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Bulletinofthe SeismologicalSocietyofAmerica,Vol.69,No.3, pp.

773-823,June 1979
HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF PAKISTAN,
AFGHANISTAN, N O R T H W E S T E R N INDIA, AND SOUTHEASTERN
IRAN
BY R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB
ABSTRACT
Both historical (noninstrumental) and modern (instrumental) data are compiled
and critically reviewed to document the seismicity of Pakistan, Afghanistan,
northwestern India, southeastern Iran, and neighboring areas. Earthquakes
occurring between 1914 and 1965 are systematically relocated and magnitudes
are determined for these events when possible. For some of the larger earthquakes, in both historical and modern times, the orientation and length of the
rupture zone, and an approximate value of the seismic moment, are estimated.
The usefulness of the documented seismicity to locate the sites of future large
earthquakes in this part of the world is limited. The restricted historical record,
the occurrence of earthquakes over wide zones (i.e., less confined than at
oceanic subduction zones), and the long recurrence intervals combine to make
the identification of seismic gaps, with a significant potential for rupture in large
earthquakes, a difficult procedure. Seismicity variations prior to the great earthquake in the Makran region along the southern coast of Pakistan, in 1945,
appear to be consistent with patterns identified before large earthquakes elsewhere in the world. Recent patterns of seismicity farther west along the Makran
coast may be consistent with those for a zone in preparation for a large future
earthquake; however, this observation is based on a limited amount of data.

INTRODUCTION
The growing interest in continental tectonics in general, and in the seismicity and
tectonics of south-central Asia in particular, has created a need for accurate
knowledge of the historical and modern seismicity of that area. Such knowledge is
necessary to understand the tectonic regime, to provide a solid basis upon which a
systematic appraisal of seismic hazards can be founded, and to aid in the interpretation of microseismicity data from local networks. In this paper we provide a
thorough examination of the documented seismicity for one portion of south-central
Asia. The area covered includes Pakistan, Afghanistan, northwest India, southeast
Iran and small portions of the USSR, People's Republic of China, and the Arabian
Sea. This region is bounded by latitudes 20 and 38N and longitudes 60 and 80E.
Previous studies of seismicity in the region considered are inadequate for one of
several reasons. Some neglected the historical record of activity (e.g., Nowroozi,
1971); others were concerned with a region of only limited extent (e.g., Heuckroth
and Karim, 1970); and several were completed many years ago (Oldham, 1882; de
Montessus de Ballore, 1904; Milne, 1912). In this study a systematic and uniform
presentation of all available data is given. Noninstrumental data are interpreted in
terms of the Modified Mercalli {MM) Scale, while instrumental data are systematically employed to determine locations and magnitudes. It is then possible to identify
persistent patterns of seismic activity, as well as long-term variations in the style of
seismicity.
In the following sections various terms will be used to describe the magnitude of
an earthquake. These terms and the magnitude ranges associated with them are
summarized in Table 1.
773

774

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB


DATA: SOURCES AND ANALYSIS

The region throughout which the seismicity is studied is shown in Figure 1. Events
from all depths are considered except in the Hindu Kush and Pamir regions. There,
the enormous number of events occurring at intermediate depth and the detailed
consideration given these events by others (e.g., BiUington et al., 1977), lead us to
TABLE 1
TERMS DESCRIBINGEARTHQUAKESIZE
Magnitude
Term
Range
Small
Moderate
Large
Great

M
6.0
M
M

< 6.0
_-_ M < 7.0
_-> 7.0
_-> 7.8
N

~@~!f'-~ ~'~'--~JH ; PAKIS


TAN j~'
~,~

~K

,J

INDIA

0~0o
~

SEA

~ L~~

AND'-I
/

'

ARABA
I
~~"?/0 ~LA~

OFZ

60ON~

~
'DA
' ATE
Ns
20ON

80ON

FIG. 1. Index map of the area considered in this study. Mapped surface faults from the following
sources are shown: Bakr and Jackson (1964), Gansser (1964), Closs et al. (1969}, Weippert et al. (1970),
Terman (1974), StScklin (1974), Desio (1974), and Molnar and Tapponnier (1975). The 2-km sea-depth
contour is also shown. The filled circles in Iran and Pakistan respresent centers of Quaternary volcanism.
Geographic features indicated are as follows: AR, Aravalli Range; CB, Cambay Basin; CF, Chaman fault;
CH, Chagai hills; CR, Central Brahui Range; GF, Gardez fault; HR, Hazara Range; HF, Herat fault; HH,
Harboi hills; HK, Hindu Kush region; HM, Himalayas; HS, Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis; K, Kirthar range
proper; KF, Kunar fault; KR, Karakorum region; M, Makran region; MR, Murray Ridge; OF, OrnachNal fault; OFZ, Owen fracture zone; P, Pamirs; QTR, Quetta transverse ranges; RK, Rann of Kutch; S,
Sulaiman Range; and SR, Salt Range. Several cities are indicated by filled triangles: HRT, Herat; HYD,
Hyderabad; KAR, Karachi; KBL, Kabul; LAH, Lahore; NDI, New Delhi; QUE, Quetta; RWP, Rawalpindi. The inset in the lower right-hand corner shows the plate tectonic setting of the region studied;

eliminate from consideration events located at depths greater than 85 km. The
specific areas affected by this action are Flinn-Engdahl regions 715 through 720
(Flinn and Engdahl, 1965).
The data used in this study can be classified as belonging to one of two categories:
historical (noninstrumental) or modern (instrumental}. Historical data consist of

H I S T O R I C A L AND M O D E R N

S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L A S IA

775

accounts and felt reports that can be interpreted in terms of intensities. All data
concerning events prior to 1900 are of this type. Modern data consist of hypocenters
and instrumentally recorded arrival times from worldwide stations that are reported
in various catalogs and journals.
Historical data

To obtain the longest possible record of documented seismicity for the area of
interest, historical references to earthquakes were compiled. The following sources
form the basis for these historical data: Oldham (1882), Jones (1885a, b), Griesbach
(1893), de Montessus de Ballore (1904), Middlemiss (1910), Heron (1911), Milne
(1912), the International Seismological Summary (1918-1963), Oldham (1926), West
(1934, 1935), Crookshank (1939), Auden (1949), the Bulletin of the Bureau Central
International de S~ismologie (1954-1964), Banerji {1957), Heuckroth and Karim
(1970), Gupta et al. (1972), and Ambraseys et al. (1975). Historical data from the
portions of the USSR and China shown in Figure 1 are not considered in this study.
TABLE 2
EQUIVALENCE AMONG VARIOUS SCALES OF INTENSITY
USED IN THIS STUDY
Intensity
Class

Modified
Mercalli
Intensity

Milne
I

II
III
Rossi Forel
I

II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X

VI-VII
VIII-IX
IX-X+
I-II
II
III
IV
IV-V
V-VI
VI
VII-VIII
VIII-IX
X-XII

The time period for which historical data are available ranges from about 25 A.D.
through 1972. The length of this time period, however, is misleading; the completeness and uniformity of these data in both a temporal and spatial sense are probably
poor. Nevertheless, references to large earthquakes, which are most important when
considering regional tectonics, are apt to be more complete than the record considered as a whole.
All historical data are interpreted in terms of intensity using the MM scale as
given by Richter (1958). In a few instances the data are already in this form and are
used directly. In most cases, however, an intensity is either assigned to a historical
felt report or converted to the MM scale from some alternate scale of intensity. The
values used to convert from one intensity scale to another are detailed in Table 2.
For the Milne scale, the equivalent Modified Mercalli values are based on Milne's
description of the severity of damage each of his intensity classes was intended to
represent (Milne, 1912, pp. 653 to 654). The conversion for the Rossi-Forel scale is
taken from Richter (1958, p. 651}. Original reports of damage, when available,

776

R. C. Q U I T T M E Y E R AND K. H. JACOB

are used to verify and, if possible, to make more precise the equivalences listed in
Table 2.
For those cases in which an intensity must be assigned to a historical felt report,
a number of difficulties are encountered. Intensities often must be assigned on the
basis of very limited descriptions, in some cases only a sentence or two. Frequently
an earthquake is characterized by an intensity at only one location. In addition, the
possibility of embellishment or exaggeration must always be considered; this is
especially true of reports recorded second-hand a number of years after an earthquake occurred. Furthermore, the positions are not always known exactly for some
ancient towns to which intensities are assigned.
Keeping the above-mentioned limitations in mind, the assignment of intensities
to the felt reports was done in as systematic a manner as possible. Descriptions of
the construction methods and building materials used in the study area (Jones,
1885b; Heron, 1911; West, 1934) indicate that the buildings should be considered, in
TABLE 3
DESCRIPTIVE PHRASES AND THE INTENSITIES
ASSOCIATED WITH THEM
Words

Slight
Felt slightly
Felt
Sharp
Strongly felt
Strong earthquake
Severe
Very severe
Slight damage
Very violent
Damaging
Buildings damaged
Walls fell
Several buildingsdestroyed
Heavy damage
Town destroyed

Intensity
(MM)

III
IV
V
VI

VII
VII-VIII
VIII+

general, as belonging to Richter's (1958) masonry D category. For all reports in


which construction type was not mentioned, it was assumed to be equivalent to
masonry D. Also, key words (e.g., slight, felt, severe} occur frequently in the
descriptions of the earthquakes. In the absence of conflicting evidence these words
are interpreted to indicate the same intensity whenever they occur. Table 3 is a list
of these words and the intensity with which each is associated.
The data that have been compiled and interpreted are presented in Appendix 3.
This appendix is a complete list of the localities and intensities associated with
earthquakes for which noninstrumental data are available. The date, location,
assigned intensity, source, and a qualitative rating of each datum's reliability are
given in this list. A more selective list, containing only earthquakes associated with
an intensity _->8 (MM), is given in Table 4 for convenience.
The intensity data are also summarized in Figure 2, a map of maximum observed
intensity. In this figure, the maximum documented intensity at each location is
shown; or, in the case of some of the larger earthquakes, isoseismal lines are

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

777

TABLE 4
DOCUMENTED EARTHQUAKESWITH INTENSITY~ 8 (MM)
Date
Intensity
ApproximateLocation
-25 A.D.
9-10
Taxila
(33.7N, 72.9E)
~50 A.D.
8-9
Aikhanum
(37.2N, 69.5E)
818-819
7-9
Balkh
(36.8N, 66.9E)
848-849
7-9
Herat
(34.4N, 62.2E)
893-894
8-10+
Daibul (Daipul)
(24.8N, 67.8E)
1052-1053
7-9
Urgun
(32.8N, 69.1E)
06 Jul 1505"
9-10
Paghman
(34.6N, 68.9E)
03 May 1668
8-9
Samawani (Delta of the Indus)
04 Jun 1669
6-9
Fort Mandran
(33.4N, 73.2E)
23 Jun 1669
8-9
Attock
(33.9N, 72.3E)
15 Jul 1720
7-9
Delhi
(28.5N, 77.2E)
01 Sep 1803t
8-9
Mathura
(27.4N, 77.7E)
01 Sep 1803~
7-9
Badrinath
(30.7N, 79.5E)
1809
7-9
Garhwal
(30.0N, 79.0E)
16 Jun 1819"
9-10+
Rann of Kutch
(24.0N, 69.0E)
24 Sep 1827
8-9
Lahore
(31.6N, 74.4E)
06 Jun 1828
9-10
Srinigar
(34.1N, 74.8E)
1831
8-9
Daraban
(31.8N, 70.4E)
22 Jan 18325
8-9
Kalifgan
(36.9N, 69.8E)
21 Feb 18325
8-9
Badakhshan Province
(37.3N, 70.5E)
19 Feb 1842"
8-9
Aligar Valley
(34.8N, 70.3E)
19 Jun 1845
7-8
Lakhpat
(23.8N, 68.8E)
24 Jan 1852
8
Mnrree Hills-Kahan
(29.3N, 68.9E)
1862
8
Kohn Valley
(29.9N, 69.2E)
11 Aug 1868
7-8
Peshawar
(34.0N, 71.6E)
10 Nov 1868
7-8
Bannu
(33.0N, 70.6E)
Apr 1869
7-8
Peshawar
(34.0N, 71.6E)
20 Dec 1869
7-8
Campbellpore
(33.8N, 72.3E)
22 May 1871
7-8
Gilgit
(35.9N, 74.3E)
15 Dec 1872
9-10
Lahri
(29.2N, 68.2E)
18 Oct 1874
9
Jabal al Siraj
(34.1N, 69.2E)
Nov 1874
8-9
Kabul
(34.5N, 69.2E)
12 Dec 1875
7-8
Hazara
(33.5N, 73.0E)
02 Mar 1878
7-8
Kohat
(33.6N, 71.4E)
02 Mar 1878
7-8
Peshawar
(34.6N, 71.6E)
30 May 1885
8
Sopor
(34.3N, 74.5E}
06 Jun 1885
9-10
Kashmir
(34.0N, 74.5E)
28 Dec 1888
8-9
Quetta
(30.2N, 67.0E)
1889
8
Jhalawan
(27.8N, 67.2E)
20 Dec 1892"
8-9
Chaman
(31.0N, 66.4E)
13 Feb 1893
8-9
Quetta
(30.2N, 67.0E)
1900
8
Quetta-Pishin
(30.4N, 67.0E)
04 Apr 1905"
10
Kangra
(32.0N, 76.3E)
08 Jul 1909
7-8
Kalam
(35.4N, 72.7E)
21 Oct 1909"
8-9
Kachhi Plain
(29.0N, 68.2E)
02 Jun 1931
7-8
Pashghur
(35.3N, 69.4E)
27 Aug 1931"
7-8
Mach
(29.9N, 67.3E)
30 Mar 1934
8
Pashtunkot
(35.9N, 64.8E)
30 May 1935"
9-10
Quetta
(30.2N, 67.0E)
09 Sep 1937
7-8
Gulmarg
(34.1N, 74.4E)
20 Oct 1937
7-8
Dehra Dun
(30.3N, 78.1E)
07 Nov 1937
7-8
Srinigar
(34.1N, 74.8E)
29 Sep 1941
8
Quetta
(30.2N, 67.0E)
27 Nov 1945"
10+
Makran Coast
(25.2N~ 63.5E)
10 Jul 1947
7-8
Bhadarwah
(32.9N, 75.8E)
05 Aug 1947
8
Makran Coast
(25.2N, 63.5E)
18 Feb 1955
7-8
Quetta
(30.2N, 67.0E)
13 May 1956
8
Fort Munro
(29.9N, 69.9E)
09 Jun 1956"
8-9
Sayghan
(35.2N, 67.7E)
26 May 1959
7-8
Rustak
(37.1N, 69.8E)
01 Aug 1966
7-8
Loralai
(30.4N, 68.6E)
03 Sep 1972
6-8
Tangir-Darel Valley
(36.3N, 76.7E)
* These events are discussed in more detail in the text.
t These two reports probably represent a single event.
There is a good possibility these intensities are related to intermediate-depth Hindu Kush-Pamir
events, but as this cannot be ascertained, they are included in this table for completeness.

778

R. C, QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

presented. It should be remembered that large intensifies at some locations, from


earthquakes during gaps in the historical record, may be missing from Figure 2.
Modern data

Beginning with the year 1914, instrumentally recorded arrival times, and hypocenters determined from these data, are readily available. They are collected in the
regular bulletins of the British Association for the Advancement of Sciences,
Seismological Committee; the International Seismological Summary (ISS), the
Bureau International de S~ismologie (BIS), the International Seismological Centre
60"

8O"
e

20"

20"
6v

80 a

Fro. 2. Map of maximum documented intensity (Modified MercaUi scale) at any given location. Data
for the time period ~25 A.D. to 1972 are shown; however, mapped portions of the U.S.S.R. and China are
not considered, and data from Iran are insufficient for quantitative description. Isoseismal lines (dotted
where inferred) are plotted for some of the larger events. The year of occurrence for each such large
event is indicated. The intensity value associated with a given isoseismal line is indicated in the box near
each date. T h e fucst value given is for the innermost isoseismal line, etc. A few locations for which a
documented intensity is known are not plotted so t h a t isoseismal lines will be more clearly visible. For
complete intensity data, see Appendix 3. Isoseismal lines for the 1905 event are after Middiemiss (1910),
those for the 1909 event are after Heron (1911), and those for the 1931, 1931b, and 1935 events are after
West (1934, 1935). The 1931 and 1931b events are, respectively, the Sharigh and Mach earthquakes of
Figure 6. The open triangles represent the same cities shown in Figure I.

(ISC), and various publications of U.S. government agencies (e.g., Earthquake Data
Reports (EDR) and the U.S. Geological Survey epicenter data tape).
Relocations. Events recorded in the time period 1914 through 1965, which meet
certain criteria, were relocated using a computer program similar to the one
described by Bolt (1960}. The criteria used to select events for relocation are: (1) at
least 10 stations reported a P-arrival time (at least 5 stations prior to 1931), and (2)
the event had a preliminary hypocentral location within the study area. After each
event was relocated, it was given a qualitative grade from A (good) to D (no
relocation possible). These grades are based upon the consistency of the data with
the new hypocenter, the number of arrivals used in the relocation, and the distri-

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

779

bution of stations in azimuth and distance. Depths are usually not well constrained
by station distribution or reported depth phases, and thus, in general little significance should be attached to them.
The results of the relocations are shown in Figure 3 and are listed in Appendix 4.
Figure 3 and Appendix 4 also include hypocenters determined from at least 10 P
arrivals for the period January 1966 to April 1975, which were compiled from the
ISC and EDR bulletins but not relocated.
Table 5 is a list of the largest earthquakes that occurred from 1905 to 1975 in the
region of interest. This list contains several events for which an instrumental

60*

20*
6~

80*

20
80*

Fro. 3. Epieentral map of modern seismicity for the region studied. The filled squares are proportional

to magnitude and represent earthquakes recorded at teleseismic distances from January 1914 through
April 1975. D-graded earthquakes are not shown. The symbol labeled UD in the magnitude scale denotes
events with undetermined magnitude. Events from 1914 to 1964 are relocated. No distinction is made
between surface-wave and body-wave magnitudes in this figure. For such distinction and additional
information, see Appendix 4. Four large earthquakes (Ms > 7) t h a t occurred from 1905 to 1914 are
represented by open circles.

magnitude is available, but that do not meet the criteria for a relocation attempt.
These latter events are plotted as large circles in Figure 3.
Magnitudes. An instrumental magnitude was determined for each earthquake for
which sufficient data existed to do this. Gutenberg and Richter (1954) and Roth~
(1969) assigned magnitudes to many of the earthquakes considered in this study,
and their values are used when available. For other earthquakes ground-displacement amplitudes reported in the station bulletins of Uppsala (UPP), DeBilt (DBN),
Prague (PRA), and Granada (CRT), during the years 1914 to 1959, are used to
compute magnitudes. Most magnitudes determined in this manner are based on
data from only Uppsala and/or DeBilt.
The magnitudes are computed from the displacement amplitudes reported for the

780

R. C. Q U I T T M E Y E R A N D K. H. J A C O B

vertical or horizontal c o m p o n e n t s of surface waves with periods in the range 14 to


24 sec. T h e f o r m u l a used, except for a m i n o r correction discussed below, is
M = log ( A / T ) + 1.66 log h + 3.3

( K a r n i k et al., 1962)

w h e r e A is the a m p l i t u d e of ground d i s p l a c e m e n t in microns (zero to peak), T is the


period in seconds, and h is the epicentral distance in degrees. Geller and K a n a m o r i
(1977) point out t h a t for surface waves of 20-sec period, the m a g n i t u d e s d e t e r m i n e d
f r o m the f o r m u l a of K a r n i k et al. (1962) are greater t h a n those d e t e r m i n e d f r o m the
f o r m u l a of G u t e n b e r g (1945a) by an additive constant of 0.18. As m a n y of the
m a g n i t u d e s compiled f r o m o t h e r sources for this s t u d y were d e t e r m i n e d using
G u t e n b e r g ' s formula, m a g n i t u d e s d e t e r m i n e d from the a b o v e f o r m u l a were decreased b y 0.18 so c o m p a r i s o n s could be made.
TABLE 5
LARGEMAGNITUDEEARTHQUAKESSINCE 1905
Approximate
Epicentral
Location

Date

04
21
20
01
06
24
27
13
30
27
05
09

Apr
Oct
Oct
Jan
Feb
Aug
Aug
Jun
May
Nov
Aug
Jun

1905
1907
1909
1911
1914
1931
1931
1934
1935
1945
1947
1956

32.2N,
38N,
29.0N,
38N,
29.7N,
30.4N,
29.9N,
27.7N,
28.9N,
25.2N,
25.0N,
35.IN,

76.1Et
69E$
68.2Et
66E$
63.8E
67.7E
67.3E
62.7E
66.4E
63.5E
63.5E
67.5E

Magnitude*
(Ms)

8.0
8.0
7.2
7.2
7.0
7.0
7.4
7.0
7.5
8.0
7.3
7.611

* Magnitudes are from Gutenberg and Richter (1954)


unless otherwise noted.
t Epicentral location estimated from intensity data.
Epicentral location from Gutenberg and Richter.
Magnitude from Geller and Kanamori (1977).
It PAS station magnitude.
As a check on the validity of this p r o c e d u r e to d e t e r m i n e magnitudes, m a g n i t u d e s
c o m p u t e d b y G u t e n b e r g a n d R i c h t e r {1954) were c o m p a r e d with those c o m p u t e d
f r o m the U p p s a l a a n d DeBilt d a t a for those cases in which b o t h are available. T h e
results are s h o w n in Figure 4. M o s t events lie within _+~ m a g n i t u d e unit of the line
r e p r e s e n t i n g equality b e t w e e n the two scales. All of the events lying significantly
outside this range are f r o m t h e s a m e geographic a r e a - - t h e M a k r a n coast of s o u t h e r n
P a k i s t a n (Figure 1). T h e large discrepancies for these e a r t h q u a k e s m a y be related
to s o m e typical source m e c h a n i s m or focal d e p t h effect, or to s o m e characteristic of
t h e source area. I n fact, the M a k r a n region h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d as an a r e a
of active s u b d u c t i o n (e.g., F a r h o u d i and Karig, 1977; J a c o b and Q u i t t m e y e r , 1979),
with s o m e r e c e n t events as deep as 80 kin. G u t e n b e r g and R i c h t e r (1954) assigned
similar d e p t h s to two of t h e a n o m a l o u s events s h o w n in Figure 4.
In a few cases w h e r e it was not possible to c o m p u t e surface-wave magnitudes, it

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

781

was possible to compute a body-wave magnitude. These values were determined


using the formula
M

--

log (A/T) + Ao

(Gutenberg, 1945b)

where Ao is an empirically determined epicenter-distance/hypocenter-depth factor,


and A and T are as before. P-wave displacements with periods of 0.5 to 2.0 sec, as
reported in the Uppsala bulletin, were used.
For events after 1959, magnitudes are obtained from the earthquake data sources
mentioned previously, and also from Roth~ (1969). Magnitudes are included in

'

'

'

o- UPPSALA

8.0 --

o - DE B I L T

I-,.J

zo
[]
0

be,-

~o
- -

r-io m

0
~n
o.
o.

