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Electrical Safety

Objectives:
Upon completion of this lesson, the student/trainee must be able to:

Define electrical safety and its importance.


Administer the first aid for an electric shock victim
List the factors that affect the extent of injury
Determine the effect of a certain amount of current on the human body
Recall some electrical safety practices
Describe the common circuit fault
Define electrical lockout and its importance
Enumerate safe practices in maintaining electrical installations,power lines, and electrical
components

Topics:

Electrical Safety
Electrical Shock
Effects of Electric Current on the Human Body
How to Release the Victim from Electrical Contact
Preventing Electrical Accidents
Mainaining Electrical Safety
Circuit Faults
Electrical Lockout

Electrical Safety
Normally, electricity is a useful source of power. However, when something goes wrong with a circuit
or tool using it, or when it is handled with ignorance and disregard, electricity can become a deadly
hazard. Thus, to avoid personal injury, you must know when, and where and how to avoid improper
contact or use of devices through which electrical current is flowing.

Electrical Shock
Electrical shock occurs if your body becomes a part of an electric circuit.
Electrical Injuries
The extent of injury received from an electric shock is determined by:

the amount of current that pass through your body


the path it takes
the length of time you are in contact with the current.

Effects of Electric Current on the Human Body

Effects of Electrical Current on Human Body


1. Separate the victim for the voltage source.
Open the switch or the circuit breaker if its location is nearby and known. Otherwise use rubber
gloves, a dry wood board, wood pole, blanket, or the victim's own clothing (if not wet or damp) to
pull him free. Do not allow any part of your body to make contact with the victim's body.
2. If the victim is not breathing start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately
Even though no pulse is detected, the victim may still be alive. Hence do not stop mouth-tomouth resuscitation until a medical doctor pronounces the victim to be dead. Electric shock
victims have been revive after 8 hours of artificial respiration.
3. Call a medical doctor as soon as possible

How to Release the Victim from Electrical Contact


As soon as you notice a person thus suffered an electric shock, quickly observe the
general circumstances. Decide how best to release him from electrical contact without letting
him suffer further injury from a fall.
If possible, switch off the circuit concerned
. On how the voltage circuits, check that
the victim is not electrified by means of a quick, light brush with the back of your hand.
If you receive a slight shock, it indicates the circuit is still alive.

Push or pull the victim clear, use dry insulated material


Pull with a dry rope, dry article of clothing, or rubber or plastic
Pull the victim's own clothes where they are loose and dry
Stand on dry board to pull or push
Push with dry wood.

Preventing Electrical Accidents


Electrical accident prevention is simply avoiding contact with energized circuits. While operating
electric tools or equipment, insulate or isolate the current carrying parts. During maintenance, repair or
setup or servicing of electrically powered devices, shut off power
, or at least de-energized the circuit
involved. Let local service procedures and common sense dictate when to take electrical safety
measures.
Some Electrical Safety Practices
1. Always maintain a safe ground connection
2. Always use the prescribed and proper rating of fuses.
3. Never remove fuse under a load condition.
4. Tighten all loose connections. Loose connections can result to heat up of terminals.
5. Use the proper size of extension cords for the job as required.
6. Always inspect a power tool before use for breaks or cracks in the case, power cord or
plug.
7. Before working on a live circuit get permission from authorized personnel or supervisor
and follow very strictly the plans and procedures as provided for.
8. Exposed copper or aluminum wire should be respected and regarded as live wire
accordingly.

Maintaining Electrical Safety


All electrical installations, repairs and maintenance must be carried out by a qualified
electrical tradesmen. All other workers need to be aware of possible electrical hazards in
order to avoid danger.

All overhead conductors must be considered to be live even if they have some
form of covering. Do not touch them with your hand or with long lengths of
metal or with any part of a machine such as crane or fork lift truck.
Never allow trucks or trolley to run over flexible cables of power tools or lead
lights.
Report any damaged switches, power outlets or equipment and do not use
them until they are repaired.
If you get any electrical shock, even a small one, report it immediately. Also
do not touch the equipment until it has been checked by an electrician.
Never interfere with any earthing conductor or connection.
Never interfere with the connection of a welding return lead.
In the case of fire in or near electrical equipment, power should be switched off
at the main. Use only extinguishers of the carbon dioxide, vaporizing liquid, dry
chemical type or use dry sand. Do not use water hoses.
Do not allow extension leads to remain coiled tightly when they are in use as
they may overheat.

Circuits Faults
1. Short Circuit - A short circuit, commonly called short, is an electrical connection
that bypasses part or all of an electrical circuit, thus providing an additional route for
the current. If electrical conduction between adjacent wires of the coil is due to dirt,
it is called a high- resistance or partial short, if due to metal-to-metal contact, it is
called a dead short.

2. Flashover - a flashover is a violent disruptive discharge around or across the


surface of a solid or liquid insulator. Flashover occur suddenly, involve heavy
currents, and generally cause considerable damage.
A flashover is always preceded by ionization, which is a process by which the
surrounding atmosphere is made into a conductor.
A flashover is caused by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.

Creepage paths developed across dirty and moist insulators.


Very high temperatures, such as that caused by a nearby arc.
Switching over voltages.
Lightning.

Ground - A ground is an electrical connection between the wiring of an apparatus


and its metal framework or enclosure. Grounds can also occur in electrical
machinery when the effects or age, heat, and vibration damage the insulation,
permitting the entry of conducting dust, if the dust forms a bridge between the
exposed conductors and the frame, the wiring is grounded.

Electrical Lockout
Electrical accident prevention is simply avoiding contact with energized circuits. While operating
electric tools or equipment, insulate or isolate the current carrying parts. During maintenance, repair,
setup or servicing of electrically powered devices, shut off power, or at least de-energized the circuit
involved. Let local service procedures and common sense dictate when to take electrical safety
measures.