvironmentalSciences(NAMES2010)Nancy,FranceOctober2729,2010,tobepublished
inJournalofPhysics:ConferenceSeries(JPCS)

2.8.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Numerical modelling of microturbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial
correlationreflectometrydata,//InternationalConferenceonPlasmaDiagnostics,April1216,
2010,PontMousson,France,http://plasma2010.ijl.nancyuniversite.fr

2.9.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Numerical modelling of microturbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial
correlationreflectometrydata,//37thConferenceonplasmaphysicsandcontrolledfusion,
146

__________________________________________________________________________Publications

Zvenigorod(Moscowreg.),February812,2010

2.10.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Procedureoftheturbulencewavenumberspectrareconstructionusingtheradialcorrelation
reflectometrydata,//9thInternationalReflectometryWorkshop(IRW9),Lisbon,Portugal,4th
6thMay2009,proceedings(7pp),http://www.ipfn.ist.utl.pt/irw9/papers/egusakov_paper.pdf

2.11.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Modelling of the turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction from the radial correlation
reflectometrydata,//36thEPSConferenceonPlasmaPhys.,Sofia,June29July3,2009,ECA
Vol.33E,P4.217(2009)(4pp),http://epsppd.epfl.ch/Sofia/pdf/P4_217.pdf

2.12.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Numerical modeling of microturbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial
correlation reflectometry data, // 36th Conference on plasma physics and controlled fusion,
Zvenigorod(Moscowreg.),February913,2009

2.13.E.Gusakov,N.KosolapovaandS.Heuraux,
Turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial correlation reflectometry, //
35thEPSConferenceonPlasmaPhys.Hersonissos,913June2008ECAVol.32D,P1.082(2008)
(4pp),http://epsppd.epfl.ch/Hersonissos/pdf/P1_082.pdf

2.14.E.Gusakov,V.Bulanin,O.Rozhdestvenskiy,N.Kosolapova,
On possibility of turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial correlation
reflectometry data, // 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Phys. Warsaw, 2 6 July 2007 ECA
Vol.31F,P5.100(2007)(4pp),http://epsppd.epfl.ch/Warsaw/pdf/P5_100.pdf

2.15.E.Gusakov,V.Bulanin,O.Rozhdestvenskiy,N.Kosolapova,
On possibility of turbulence wave number spectra reconstruction using radial correlation
reflectometry data, // 8th International Reflectometry Workshop (IRW9), SaintPetersburg,
Russia,2nd4thMay2007,proceedings(8pp),
http://plasma.ioffe.ru/irw8/proceedings/Gusakov_paper.pdf

147

148

_______________________________________Awards

Oct.2011
GrantofRussianMinistryofEducation(Order#247714.10.2011)

Jul.2011
Winnerofthe7thItohProjectPrizeinPlasmaTurbulenceatthe38thEuropeanPhysicalSociety
ConferenceonPlasmaPhysics,27thJune1stJuly2011,Strasbourg,France

May2010
Awarded the medal For the best scientific work of students of Universities of the Russian
FederationandtheCIScountries(Order#47027.05.2010)

149

150

____________________________Acknowledgements

DuringthethreeyearsofmyworkonthethesisIhavetakeneffortsinthisproject,however
itwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthekindsupportandhelpofalargenumberofpeople.
Iwouldliketothankallofthem.

First of all I would like to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to Professor
StphaneHeuraux and ProfessorEvgeniyGusakov, my research supervisors, for their patient
guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques; their valuable and constructive
suggestions during the planning and development of this research work. Their willingness to
givetheirtimesogenerouslyhasbeenverymuchappreciated.

IwouldliketothanktheAdministrationandstaffofInstituteJeanLamour,Universitde
Lorraine;Nancy, France andIoffe Institute,SaintPetersburg, Russiafor thegreat opportunity
toworkonthethesisasastudentoftwocountries.

I wish to thank the FT2 tokamak team, especially Aleksey Altukhov and Aleksey
Gurchenko for providing me with results of reflectometry experiments, for detailed
explanationsandenlighteningdiscussions.

IamhighlyindebtedtoRolandSabotforgivingmeagreatopportunitytoworkwithhim
onToreSupraandJETreflectometryexperiments.
WithoutexplanationsofAntoineSirinelliIwouldnothavemanagedtoperformmyworkat
JETreflectometersandobtainrequireddata.
ThankstoFrdricClairetwhohasthoughtfullyrevisedmypapersandgavemeessential
advices.
I would like to thank JeanClaude Giacalone and Sbastian Hacquin for all their valuable
assistanceintheexperimentalwork.
I am also grateful to all the staff of Tore Supra and JET tokamaks for helping me to
participateinexperimentsandfeelcomfortableduringmyworkthere.

I am obliged to Filipe da Silva for his significant help with numerical computations
performedin2D.

151

Acknowledgements___________________________________________________________________

IhighlyappreciatetheinvitationofProfessorSanaeI.ItohandProfessorKimitakaItohto
visitKyushuUniversityandNationalInstituteforFusionScienceinJapan.Thisvisitbecamea
greatdiscoveryformeandthereceptionIrecivedwasexceptionallywarm.Iwouldlikealsoto
thank Stella Oldenbrger, Shigeru Inagaki and all the members of Itoh Plasma Turbulence
LaboratoryfortheirhelpandcollaborationduringmystayinJapan.

IwouldliketothankRogerJaspers,GregdeTemmerman,TonyDonnandall10thCarolus
Magnus Summer School team for great organization of education process and time spent
duringtwoweeksinSeptember2011inWeert,theNetherlands.

I could not manage to complete the work without the invaluable support of my beloved
parentsandfamily.
I would like to express my heartfelt thanksto my husband Dmitry. Your faith and loving
patiencecoloredmylifeandmademefeelyoursupportthroughdistanceandtime.

Natalia Kosolapova,
16th of November, 2012

152