"~ 6 . 0

0 m

//;

--

Om

I2 m
Om

v
5.0

I
6.0
GUTENBERG

7.0
MAGNITUDE AND RICHTER

B.O
(1954)

Fie. 4. Comparison of surface-wave magnitudes determined by Gutenberg and Richter (1954) with
those computed in this study using reported ground-displacement amplitudes at Uppsala and DeBilt.
Most events plot within +_.~
1 magnitude unit from equivalence between the two scales. The box in the
lower l e f t - h a n d corner represents the fact that Gutenberg and Richter (1954) used a single designation
(class D) for all earthquakes in the magnitude range 5.3 to 5.9. The data points labeled "m" represent
earthquakes that occurred in the Makran region of southern Pakistan. Several of these Makran events
were reported as occurring at depths of 80 to 100 km by Gutenberg and Richter (1954).

Appendix 4. Th e type of magnitude (body- or surface-wave) and the source from


which it was determined are indicated. When both a surface-wave and a body-wave
magnitude are known, only the surface-wave magnitude is reported.
LARGE EARTHQUAKES
Large earthquakes are important in understanding the tectonic regime in a given
region for they account for most of the seismically released portion of the total
tectonic strain release. Often these large events are also responsible for severe
damage over wide areas. It is thus important to learn as much as possible about
those large shocks that occurred in the past.

782

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

The quantity and quality of information that can be gathered concerning large
earthquakes in the region studied here, varies considerably. For some events little
is known other than isolated damage reports or an epicentral location and magnitude; others may have escaped documentation completely. Fortunately, however,
the effects of a number of large earthquakes are more adequately described. In some
cases it is even possible to estimate values for rupture length and seismic moment.
In Appendix 1 some of these large events are discussed in detail. Pertinent information concerning them is summarized in Table 6.
OBSERVATIONS OF R E G I O N A L SEISMICITY

Tectonic framework
Although tectonic interpretation is not the main purpose of this paper, a presentation of the tectonic framework for the region studied will facilitate the discussion
of the results.
The dominant feature within this area is the extensive fold and thrust belt that
extends from northwestern India to southern Pakistan (Figure 1). This feature,
which includes the Himalayas, the Hazara and Salt Ranges, the Sulaiman Range,
and the Kirthar ranges, has developed as a consequence of the collision between the
continental portions of the Indian and Eurasian plates (e.g., Molnar and Tapponnier,
1975). Deformation along the northern collisional boundary (the Himalayas and the
Hazara and Salt Ranges) has involved folding and thrusting of the upper crustal
layers along the edge of the Indian plate and the development of extensive d6collement surfaces (Gansser, 1964; Seeber and Jacob, 1977; Seeber and Armbruster,
1979). Along the western collisional boundary (the Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges), in
addition to folding and thrusting, evidence of a large amount of left-lateral shear is
also observed (Abdel-Gawad, 1971; Hemphill and Kidwai, 1973). Thus, while the
northern boundary is characterized by convergence, the western boundary appears
to show relative movement in a left-lateral sense in addition to some convergence.
Deformation also involves considerable portions of the Eurasian plate. The
Karakorum, Pamir, and Hindu Kush ranges located along the southern edge of the
Eurasian plate (Figure 1), are examples of such deformation. These mountain ranges
occur to the north of the Indus suture line and its extensions, lines of ophiolitic
material that mark the original zone of convergence between the Indian and
Eurasian plates.
At the margins of and within the Eurasian plate there are several major strikeslip features that are morphologically prominent. The Chaman fault in Pakistan
and Afghanistan, the Herat fault in Afghanistan, and the Karakorum fault northeast
of the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis are all such features (Figure 1). Molnar and
Tapponnier {1975) and Tapponnier and Molnar (1976, 1977) interpret these faults
as equivalent to slip-lines produced in a rigid-plastic body {Eurasia) by a rigid
indenter (India). The faults are interpreted as surfaces along which movement
occurs as material situated to the north of the Indian indenter is squeezed out to the
east and west. Thus, although not related directly to the deformation at a plate
boundary in their interpretation, these features are a consequence of India's collision
with Eurasia.
To the west of the Indian-Eurasian plate collision, the Eurasian plate interacts
with the Arabian plate. This interaction has produced an active zone of subduction
in the Makran region of southern Pakistan and southeastern Iran (White and
Klitgord, 1976; Farhoudi and Karig, 1977; Jacob and Quittmeyer, 1979). The oceanic

HISTORICAL

AND

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SEISMICITY

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SOUTH-CENTRAL

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o
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783

784

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

portion of the Arabian plate south of the Markan region is apparently being
subducted northward beneath Eurasia.
Farther to the south, the Arabian plate interacts with the Indian plate. This plate
boundary is marked by the Murray Ridge-Owen fracture zone lineation (Figure 1).
The Owen fracture zone, which is apparently a right-lateral transform fault (Sykes,
1970), extends in a north-northeasterly direction from the Carlsberg Ridge near the
Gulf of Aden to a point near 22N, 62E in the southwest corner of the region
studied (Matthews, 1966; Closs et al., 1969; McKenzie and Sclater, 1971). At this
point the feature takes on a more east-northeasterly trend and is called the Murray
Ridge (Barker, 1966). It continues along this new trend to the continental margin in
the vicinity of Karachi. Whether the Murray Ridge is a continuation of the Owen
transform feature, or related to some ether type of plate boundary is unclear.
McKenzie and Sclater (1971) suggest that the Murray Ridge might be associated
with a spreading center. This question, however, remains unresolved.
There is also one passive, Atlantic-type margin separating oceanic and continental
material within the region studied. This boundary is the continental margin of India.
Although passive in the sense that it does not appear to be an active plate boundary,
it has experienced large earthquakes and does contain zones of weakness (Richter,
1958; Closs et al., 1969; Gupta et al., 1972; Chandra, 1977).

Summary of observed seismicity


The seismicity of the region studied can in general be associated with the various
tectonic features discussed above. A detailed discussion of the seismicity of the
individual tectonic components can be found in Appendix 2. Here, only a concise
summary of the most important observations is presented
1. The frontal belt of folds and faults, associated with the coUisional boundary
between India and Eurasia, is seismically active along the length of the belt
considered in this study (Figures 2 and 3). Some segments of this zone have
ruptured in large-magnitude earthquakes. One segment, located southeast of
Kangra (32.10N, 76.28E), ruptured during a great (Ms -- 8) earthquake in
1905.
2. The Makran region of southern Pakistan and southeastern Iran exhibits
seismicity that is consistent with the interpretation of this region as a zone of
active subduction. A great earthquake (Mr = 8) occurred in this region in 1945.
3. Low to moderate levels characterize the current activity along the Chaman
fault in Pakistan and Afghanistan, but large earthquakes ruptured at least two
segments of this approximately 1000-km-long fault in the past.
4. Some morphologically prominent faults with suspected strike-slip movement,
such as the Herat fault in Afghanistan and the Karakorum fault northeast of
the Himalayas, are found to be inactive for the period during which the
seismicity is documented.
5. Earthquakes observed in the Indo-Ganges basin are occasionally of moderate
to large magnitude.
6. The northwestern coast of India is characterized by a general low level of
activity, but was the site of at least one large earthquake.
DISCUSSION

Applicability of the seismic gap hypothesis


In many regions of the world it is possible to use the history of occurrence of large
earthquakes along a particular seismotectonic feature (e.g., fault, plate boundary) to

H I S T O R I C A L A N D M O D E R N S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L ASIA

785

predict which segment of that feature is most likely to produce the next large
earthquake. Those segments that have not ruptured recently, relative to neighboring
segments, will have accumulated the most stress. They will be, therefore, the most
likely sites for a large earthquake in the near future. This concept, the "seismic gap
hypothesis", has been successfully applied to a number of active plate boundaries
(e.g., Sykes, 1971; Kelleher et al., 1973; McCann et al., 1979).
The application of the seismic gap hypothesis to the area considered in this paper
is not straightforward. Two factors complicate a direct application. First, the
recurrence intervals characteristic of large earthquakes at a given location within
this region appear to be long (apparently on the order of at least hundreds of years).
This fact, in conjunction with the limited historical record, leads to the identification
of "seismic gaps" along almost the total length of any proposed seismotectonic
feature. Thus the concept of a "gap" segment, surrounded by segments that have
ruptured relatively recently, is not very useful.
Second, although the seismic gap hypothesis can be applied to any seismotectonic
feature, identified gaps are not of special interest unless they occur along features
that are capable of rupture in large earthquakes. The ability to determine whether
particular seismotectonic features are capable of producing earthquakes with large
magnitudes is questionable for many of the features studied here. Some large
earthquakes during the past were located on features that are continuous over
distances much larger than the length of any individual rupture zone {e.g., the
Himalayan frontal thrust, the Chaman fault, the Makran subduction zone). These
features are also seismically active at lesser magnitudes. It seems reasonable,
therefore, to suspect that other portions of these features are likewise capable of
rupture in large earthquakes.
Other fault systems, although continuous over comparable distances, have no well
documented history of large-magnitude earthquakes (e.g., the Herat fault, the
Karakorum fault). Furthermore, these other fault systems exhibit almost no modern
teleseismic activity. Ambraseys {1971, 1975) and Deng et al. (1973), however, show
that some fault systems in the Middle East and China, respectively, are characterized
by long periods of quiescence separated by periods of seismic activity. A similar
stage of quiescence may explain the recent aseismic nature of these morphologically
prominent fault systems in south-central Asia. A new stage of seismic activity during
the next few centuries may result in the occurrence of a number of large earthquakes
along these features. On the other hand, it is also possible that these apparently
aseismic features are either truly inactive or characterized by aseismic slip. The
historical record is not sufficient to discriminate among these possibilities.
When the relatively wide zones of folds and faults are considered (e.g., the Hazara
Range, the Sulaiman Range, the Kirthar ranges), a different problem is encountered.
Although these zones of deformation are continuous over large distances, it does not
appear that any individual faults within the large-scale features show this same
degree of continuity. It is thus problematical whether the occurrence of largemagnitude earthquakes along some portions of the large-scale feature can be used
to infer the possibility of a similar mode of rupture for other segments. Even though
the large-scale belt of deformation is seismically active along its entire length, and
segments characterized by varying styles of current seismicity have been the sites of
large earthquakes in the past, extenuating circumstances (e.g., aseismic slip) may
reduce or eliminate the possibility of large earthquakes along some segments.
The late Quaternary history of those portions of seismotectonic features that have
no history of large earthquakes may prove to be crucial in deciding whether these

786

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

regions are potential sites for large events in the future. Allen (1975) emphasizes the
importance of employing geological evidence of late Quaternary movement to
determine the sites of future seismic slip. Where recurrence intervals are long, such
evidence may provide the only warning of a given fault's potential activity. Geodetic
measurements are also useful in this regard. Regions where relative movement is
currently occurring can be identified and it may be possible to distinguish between
strain release by aseismic fault slip and strain loading to be released seismically.
In some regions, however, even the geological approach may be insufficient.
Regions such as the Rann of Kutch experience large earthquakes, but the relation
of these earthquakes to tectonic structures is poorly understood. It is difficult, in
light of the present understanding of such a region, even to identify seismotectonlc
features that should he investigated in more detail. Thus, in these regions, a better
understanding of the underlying cause of the seismic activity is urgently needed.
The above discussion makes clear that the question that must be answered first
for much of south-central Asia is not, "Where are the gaps in the occurrence of
large-magnitude earthquakes along major seismotectonic features?" but rather a
more fundamental question, "Which seismotectonic features have experienced large
earthquakes during the late Quaternary?" Only when an answer to this second
question is forthcoming, can the initial question be approached in a useful manner.

Seismicity associated with great earthquakes


Patterns of seismic activity, distinctive both temporally and spatially, are often
cited as precursors to large earthquakes. Kelleher and Savino (1975) find the
impending rupture zone of a large-magnitude earthquake is usually quiet for a
number of years prior to the occurrence of the large event. The only exception to
this observation is a possible increase in activity in the immediate vicinity of the
future hypocenter, or near the edges of the future rupture zone. More recently, a
number of workers have postulated that swarms (or clusters) of small-magnitude
earthquakes may forecast the occurrence of larger events (e.g., Evison, 1977; Habermann and Wyss, 1977; Caputo et al., 1978; McNaUy, 1978). In light of the above
findings, it is worthwhile to examine the activity before and after the two most
recent great earthquakes in the region studied.
These two earthquakes occurred in significantly different tectonic surroundings
(Figure 2). The Kangra event in 1905, is located along a complicated collisional
boundary, while the event along the Makran coast in 1945 is associated with a
relatively simple subduction boundary. The Makran boundary is similar to the types
considered in previous studies; it thus may be more likely for previously identified
patterns to be observed along this boundary than in the Kangra region.
The respective areas affected by the Kangra earthquake and the Makran coast
earthquake both have one aspect in common. When earthquakes detected at
teleseismic distances are considered, both of these areas are currently aseismic. This
condition has persisted in the Kangra zone since the advent of instrumental locations
(Figure 3); in the Makran zone, detectable activity continued for about 7 years
following the 1945 earthquake, but has been almost totally absent since 1952
(compare Figure 5B with 5, C and D).
Prior to the Kangra earthquake, nothing is known of possible seismic activity
associated with the 1905 rupture zone. Middlemiss (1910) discusses the occurrence
of only a few foreshocks one day before the main shock. Activity along the Makran
coast prior to 1945, however, seems to be consistent with the patterns identified
before large earthquakes elsewhere (Quittmeyer, 1979). During the approximately

787

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

25 years before 1945, the period for which epicentral locations based on instrumental
data are available, activity along the Makran coast was low, except for a region
within approximately 50 km of the 1945 epicenter {Figure 5A). During this same
period a number of earthquakes were located inland from the coast in the region
east of longitude 62E. Gutenberg and Richter {1954) assigned subcrustal depths to
the three largest of these events; they probably occurred in the subducted slab.
West of longitude 62E, in the region studied, no earthquakes recorded at
teleseismic distances were detected until the late 1960's (Figure 5, A to D). While
the increased worldwide station coverage in the 1960's certainly contributed to this
1 JAN 1914 - 26 NOV 1945
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I F I ~)'~1
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27 NOV 1945-:31 DEC 1952


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APR 1975

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66E

FIG. 5. Spatial and temporal variations in the seismicity of the Makran region of southern Pakistan
and southeastern Iran. The seismicity for different time periods is shown: (A) January 1, 1914 to
November 26, 1945; (B) November 27, 1945 to December 31, 1952; (C} January 1, 1953 to December 31,
1961; (D) January 1, 1962 to April 30, 1975. Activity prior to the magnitude 8 earthquake of November
27, 1945 (epicentral location denoted by an X in A, C, and D) is confined to the region east of longitude
62E. Some of the inland events probably occurred at subcrustal depths. Since 1952, the region that was
active before and after the 1945 shock has been quiet.

recent increase, the lack of a similar increase west of longitude 60E along the
Makran coast (Quittmeyer, 1979), may indicate that the increase shown in Figure
5D is real, although not as dramatic as it appears. Alternatively, the relative levels
of activity along the coast between 60E and 62E, and west of 60E may be a longterm phenomenon. In any case, the magnitudes of the events comprising this recent
"increase" are smaller than those of the coastal events preceding the 1945 shock.
Thus, the "increase" in the western Makran coastal activity shown in Figure 5D
does not appear to be analogous to the documented coastal activity before the 1945
earthquake. On the other hand, the recent coastal activity has a spatial distribution
similar to the "donut" pattern observed by Mogi (1969) prior to several large

788

R.C.

QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

earthquakes in Japan. In addition, one moderate-magnitude shock, which occurred


in 1969 within the subducted slab, may be analogous to similar events located inland
10 to 20 years prior to the 1945 earthquake. The region west of the 1945 rupture
zone thus exhibits several characteristics suggesting that this western region may be
the site of a large earthquake in the future. The sparseness of the data, however, do
not allow this conjecture to be made with much certainty; surely n o attempt is
justified to speculate on the number of years that may elapse before such an
earthquake occurs.
The history of previous large shocks along the Makran coast (exclusive of the one
in 1945) is not well documented. Berberifin (1976; written communication, 1978)
reports no evidence of destructive earthquakes along the Makran coast in historical
times. Page e t al. (1978), however, attribute the origin of a series of raised marine
terraces along the Makran coast (with radiometric ages of several thousand to
approximately 140,000 years B.P.) to uplift during a number of large earthquakes.
This geological evidence of the occurrence of previous large earthquakes, combined
with the intimations from recent seismic activity, although not nearly sufficient for
a prediction, do allow this region to be identified as one that should be closely
monitored to detect any precursory phenomena that may occur.
CONCLUSIONS

The entire record of seismic activity for Pakistan, Afghanistan, northwestern


India, southeastern Iran and neighboring areas is used to identify and characterize
patterns of earthquake occurrence in this region. The major patterns, either confirmed or identified in this study, are as follows
1. The frontal fold and thrust belts of India and Pakistan are seismically active
within the region studied; some segments have ruptured in large earthquakes.
2. Seismicity in the Makran region is consistent with the interpretation of this
area as an active subduction zone.
3. The Chaman fault of Pakistan and Afghanistan is currently characterized by
a low to moderate level of activity, but some segments have experienced large
earthquakes in the past. Other morphologically prominent strike-slip features,
such as the Herat and Karakorum faults, appear to be inactive when the
modern and historical data are examined.
4. The Indo-Ganges Basin is seismically active and has been the site of moderate
to large earthquakes.
5. Significant activity is associated with the northwestern coastal region of India;
this activity includes one large earthquake.
Detailed descriptions of the effects produced by some of the larger earthquakes,
in conjunction with instrumental data for the modern events, allow the orientation
and length of some rupture zones to be estimated. In a number of cases it is also
possible to estimate an approximate value for the seismic moment. The estimated
values of moment range from 0.1 to 20 1027 dyne.cm. The quality of the data,
however, limits the precision of these values to "order of magnitude".
The limitations of the historical record, in combination with the long recurrence
intervals for large earthquakes in south-central Asia, do not allow the concepts of
the seismic gap hypothesis to be usefully applied to much of the area. It is more
crucial to employ all available methods (e.g., geological, geodetic, microseismic) to
determine where large earthquakes occurred during the late Quaternary and where
significant movement is occurring today. The record of past seismic activity alone
is probably insufficient for these purposes.

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

789

The seismic activity associated with great earthquakes in northwestern India and
southern Pakistan is consistent with the patterns observed in other regions of the
world. Activity in the western Makran region, during the past 5 to 10 years, may
signify the preparation of this region for a large earthquake; however, this conjecture
is based on very limited data. Although no prediction is justified, the region should,
nevertheless, be closely monitored.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to thank M. Barazangi, C. Scholz, and L. Sykes for reviews. Copies of papers were kindly
provided prior to publication by U. Chandra, N. Ambraseys, S. Billington, 9 . Karig, H. Kanamori, L.
Seeber, K. McNally, R. Habermann, and W. Page. We thank P. Molnar for providing us with a translation
of the paper by Burtmuan et al. One of us (R.C.Q.) was supported by a National Science Foundation
Graduate Fellowship; other support came from the National Science Foundation, Division of E a r t h
Sciences, under Grant EAR-77-15187 and the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of
Defense and was monitored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract F49620-79-C0021. K. Nagao drafted many of the figures. M. A. Avins and L. Zappa typed numerous drafts of the
manuscript.
APPENDIX 1

Description and Analysis of Some Large Earthquakes


Historical earthquakes
5 or 6 July 1505--Paghman, Afghanistan earthquake. This earthquake affected
the area north-northwest of Kabul, Afghanistan (34.53N, 69.17E) (Figures 2 and
1I). The damage associated with it seems to have been centered on the town of
Paghman (34.60N, 68.93E) where an intensity of IX to X (MM) occurred (Heuckroth and Karim, 1970). Surface faulting was observed and extended for approximately 60 km in a north-northeast direction along the base of the Paghman
Mountains where vertical displacements of several meters were recorded (Oldham,
1882; Heuckroth and Karim, 1970; Ambraseys et al, 1975). It appears that this
earthquake ruptured the northern portion of the Chaman fault. The large vertical
displacements on this predominantly strike-slip fault suggest that the fault movement may have included both strike-slip and dip-slip components.
A seismic moment can be estimated for this event and some subsequent events,
based upon the reported displacement and/or rupture length. Seismic moment can
be defined by M0 = tt/)S, where tL is rigidity,/J is the average displacement across
the fault, and S is the area of rupture (Aki, 1966). Thus, to estimate the moment of
the Paghman earthquake, values for rigidity and rupture width (i.e., down-dip
dimension of area ruptured) must be assumed. In this study the assumed width will
be based on the suspected mode of rupture: strike-slip, W = 20 kin; moderate to
high angle dip-slip, W =- 30 km; low-angle dip-slip, W-- 40 km; and a combination
of strike-slip and dip-slip, W-- 25 kin. The rupture planes considered thus extend
to depths of 20 to 30 km if those that did not break the surface are assumed to have
ruptured to within about 5 km of the surface. The average value of/t for this depth
range is approximately 3.5 1011 dyne. cm -2. The assumptions and uncertainties in
the data probably can cause the estimates of moment to be off by factors of 2 to 3.
These estimates should therefore be considered "order of magnitude" approximations. For the Paghman earthquake, using the values L = rupture length = 60 kin;
W = assumed rupture width = 25 kin;/5 -~ 3 m, and # = 3.5 1011 dyne.cm -2, the
estimated value of M0 is 1.6 1027 dyne. cm.
An alternative method of estimating the seismic moment is to use a relation
suggested by Abe (1975): Mo = 1.33 1022 S 3/2 dyne.cm where S is the rupture area
in km e. If the same values of L and W as before are used, an alternative estimate of

790

R. C. Q U I T T M E Y E R AND K. H. JACOB

M0 = 0.8 1027 dyne. cm is obtained. This value is not significantly different from
the one determined previously. Thus, the seismic moment for this earthquake is
approximately 0.5 to 2 1027 dyne. cm.
Kanamori and Anderson {1975) and Geller {1976) investigated the relation between M0 and Ms. They showed that the 20-sec surface-wave magnitude scale
becomes saturated for Ms ~ 8.25. This saturation limits the adequacy of using M0 to
determine Ms and vice versa. Fortunately, this saturation effect is not a serious
problem in this study. Only a few of the earthquakes in the region considered have
magnitudes that approach the saturation limit. Thus, the estimation of surface-wave
magnitudes will serve a useful purpose by providing one measure of the relative
"size" of events in this study. Still, the limitations of the scale must be kept in mind
when considering the larger events.
Kanamori and Anderson (1975) present a figure (their Figure 4) in which the
moments (M0) of large earthquakes are plotted as a function of their 20-sec surfacewave magnitudes (Ms). This figure can be used to estimate Ms for earthquakes in
this study if a value of M0 is obtained. The value of Ms is determined by assuming
the event in question lies within the family of earthquakes plotted by Kanamori and
Anderson. In this way, the 20-sec surface-wave magnitude of the 1505 event is
estimated to be 7 to 7~.
16 June 1819--Rann of Kutch, India earthquake. This large earthquake, which
killed over 1500 people {Richter, 1958} and reached a maximum intensity of IX to
X+ (MM), occurred in a part of India called the Rann of Kutch (24N, 69E, see
Figures 1 and 2). The Rann is an area of salt-impregnated sand and silt that lies
very close to sea level and has a low topographic gradient.
The earthquake of 1819 produced dramatic changes in land level. The most wellknown feature associated with this event is the Allah Bund (Dam of God). This
feature is an approximately east-west trending fault scarp with total vertical displacement at a position north of Sindri (24.08N, 69.08E) of about 7 to 9 m
(Oldham, 1926). To the south of the Allah Bund a shallow lake formed when water
from the ocean rushed in to fill the depression caused by the downward movement
of the land in that region.
A rough estimate of the absolute movement of each side of the fault was
determined by Oldham (1926). The fault was upthrown to the north by 4.5 to 6 m
and downthrown to the south by 3 to 4.5 m. The magnitude of uplift and subsidence
decreased to the north and south, respectively, from their maximum at the Allah
Bund. The dip of the fault was steep, at least near the surface. There is not enough
evidence, however, to decide if the type of faulting was normal or high-angle reverse.
Several estimates of the horizontal extent of uplift and subsidence have been
made. These range from 90 km, based on reports collected from local inhabitants 8
years after the earthquake, to 140 km, based on mapped changes in vegetation and
salt content to the east of the clearly visible fault scarp (Oldham, 1926).
Two estimates of the seismic moment of this event are calculated from the
information given above. One uses the values L = 90 km, W -- 30 km, and/5 = 7 m,
and the other uses L = 140 km, W = 30 km, and/5 = 5 m. The average displacement
(/5) is reduced in the second set of values to account for the lesser magnitude of
displacement among the postulated eastern extension of the fault. The moment
estimated from the first set of values is 6.6 1027 dyne. cm, and from the second is
M0 = 7.3 1027 dyne. cm. The above sets of values for L and W may also be used in
Abe's (1975) relation giving, respectively, M0 = 1.8 1027 dyne.cm and M0 = 3.6
1027 dyne. cm. Following the procedure described previously, it is found that these

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

791

values of moment correspond to a 20-sec surface-wave magnitude of approximately


7to 8.
19 February 1842wAlingar Valley, Afghanistan earthquake. This earthquake
severely affected the Alingar River Valley (34.83N, 70.37E) and the Jalalabad
Basin (34.50N, 70.50E) in Afghanistan killing several hundreds of people (Ambraseys et al., 1975). Contemporary narratives indicate that rupture proceeded from
the north-northeast to the south-southwest along a portion of the Gardez fault
(Figures 2 and 11) situated in the Alingar River valley (Heuckroth and Karim, 1970).
Ambraseys et al. (1975) state the shock had a radius of perceptibility of 900 km.
Numerous aftershocks were felt for many months. The quality of the data does not
allow an estimate of seismic moment or surface-wave magnitude to be made for this
event.
20 December 1892--Chaman, Pakistan earthquake. During this earthquake, leftlateral strike-slip movement of at least 75 cm occurred on the Chaman fault (Figures
2 and 11) near the town of Sanzal (30.83N, 66.52E). This movement was observed
and measured where it offsets the tracks of the railroad line connecting Quetta and
Chaman (at approximately 30.85N, 66.52E) (Greisbach, 1893). The horizontal
extent of the surface faulting was not traced to its ends, but was at least 30 km
(Griesbach, 1893). The maximum intensity associated with this event is XIII to IX
(MM) (Heuckroth and Karim, 1970).
There appears to be a history of repeated movement along the Chaman fault in
this vicinity. Information gathered by McMahon (1897; see also Richter, 1958, pp.
170-171) from the elders in local villages indicates that surface faulting associated
with other events occurred previous to the 1892 event, for a total of three times
during the lives of the elders questioned. Furthermore, similar accounts were handed
down in the oral history of the villages by their ancestors.
As the length of the fault break was not traced to its ends, only a minimum
estimate of moment can be determined for this earthquake. Using the values L = 30
kin, W = 20 km, a n d / 5 = 0.75 m, a value of M0 -- 1.6 1028 dyne.cm is obtained.
The seismic moment of this earthquake is, therefore, greater than about 1.6 x 1028
dyne. cm; this corresponds to a magnitude larger than 6.
4 April 1905--Kangra, India earthquake. This earthquake, which killed 19,000
people (Richter, 1958), caused heavy damage to towns along the foothills of the
Himalayas between Kangra (32.10N, 76.28E) and Dehra Dun (30.32N, 78.03E),
a distance of about 260 km (Figure 10). An instrumental magnitude of 8 (Ms) was
determined for this event (Geller and Kanamori, 1977; Gutenberg and Richter,
1954). The maximum intensity of X + (MM) was observed at Kangra; a secondary
center of maximum intensity (VII to VIII MM) occurred at Dehra Dun (Middlemiss,
1910) (Figures 2 and 10). The earthquake had a radius of perceptibility of about
1200 km (Middlemiss, 1910; Ambraseys et al., 1975).
The main faulting, as inferred from the spatial distribution of intensities, extended
in a southeast direction from Kangra. Surface faulting associated with the main
rupture was not observed. Secondary faulting with a southeast strike, however, was
noted (Middlemiss, 1910) at Barwar Lake near Larji (31.68N, 77.30E). The length
of the rupture, based solely on the intensity distribution centered at Kangra, is
about 100 to 150 km. If, however, the rupture extended from Kangra to the secondary
center of maximum intensity at Dehra Dun, as the lack of any modern teleseismic
seismicity in this region seems to indicate (Figures 3 and 10), the rupture length
would be about 250 km.
Focal mechanisms for recent earthquakes in the Himalayas (Fitch, 1970; Molnar

792

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

et al., 1973; Chandra, 1978) suggest that the 1905 event may have restilted from slip
on a buried, shallow-dipping, thrust fault.
The seismic moment for this event is estimated using the values L = 125 km and
W = 40 km. The moment obtained is 4.3 1027 dyne. cm. If instead L = 250 km is
used, the moment determined is 1.3 102s dyne. cm. This second value is in good
agreement with the surface-wave magnitude.
21 October 1909--Kachhi Plain, Pakistan earthquake. This earthquake reached
a maximum intensity of VIII to IX (MM) in a zone that extended southeastward
from north of Bagh (29.03N, 67.80E) to southeast of Shahpur (28.72N, 68.42E),
a distance of about 75 km (Heron, 1911) (Figure 2). A fault-plane solution for a
recent earthquake that occurred somewhat to the north of the 1909 rupture zone
(Quittmeyer et al., 1979), suggests that the 1909 shock be interpreted as a rightlateral strike-slip event (Figure 11). If the above orientation and distance are
considered as estimates of the fault orientation and length, then the seismic moment
determined for this event using Abe's formula is 7.7 1026 dyne.cm. This value of
moment corresponds to a surface-wave magnitude of about 7 which is in good
agreement with the magnitude of 7.2 given by Gutenberg and Richter {1954).
Modern earthquakes
24 August 1931-Sharigh, Pakistan earthquake. The epicenter of this earthquake
is located at 30.38N, 67.68E (event 1, Figure 6, A and B), about 75 km eastnortheast of Quetta (30.22N, 67.02E). It was assigned a surface-wave magnitude
of 7.0 (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954). An isoseismal map for this earthquake (West,
1934) is presented in Figure 6B and shows that the zone of maximum intensity (VIII
RF, ~VII MM) is confined to a small area surrounding Sharigh (30.18N, 67.70E).
The restricted extent of this zone of maximum intensity suggests the rupture zone
may also be limited. One aftershock for this earthquake (event 2, Figure 6, A and B)
is located near the main shock and is thus consistent with a limited area of rupture.
Earthquakes following the larger Mach, Pakistan earthquake (see below), are
probably not aftershocks associated with the rupture zone of the Sharigh earthquake.
If the Sharigh earthquake had ruptured into the area where these later events are
located, the low intensities reported there (e.g., some inhabitants slept through the
period of shaking) would not be expected. Thus, based on the intensity and
aftershock data, the extent of rupture for the Sharigh earthquake probably did not
exceed 50 kin.
Tectonically similar earthquakes to the east, in the 1960's, exhibited combinations
of strike-slip and dip-slip movement; a similar mode of rupture is assumed for this
event.
The seismic moment estimated for this earthquake, using the values L = 50 km
and W = 25 km, is 5.9 102~ dyne. cm. The magnitude obtained from this value of
moment is in agreement with the magnitude determined from surface waves.
27 August 1931--Mach, Pakistan earthquake. The epicenter of the Mach earthquake is located at 29.91N, 67.25E near the town of Mach (29.87N, 67.30E) and
about 50 km southeast of Quetta (event 3, Figure 6, A and C). From an analysis of
surface waves its magnitude was determined to be 7.4 (Gutenberg and Richter,
1954). The zone of maximum intensity for this event (VIII RF, - V I I to VIII MM)
is narrow and elongate (West, 1934). It runs in a southeast direction along the Bolan
River valley to the Kachhi plain; there it turns to the south following the border of
the Central Brahui Mountain Range with the alluvial plain to the east (Figure 6C).
Four aftershocks associated with the Mach earthquake, which occurred within

HISTORICAL

AND

MODERN

SEISMICITY

OF

SOUTH-CENTRAL

793

ASIA

a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m o n t h of the m a i n shock, are s h o w n in Figure 6, A and C (events


4 t h r o u g h 7). Only one of these events (5) is located within the zone of m a x i m u m
intensity; the others occur along a s o u t h e a s t t r e n d extending f r o m the position of
the m a i n shock (event 3) into the K a c h h i plain. T h i s s o u t h e a s t t r e n d is approxim a t e l y parallel to the orientation of the zone of m a x i m u m intensity for the K a c h h i
plain e a r t h q u a k e of O c t o b e r 1909 (Figure 6A). T h e intensity and aftershock data,
therefore, suggest two possible zones of r u p t u r e for the M a c h earthquake: (1) a zone
following the b o r d e r b e t w e e n the Central B r a h u i R a n g e and the K a c h h i plain, and
(2) a zone extending s o u t h e a s t into the K a c h h i plain. B o t h of these possible r u p t u r e
zones h a v e a length of a b o u t 200 km. P e r h a p s m o v e m e n t along one during the m a i n
55N

1
;5E

I
70E

65E

70E

65E

,J

I
C

5N
70E

Fro. 6. (A) Epicentral map for earthquakes occurring near Sharigh and Mach, Pakistan from August
24, 1931 through September 30, 1931. The events are numbered sequentially and the length of the cross
segments represents twice the standard error in the determination of latitude and longitude. Earthquake
1 is the Sharigh event of August 24, 1931 {Ms = 7.0), while earthquake 3 is the Mach event of August 27,
1931 (Ms,= 7.4). Regions that reached intensity VII (MM) or greater during the Kachhi plane earthquake
of 1909, and during the two events in 1931, are enclosed by dashed lines and labeled with the appropriate
date. The filled triangles are cities: MCH, Mach; QUE, Quetta; SHR, Sharigh. The regional location of
the figure is shown in the inset. (B) Isoseismals for the August 24, 1931 Sharigh earthquake (after West,
1934). Intensities are given on the Modified MercaUi (MM) scale. The locations of the Sharigh earthquake
and one aftershock are also shown. (C) Isoseismals (MM) for the Mach earthquake of August 27, 1931
(after West, 1934). The narrow, elongated zone of maximum intensity may either be related to the
rupture zone of this event or to the alluvium-bedrock interface along which the maximum intensity zone
is situated. Epicentral locations of the Mach earthquake and several aftershocks are also shown. The
geographic features that are labeled are: BR, Bolan river valley; CR, Central Brahui Range; KP, Kachhi
plain.
shock triggered subsequent, s y m p a t h e t i c m o v e m e n t along the other. T h e m o d e of
r u p t u r e for this e v e n t is a s s u m e d to be a c o m b i n a t i o n of strike-slip and dip-slip
movement.
An e s t i m a t e of the seismic m o m e n t based on the p r o p o s e d r u p t u r e length given
a b o v e can be calculated. Using the values L = 200 k m and W = 25 k m in A b e ' s
formula, the m o m e n t is e s t i m a t e d to be 4.7 x 1027 d y n e . c m . T h i s value is in
r e a s o n a b l e a g r e e m e n t with the 20-sec surface-wave m a g n i t u d e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m
i n s t r u m e n t a l records.
30 May 1935--Quetta, Pakistan earthquake. T h e epicenter of this m a g n i t u d e 7.5
(Ms; G u t e n b e r g a n d Richter, 1954) e a r t h q u a k e is located at 28.87N, 66.400E (event
1; Figure 7A). I t d e s t r o y e d the city of Quetta, the B a l u c h i s t a n district capital,

794

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

causing a loss of about 30,000 lives (Richter, 1958). West (1935) conducted a field
study of this event; the maximum intensity of IX to X RF (~IX to X MM) was
confined to a narrow, elongated zone (Figure 7B) trending parallel to the local
structure and extending from Quetta to south of Mastung (29.80N, 66.83E).
Figure 7A shows four earthquakes that occurred in the three days following the
m a i n shock, along with the main shock itself. The aftershocks, considered along
with the main shock and the trend of the isoseismal lines, delineate a rupture zone
with a length of about 150 km. A narrow zone of fissuring that uprooted and bent a
railroad track where it crossed the fissure zone (West, 1935) also parallels the
inferred rupture zone. This fissuring was confined to the alluvium; in the hills
numerous rockfalls were observed (West, 1935). The mode of rupture for this event
33N

,/

65E

~
70E 65E

~
B

5N
702E

FIG. 7. (A) Epicentral map for earthquakes near Quetta occurring from May 30, 1935 through June
2, 1935. Symbol size is proportional to the standard error in latitude and longitude as in Figure 5a. The
inset shows the regional location of the figure. (B) Distribution of observed intensities (MM) after West
(1935). The elongate zone of maximum intensity and the epicentral locations suggest a rupture zone with
a length of approximately 150 km oriented in a north-northeasterly direction. The filled triangle that is
labeled QUE is the city of Quetta.

is assumed to be similar to that of the nearby Chaman fault (i.e., left-lateral strikeslip).
One unusual occurrence associated with this earthquake was the eruption of a
mud volcano near its epicenter. While mud volcanoes are common along the Makran
coast of Pakistan, in this region their occurrence is unusual. West (1935) concluded
this mud volcano had a considerable history of eruptions and was only re-activated
by the earthquake. If this feature was created by many large earthquakes, it would
indicate this area has been seismically active in the past. In 1935, however, none of
the local inhabitants could recall a similar occurrence (West, 1935). Thus, if the
above hypothesis is correct, the recurrence interval for such events should be at
least one or more generations.
The seismic moment estimated for this event, using a fault length of 150 km and
an assumed width of 20 km, is 2.2 1027 dyne.cm. This corresponds to a surface-

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

795

wave magnitude of about 7, a value that is in good agreement with the magnitude
determined from instrumental records.
27 November 1945--Makran Coast, Pakistan earthquake. The epicenter for this
event is located at 25.15N, 63.48E (event 1; Figure 8), just off the Makran coast of
Pakistan near the town of Pasni (25.22N, 63.47E). Geller and Kanamori (1977)
found the magnitude determined from 20-sec surface waves was 8.0. Damage caused
by both the earthquake and a tsunami it generated was heavy along the coast; an
intensity of X (MM) was reached at Pasni and Ormara (25.20N, 64.63E) (ISS,
1945). Also associated with this earthquake was the creation of several ephemeral
islands by the eruption of mud volcanoes off the coast (Sondhi, 1947). Furthermore,
local inhabitants claim the shore near Pasni permanently rose about 4.5 m during
the earthquake (Hunting Survey Corp., 1961).
Figure 8 shows the location of the main shock along with the epicenters of
teleseismic events that occurred in the two years following the 1945 event. No
[

'

27N

/~

I
KM

~_

I
~ \ ~

~'-)

61E

66E

FIG. 8. Epicentral map for the Makran coast earthquake of November 27, 1945 (Ms = 8.0). Event 1
is the main shock. Also shown (numbered sequentially) are all earthquakes recorded at teleseismic
distances that were located in this region from November 27, 1945 to August 5, 1947. The cross Symbols
are proportional to the standard error in latitude and longitude as in Figure 5. The filled squares represent
the locations of ephemeral islands t h a t emerged from the sea after the 1945 earthquake. Open triangles
represent towns along the coast: GWD, Gwadar; PSN, Pasni; ORM, Ormara. The 2-km sea-depth contour
is indicated. The location of the figure is shown in the inset.

aftershocks in the days immediately after the main shock have been located. This
paucity of aftershock activity recorded at teleseismic distances makes it difficult to
use the aftershock distribution to estimate a rupture length. Such an estimate,
although of questionable validity, gives a rupture length of 15Q km (based on events
1 and 3; Figure 8). A relative lack of recent seismicity in the region east of the 1945
epicenter (Figure 5D), however, also suggests a rupture length of about 150 to 200
km. We use a value, L = 175 kin, to estimate the moment. Tectonic considerations
suggest a low-angle thrust event (Jacob and Quittmeyer, 1979}; hence we asssme a
width of W - - 40 km. The moment estimated from these values is 7.8 1027 dyne.
cm. This estimate is in relatively good agreement with the surface-wave magnitude
of 8.
Another large event (5, Figure 8), on August 5, 1947, with a surface-wave
magnitude of 7.3 (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954}, occurred at almost the same
location as the 1945 event. Nothing more is known of this second large Makran
earthquake.

796

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

09 June 1956--Sayghan, Afghanistan earthquake. This event, which caused the


death of 300 to 400 people (Heuckroth and Karim, 1970), has its epicenter at
35.13N, 67.48E near Sayghan (35.20N, 67.70E) in Afghanistan. A 20-sec surfacewave magnitude of 7.6 {PAS) was determined for this earthquake.
Figure 9 shows the location of the main shock along with one foreshock {one day
before) and five other events that occurred within 2 days after the main shock.
These earthquakes delineate a rupture zone with a length of about 50 km that
trends approximately N150E. Event 5, while on the same trend, does not seem to
be directly associated with the rupture zone of the main shock and is poorly located.
The hypothetical fault break agrees in orientation and length with the zone of
maximum damage as reported by Heuckroth and Karim {1970) (maximum intensity
VIII to IX MM).
This earthquake does not seem to be related to the Herat fault (see Figures 2 and
~

,,"

36

~SAY /

67"

69

Fro. 9. Epicentral map of earthquakes near Sayghan (SAY), Afghanistan, from June 8, 1956 to June
11, 1956. Event 1 is the destructive June 9, 1956 earthquake that had a 20-sec surface-wave magnitude of
7.6 (PAS). The open square represents a foreshock that occurred one day prior to the main shock. The
cross symbols are proportional to the standard error in latitude and longitude as in Figure 5. A rupture
zone of about 50 km is indicated by the distribution of the aftershocks (events 1 to 4}. Event 5 seems to
be too isolated from the rest of the activity to be directly related to the zone of rupture. HF, the Herat
fault; AF, the Andarab fault. The orientation of the zone of rupture relative to that of the Herat fault in
this area indicates this earthquake was n o t directly associated with the Herat fault.

9}; the events in Figure 9 (except 5) are located north of this major fault, and they
define a zone of distinctly different orientation.
The moment associated with this event can be estimated as 5.8 x 1026 dyne.cm
using a fault length of 50 km and an assumed width of 25 km. A combination of dipslip and strike-slip movement is assumed. This estimated moment corresponds to a
20-sec surface-wave magnitude of about 7. This value is lower than the instrumental
20-sec surface-wave magnitude.
APPENDIX 2

Summary of Observed Regional Seismicity


Northwestern Himalayas
The northwestern Himalayas are shown in Figures 1 and 10 extending in a
southeast direction from the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis, located northeast of Rawal-

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

797

pindi Pakistan (33.57N, 73.08E), to the eastern boundary of the area studied.
Figures 2 and 10 indicate this feature has been seismically active along its entire
length in historic times. Modern seismicity (Figure 10) is distributed along the trend
of the frontal thrust, occurring either along its mapped surface trace or just to the
northeast. The historical data are consistent with this modem distribution.

Ag~I~ GLT
f

\/A

I~

58N

\1

r''

L )HM ~1

KNG

LAxl;

x ",,

LRJ', '~'

---'-'-J~FMAGNITUDEscALE
~'r''
1905~ .\ --',,,......'. AAAII\\'m~-m\

4.0-4.9

I iHI

5.0-5.9
6.0-6.9

I00

I
km

200
I

NDI
L

72E

, 01

28N

80OE

FIa. 10, Seismicity of the northwestern portion of the region studied. All earthquakes with known
magnitudes that occurred from January 1914 through April 1975 are shown. The dashed lines delimit the
region that experienced an intensity (Modified Mercalli Scale) of VIII or greater during the Kangra
earthquake of April 4, 1905. Note low levels for recent seismicity in the region of the 1905 rupture zone.
The dash-dot-dash line encloses the area (within the region studied) that was severely affected by the

large earthquake of September 1803 (MM ~ VI?). Geographicalfeatures indicatedare: I-IM,Himalayas;


HS, Hazara-Kashmirsyntaxialregion; HR, Hazara Range; KD, Kinnaurdistrict; KR, Karakorumfault.
Cities shown by crosses are: GLT, Gilgit; KNG, Kangra; LAH, Lahore; LRJ, Larji; NDI, New Delhi;
RWP, Rawalpindi.No distinctionis made betweenbody- and surface-wavemagnitude.
There are, however, two exceptions to the pattern of earthquake occurrence along
the frontal thrust. One exception is the cluster of activity in Figure 10 located along
a N-S trend in the Kinnaur district of India (~32.5N, 78.5E). Most of this activity
is an aftershock sequence following an earthquake of moderate magnitude ( M s =
6.8 PAS) on 19 January 1975. Banghar (1976) determined a focal mechanism for
this event that indicated normal faulting on one of two NW striking plates. Molnar

798

R.C.

QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

and Tapponnier (1978) and Ni and York (1978) re-examined this earthquake and
also found normal faulting; however, their nodal planes strike almost north-south.
A north-south nodal plane is in good agreement with the spatial distribution of the
seismicity.
Another exception occurs in the region of the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis (Armbrnster et al., 1978). Here the mapped surface faults bend around from a northwest
strike to one that is more north-northeast. The seismically determined deep crustal
fault zone, however, continues along the northwest trend for an additional 100 kin,
after which it appears to end abruptly.
Fault-plane solutions for earthquakes along the frontal thrust zone (Fitch, 1970;
Molnar et al., 1973; Chandra, 1978) generally indicate thrusting along nodal planes
approximately parallel to the frontal thrust.
Figure 10 shows there is a significant gap in the continuity of modern seismicity
along the Himalayan trend. This 200-kin-long zone of quiescence coincides with the
region affected by the great earthquake near Kangra in 1905. This gap is believed to
correspond with the zone of rupture for that event (Menke and Jacob, 1976).
Other large events along the Himalayan trend within the region studied are not
as well documented as the Kangra earthquake. Only one seems to approach the
magnitude of the 1905 event. This earthquake, in 1803, severely affected the Kumaon
Himalaya, southeast of the 1905 rupture zone, and was felt strongly as far away as
Calcutta (22.58N, 88.35E) a distance of approximately 1000 km (Oldham, 1882;
Oldham, 1899, map 3; Milne, 1912). The large radius of perceptibility suggests this
earthquake may have had a magnitude of 7 to 8. The portion of the area affected by
the 1803 earthquake that is within the region studied here does not exhibit the same
quiescence as the Kangra rupture zone (Figure 10).
The H a z a r a and Salt Ranges
The Hazara Range, extending west from the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis toward
Afghanistan (Figure 11), has exhibited a moderate level of teleseismic activity since
1914, but has not been the site of any modern, moderate to large magnitude
earthquakes. The historical record, however, indicates that earthquakes causing
significant damage have occurred in this region a number of times (Figure 2). Recent
investigations of the microseismicity of the Hazara thrust system (Seeber and Jacob,
1977; Armbruster et al., 1978; Seeber and Armbruster, 1979) indicate the Hazara
thrust is currently active at a microseismic level to the west of the Indus River
(longitude 72E, approximately), but is noticeably inactive to the east. This inactivity may indicate either that movement is occurring aseismically, possibly along a
d~collement surface, or that this portion of the fault system is locked, and may
eventually rupture in a large earthquake. Composite fault-plane solutions based on
the microseismic data show earthquakes in the Hazara region are characterized by
reverse or strike-slip movement such that north-south compressional stresses are
relieved (Armbruster et al., 1978).
The Salt Range, located about 100 km south of the Hazara Range, has shown
only minor activity in both historical and modern times (Figures 2 and 11). However,
on a microseismic level (rob < 4) the feature is active, with most events occurring
where the range takes sharp bends (Seeber and Jacob, 1977}. The largest microseismic events recorded within a 2-year period were approximately m b = 4.
The Sulaiman Range and its northern extension
The Sulaiman Range is a southerly trending belt of folds and faults whose
northern end is situated to the west of the Salt Range (Figure 11). This feature has

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

799

b e e n seismically active in m o d e m times with the activity characterized b y small


magnitudes. T h e historical record, on the o t h e r hand, indicates t h a t moderate-size
e a r t h q u a k e s do occur in this region; such occurrences, however, a p p e a r to be
infrequent. T h e spatial distribution of e a r t h q u a k e s within the S u l a i m a n R a n g e is
confined to a relatively narrow and linear zone along the b o u n d a r y of the range with
the alluvial plain to its east (Figure 11).
T h e n o r t h e r n extension of the S u l a i m a n Range, located b e t w e e n the S u l a i m a n
R a n g e - S a l t R a n g e intersection and the S a f e d - K o h fault to the north, h a s b e e n the

6~"E

3ON
75E

Fro. 11. Seismicity of eastern Afghanistan and northern and central Pakistan. Earthquakes for which
a magnitude (either body or surface wave) is known and that occurred between January 1914 and April
1975 are shown. One exception is the earthquake west of Quetta on October 3, 1975, for which a faultplane solution is shown. Open symbols represent poorly located events (grade D). Fault-plane solutions
(darkened region is the compressional field) are from Quittmeyer et al., (1979). The dashed lines indicate
regions that reached an intensity of 7 or greater during some large earthquakes (see also Figure 2).
Geographical features shown are: CF, Chaman fault; CR, Central Brahui Range; GF, Gardez fault; HF,
Herat fault; HK, Hindu Kush region; HM, Himalayas; HR, Hazara Range; HS, Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial
region; KF, Kunar fault; P, Pamir region; QTR, Quetta transverse ranges; S, Sulaiman Range; SKF,
Safed-Koh fault; SR, Salt Range. Crosses represent cities as follows: CHA, Chaman; GHZ, Ghazni, GLT,
Gilgit; JLD, Jalalabad; KBL, Kabul; LAH, Lahore; MOQ, Moqor; PGH, Paghman; QUE, Quetta; RWP,
Rawalpindi; SNZ, Sanzal.
site of only a few m o d e r n e a r t h q u a k e s (Figure 11). T h e level of d o c u m e n t e d
historical activity is also low. Activity t h a t does occur in this region is scattered; it
does not a p p e a r to be directly related to the n o r t h - n o r t h e a s t e r l y trending structures
which are d o m i n a n t at the surface here.
Quetta transverse ranges

T h e t e r m " Q u e t t a T r a n s v e r s e R a n g e s " is used in this p a p e r to refer to those


m o u n t a i n ranges extending e a s t w a r d f r o m Q u e t t a to the s o u t h e r n end of the

800

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

Sulaiman Range (Figure 11). This region exhibits one of the greater concentrations
of activity of those areas examined in this study.
The modern seismicity of the Quetta transverse ranges is distributed in two
distinct bands of activity (Figure 11). The northern band has an easterly trend while
the southern band is arcuate, convex to the south. Both bands of activity follow the
structural trends in the regions where they are located.
The record of seismic activity within the Quetta transverse ranges includes a
number of earthquakes with moderate to large magnitudes. Three moderate magnitude earthquakes occurred within the northern band in 1966. Fault-plane solutions
for these events (Nowroozi, 1972; Molnar et al., 1973; Chandra, 1978) are not well
constrained, but indicate a combination of thrust and strike-slip movement consistent with northward convergence between India and Eurasia. One fault-plane solution
for an earthquake within the western segment of the southern band indicates rightlateral strike-slip movement along a southeasterly trending nodal plane (Quittmeyer
et al., 1979).
The Kirthar ranges

The modern seismicity of the Kirthar ranges, a term used here to include the
Central Brahui Range, the Harboi hills, the Pab ranges, the Khude Range and the
Kirthar range proper of central and southern Pakistan (Figure 12), is relatively
diffuse. In the northern half of this region most modern activity, although scattered,
follows trends defined by the zones of maximum intensity for the Mach and Quetta
earthquakes of 1931 and 1935, respectively. In fact, most events are aftershocks of
these events. These trends have a north-northeasterly orientation and are parallel
to the dominant structural features. In the southern half of the Kirthar ranges
modern activity is also scattered (Figure 12). The historical record does not include
any documented occurrences of large earthquakes for this southern region (Figure
2). Geomorphic evidence, however, indicates that the Ornach-Nal fault, a 225-kinlong tectonic feature within this region (Figure 12), has experienced left-lateral and
vertical movement during the Holocene (Hunting Survey Corp., 1961). This feature,
or other features analogous to the rupture zones in the northern part of the Kirthar
ranges, may possibly be the sites of large earthquakes in the future.
One fault-plane solution was determined for an event within the southern haft of
the Kirthar ranges. Right-lateral strike-slip movement on a southeasterly trending
nodal plane is shown for this earthquake in Figure 12 (Quittmeyer et al., 1979).
T h e M a k r a n region

The Makran region of southern Pakistan (Figure 12) is interpreted by several


workers as a region of active subduction. A general deepening of the seismic zone
from the coast toward a northeasterly trending line of Quaternary volcanoes provides
some of the evidence for this interpretation (Farhoudi and Karig, 1977; Jacob and
Quittmeyer, 1979).
Modern activity along the coast is characterized by a moderate level and includes
two large earthquakes ( M s = 8.0 in 1945, M s = 7.3 in 1947). Activity in the epicentral
area of the great 1945 event was high from 1940 to 1950. This concentration of
activity is fairly evenly distributed in time with a few more events after 1945 than
before. It is interesting to note that since 1952 only very minor teleseismic activity
has occurred in the region of this former concentration.
Inland from the coast modern activity is characterized by a low level of occurrence

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

801

in the east and a m o d e r a t e level in the west. T h e largest events associated with the
inland zone h a v e h a d m a g n i t u d e s of 7. T h e s e m o d e r a t e to large events p r o b a b l y
occurred at subcrustal d e p t h s ( G u t e n b e r g and Richter, 1954; J a c o b and Q u i t t m e y e r ,
1979) a n d a p p e a r to be related to the s u b d u c t e d slab. T h e spatial and t e m p o r a l
variations in the m o d e m seismicity of the M a k r a n region are discussed in m o r e
detail in the m a i n b o d y of this paper.

20N
bU~E

IF_-

FIG. 12. Seismicity of southern Pakistan and southeastern Iran from January 1914 to April 1975. Only
earthquakes with known magnitudes axe shown. No distinction is made between body- and surface-wave
magnitudes. A, B, and C graded events are indicated by filled symbols; those of D grade by open symbols.
Regions reaching intensity VII or greater for some large earthquakes are enclosed by dashed lines. Faultplane solutions show the compressional field darkened; the solution in southern Pakistan is from
Quittmeyer et al. (1979). Geographical features shown are: CF, Chaman fault; CR, Central Brahui Range;
CH, Chagai hills; HH, Harboi hills; K, Kirthar range proper; KH, Khude Range; M, Makran region; MR,
Murray Ridge; OF, Ornach-Nal fault; OFZ, Owen fracture zone; PR, Pab Range; RK, Rann of Kutch.
Cities, indicated by crosses, are: BGH, Bagh; HYD, Hyderabad; KAR, Karachi; QUE, Quetta; SHP,
Shahpur.
Historical activity along the coast is d o c u m e n t e d in the historical record with
events n o t e d at G w a d a r (25.12N, 62.33E; Figure 2) in 1851 and 1864.

Murray Ridge-Owen fracture zone


T h e M u r r a y Ridge-Owen fracture zone is a t o p o g r a p h i c feature in the A r a b i a n
Sea s o u t h of the M a k r a n region of P a k i s t a n {Figure 1). M a t t h e w s (1966) noted the
association of m o d e r n seismic activity with this feature as can be seen in Figure 12.
E a r t h q u a k e s occur along the n o r t h e a s t e r n end of the M u r r a y ridge and are located
generally n o r t h w e s t w a r d of the t o p o g r a p h i c feature itself. T h i s group of events is
s e p a r a t e d f r o m two e a r t h q u a k e s along the n o r t h e r n end of the Owen fracture zone

802

R.C.

Q U I T T M E Y E R A N D K. H. J A C O B

by a zone of seismic quiescence. The largest event associated with this activity was
assigned a magnitude of 6 by Roth~ (1969).
K a r a k o r u m region
The Karakorum fault near the Chinese border, 300 km northeast of the HazaraKashmir syntaxis (Figure 1), is a major right-lateral strike-slip fault (Burtmuan et
al., 1963; Desio, 1974; Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975). The age of offset along this
fault is not known, but movement probably began in late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic;
the fault may have undergone 200 to 250 km of offset along one section in the
Pamirs (Burtmuan et al., 1963). Only very minor teleseismic activity has been
associated with this fault in modern times. Scattered seismicity does occur, though,
over a wide area to t h e northeast (Figure 10). This activity is associated with
deformation which extends from the edge into the interior of the Eurasian plate.
Chandra (1978) determined fault-plane solutions for two of these events. One event
(509 in Appendix 4) was interpreted as indicating dextral movement on a northwesterly striking nodal plane; the other (320 in Appendix 4) was interpreted as a
normal faulting event with both nodal planes trending in a northwesterly direction.
Modern activity also occurs southwest of the Karakorum fault. One concentration
of events is located west of Gilgit (35.95N, 74.30E) at the approximate location of
the Indus suture in that area. The concentration is composed mainly of a moderatesize event on September 3, 1972 (Ms = 6.2 NEIS) and its aftershocks. This event is
interpreted by Chandra (1978) as the result of thrusting on one of two northwesterly
trending nodal planes. There was also a moderate magnitude event in this region in
1943 (Ms -- 6.8 PAS). The relation of the seismicity to the complex tectonics of this
area is not yet well understood.
Hindu K u s h and P a m i r region
The Hindu Kush and Pamir region, located in the north-central section of the
area studied (Figure 1), is the site of a postulated final stage of subduction of oceanic
lithosphere along the collisional boundary between continental India and Eurasia
(Nowroozi, 1971, 1972; BiUington et al., 1977). Most events that occur in this region
are located at an intermediate depth. Although not considered in this study, large
intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush and Pamir region are often
widely felt throughout this and adjacent regions. Shallow activity is characterized
by a moderate to high level (Figure 11) and is distributed over a wide area. We have
not attempted to associate this shallow seismicity with any specific tectonic structures.
Chaman fault
The Chaman fault, a major left-lateral strike-slip feature (Wellman, 1966) extending from north of Kabul in Afghanistan (-35N, 69E) to about 28N, 66E in
Pakistan (Figure 1) has been the site of only minor teleseismic activity in modern
times (Figures 11 and 12). Two segments of this fault, however, ruptured in large
earthquakes prior to 1900. In 1505 the northernmost segment of the Chaman fault
ruptured in an earthquake characterized by a large component of vertical displacement (see Appendix 1 and Figure 2). Also, in 1892 a fault break along a segment of
the fault west of the town of Chaman (30.95N, 66.43E) produced left-lateral offset
of about 75 cm (see Appendix 1 and Figure 2). The Chaman fault's history of rupture
in large earthquakes and its continuous nature over long distances may indicate
that a significant portion of the motion between the Indian and Eurasian plates is
taken up along this major tectonic boundary.

HISTORICAL AND MODERN

S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L

ASIA

803

Microearthquake activity was recently monitored for a short period of time in the
region north of Moqor (32.81N, 67.77E; Figure 11). The level of activity was low
(approximately 1 event per day) on the Chaman fault and slightly higher at a
location to the west (D. Hatzfeld, personal communication, 1977).

Gardez, Kunar, and Safed-Koh faults


The Gardez, Kunar, and Safed-Koh faults are located east of Kabul in Afghanistan
and Pakistan (Figures 1 and 11). The Gardez fault splays off from the Chaman fault
in the vicinity of Ghazni (33.33N, 68.25E), while the Kunar fault splays off from
the Gardez fault just west of Jalalabad. Both of these faults have a northeastward
orientation. The Safed-Koh fault, on the other hand, extends eastward from a point
halfway between Ghazni and Jalalabad into the Hazara region.
The level of modern teleseismic activity is moderate in this region, especially near
the junction of the Gardez, Kunar, and Safed-Koh faults. The central section of the
Gardez fault, including a portion of the segment that ruptured in 1842, and the
southern section of the Kunar fault, are also active. The activity of the Kunar fault
is also documented on a microseismic level (D. Hatzfeld, personal communication,
1977). Both historical and modern data indicate that moderate to large magnitude
earthquakes occur in this region.
Chandra (1978) determined fault-plane solutions for two earthquakes located in
this region (events 454 and 577, Appendix 4). His interpretation of both earthquakes
shows thrusting on nodal planes with a northeasterly orientation.

Herat fault
The morphological appearance of the Herat fault, as observed in satellite imagery,
indicates that this fault is a major tectonic feature possibly with a history of
movement throughout the Cenozoic. It is located in central Afghanistan (Figure 1)
and has a total length of at least 1100 km (WeUman, 1966). WeUman (1966) found
evidence in aerial photographs for recent (estimated to have occurred in the past
10,000 years) movement at two sites along this fault: one 200 km northeast of Kabul
and the other 500 km west of Kabul. The inferred sense of movement was dextral in
both cases. This fault was also identified by Molnar and Tapponnier (1975) as a
feature along which considerable movement may have taken place since the Eocene.
Examination of Figures 2 and 3 shows that very little seismicity is associated
historically with this feature. One event in the 9th century near Herat, and perhaps
an earthquake in 1874 (see Table 4) north of Kabul, are the only large historical
events with a possible connection to the fault system; but even for these events the
evidence is not strong. No epicenters determined from instrumentally recorded
teleseismic data are known along the portion of the fault west of Kabul.

Indo-Ganges Basin
The Indo-Ganges Basin is a sediment-filled molasse trough situated parallel to
the fold and thrust belts in India and Pakistan (Figure 1). An examination of Figures
2 and 3 reveals a persistent low level of activity in this zone in both historical and
modern times. Some of these earthquakes, however, caused significant damage.
South of the frontal Himalayas, activity clusters near Lahore (31.57N, 74.35E)
and New Delhi (28.53N, 77.20E). Menke and Jacob (1976) found a similar
discontinuous trend of seismicity paralleling and about 200 km south of the Himalayan front. South of the Salt Range modern activity occurs along a discontinuous,
nearly east-west line between the southern end of the Sulaiman Range (~31.00N,
70.50E) and Lahore. Seeber and Jacob (1977) report this zone is also active on a

804

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB

microseismic level (mb < 4). One event south of the Salt Range (August 23, 1955,
epicenter at 31.31N, 71.38E) near Leyah, may have an anomalous depth. Five
reported p P times give an average depth of 66 km and a range from 53 to 87 km.
The crustal velocities in this region are not well known, however, and the effect of
possibly large sediment accumulations on the depth determination is not taken into
account. East of the folded and faulted mountain ranges of southern Pakistan,
activity in the Indo-Ganges basin is diffuse. One large event, in 1909, did occur in
this region (see Appendix 1 and Figure 2).
Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the seismicity of the IndoGanges Basin. Molnar et al. (1973) consider this activity to be the result of bending
of the lithosphere prior to it being underthrust beneath the Himalayas. A faultplane solution indicating normal faulting for an earthquake near New Delhi tends
to support this hypothesis (Molnar et al., 1973). Valdiya (1976), on the other hand,
discussed the association of this type of seismicity in India with tectonic featues
transverse to the trend on the Himalayas. The orientation of the zone of rupture for
the 1909 earthquake in Pakistan (Figure 2) indicates activity in that region may also
be related to features transverse to the trend of the fold and thrust belt.
Menke and Jacob (1976) discuss a third possibility. The position of the Himalayan
frontal thrust has migrated southward since the collision of Eurasia and India
(LeFort, 1975). LeFort (1975) has speculated that this southward migration may be
a process that is continuing today. Following this idea, Menke and Jacob (1976)
have suggested that the activity located in the Indo-Ganges Basin may be related to
the development of a new, deep-seated basement thrust southward of the present
frontal thrust.
It is not yet possible to choose among these three hypotheses. Different ones may
apply in different parts of the basin, or the observed activity may be the result of all
three factors acting together rather than excluding one another.
Northwestern I n d i a n coastal region
Figures 2 and 3 show that activity along a portion of the northwestern coast and
interior of India persists throughout historical times. The large Rann of Kutch event
in 1819 occurred in this area, but its relation to modern seismicity is not clear based
on seismicity patterns alone. Other significant activity includes an earthquake near
Broach on March 23, 1970 (at 21.60N, 72.96E) that was associated with the
Narbada fault of central India (Gupta et al., 1972). This earthquake occurred near
the intersection of the Narbada fault with the Cambay basin and exhibited thrusting
on one of two northwesterly striking nodal planes (Gupta et al., 1972; Chandra,
1977).
The underlying cause of the seismicity in this region is not yet understood. It is
evident, however, that large earthquakes can occur here.
Eastern Iranian ranges
The eastern Iranian ranges, located in Iran along the western boundary of the
region studied, are northerly trending mountain ranges separating the Lut block in
Iran from the Afghan block in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nowroozi (1972) considers
this feature to be a boundary between two small plates abutting the southern
boundary of Eurasia. Stocklin (1974) on the other hand, relates the eastern Iranian
ranges to the Harirud fault, which extends from the Ural Mountains in the USSR
to the Iran-Afghanistan border. He considers the eastern Iranian ranges to be an
extension of this trend.

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA

805

Only a few modern events have been located in this area (Figure 3). The largest
of these had a magnitude of 6.3 (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954). Figure 2 shows no
historical activity in this region; however, this observation is misleading. Berberi~n
(1976) reports a number of destructive earthquakes occurred in this region in
historical times. These events are not included in Figure 2 or Appendix 3, though,
for Berberi~n does not report dates or descriptions of damage for these earthquakes.
Significant historical activity also occurred just outside the region considered in
this study. One event may have produced a 15 (?)-km-long surface rupture along the
Kh~f fault (-34.5N, 59.5E) on October 20. 1336 (Ambraseys, 1975). Another event
involving surface faulting occurred on January 10, 1493 and may have ruptured a
segment more than 6 km long on the Noz~d fault (-33.0N, 59.8E) (Ambraseys,
1975). The numerous faults that have been active in the Quaternary are further
evidence for the activity of this region (Berberi~n, 1976).

APPENDIX 3
HISTORICAL (NONINSTRUMENTAL) SEISMICIT?

DATE

LOCATION

LATITUDE

L O N G I - I N T E N - QUAL. SOURCES SEQN.


TUDE
SITY
GRADE
NO.

CIRCA 25 AD
CIRCA 50 AD
8 1 8 - 819
8 4 8 - 849
8 9 3 - 894
1~5Z-1053
JUN1504
96JUL1505
OBJUL1505
~6JUL1505

TAXILA
AIKHANUM
BALKH
HERAT
DAIBUL=DAIPUL7
URGUN
NEAR KABUL
PAGHMAN
ISTERGHACH
KABUL

33.73
37.15
36.75
34.35
24.83
32.85
34.50
34.60
34.87
34.53

72 87
69 45
66 92
62 l B
67 83
6 9 13
69.#8
68.93
69.10
69.17

9-18
8-9
7-9
7-9
8-18"+
7-9
6-7
9-18
8-9
7-8

2
2
2
2
4
2
4
I
1
1

M
AM
A
A
0
A
N
AOMN
AOM
AOM

1
Z
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

OBJUL]505
~3JAN1519
1552
MAY1668
O40UN1669
22JUN1669
23JUN1669
1684
tSJUL172~
178E

AKSERAI
JANDOL VALLEY
KASHMIR
SAMAWANI
FT MANDRAN=MANDRA?
KASHMIR
ATTOCK
SURAT
DELHI
KASHMIR

34.73
34.80
34.0B
24.83
33.37
34.98
33.87
21.17
28.53
34.00

69.12
71.80
76.00
67.50
73.23
76.08
72.25
72.99
77.28
76.~

7-8
6-7
3-4
8-9
6-9
6-7
8-9
4-6
7-9
5-7

1
3
4
4
3
4
2
3
2
4

AOM
AM
OH
ON
ON
OMN
OMN
0
0N
OH

11
12
13
14
15
lB
17
18
19
20

O15EP1803
#ISEP18~3
#ISEP1883
OISEP1803
18~9
26MAY1816
16JUN1819
160UN1819
16JUN]819
16JUNIBI9

MATHURA
27.58
BADRINATH
38.73
GARHVAL
38.00
SIRMUR DISTR.
39.67
GARHWAL
30.00
GUNGOOTRI=GANGOTRI
30.87
TERA
23.28
KOTHEREE
23.13
NULLIAH
23.25
MOTHORA
23.25

77.67
79.48
79.08
77.58
79.90
79.03
68.93
68.93
68.83
59.17

8-9
7-9
7-8
7-8
7-9
6-7
9-18
9-10
9-I~
9-18

2
2
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
1

0
ON
0
0
ON
ON
OMR
OMR
OMR
OMR

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
39

16JUN1819
16JUN1819
160UN1819
I6JUNIBI9
16JUN1819
160UN1819
16JUN1819
16JUN1819
16JUN1819
16JUN]819

MANDVEE
SANDHAM
POONREE
BACHAU
BHUJ
ANJAR
JODIYA
PORBANDAR
MANGROL
GONDAL

22.83
23.92
23.02
23.39
23.25
23.12
22.77
21.62
21.13
21.92

69.37
69.99
69.52
70.35
69.82
70.3
70.47
69.67
70.23
70.87

7-8
7-8
7-8
7-8
8
8
9
7
7-8
7

1
!
1
1
1
1
1
I
I
1

OMR
OMR
OHNR
OMR
OHNR
OMR
OHR
OMR
OMR
OMR

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
4~

16OUN1819
16JUN1819
16JUNIBI9
16JUN1819
16JUNI819
16JUN1819
16JUN1819
27JAN]820
13NOV1820
13AUG182!

KAIRA
BARODA
BROACH
SURAT
BALIARI
AHMEDABAD
HYDERABAD
BHUJ
BHUJ
KAIRA

22.77
22.28
21.72
21.15
24.33
23.07
25.38
23.25
23.25
22.73

72
73
73
72
69
7Z
68
69
69
72

7
6
4
6
7-8
6-7
5-6
4-6
4-6
4-5

I
I
I
I
I
I
1
2
2
Z

DMR
OMR
OMR
OMR
OR
ONR
OR
O
O
0

41
4Z
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
5~

73
27
~3
90
67
75
4Z
B2
82
73

806

R.C.

Q U I T T M E Y E R A N D K. H. J A C O B
APPENDIX 3 (CONTINUED)

DATE

LOCATION

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

INTENSITY

OUAL.
GRADE

SOURCES SEQN.
NO.

13AUGI8ZI
ZZMAR1825
17APK18Z7
19APR18Z7
24SEP18Z7
96JUNIBZB
ZDOULIBZ8
18Z9
170UL1839

AHMEDABAD
DELHI
KABUL
KABUL
LAHORE
SRINAGAR
BHUO
KABUL
DELHI
DARABAN

Z3.~r7
Z8.53
34,53
34.53
31.57
34.88
Z3.ZZ
34.53
28,53
31.75

72.75
77.Z8
69.17
69.17
74.35
74.8Z
69.87
69.17
77.28
7S.35

3
5
3-5
3-5
8-9
9-18
5
5-7
5
8-9

Z
3
Z
Z
Z
1
Z
3
3
!

0
0
OH
OH
OMN
0MN
O
0
0
AOM

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
68

1831
1831
1831
24OCT1831
22JAN1832
2ZJAN183Z
22JAN1832
ZZOAN183Z
ZZJAN183Z
220AN1832

PESHAWAR
DERA GHAZI KHAN
SRINAGAR
DELHI
KALIFGAN
0URM
KOKCHA VALLEY
SARGOLAN VALLEY
VARDODO VALLEY
LAHORE

34.88
38,85
34.88
28.53
36.92
36.87
36.92
36.83
36.83
31,57

71.55
78.63
74.82
77.28
69.75
78.83
78.88
71.37
71.58
74.35

4-6
4-6
4-6
6-7
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-9
5-6

1
1
3
Z
5
5
5
5
5
5

AOMN
A0M
M
0
AOM
AOH
A0M
AOM
AOM
AOH

61
62
63
54
65
66
67
68
69
78

21F681832
17APR1833
19APR1833
24JANI836
SUM.,1836
14DEC1837
87JAN1838
880AN1838
260AN1848
920AN1842

BADAKHBHAN PK.
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL
0URM
0URM
KABUL
DELHI

37.33
34.53
34.53
34.53
34.53
34.53
35.87
36.87
3~.53
Z8,53

78.58
69.17
69.17
69.17
69.17
69.17
79.83
79.83
69.17
77.28

8-9
3-4
4-6
6-7
4-5
4-5
5
6
6-8
3-5

5
Z
Z
Z
3
3
3
3
3
3

OH
A
A
ON
AO
AO
A
A
O
0

71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
68

15JAN1842
16JANI842
19FEB184Z
19FEB184Z
19FEB184Z
19F681842
19FEB1842
85MAR1842
85MAR184Z
85MAR184Z

MATHURA
MAIHPURI
ALINGAR VALLEY
JALALABAD
TIGRI
BUDDEEABAD
TEEZEEN
SIMLA
SAHARANPUR
MUSSOOREE

27.58
27.33
34:75
34.43
34.65
34.73
34,27
31.1Z
29.97
39.43

77.67
79.85
79.33
78.47
78.18
7 g . Z8
69.4Z
7,7,17
77.53
78.87

4-5
4-5
B-g
8-9
8-9
7-8
6-7
4-6
4-6
4-6

Z
Z
1
1
1
1
Z
Z
Z

0
O
AOMN
AOM
AOM
AOM
AOM
OH
OH
OR

81
8Z
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
98

85MAR1842
840UL1842
250UL1842
8786P184Z
ZTSEP184Z
278EP184Z
86NOV184Z
88FEB]843
11APRI843
APR1845

LANDOUR
DELHI
DELHI
MUSSOOREE
DELHI
DELHI
DELHI
AHMEDABAD
LANDOUR
LAKHPAT

39.45
Z8.53
28.53
38.43
28,53
28.53
28.53
23.87
38.45
23.78

78.1~
77.Zg
77.20
78.87
77.Z8
77.2~
77.2~
7Z.75
78.18
68.83

5-7
4-6
4-6
3-5
4-6
3-5
3-5
3-5
4-5
4-5

Z
3
3
3
3
3
3
Z
3
Z

OR
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ON

91
9Z
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
188

190UN1845
39MAR1847
26APRI848
26APR1848
Z6APR1848
170AN1851
17JAN1851
170AN1851
170AN1851
19APR1851

LAKHPAT
PUNJAB
MOUNT ABU
DEESA
AHMEDABAD
FORT MUNRO
MULTAN
FEROZOPORE
WAZIRABAD
GWADAR

23.78
32.88
24.63
Z4.Z5
Z3.87
ZD.DZ
39.18
38.92
3Z.43
Z5.1Z

68.83
7Zo88
72.77
7Z.18
72.75
7~.8Z
71,43
74.6Z
74.12
62.33

7-8
3-4
5-7
4-6
4-6
6
5-7
6-7
6-7
7

Z
4
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z

N
0
O
0
0
OM
OH
0M
OM

181
182
193
184
195
185
187
108
199

1831

ON
0
M
OMN
OMN
OMN

118

~40AN185Z
31MAR185Z
NOVi853
87APR1855
g7APR1856
87APR1856
Z5DEC1856
Z7MAR1857
130UL1857
11AUG1858

MURREE H I L L S - K A H A N
MEERUT
ATTOCK
KOTHGHUR
KANGRA
SIMLA
SUP.AT
KURRAH VALLEY
KANDAHAR
SIMLA

Z9.3m
29.8B
33.87
31,33
3287
31,12
ZI,15
33.83
31,63
31,12

68.99
77.75
7Z.25
77.5H
76.28
77.17
7Z.9~
78.17
65.68
77.17

8
6
5
7-8
4-6
3-5
8-7
4-5
4-5
7-8

Z
3
3
Z
Z
Z
Z
2
Z
3

A
A
OMN

111
11Z
113
114
115
118
117
I18
119
lZ8

23AUG1858
890UL186~
186Z
19JUL1863
19JUL1863
18NOV1863
18NOV1863
18NOV1863

LAHORE
FEROZEPORE
KOHU VALLEY
SRINAGAR
LAHORE
BARWANI
POONABSA
MANPUR

31.57
3W.DZ
29.88
34.88
31.57
22.86
ZZ.Z5
ZZ.47

74.35
74.62
69 ZZ
74 82
74 35
74 95
76 45
75 58

3-5
5
8
5-7
4-5
7-8
4-6
4-6

3
3
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z

O
O
W
M
M
0
O
O

121
1ZZ
123
124
125
125
127
128

HISTORICAL

AND

MODERN

SEISMICITY

OF SOUTH-CENTRAL

ASIA

80?

APPENDIX 3 (CONTINUED}

DATE

LOCATION

LATITUDE

L O N G I - I N T E N - QUAL. SOURCES SEQN.


TUDE
SITY
GRADE
NO.

Z9APR1864
ZDAPR1864

AHMEDABAD
SURAT

Z3.97
Z1.17

7Z.75
7Z.99

5-7
4-7

3
3

0
0

1Z9
13~

Z50ULI854
ZZJAN1865
llAPRI865
11APR1865
llAPRI~65
~4DEC1865
1867
18NOVI8670R68
11AUG1858
IZNOV1868

GVADAR
PESHAWAR
SIMLA
MUSSOOREE
N A I N I TAL
LAHORE
LAHRI
8ANNU
PESHA~AR
LAHORE

ZB.IZ
34.88
31.1Z
38.43
29.33
31.57
29.17
3Z.98
34.88
31.57

62.33
71.55
77.17
78.~7
79 4Z
74 35
68 Z8
78 69
71 55
74 35

6-8
5-7
5-7
4-6
3-5
3-5
7
7-8
7-8
4-6

Z
3
Z
Z
Z
3
Z
3
3
3

0
OH
O
0
0
0
W
OH
OMN
M

131
13Z
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
149

1ZNOV]868
1ZNOV1868
24MAR1869
APR1869
940UL1869
~40UL1869
ZSJUL1869
Z~DEC1869
28DEC1869
ZDDEC]869

DERA I S M A I L KHAN
ATTOCK
JHELUM
PESHAWAR
NASSICK
CHANDOR
N A I N I TAL
CAMPBELLPORE
RAWALPINDI
LAWRENCEPUR

31.83
33.87
3Z.9Z
34.~
28.88
23/33
Z9.33
33.77
33.62
33.88

79.88
7Z Z5
73 7Z
71 55
73 8Z
74 33
79 42
7Z 33
73.87
72.35

4-6
4-6
5-7
7-8
3-5
3-5
4-6
7-8
7-8
4-6

3
3
Z
3
Z
Z
3
Z
Z
Z

M
M
0
ON
0
0
O
OH
OM
OH

141
14Z
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
158

28DEC1869
ZSOCT187~
APR1871
APR1871
APR1871
ZZMAYI871
2ZMAY1871
2ZMAYIB71
ZZMAY1871
15DEC1B7Z

ATTOCK
MEHUR
KASHMIR
RAWALPIND]
MURREE
GILGIT
MEERUT
AGRA
LANDOUR
LAHRI

33.87
Z7.18
34.8~
33.62
33.99
35.9Z
zg.B~
Z7.Z8
39.45
29.2~

72.25
67.83
7fi.8~
73.87
73.48
74.3Z
77.75
78.88
78.18
68.28

4-8
4
6-8
6
6
7-8
4-6
4-6
4-6
9-1g

Z
2
4
Z
Z
3
3
3
3
1

OM
~N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
N

151
15Z
153
]54
155
156
157
158
159
168

15DECI87Z
15DEC187Z
18OCT1874
]8OCT1874
18OCT1874
180CT1874
NOV1874
12DEC1875
1ZDEC1875
~2MAR1878

SEBRI=SIBI7
SHIKARPUR
0ABAL AL SIRAJ
GULBAHAR
KOHISTAN
KABUL
KABUL
FESHA~AR
LAHORE
KOHAT

29.53
27.95
35.13
35.13
34.92
34.53
34.53
34.~8
3].57
33.58

67 88
68 63
69 Z8
69 3~
69 57
69 17
69 17
71.55
74.35
71.48

7-9
7-9
9
9
8-9
9
8-9
7-8
7-8
7-8

3
Z
1
1
]
Z
Z
Z
Z
1

N
N
AM
AM
AM
N
N
MN
MN
MN

151
1BZ
163
164
165
156
167
168
169
179

82MAR1878
92MAR1878
gZMAR1878
gZMAR1878
BZMAR1878
9ZMAR1878
8ZMAR1878
8ZMAR1878
82MAR1878
82MAR1878

PESHAWAR
ATTOCK
ABBOTABAD
RAWALPINDI
JHELUM
BANNU
ffOWSERA
MARDAN
LAHORE
SIMLA

34.9~
33.87
34.15
33.62
3z.gz
32.98
34.E9
34,18
31.57
31.1Z

71.55
72.25
73.Z~
73.87
73.72
78.68
7Z.gZ
7Z.#3
74.35
77.17

7-8
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-7
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

H
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

171
17Z
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
188

310UL1879
1883
1883
APR1883
150AN1885
38MAY1885
3~MAY1885
38MA1885
38MAY1885
38MAY1885

KABUL
ALAT
TOBA
PESHAWAR
SRINAGAR
SOPOR
GULMARG
SRINAGAR
GURAIS
PUNCH

34.53
28.88
Z8.3Z
34.88
34o88
34.Z8
34.87
34,88
34.7Z
3378

69.17
66.88
66.8~
71.55
74.8Z
74.47
74.48
74.8Z
74.95
74.88

5-6
6
B
6-7
6-7
8
7
7
6
6

3
Z
Z
3
Z
1
1
1
1
1

A
V
W
M
MN
MN
M
M
M
M

181
18Z
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
198

39MAYI885
39MAY1885
3~MAY1885
3~MAY1885
3#MAY1885
gfiJUNIB85
28OCT1886
28DEC]~88
APRI889
1889

MUZAFFARABAD
PATAN
0AMPUR
BARAMULA
GINGL
KASHMIR
SRINAGAR
OUETTA
KABUL
OHALAWAN

34.37
34.18
34.12
34.22
34,15
34.17
34.88
3B.Z~
34,53
27.75

73.47
74.55
74.58
74.37
74.13
75.88
74.8Z
67.8Z
69.17
67.17

6
8
8
8
7
9-1g
6-7
8-9
5-6
8

1
1
1
1
l
4
Z
Z
3
2

M
0
0
0
~
N
MN
N
A
W

191
19Z
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
Z88

0CT1889
189~
0UNI891
ZDDEC189Z

MAZAR-I-SHARIF
LORALAI
PAGHMAN
CHAMAN

36;78
3~.37
34,68
38.95

67.88
68.58
68.93
56.43

5
7
4
8-9

Z
Z
3
1

A
W
A
ANG

291
28Z
283
Z84

808

R.C.

QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB


APPENDIX 3 (CONTINUED)

LOCATION

DATE

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

INTEN$1TY

66.58
67.82
71.55
7Z.82
67.89
71.77

7
8-9
6-7
6-7
8
7-8

ZBDECI892
13FEB1893
85NOV1893
85NOVI893
1989
2~JANI9~Z

SANZAL
OUETTA
PESHAWAR
NOWSHERA
OUETTA-PISHIN
CHITRAL AREA

38.83
38.Z8
34.88
34.88
38,42
35.88

29SEP1982
1982
23DEC1983
84APR1985

SRINAGAR
GULISTAN-PISHIN
DADHAR
KANGRA

27FEB1586
88JUL1989
#8JUL1989
21OCT1989
210CTl989

AFTERSHOCK-KANGRA
KALAM
DIR
SHAHPUR
BAGH

14MAYI913
2ZJUN1914
84NOV1914
FEB19]8
85SEP1919
AUG1923
28NOV1923
81DEC1923
82DEC1923
~4DEC1923
85DEClgZ3

QUAL. SOURCES SEQN.


GRADE
NO.
G
N
MN
MN
W
M

Z85
286
2~7
288
289
218

M
W
W
S

211
Z12
213
214

M
M
M
H
H

215
216
217
218
Z19

KABUL

34.88
74.8Z
5
Z
38.63
56.75
7
2
29.48
67.69
7
Z
32.13
76.28
19
1
SEE ALSO M I D D L E M I S S ( 1 9 1 ~ )
31.88
77.88
7-8
2
35.43
72.65
7-8
2
35.Z2
71.93
7
2
28.72
68.42
8-9
1
29.83
57.88
8-9
1
SEE ALSO HERON ( 1 9 1 1 1
34.53
65.17
5-6
Z

22~

GHORI
DERA I S M A I L KHAN
0AGAL AL S I R A 0
LAHORE
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL
KABUL

35.98
31.83
35.13
31.57
34.53
34.53
34.53
34.53
34.53
34.53

A
O
A
M
A
A
A
A
A
A

ZZ1
Z22
2Z3
ZZ4
225
226
ZZ7
228
2Z9
238

68.58
70.88
65.29
74.35
69.17
69.17
69.17
69.17
69.17
69.17

5-6
4-6
5-6
5+
5-5
4-5
6
4-5
4-5
4-5

18MARIg24
18MAR1924
82AUG19Z4
8ZAUGlg24
23FE61928
82JUNIg28
82JUN1931
89JUN1931
Z4AUG1931
Z4AUG1931

0ALALABAD
PESHAWAR
KABUL
OALALABAD
KABUL
KABUL
PASHGHUR
PASHGHUR
SHARIGH
QUETTA

34.43
78.47
6-7
34.89
71.55
4
34.53
69.17
6-7
34.43
79,47
5-7
34.53
59.17
5-6
34.53
69.17
6
35.Z5
59,35
7-8
35.25
69,35
5
38.16
67.78
7
38.29
67.82
5-5
SEE ALSO WEST ( 1 9 3 4 )

Z7AUGI931

MACH

88JANI933
17FE61933
23FEB1933
92AUG1933
8ZAUG1933
15OCT1933
16OCT1933
39MAR1934
85JUL1934

KANABAD
KANDAF~R
KABUL
MIANI
SHAHPUR
URUZGAN
DAI CHUPAN
PASHTUN ROT
MAZAR I $ H A R I F

29.87
67.39
7-8
SEE ALSO VEST ( 1 8 3 4 1
36.68
69.12
6
31.63
55.68
5-5
34.53
69.17
5-fi
32.35
73.13
B
3Z.25
72.53
B
33.93
56.85
7
32.67
66.92
7
35.9~
54.83
B
38.78
67.88
6-7

38MAY]935
3~MAY1935
3~MAY1935
3~MAY1935

OUETTA
MASTUNG
KALAT
CHAMAN

85OUL1935
85JULI 55
85JUL1935
~SJUL1935
~5JUL1935
850UL1935

1
Z
3
3
Z
3

Z
3
2
2
2
2
Z
2
Z
Z

Z
2
2
2
Z
2
Z
3
1
I

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
V
W

231
Z32
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
248

241

2
Z
2
Z
2
1
l
Z
Z

A
A
A
M
M
A
A
A
A

242
243
244
245
246
Z47
248
249
25#

1
1
1
1

A
A
A
A

251
Z5Z
253
254

MAZAR-I-SHARIF
BALKH
SAMAGAN=AIBAK
TASHKURGHAN
SHERBERGHAN
AKCHA

39.29
67.8Z
I#
29.88
56.83
9
2g.BZ
66.58
9
38.95
66.43
6
SEE ALSO WEST (19351
36.78
67.88
6
35.75
65.92
5-6
36.27
68.83
5-6
36.68
67.78
5-6
36.57
65.75
5-6
36,92
66.17
5-6

1
1
1
1
1
l

A
A
A
A
A
A

255
Z56
257
258
Z59
ZfiB

85JULI935
~9SEP1937
89SEP1937
28OCT1937
28OCT1937
Z9OCT1937
2~OCT1937
Z80CT1937
28OCT1937
Z~OCT1937

SARI PUL
GULMARG
DROSH=KILA
DEHRA DUN
ROORKEE
AMBALA
LAHORE
MUSSOOREE
SIMLA
DELHI

36.2~
34.87
35.55
38.32
29.85
38.32
3].57
38.43
31.12
28.53

85.93
74.4~
71.83
78.85
77.98
76.82
74.35
78.87
77.17
77.28

5-6
7-8
5
7-8
5-6
5-6
4-5
4-5
4-5
4

1
Z
Z
Z
2
Z
Z
2
2
2

A
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

261
252
263
264
265
256
267
268
258
27~

87NOV1937
87NOV1937
g7NOV1937
87NOV1937
15NOVI937

GURAIS
SRINAGAR
DROSH=KILA DROSH?
PESHAWAR
SRINAGAR

34.72
34.88
35.55
34.69
34.88

74.95
74.8Z
71.83
71.55
74.82

5-5
7-8
5-6
4
6

2
Z
Z
2
2

I
I
I
]
I

271
272
273
274
275

DROSH?

HISTORICAL AND MODERN

S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L

A S IA

809

A P P E N D I X 3 (CONTINUED)

DATE

LOCATION

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

INTENSITY

Q U A L . SOURCES SEQN.
GRADE
NO.

14MARl938
88AUG1938
96FE81939
19JUNI939
31OCT194~

BARODA
ARGHESTAN
DROSH
SRINAGAR
8HUJ

ZZ.ZB
31.59
35.55
34.98
Z3.ZZ

73.27
56.59
71.83
74.82
69.87

5-6
5-6
6-7
5-6
5

Z
3
Z
Z
Z

I
A
M
AI
I

275
Z77
278
279
ZSB

29SEP1941
ZZJUN1945
Z7NOV1945
Z7NOV1945
I~JUL1947
19JUL]947
IBJUL1947
85AUG]947
280AN1948
28JANI948

QUETTA
CHAMBA
PASNI
ORMARA
BHADARVAH
SRINAGAR
GULMARG
PASNi
MAZAR-I-SHARIF
SAMAGAN=AIBAK

39.29
32.57
25.22
ZS.Z~
32.93
34.98
34.97
25.22
36.79
38.27

67.92
76.13
63.47
64.63
75.78
74.82
74.49
63.47
67.98
68.~3

8
7-8
19+
19+
7-8
5-6
5-6
B
6-7
6-7

2
l
1
1
Z
Z
Z
1
I
1

I
M
I

281
Z8Z
Z83
284
ZB5
286
287
Z88
289
Z99

Z80ANI948
1ZAUG1959
lZAUG1959
12$EP195!
IZSEPI951
125EP1951
1ZSEP1951
Z7DEC195Z
91MAR1953
13MAR1954

MAIMANA
GULMARG
SRINAGAR
AMRITSAR
SRIHAGAR
OAMMU
DALHOUSIE
LAHORE
CAMPBELLPORE
KALAT

35.92
34.87
34.98
31.63
34.98
3Z.7Z
32.53
31.57
33.77
29.82

64.78
74,49
74.82
74.87
74.82
74.87
76.~2
74.35
72.33
66,58

5
4-6
4-5
6
5
6
5-5
5-6
6-7
4-7

1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
l

A
HI
HI
I
I
I
i
M
I

291
zgz
Z93
294
295
Z96
297
298
Z99
389

]8FEBI~S5

AUG1955
13MAYI956
13MAY1956
99JUNI956
99JUH1956
890UN1956
13JUN1956
130UN1956
14JUN1956

OUETTA
GULRAN
EPICENTER
FORT MUNRO
BAMIYAN
SAYGHAN
DARRI AOAR
KAHMARD
BAMIYAN
BARFAK

39.29
34,83
29.91
29.92
34.83
35.Z~
35.39
35.33
34.83
35.37

57.92
61.58
79.8Z
79.9Z
67.8Z
67.79
67.58
57.5Z
67.82
68.17

7-8
5
8
5-7
8-9
8-9
8-9
6
6
6

1
Z
l
1
1
l
1
Z
Z
Z

A
A
I
I
A
A
A
A
A
A

391
392
393
394
395
396
397
388
399
319

22JUN1956
lZAUG1956
16SEP1956
Z4SEP1955
25OCT1956
ZSOCTIg~55
14NOV1956
15NOV1956
15NOVI956
13APR1957

DARRI AOAR
PESHAWAR
0AJI DISTRICT
KAHMARD
KAHMARD
KAHMARD
CHARIKAR
GARDEZ
OATGHAN D I S T R I C T
KAWAK

35,3~
34.99
33.88
35.33
35.33
35.33
35.99
33.58
36;83
35.63

87.58
71.55
59.58
57.52
57.5Z
57.52
69.17
69.25
59.99
69.92

6
6
5-7
5
6
6
5-6
5-5
5
7

Z
Z
1
Z
Z
2
Z
Z
3
Z

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

311
3IZ
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
329

99APR1958
16AU51958
19MAY1959
Z#-ZSMAY1955
Z6MAY1959
IbFEB196~
27AUG1969
Z4FEB196Z
9ZAUG196Z
lIAUG1962

KESHM
KHOST 0 FRING
QARABAGH
OARAGABH
RUSTAK
APPSIGH
DELHI
PATSIGRAM
RAWALPINDI
MUKUR REGION

35.89
36.17
33.Z9
33.29
37.12
35.89
28.53
35.78
33.62
32.82

79.98
69.47
68.98
68.~8
69.83
71.39
77.Z9
7I.lm
73.97
67.78

6
6
6-7
6-7
7-8
6-7
6-7
6-7
4-5
5-7

2
3
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
3

A
A
A
A
A
M
I
M
I
A

321
3ZZ
323
3Z4
325
325
3Z7
3Z8
3Z9
339

llAUG198Z
ZZAFR1963
~ZSEF1953
89SEP1953
98JUL]g64
19JANI968
19JAN1966
Z7JAN1965
ZSJANI966
39OAN1966

SHAHOUI
LAHORE
BADGAM T E H S I L
SARGODHA
FAIZABAD
BASHGAL VALLEY
PATSIGRAM
SHAHOUZ
SHAHOUI
SHAHOUI

32.75
31.57
34.92
32.98
37.18
35.67
35.79
32.59
3Z.59
32.59

68.39
74.35
74.73
72.67
79.58
71.37
71.19
67.33
67.33
67.33

5-7
4-6
7-8
4-5
5-7
8-7
5-7
6
6
6-7

Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
3
Z
3
3
3

A
I
M
I
A
M
M
A
A
A

331
33Z
333
334
335
335
337
338
339
348

92FE81966
26APR1966
81AU51966
91AUG1966
ZBFEBI967
I5MAYI969
23MAR1979

ABBOTTABAD
GHAZNI
LORALAI
QUETTA
ANAHTNAG D I S T R I C T
NURGAL
BROACH

341
342
343
344
345
345
347

ISHKAMISH
TANGIR-DAREL

Z
Z
1
1
Z
I
1
(1972)
3
3

M
A
A
A
M
A
P

240UN197Z
83SEP1972

34.15
73.28
33.53
58.43
39.37
68.58
39.Z9
67.92
33.75
75.2~
34.58
79.58
ZI.7Z
73.93
SEE ALSO GUPTA
38.37
69.13
36.25
76.67

M
M

348
349

VAL.

6
5
7-8
6-7
6-7
6-7
7
ET A L .
6-8
6-8

I
HI
MI
I
A
A

810

R. C. QUITTMEYER AND K. H. JACOB


APPENDIX 3 (CONTINUED)

DATE

LOCATION

LATITUDE

AND LONGITUDE ARE G I V E N

LONGITUDE

INTENSITY

DUAL.
GRADE

SOURCES SEQN.
NO.

I)

LATITUDE

Z)

INTENSITY IS GIVEN ON THE MODIFIED MERCALLI SCALE (MM) FOLLOWING


RICHTER (1958}.
STARTING WITH THE YEAR 1949, ONLY INTENSITIES GREATER
OR EQUAL TO VI (MM) ARE INCLUDED.

IN DECIMAL DEGREES.

3) QUALITATIVE GRADE:
1- LOCATION AND INTENSITY ARE REASONABLY WELL KNOWN
Z- EITHER LOCATION OR INTENSITY ARE LESS WELL KNOWN
3- EITHER LOCATION OR INTENSITY ARE QUESTIONABLE
4- LOCATION KNOWN ONLY REGIONALLY OR VERY UNRELIABLY
5- INTENSITY SUSPECTED TO BE THE RESULT OF AN INTERMEDIATEDEPTH EARTHQUAKE IN THE HINDU KUSH AND PAMIR REGION
4) LETTERS REFER TO:
A- HEUCKROTH AND KARIM (19791
D- SIESMISCHE REGISTRIERUNGEN IN DEBILT (1914-1941)
G- GRIESBACH ( 1 8 9 3 )
H- HERON ( 1 9 1 1 )
I - INTERNATIONAL SEISMOLOGICAL SUMMARY
J- JONES ( I B 8 5 A , B )
M- AMBRASEYS ET A L . ( 1 9 7 5 )
N- MILNE ( 1 9 1 2 )
O- T . OLDHAM ( 1 8 8 2 )
P - GUPTA ET A L . ( 1 9 7 2 )
R- R. OLDHAM ( 1 9 2 6 )
S- MIDDLEMISS (1919)
W- WEST (1934,1935)
"-

THESE EVENTS ARE MOST LIKELY THE SAME, BUT DIFFERENT YEARS ARE
GIVEN BY DIFFERENT SOURCES.

APPENDIX 4
MODERN ( I N S T R U M E N T A L )

SEISMICITY

NO. S . E .
O
STA RESID G
(SEC) D

SRC

SEQ
NO.

919
9~2
919
891
~99
997
991
899
999
899

83.41B
14.97
82.67
87.76
16.87
92.45
15.56
9~.99
19.69
32.9~

ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS

I
Z
3
4
5
6
7
B
9
19

C933"99 8,8
C 9 3 3 " ~ 9 5.SSDBN
C 9 3 3 " 8 9 5.BSUDA
C ~ 3 3 * 9 9 5.BSDBN
C 9 3 3 * 9 9 6,DSDBN
C933"99 5.4SUPP
C933"99 9,9
C 9 3 3 " 9 9 6,DSGTR
1 3 5 " 4 2 5,6SGTR
C 9 3 3 " 9 9 6,2SGTR

998
999
992
991
995
991
987
997
919
924

1~.77
11.96
13.91D
12.26
92.18
16.49
92.19
91.89
92.32
9Z.61

O
D
O
C
B
B
B

ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS5
ISS
IS$
ISS
ISS
ISS

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
29

719
719
354
417
718
719
719
719
719
719

C933"99
C833"99
C989"99
C933"99
C933"99
C933"99
C933"99
959"14
917"97
C933"99

9.9
9.9
6,5SGTR
9.9
9.9
6.ZSGTR
6.BSGTR
6.9SPAS
9.9
5.6SDBN

898
999
945
99Z
999
933
969
918
993
996

92.6Z
16,32
91.84
11.13
23.61
82.72
91.99
91.79
~9.99
92.37

C
D
B
D
D
A
A
A
O
O

ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS
ISS

Zl
ZZ
23
24
25
26
27
28
Z9
39

388
354
729
717
719
719
71~
719
719
719

CB~g'8~ ~.~
C ~ 8 ~ ' 8 ~ 6.5SGTR
C~33"89 ~.B
929=99 9.9
C 9 3 3 " 9 9 5.6SGTR
9 5 9 " 1 7 7.DSGTR
C933"99 9.9
C 8 3 3 " 9 9 5.ZSDBN
C933"89 9.B
C933"99 9.9

~BZ
943
996
BB3
996
966
9~Z
899
993
997

93.94
92.61B
W1.96
99.85
91.63
91.87
24.85
82.95
9B.B~
92.32

ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
48

DATE

ORIGIN
TIME

LATITUDE
(DEG'KM)

LONGITUDE
(DEG'KM!

FE
KEG
NO.

DEPTH
(KM)

MAGNITUDE

~BFEBI4
Z1MAYI4
990CT14
94NOV14
ZIJUNI6
99MAYI7
91DEC17
29NOV18
23MAY19
91JUNIg

114223.5
982695.9
823916.8
119648.9
195699.9
214696.9
994715.9
194159,8
961936,9
12462~.9

Z9.74w23
32.99"89
32.85"42
38.59=99
34.59"98
33.14=19
39.99"9~
39.99"99
39.99"9~
39.99*99

63.77=19
69.5~'99
75.86*22
69.99"99
77.99*99
76.63"18
71.99"99
71.99"~9
71.99"98
71.99"99

354
718
392
718
392
393
719
719
719
718

C933"99
C933=99
C933"99
C933"98
C933"99
C933"99
C933"99
C933"99
C933"99
C933=98

7.9SGTR
5.BSD~N
6.ISDbN
B.9
5.6SDBN
9.B
5.SSDBN
6.3SDBN
6.ZSDBN
9.9

15JUNI9
240CT19
Z7FEBZ9
I~JULZ8
810CTZ3
Z9NOVZ3
14MAYZ5
~7DEC25
2ZMARZfi
96AUGZ6

184994.9
293215.9
935136.9
155839.9
981625.#
933636.#
971946.5
983433.9
162413.7
224559.2

39.99"99
27.59"99
35,99"99
25.99"99
29.59"14
31.Z9"99
35.83"17
37.63"14
34.72"18
35,49"16

71.99"99
63.69*99
69.99"99
68.99*9
79.44~13
61.69"99
79.63"2J
76.57"19
79.89"12
78.65*12

719
354
799
:7.]~
?19
35~
718
3ZI
799
3~2

39JAN27
21MAYZ7
B7JUL27
18NOVZ7
21JANZ8
91SEPZB
150CTZ8
I4NOVZ8
IZDECZ8
14DECZ8

985419.7
989445.#
298631.9
119136.9
159458.9
969995.8
141943.3
943395.4
912534.8
982833.1

39.18"19 7 9 . 3 2 " 1 3
69.99*99
27.99"12 5 Z . Z f i * 9 7
21.59"99 6 8 . 9 9 * 9 9
36.59"93 7 9 . 5 9 " 9 9
69.57"11
28.77"16
67.15"95
28.41"87
72.58"86
34.83"98
29.68=99 69.1Z'91
68.98"19
28.81"19

14JANZ9
93SEPZ9
24SEP29
Z3SEP39
29SEP39
24AUG31
25AUG31
ZSAUG31
25AUG31
25AUG31

994521.8
129749.5
135214.9
191515.5
1329~3.4
213529.9
~931~8.9
93~635.4
154532,2
185Z56.7

39.89=99
26.59*15
35.64*12
37.93*99
27.45"19
39.39"1Z
3~.29=99
31.49"17
39.16"99
39,4Z'23

77.3Z'~9
62.97~99
74.48*14
7~.95"99
68.24*13
67.67"85
67.7~'89
66.52"14
67.79"9~
67.8Z'15

D
C
D
D
C
D
D
D
D
D
D

C
D
C
S
O
O
O
C

811

H I S T O R I C A L AND M O D E R N S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L ASIA
A P P E N D I X 4 (CONTINUED)
DATE

ORIGIN
TIME

LATITUDE
(DEG'KN)

LONGITUDE
(DEG~KM)

FE
KEG
NO.

26AUG31 1 9 2 9 1 6 . 9
Z7AUG3[ 1 5 2 7 2 3 . 6
28AUG31 9 9 4 2 2 6 . 8
Z8AUG31 1 9 3 9 5 9 . 3
86SEP31 1 4 3 2 5 5 . 8
38$EP31 111458.8
g4NOV31 ] 5 2 1 3 ] . 8
#4FE832 211816.4
18APR32 1 1 2 3 2 6 . 5
87JUL33 8738577

Z7.88=25
29.91"12
29.25"18
28.82"17
29.72"16
29.68"15
36.8#=8g
26.42"13
25.21=12
24.23=15

69.64"18
67.25"86
68.42*13
67 3 9 " 1 5
67 8 5 " 2 1
68 5 5 " 2 1
69 5 8 * 8 8
62 6 3 " 1 2
63 ~ 8 * 2 8
64 9 2 * 8 8

719
712
719
718
712
718

NO. S . E .
Q
STA RESID G
($EC) D

SRC

$EO
NO.

354
354
356

C 8 3 3 " 9 9 5.ZSDBN
C 8 3 3 " 8 8 7.4SGTR
C877"88 5.3SUDA
C 8 3 3 = 8 8 5.4SDBN
C833"88 5.6525N
9 8 5 = 4 6 5.6SGTR
C~33=29 ~.#
859=32 5.65GTR
C 8 3 3 " 8 9 6.#SGTR
C833"98 5.65GTR

9#9
996
217
813
885
815
#84
El7
825
988

91.77
82.51
93,19
#3.11
93.25
93.19
16,34
21.68
21.97
81.32

D
A
B
B
C
C
D
B
6
C

IS5
ISS
155
ISS
I$5
ISS
ISS
ISS
I$5

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
52

160CT33
92DEC33
#9DEC33
19APE34
~lHAY34
13JUN34
15NOV34
12MAY35
]5MAY35
16MAY35

32.97=16
36.61"44
37.#1*21

172417.1

Z6.42*11
Z7.63*29
35.43"29
37.12"13
28.79"99
37,14"11

67,52"14
79.89*57
69.26=17
55.38*17
66.98"IZ
62.~4*24
71.43=1~
71,37=12
67.33=67
68.88"12

729
718
718
356
71~
353
718
717
718
718

C 2 3 3 " ~ 2 5.TSGTR
C ~ 3 3 " 8 8 5.TSGTR
C 8 3 3 " 8 8 5.6SGTR
C 2 3 3 " 8 8 5.SSGTR
C # 3 3 = 8 2 5.SSGTR
C 2 8 2 " 8 2 7.SSGTR
8 f i 1 ~ 2 8 5.6SGTR
C833"99 5.45D8N
C 8 3 3 " 0 8 6.SSGTR
C 8 3 3 " 9 9 5.7SDBN

811
285
B18
#97
2ZZ
124
~22
gB9
#43
22#

#3.32
88.46
#4.62
81.63
2Z.~5
82.12
~Z.55
82.6#
82.28
83.14

C
D
C
C
C
B
B
C
A
B

ISS
IS~
ISS
IS5
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
6E

3#HAY35
31MAY35
31HAY35
#lJUN35
820UN35
85JUL35
840CT35
280CT35
97MAY36
lgJUN36

Z13254.1
82#343.1
171Z28.8
243~14.1
#91527.6
175258.9
145951.9
122545.#
gi53g5.1
832989.2

28.87"89
Z8.98"11
3g.#g'll
29.72*12
32.14"88
37.98"~7
29.26"16
31.3~'##
35.53"14
26.3#=12

66.48"H4
66.72=98
67.19*12
66.88"11
66.93*85
87.32*23
66.34=11
69.32=9#
59.45=15
64.~1"1~

71J
712
718
7IH
718
717
71~
718
718
354

C # 3 3 " 9 2 7.5SGTR
844=26 5.75D5N
635"32 ~.8
271=29 5,35D5N
8 1 3 * 2 5 6.SSGTR
988"17 6.25PA5
C933*98 8.#
C833"88 5.452BN
C933=28 #.8
C833"88 5.65D5N

122
821
815
~17
#75
884
Bg9
985
#g9
817

82.36
81.86
#2.57
9Z.19
gZ.ZZ
21.87
92.~2
18.77
g2.18
82.24

A
A
A
A
A
A
B
O
C
B

ISS
IS$
1$5
ISS
ISS
IS5
ISS
ISS
1$S
IS$

61
6Z
63
54
65
55
57
68
69
78

l#JUN36
11JUN36
380UN36
ZZJUL36
87$EF36
Z9JUN37
29SEP37
ZgOCT37
87NOV37
11NOV37

1711983
994341.7
192685.4
0856Z#.9
885236.~
182418.T
173533.1
812349.3
192746o#
8891423

25.98*29
26.43"27
33.72=12
28.55"2Z
31.63"53
36.36=28
36.47"13
38.85"11
34.77"29
22.59=34

64.61"16
64.79w16
6~.5#'85
68.11"1~
62.96=23
7~.22*18
71.55"11
78.32"1Z
73.~7"11
64.48"22

354
354
348
712
348
717
717
3#8
712
417

C233"88
C233*##
C233*82
C933"98
C888"29
G833"98
~84"32
C933R88
C235"~8
C833"98

5.3SDBN
5.2SDBN
6.3$GTR
8.8
#.8
8.#
#.#
5.55GTR
5.3$25N
5.65D6N

#11
2#8
952
889
984
888
212
823
814
911

93.16
#3.17
82.3#
82.46
~2.99
81.99
92.38
82.58
82,38
83.79

O
D
8
C
D
D
C
A
C
C

ISS
1$5
IS$
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
1$S
ISS
ISS

71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
8~

1ZNOV37
15NOV37
16NOV37
19JAN38
94F9538
13HAR38
14HAR38
385EP38
91NOV38
#1DEC38

143918.6
213726.1
134927.3
26#358.5
~219#3.7
21~538.3
884828.8
898223.6
8#4792.5
18#928.9

35.17"15
34.79"87
35.46"1Z
37.47*18
25.6#'~9
27.59=11
21.68"~7
35.59"85
35.87*28
3#,43"1#

79.67"19
78.ZZ'~5
79.34=I5
71.29"22
64.49"29
66.74"1#
75.22"29
78.46"12

394
382
718
717
712
718
314
38Z

C233"88
C833"82
C233"88
C833"88
C233=82
C933"99
899"Z5
245"21

#.B
5.5SGTR
#.#
9.2
8.#
5.6$D8N
5.3$GTR
#.9

988
963
888
218
212
217
941
888

82.94
82.46
22.42
94.68
21.52
82.36
81.87
91.3Z

C
A
C
D
C
5
5
C

I$S
ISS
IS$
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS

81
82
63
84
55
86
87
88

68.53"13

712

861=29

#.#

914

gZ.3~

I55

92

ZSFEB39
96JUN39
19JUN39
~7JAN4g
22F9842
17JUL42
81AUG48
21$EP4~
310CT4B
l#JAN41

958513.#
#12244.9
284235.8
892156.9
195342.8
963621.3
194584.7
184529.9
184354,5
#73815.8

21.24=67
36.96"#7
37,82"15
25.23"12
37.68*8~
36.66"14
37.94"19
35.29"14
23.82"86
34,27"~6

59.17"26
72.14"86
71.27"13
63.83"18
7~.52"##
72.21"]6
72.29"28
71,26"15
79. Z#'86
77.96"18

417
718
7]7
354
717
717
715
718
314
322

C833"88
C833"88
C#33"88
C233"~8
C833"8fl
C833"#B
859"14
C833"98
C#33"98
C~33=82

8.9
8.8
5.6SGTR
g.8
#.8
8.8
5.4$UPP
8.#
5.TSGTR
9.#

897
818
219
#11
882
826
812
986
835
212

8Z.27
91.43
83.95
~2.29
87.76
8Z.47
81.31
22.27
81.71A
21.67

C
C
C
C
D
C
D
C
B

ISS
1$5
ISS
IS5
155
I$S
ISS
ISS
ISS
I$5

91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
122

16MAY4I
2959P41
290CT4t
23MAY4Z
83JUL42
66F9543
2459P43
Z7NOV43
ZZJUN45
810CT45

88462g. I
~23221.2
974315.6
2~9125.9
~25228.2
82368~o7
113132. Z
#84454.6
182855.4
851642.B

36.88"99
3~.19"11
25.Z1=12
29.56"23
26.22"11
Z4.89"11
36.38"g8
31.95"12
32.78"18
28.95"11

72.71"18
67.29*69
63.62"::
68.62"Z1
66.92=88
63.25=#8
73.59*86
72.29=12
76.13"1#
67.28*28

718
712
354
718
712
356
722
718
3#3
718

C233"g8 #.#
C 2 3 3 " 8 8 5.4SDBN
C833"98 B.8
C833"88 8.8
C 8 3 3 " g B 6.4SDBN
C233"~# 5.3$GTR
267=12 6.8$PAS
C833=89 5.iSUPP
C g 3 3 " g g 6.5SGTR
C 8 3 3 " 2 2 5.7SUPP

212
81Z
811
Ell
#27
#27
243
811
g38
826

#Z.Z#
82.87
82.33
~4.44
82.47
82.g4
BI.85
22.78
~2.34
82.64

C
B
C
D
C
B
A
C
B
C

I55
I$5
155
I55
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
155

12]
18Z
183
124
185
126
127
188
189
112

27NOV45
1109C45
1829C45
17MAR46
Z7MAR46
ZSOUN46
ZlOUN46

215655.2
192153.1
232342,3
Z19682.1
233934.5
##3453.6
151g93.9

25.15"#9
Z4.67"44
25.81"22
24.99"1#
25.36*#9
29.29"22
24.31"22

63.48*66
63.76"37
63.75"24
63.59=#9
64.7Z*27
66.35=12
64.86=24

354
356
354
355
356
7]#
356

CB33"B#
C633"##
CB33"#B
C#33"#g
Cg33*##
259"34
C233*B#

#6#
##8
BE9
214
#37
#17
BIB

#2.3I
86.88
84.25
gZ.#7
22,23
#2.35
B3.91D

B
0
D
C
B
C

I55
IS$
IS5
IS5
IS5
155
I$5

Ill
112
113
114
125
1]6
117

g43449.#
821528.9
875288.9
2325838
834#43.6
221226.7
231446.6
852829.

~'2#135.~

24.#6"11

71.33=18

7'18

DEPTH
(KM)

MAGNITUDE

718 C 8 3 3 " 8 9 # . g

8.#$GGK
#,#
B.#
g.#
#.#
5,4$UPP
#.B

#11 8 1 . 9 9

ISS

I$$

89

812

R.C.

Q U I T T M E Y E R A N D K. It. J A C O B
APPENDIX 4 (CONTINUED)

DATE

ORIGIff LATILONGITIME
TUDE
TUDE
(DEG=KM) (DEG=KM)

FE
KEG
NO.

DEPTH
(KN)

MAGNITUDE

SRC

SEQ
NO.

~19 91.78
9ZZ 9 3 . 3 7
g3Z 9 2 . 6 6

C
C
A

ISS
IS$
ISS

118
119
129

97AUG46
15AUG46
19OUL47

224648.5
19Z519.4
1919Z4.7

Z3.86*19
26.71"16
32.83*99

64.28"14
65.57*12
76.14=11

356 C933"99
719 C933"99
393 C 9 3 3 " 9 9

193UL47
95AUG47
19AUG47
ZgSEP47
Z7NOV47
99DEC47
ZSOAN48
390AN48
99APR48
95MAY48

164536.2
14Z413.7
29971].4
185541.5
943348.6
163ZZ3.5
1551Z9.1
984355.9
1459Z9.7
983148.Z

33.91"13
Z5.94*98
31.17"89
36.94*1Z
36.83"15
Z4.84*13
36.36=88
Z5.16*88
Z .88*1Z
39.44*~9

76.Z4*16
63.49*95
79.84=11
69.12"99
79.81*99
63.55*13
67.73"95
63.78"98
68.78*99
78.75*2Z

393
354
395
718
718
356
718
354
719
3~8

C933"99 9.9
C 9 3 3 " 9 9 7.3SGTR
C933"99 9.9
C933"99 9.9
956"18 9.9
C933"99 9.9
C933"99 5.9SCRT
939*21 6.2SUPP
C933"99 9.9
C933*~9 9.9

999
97Z
9Z3
911
914
916
959
95~
915
911

9Z.77
82.19
9Z.Z5
92.25
#Z.36
9Z.34
8Z.49
92.19
gl.96
92.97

C
A
8
C
C
C
A
8
C
C

ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS
ISS
IS5
ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS

121
lZZ
1Z3
124
1Z5
IZ6
1Z7
128
129
139

19JUN4~
92JAN49
95FEB49
Z4FEB49
99APR49
gZOUL49
BlAUG49
16AUG49
18DEC49
13F9859

183619.5
IZSgZ7.Z
~85523.2
Z3BZZ2.9
2355482
gZZ8]Z.3
9739523
114918.5
191385.9
979344.1

39.59*45
Z5.96*88
31.13"11
39.99*97
27.18=12
39.38*14
35.34"97
39.19=1Z
35.83"Z3
Z3,56"17

69.78"1~
64.18~6
79.73"Z2
69.9~'98
62.26*96
69.17"18
74.58"~7
66.89"99
69.Z5*13
64.33=16

2~
354
395
719
354
719
7Z~
719
715
356

~82"36
C~33"99
C933"99
C933*99
C933*89
C933"99
949"~9
95Z'Z9
C989*99
C~99=9g

9.9
9.9
9.9
5.6SUPP
9.9
9.9
5.ZSUPP
~.9
9.9
9.9

913
935
916
836
919
999
935
9Z4
999
998

91.47
91.95
9Z.88
9Z.51A
91.99
93.11
91.86
91.57
91.76
9Z.93

D
C
C
C
C
B
C
D
O

ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
~SS
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS$
IS$

131
13Z
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
149

12MARS9
Z3MAR59
14~UN58
993UL59
1ZAUG59
96SEP5~
lZSEP59
ZSSEP58
960CT59
14NOV59

gZg628.9
99Z44Z.5
942419.9
992839.3
935917.5
9737]Z.1
961699.6
175893.3
ZIZg44.4
2Z9448.8

31.94"1Z
Z .98"ZZ
Z4,36"96
Z5.6Z*99
33.29*97
Z9.71"99
35.75"Z7
3Z.64"99
32.17"15
24.91"96

79.69"14
68.39"15
69.76111
63.31"97
75.82*98
79.1Z'11
73.38*97
75.71"16
77.92*28
6367*97

719
966*26
719 C933"99
71Z
)66"16
354
124"17
719
96Z*lZ
719
954"Z1
717
958"15
393
981"Z9
393 C ~ 9 9 * 9 9
356
964118

9.E
9.9
9.9
5.2SUPP
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
5.9$UPP

915
921
gel
968
gZ9
915
915
914
914
94Z

9 2 83
gZ 36
91 81
9Z Z3
91 67
91 96
91 I Z
gZ 38
94 53
91.85

C
C
B
B
A
B
D
C
O
A

ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS
ISS
I$5
ISS
ISS

14~
14Z
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
159

g3DEC5g
14MAY51
1ZSEP51
15SEP51
ZOCT51
91NOV51
B1NOV51
39JAN5Z
92FEB5Z
94FEB5Z

18Z597.5
949735.1
Z94146.7
~5615.9
Z11635.3
]84936.4
Z91999.1
233499.3
919998.9
114544.9

36.39*94
39.95*~4
3Z.78*~6
3Z,84*lZ
39.31"19
37.94*95
37.9Z'88
37.75*97
37,ZZW29
37.19"~9

71.19"94
79.13w94
75.89"~9
76.Z3"16
68.43"19
69.49*95
89.58"~8
68.67*96
69.23"15
72.5#*99

717
719
393
393
719
717
717
717
718
715

971"95
C933"99
~gZ'ZZ
Cg33*gg
C933"99
C933=99
C~33"99
943"99
C933~99
C933"89

9.9
5.7SUPP
9.9
9,9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9

939
957
931
916
917
916
917
921
999
999

91
91
91
82
9Z
91
gZ
91
91
96

14 A
84 A
99 B
49 C
17 C
49 C
19 A
71B
14 C
51D

ISS
ISS
IS$
ISS
153
ISS
IS$
ISS
ISS
ISS

151
15Z
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
169

g6FEBSZ
38MAK5Z
Z6APR5Z
~4OUN5Z
13JU~5Z
13AUG52
15SEPSZ
195EP5Z
Z~SEP5Z
IBOCT5Z

~9373Z.9
912957.6
Z 139Z.Z
961956.4
9515#9.6
931426.4
112818.9
939813.9
1841Z1.9
184734.7

36.79"99
Z9.3Z'96
37.97"18
37.33"96
37.38"4Z
37.44*87
39o58"12
37.93"19
Z6.95"99
39.38"94

79,59=99
67.79*95
69.97=1Z
78.48"95
7Z.98"23
69.99*94
79.91"99
7Z.47"11
6Z.89=96
69.44*93

716
719
717
3Z1
719
717
719
715
353
719

C933=99
C~33=99
C933"9~
836~8
Cg33"Bg
B35~98
C933w99
Cg99"99
C967~99
992*13

9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
5.88UPP
9.9
9.9
5.8$UPA

999
997
996
g57
995
~33
g3Z
g99
91Z
999

94.99
99.71C
91.85
92.98
92.35
91.68
9Z.55
~3.95
91.37
91.84

IS$
ISS
ISS
ISS
IS$
1$S
ISS
IS$
1$S
ISS

161
16Z
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
179

ZZOCT5Z
260CT52
290CT52
97NOV52
95DEC5Z
17DEC5Z
ZSDECSZ
Z5DEC5Z
Z7DEC5Z
28DEC5Z

Z19859.3
982323.8
932949.7
922442.~
174834.5
129828.g
913736.4
ZZZ247.6
~84549.2
184924.5

37.63"13
29.34"95
37.95"23
36.59*99
36.86*97
36.69*99
37.14"Z8
Z9.36=~4
31.97"97
Z4.97"94

69.56=96
67.87=95
69.15=18
71.99"99
71.38"95
79.19*99
79.61"97
79.91"94
74.75=96
63.28*94

717
71~
715
717
717
718
717
719
71Z
356

g,g
6.4BUPP
9.9
9.9
9.g
9.9
9.9
5. SUCA
9.9
4.9SUPP

988
939
995
999
gZ8
999
911
995
918
968

91.36
91.94
91.97
94.95
9Z.Z7
98.96
91.94
9Z.15
B].7Z
91.79

D
A
D
D
B
D
D
A
B
A

ISS
IS$
155
IS$
ISS
IS$
IS$
ISS
ISS
ISS

171
17Z
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
18H

91MAY53
Z3JUL53
Z3JAN54
Z3JAN54
93F9854
13MAR54
Z3JUL54
13OCT54
18FE855
18MAR55

Zl1815.7
919547.3
169634.7
171Z99.5
155647.3
995991.9
144515.7
ZZl144.9
ZZ4834.Z
Z116Z4.Z

33.54*96
26.19"96
37.34*94
37.33"95
36.98*96
27.45"13
34.94"94
3749"96
39.36*94
33.14=ZZ

7Z.67wg5
65.Z.B*95
7Z.59"93
7Z.53*94
69,99*93
66.12"11
69.56*94
89.Z8"94
67.98*93
77.86r~13

719
9 3 9 = 9 8 5 . 5 ROT
719
936"1Z 6.38UPP
715
9 3 9 = 9 5 6 . 5 ROT
715
9 3 6 = 9 6 5 . 7 ROT
718
96Z'89 9.9
718
9 4 4 w 1 9 5.7BUPP
799
9 9 9 " 1 5 5 . 7 ROT
717
815=Zl 9.9
7 1 9 C g 3 3 = g g 6 . Z ROT
393
91Z'77 9.8

949
949
981
955
91Z
91Z
~46
~39
967
919

91.98
91.41A
91.94
91.94
99.6Z
9Z.BZ
91.74
9Z.19
91.61A
91.88

ISS
ISS
15$
I$$
BCI
BCI
IS3
155
ISS
BCI

181
18Z
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
199

IZMAR55
14APRS~
Z7JUN55
Z7JUN55
Z3AUG55

164ZZ3.1
91~949.9
191411.8
134512.9
1489ZZ.Z

34.69=94
3Z.ZT=lZ
3Z.38*94
31.62"11
31.31"Z5

73.Z W94
76.49"19
78~55=~3
78.A4~95
71.38"11

~,.,g

954
919
998
999
912

91.73
gZ.31
91.85
91.9Z
92.21

A
8
A
C
C

ISS
BCI
ISS
8CI
ISS

191
19Z
193
194
195

Cg99"gg
997"16
C999"99
C933"99
C933"99
C933~99
C999"99
C833"99
C933"99
C933"99

951"96
Cg33"gg
39L ~Z5"IZ
395 C833"99
719 Cg66=gg

4.SSUPP
9.9
6.gSGTR

NO, $ . E .
Q
STA RESID G
(SEC) D

5 . 5 ROT
6.3BUPP
6 . 9 ROT
5.6BUPP
6 . 9 ROT

D
O
A
D
A
B
D
B
A

A
A
B
C
A
A

HISTORICAL

AND MODERN

SEISMICITY

APPENDIX
DATE

OKIGIN
TIME

OF SOUTH-CENTRAL

813

ASIA

4 (CONTINUED}

LATITUDE
(DEG'KM}

LONGITUDE
(DEG'KM)

FE
KEG
NO.

llOAN56 Z21618.3
#5HAR56 9 7 1 2 2 5 . 5
13HAY56 9 7 5 9 3 6 . 9
980UN56 #49729.4
#DJUN56 Z 3 1 3 5 4 . 7

29.99~99
37.59"96
29,91=95
35,17=94
35,13=93

69.55~92
77.96"95
79.#Z*94
67.49"94
57,48*9Z

99aUN56
180UN55
19aUN56
IgJUN56
llJUN56
250UN55
21JUL55
#8AUG56
1659F56
165EP56

Z35342.9
919138.7
#333#9.5
234331.4
925716.9
125297.6
1532Z5.9
239216.3
983722.8
14Z325.9

34.89"#7
34.99=~5
34.98=#9
34.11=11
35.95124
31.94=28
23.39"95
31,67"19
33.97"94
33.98~24

2459P56
19OCT56
94APR57
IgJUN57
14aUN57
150UL57
945EP57
95OCT57
26NOV57
13DEC57

192936.7
153136.6
113529.5
944621.5
113555.2
23#812.7
989721.5
224#49.#
994137.3
#9#757.9

33.98=94
28.18"84
35.59=#4
31.23"27
31.71=96
29.93*29
27.98"28
37.56=94
37.Z2=19
36.75*#9

18DEC57
22HAR58
#SAPR58
#7HAY58
13AUG58
13AUG56
14AUG58
31AUG58
#lSEP58
98DEC56

DEPTH
(KM)

NO, S . E .
O
STA RESID G
(SEC) D

SKC

5EO
NO.

719
924=99 9.9
321 C 2 3 3 = 9 2 5 . 9 5 U P P
7 1 9 C 2 3 3 " 9 # 6 . Z ROT
718
9 1 9 = 1 3 5 , 3 ROT
718 C 9 3 3 " 9 9 7 , 5 $ P A 5

997
969
969
~76
159

~9.51
92.85
91.83
91.76
81,75

D
8
A
A
A

BCI
ISS
155
I53
155

196
197
198
199
Z99

67.59"97
67.6fi~95
67.68"19
68.Z1*21
67.57"94
69.43*95
7#.95*83
67.21*99
59.59*92
89.75*95

718
799
7#9
799
718
348
314
7~9
789
789

C933=99 9.#
C 2 3 3 = 9 9 5 . 9 ROT
951"16 5.#SH05
C#33=92 9.#
942=97 4.95UPP
C833"99 4.SSKIR
C933=99 6.1SPAS
941=15 5.#5UPP
#II'ii 6 . 4 $ P A 5
248"96 5.95UPP

H19
919
913
297
847
929
197
9Z#
123
918

91.36 8
##.94 8
BI.8Z
6
91.93 C
H1.44 A
B1.58 6
21.98 A
#Z.IZ
5
81.91A
91.98 A

155
8Cl
BCI
BCI
155
IS5
155
8C!
I53
BCI

Z#l
292
293
294
2#5
2~6
Z97
298
299
Z12

69 5 7 * 9 3
77 5 7 = 9 5
79 1 8 " 9 5
59 5 7 " # 5
67 1 7 " 9 5
69 1 9 " 9 7
65 4 6 ~ 1 2
69 5 9 * # 4
72 2 2 * 1 4
79.99*99

799
9 9 1 = 1 3 6 . 2 ROT
3#8
2 9 2 " 1 2 6 . 4 ROT
718
9 3 2 = 1 5 5.ZSMOS
719
935=96 9.9
7#9 C 9 3 3 = 2 9 5 . 5 ROT
719
9 4 6 = 1 2 5 . 5 ROT
719
9 5 3 = 1 4 5 . 5 ROT
717
95#*95 4.85UPP
715 C#33"92 9 . #
718 C933"22 #.9

978
944
927
215
249
922
918
962
#97
#21

91.92
91.41A
91.36
91.95
92.97
9Z.31
21.92
91.69
92.12
14.45

I53
I55
BCI
BCI
I55
8C1
6CI
I55
BCI
8CI

Zll
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
ZIg
2Z#

295949.8
37.51*Z8
119751.4 35.31=24
995921.#
33.24"94
144741.8 34.76=93
973329.7
36.21=95
173237.7 29.42=87
232656.6 29.17*19
#91821.9 27.66"12
983798.9
27.76"95
149535.6 29.96=14

79.68=15
67.44=93
68.21"94
71.97=94
66.76*94
67.69"11
63.36"95
61.99w99
62.72*13
69.64"11

717
718
799
719
718
719
354
354
354
719

C833=99
C233192
927*15
949*95
991"16
93Z*14
C288=99
982*29
157*22
C933"29

#.9
5 . 2 ROT
5 . 8 ROT
4.75UPP
5 . 7 K0T
4.6SUPP
5 . 5 ROT
9.2
9.9
9.B

994
992
963
959
986
928
#37
925
914
997

81.47
#Z.95
91.87
91.61A
92.19
91.34
91.54
91.77
82.55
92.73

D
A
A

8CI
155
155
I55
ISS
8CI
I55
DCI
BCI
6C1

221
ZZZ
Z23
224
ZZ5
226
227
ZZ8
ZZ9
23#

Z4DEC58
2809C58
31DEC58
ZZFEB59
Z5HAK59
IZHAY59
19HAY59
26HAY59
22AUG59
23AUG59

959724.#
953442.1
B34519.1
#85334.6
#6#346.#
993549.2
151745.9
963592.I
234812.7
931992.I

37.99"9~
29.99=~4
29.94"95
31.44*11
3#.24"11
3Z.29=95
33.94"#4
37.18"94
27.51"99
29.97"94

71.58=##
79.95*93
79.9#w95
fi9.78=18
69 8 9 " # 8
78 5 9 " 9 4
68 1 6 = 9 3
69 9 9 = 9 2
62 2 6 * 9 7
69 5 5 * 9 4

717
398
3#8
712
719
394
799
717
354
719

C933-99
C933"99
C933=99
926*35
C933"99
918"17
937"#8
925*13
261~13
~49=95

9.9
6 . 6 ROT
6.38UPP
9.9
#.#
4.7SUPP
5 . 9 ROT
5.15UPP
#.#
6.#8UPP

99Z
136
949
91#
996
#54
#93
999
925
916

15.85
91.75
91.91
92.15
#Z.17
91.85
91.94
#1.51A
91.16
99.77

O
A
A
C
D
A
A

IS$
ISS
ISS
BCI
BCI
IS$
ISS
ISS
BCI
BCI

Z31
Z3Z
Z33
234
235
236
237
238
239
24H

23AUG59
3#AUG59
97DEC59
98DEC59
15UEC59
18JAN59
24FE869
B8HAYS#
920UN62
970UL69

#53942.8
Z25799.Z
19#333.1
1221#4.#
184745.6
229958.~
19Z#41.9
134592.5
9722Z8.3
223729.6

Z8.89*97
36.59*25
29.9Z'95
37.79*94
36.38=94
29.68*97
35.59*24
35.45=#8
33o21=88
36.48=99

69.63=99
58.28=94
5fi,79w#8
73.#1*#5
69.89*95
67.56*96
77.37=#4
69.Z#'96
69.41*94
68.25*#8

71B
#38*99
718
9#1*18
719
931"14
715
955*96
718
943*#7
719 C933=99
392
#81=96
718
852=13
348
#13*19
71~ ~ 4 2 = 1 6

#.#
5.ZSUPP
#.#
9.9
5.9BUPP
9.#
8.8
9.#
5.35HOS
9.9

286
861
9#5
246
851
9ZZ
857
913
837
923

#I.IZ
92.17
99.93
91.89
92.9#
91.41A
91.66
91.98
91.65
92.25

A
8
A
B

BCI
15$
BCI
ISS
ISS
ISS
ISS
BCI
ISS
8CI

241
Z4Z
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
259

180UL62
Z90ULOr2"
#3AUG69
14AUGT9
ZSAUGT9
26AUGT#
Z7AUG69
H3OCTT~
Z9OCTS#
lgNOVfi9

165147.2
143341.5
979Z25.5
ZZ3719.6
#79942.5
994533.5
155656.2
#94912.5
#12539.3
131255.2

36.87*#5
31 7 8 " 9 7
27.35*97
36.94"93
28.69*14
34.62*97
28.59"19
29.76*25
25.91"18
39.18"12

69.8194
62.26"94
66.38"98
69.51"93
67.53*26
79.89"97
76.72"12
68.25=94
67.99=29
69.71"99

717
~4"96
799
996=Z2
719
935=#9
718
946=95
719
949=11
7#9
#56"11
3#8
946=13
719
925"15
719 C933"29
71# C933"2g

#.#
5.Z5HO5
9.#
5.95HO5
#.#
9.#
5 . 5 ROT
#.B
#.#
#.#

#26
97Z
#19
98#
928
915
914
974
923
917

21.29
9Z.57
81.39
91.62
91.35
91.26
92.15
91.55
92.25
92.79

A
A
C
A
C
B
C
A
C
B

BCI
155
8CI
ISS
BC!
BCI
8CI
153
8CI
8CI

251
252
Z53
Z54
255
25fi
257
258
259
269

2#MAR61
Z#MAR61
19APR61
#4JUN61
#DJUN61
BSAUG61
970CT61
#2NOVTI
28NOV61
24FEB62

933927.#
149939.9
965738.#
233532.2
935546.5
185329.2
942155.2
265945.9
191444,7
189648.3

36.72"g3
35.5H'26
3#.39"84
33.26*11
34.61"15
34.18"98
31.53"96
33.99*98
35.51"96
34.98*#3

71.12"93
77.56"#4
79.23"93
75.28"#6
74.11"99
74.46"28
79.18"#7
69.52=g8
73.95"#A
7B.Z4*gZ

717
973"93
3#Z
965"98
719
946"94
392
951"15
719
#44*2#
711C~33"#9
719
959"19
7#9
833*25
729
994*23
7#9
265*92

9.#
#.#
5.SSQUE
#.#
#.H
#.#
4.55HO5
4.55HO5
#,#
9.#

#83
824
BZ8
916
#Z6
913
913
998
93#
#19

91.Z5
91,33
99.76
91.43
#Z.5#
91.7#
91.59
91.45
91.29
#9.49

A
A
B
C
C
B
C
C
A
C

ISS
8CI
BCI
8CI
8CI
BCI
8CI
BCI
BCI
BCI

Z61
262
263
264
265
266
Z67
268
269
Z79

IZMAR6Z 9 2 1 1 9 9 . 5
98MAY62 1 9 3 8 2 9 . 2
#9MAY6Z 1 2 1 2 2 9 . Z

34.25*96
33.56"28
36.81"94

79.89"86
72.49*89
68.47"94

718
719
718

5.95MOS
4.55M05
9.9

951
925
973

92.87 B
91.94 8
91.81A

BCI
BCI
I55

271
Z7Z
273

949*97
251*28
942"96

MAGNITUDE

A
C
A
B
B
A
C
g

6
C
6
C
C
C

B
A
C
A
C
A
A

814

R. C. Q U I T T M E Y E R AND K. H. J A C O B
APPENDIX 4 (CONTINUED)

DATE

ORIGIN
TIME

LATITUDE
(DEG'KM]

LONGITUDE
(DEG*KM}

FE
KEG
NO.

31MAYBZ
94JUN62
170UN62
ll0UL6Z
13JUL62
140UL62
9ZAUG62

915793.7
15Z152.8
943931.5
919499.Z
959119.1
155854.9
153213.9

24.69*95
39.96*99
33.15"94
31.88"95
38.57*93
39.59"~4
33.52"95

66.11=94
75.83*93
67.32"~4
79.45"93
79.31"93
73.37*94

91SEP6Z
IZSEP6Z
ZZSEP6Z
91NOV6Z
92NOV6Z
26DEC62
ZDEC6Z
9fiMAR63
99MAR63
28MAR63

159191.9
295659.Z
989639.1
151649.5
131247.4
232515.1
989419.5
983594.6
g11737.7
171Z25.8

Z5.69*95
36.31*93
36.38*95
37.77=95
34.91=19
23.75=95
13.69"~7
33.73"98
21.61*95
39.97=11

IZAPR53
22APR63
IlOUN63
13JUL63
14JUL63
12AU663
92$EP63
995EP63
195EP63
27$EP63

994126.6
995199.1
931539.~
199836.2
14483~.4
181939.7
91343~.1
Z14148.4
163114.1
179912.6

12NOV63
27NOV63
93JAN64
94JUN64
93JUL64
97JUL64
940CT64
93NOV64
18aAN65
ZgJAN65

NO. $ . E .
Q
STA RESID G
(SEC) D

SRC

SEQ
NO.

7 1 9 C 9 3 3 " 9 9 5 . 5 ROT
719
9 9 5 " 3 3 4.ZSMOS
392
9 4 8 = 9 6 5 . 5 ROT
799
919"16 ~.9
395 C 9 3 3 " 9 9 9 . 9
395
9Z6"11 9.9
719
946*95 4.5SM0$

959 91.58
9ZB 92.47
972 91.32
973 91.87
969 91.4Z
972 91.43
858 81.49

B
B
A
A
A
A
A

IS$
BCI
ISS
I55
ISS
ISS
XSS

Z74
Z75
276
177
Z78
279
289

65,39*94
fi8.99"9Z
68.89*94
79.17*95
71.86*12
65.28~93
65.15"96
71.51*97
62.91"94
59.93=97

719 C933"99
718
942*94
718
953"95
717
939"96
717 C 9 3 3 * 9 9
356 C 9 2 7 * 9 9
356
991"Z1
719
959"95
417
926*15
719
941"12

5 . 9 ROT
6.6SPAS
5.95M05
4.85M05
4.95905
6 . 9 ROT
9.S
9.9
5.5SCRT
4,55MOS

995
147
948
9Z4
912
~94
$57
9ZZ
969
911

91.88
91.55
91.32
91.66
93.88
91.69
91.95
91.94
91.37
92.96

A
A
B
B
D
A
A
C
B
C

I$5
15$
BCI
BCI
BCI
ISS
ISS
5CI
IS$
BCI

Z81
Z8Z
283
Z84
285
286
187
Z88
Z89
299

31.94"93
31.47"~7
37.98=94
14.77*~5
39.83"18
25.31*96
33.95"93
31.88=97
31.95=95
27.17*19

78.82*93
73.97*96
79.96=93
79.26"95
78.47"19
6Z.74"94
74.77*93
7Z.45"96
66.79"95
65.92*96

394
913"19
712
934*97
717
911"11
711
917"17
398
931=37
354 C 9 3 3 " 9 9
711
9Z7"11
719
959*98
799
939"17
71B C 9 3 3 * 9 9

5 . 8 ROT
B.9
5 . 8 ROT
5.6$SHI
5 . 5 ROT
5 . 4 ROT
5 . 4 ROT
4,7BCGS
4.55MOS
4.7BCGS

987
915
195
937
919
969
~8Z
9ZZ
916
916

91.47
91.83
91.67
B1.86
9Z.ll
91.86
91.68
81.66
91.37
81.78

A
B
A
B
D
B
A
B
B
C

ISS
BCI
IS5
BCI
BCI
ISS
I5$
BCI
6CI
6CI

291
292
193
194
Z95
Zfi
Z97
198
Z99
399

15Z845.4
Z11936.9
163715.1
9Z5797.9
1419Z7 3
ZII135
5
~79959 4
96953Z Z
931818 Z
Z99693 1

32.96"19
39,95"95
36.22=97
36.36*96
34.15"96
35.58"94
18.34*98
31.56"94
37.78"19
35.74"97

78.35*98
78.99*95
71.~7"98
69.14"94
74.93*97
73.4~*94
69.34"94
66.44*94
7Z.98*95
73.59"98

395 C g 3 3 " 9 9
395
993"15
717
961"99
718
927=13
711
939"16
719
949*95
719
~Z6"15
799
935*97
715
~69*19
7Z9 C 9 3 3 " 9 9

4.6BCGS
5.3SQUE
4. BCGS
4.98CGS
4. BCGS
4.76ISC
4.88ISC
5.96ISC
5 . 8 ROT
5 . 5 ROT

9ZZ
949
936
956
9Z9
951
938
949
911
9Z1

92.44 C
91.48 A
82.57 B
91.72 B
91.81B
91.58 A
91.35 C
91.61 A
99.68 C
91.51 B

BCI
BC!
ISC
I$C
ISC
I$C
ISC
ISC
EDR
EDR

3~1
392
3~3
394
395
396
397
398
399
319

gZFEB66
Z4MAR85
92APR65
93APR65
19APR55
Z4APR65
31MAY65
13JUN65
140UN65
22JUN65

155651.6
91~896.2
122647.9
935454.Z
141111 Z
199155.8
919442.9
942118.8
945913.6
954925.8

37.36"96
15.97"13
36.83"14
37.56"~4
37.64*96
35.88*95
31.65*94
33.59"13
37.34=37
36.18"93

73.14*98
67.54*98
66.66*98
73.13"95
73.34*95
65.38*94
77.99*94
69.4~'97
68.83"16
77~3"94

715
719
718
7L5
715
718
393
799
717
324

C933"9~
C933"99
946*25
~53"96
C933"99
C933"99
928"12
952=12
C933"9~
V987*96

6 . 9 ROT
4.SBEDR
5 . 5 ROT
5.3BISC
5 5SROT
5 . 5 ROT
5 . 5 ROT
4.SBEDR
4.68ISC
6.1BEDR

941
911
923
914
924
914
199
919
919
9Z9

91.94
91.41
91.78
99.73
BI.ZZ
99.98
~1.43
91.73
92.7Z
91.ZZ

B
C
B
C
B
8
A
C
D
B

EDR
EDR
EDR
ISC
EDR
EDR
I$C
EDR
ISC
15C

311
311
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
3ZE

Z8JUN65
130UL65
13NOV65
93DEC65
12DEC65
1lOAN66
24JAN66
24JAN66
140AN66
24JAN65

111459.7
2129Z9.6
961416,6
111738.5
192655.4
991399.6
911519.4
972399.8
994115.
153Z51.

17 Z 1 * 1 4
Z5 79"1'1
Z6 1 4 " 1 4
36 3 4 * 9 8
36 5 9 " 1 1
33 9 7 " 4
32 6 7 * 3
Z9 9 2 " 3
39.Z3"
6
Z9.94"
3

66.91*97
65.33"19
65.16"19
69.33"93
79.58"14
71.97"
67.49 w
69.62"
69.89"11
59.74*

719
719
719
718
718
719
799
71~
719
719

939"IZ
C919"99
C933"99
945*95
C933"99
56" 7
43 = 6
C Z6* 9
7~'16
14"19

9.9
4.88ISC
5.2BEDR
6 . 9 ROT
4. BEDR
4.8BISC
4.9B15C
5.58ISC
4.79CG$
5.9B1SC

911
924
919
135
914
Z5
79
143
I1
89

91.Z5
92.47
92.36
91.65
92.83
1.41B
1.53
1.4Z
1.83
1.34

C
B
B
B
C

EDR
I5C
EDR
ISC
EDR
ISC
ISC
I$C
15C
ISC

311
3ZZ
323
324
315
326
327
318
3Z9
339

9ZFEB66
97FE866
97FE966
97FEB66
97F9866
97FE566
97FEB66
97FEB66
98FEB66
98FE566

991999.3
942611.5
952146.
953916.1
165793.
97187-.3'.
983811.
239637.4
991131.
955398

33.69*
4
Z9.91"
3
39.13"
4
29.96 w 4
39.19"16
39.16"
8
39.19"
fi
39.25= 3
39,99*
6
39.15* 6

73.Z~*
4
69.68*
3
69.94*
4
69.86"
4
79.98"11
79.99=13
69.89*
7
69.89 t 3
69.94"
4
79.94*
8

719
37" 7
719 C 19" g
719
19"14
719 C 13* 9
719
41"19
719
59"15
719
5"19
719
18*91
719
25"19
719
14"27

5,9BX$C
6.45PA5
5.ZBISC
5.ZBISC
4.SBCGS
4.7BCGS
4.6BISC
6.4SPAS
4.1BCGS
5.1BCGS

82
219
94
99
Z5
Z9
41
ZZ
IZ
21

1.94
1.79
1.47
1,59
1.6Z
Z.19
2.39
1.71A
1.91
2.93

B
B

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
349

99FE966
13FEB66
13FEB66
14FE656
17FE966
19FEB66
94MAR66
159AR65
16HAR66
169AR66

982217.
134744,Z
199945.9
954199.
181629.4
994391.3
969911.3
9914Z8.
999817.3
174932.Z

29.95*
4
37.49"98
Z9.95*
3
Z9.94"
5
39.13"
4
37.49"96
39.91"
8

A
C
A
A
B
6
B
8
B
6

ISC
ISC
I5C
15C
ISC
I$C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

341
341
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
359

69.97"97

69.83*
73.39*99
69,67"
69.69 w
69.88"
79.45"95
69.94"
39.99 t 8 69.91"
75.91"
33.13*94
39.B5" 6 69.81"

8
4
Z
3

DEPTH
(KN)

MAGNITUDE

3 719
16*98 5.96ISC
715
9 6 3 " 1 1 4.ZBCGS
Z 719 C 9" 9 4,95ISC
4 719
31"11 4.7915C
6 719
49* 8 4.58ISC
717
935"97 4.7513C
9 719 C 3" 9 4.58ISC
B 719
19"18 4.6BI3C
7 392
33* 7 4.7815C
8 719
34"19 4.8815C

58
I.Z9
913 91.98
198
1.38
49
1.44
26
1.59
919 91.54
38
Z.69
Zl
1.94
47
1.65
Z3
1.89

A
A
C
A
A
A
A
A
C
C
B

H I S T O R I C A L AND M O D E R N S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L ASIA
APPENDIX

HAGNITUDE

SRC

SEO
NO.

197
85
15
Z9
97
3H
27
82
44

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
369

FE
REG
NO.

941839.3
915153.Z
293191.
]81153.
915499.6
231236.1
235495.7
221414.4
969848.1
134257.

21.87=96
34.91" Z
31.95" 7
39.96* 6
34.53" 5
29.97" 6
33.13 = 5
24.46 = 3
35.72* 3
28.59"16

62.32"95
73.96 = 4
58.74=19
69.93* 6
69.85" 6
69.95" 7
68.41 = 7
68.69* 3
72.97" 6
76.98"11

417
28=91
719
54" 4
719
39=16
719
6"19
799
59 = 8
719 C Z f i " 9
719 C 55 = 9
712 C 5 " 9
719
92" 5
398
53 = 7

97JUL66 199931.5
24JUL66 9 5 9 7 4 1 . 2
91AUG66 1 9 9 9 5 5 . 9
91AUG66 2 9 3 9 5 6 . 5
91AUG66 2 1 9 3 9 9 . 9
81AUG66 2 1 3 5 4 1 . 1
91AUG56 2 2 3 9 5 5 .
92AUG66 9 5 4 1 3 3 .
92AUG66 9 9 1 8 5 9 . 7
94AUG66 2 2 2 9 2 3 .

36.58=96
39.24" 8
29.97" 3
29.95" Z
39.98 = 4
Z9.73 = 6
Z9.93 = 4
29.97" 3
2 9 . 9 1 TM 4
29.88* 4

71.14=96
79.96* 9
60.72" Z
68.62" Z
68.62* 4
69.29= 7
58.8Z w 4
68.68 = 3
59.18 = 4
68.64" 6

717
9 7 9 = 9 8 4.18CGS
719 C 5 = 9 4.35CGS
719
24 = 1 5 . 5 6 1 S C
719
29" 2 5.48ISC
719
49=92 6.8SPAS
719 C 3 3 * 9 5 . 9 8 1 5 C
719
31"11 5.181$C
719
Z* 9 5 . 9 8 I S C
719
37 = 5 5 . 9 8 1 5 C
719
15"13 4.8BISC

BZ7 g Z . 2 1 C
26
2.51 B
194
1.46 A
158
1.34 A
233
2.37 A
Z5
1.47 B
98
1.69 A
58
1,91A
72
1.57 A
37
1.59 A

95AUG65
15AUG66
22AUG56
24AUG56
Z4AUG66
31AUG56
910CT66
95OCTfi6
160CT66
Z~OCT66

919392.1
921528
ZI2831.
924555.
965114.
911999.3
973839.8
121959.
992637.
995338.7

3Z.76 = 3
28.67* 2
Z5.19=44
37.35*95
29.94" 4
36.53"93
34.72 = 4
3657"97
29.99* 4
33.55" 5

7 9 . 5 1 = fi
78.93 = 3
6 1 . 8 =ZZ
73.13=95
68.53" 3
71.29*95
79.97" 6
68.59"13
68.61 = 4
78.79 = 8

384
31 = 3 5 . Z 8 1 5 C
398
5= 8 5.6BISC
353 C 9 3 3 = 9 9 4 . 7 8 I $ C
715
999w17 4 . 7 8 1 S C
719
18 = 9 4 . 8 8 I $ C
717
972=96 4.6815C
719
39 TM 7 4 . 8 8 I S C
718
9 5 9 = 1 6 4.58CGS
719
39"13 4.98ISC
394
28 = 5 4 . 7 B I S C

123
141
913
945
69
934
76
913
55
88

23OCT86
Z50CTfi6
290CT66
29OCT56
gZNOV56
12NOV66
29NOV66
98DEC66
23DEC66
29DEC66

235958.
199659.
985938.3
144654.7
995999.6
121647.Z
925947.
929797.
921123.7
213523.

29.85 = 3
29.91 = 3
27 6 9 * 3
35 9 2 " 9 3
36 82=95
25 IZ = 6
34 8 3 " 1 ~
29 38 = 4
36 4 2 * 9 3
29 8 5 " 4

68.Z4 = 3
68.79* 3
65.68* 3
79.91=94
69.57*95
68.94" 6
69.19"19
69.98* 4
79.9Z'95
68.22 = 4

719
719
719
718

92JAN67
ZBJAN67
29JAN67
Z8JAN57
19FEB57
29F9867
29F9867
21FEB67
21FEB67
26FE867

2Z1756.9
959919.3
B51638.5
9Z5835,
9546Z9.
142348.7
151839.9
123743.
991738.8
152496.1

39.69" 6
32.39 = 6
32.39 = 6
39.25"19
33.Z8" 4
33.59" 4
33.63" 2
33.65* 3
33.57 = 3
36.11=97

7~.13" 8
69.92 = 4
69.76" 8
69.69"13
75.Z9 = 7
75.42" 5
75.33" 2
75.44* 4
75.39 = 4
69.91=95

395 C 2 5 " 9
719
66" 5
719
47 = 9
719
61*23
392
21=12
392
38 = 6
392
29 TM 6
392
29 = 8
392
32" 5
718
943=98

94MAR57
Z4MAR67
25MAR67
25MAR67
26MAR67
24APR57
95MAY57
11MAY67
ZZMAY67
22HAY67

141846.8
111143.9
934599.Z
Z226Z7.4
9368Z6.
985111.9
931132.5
145957.
174121.9
191925.3

36.97=94
34.51 = 5
34,66" 4
28.57=97
27.19 = 6
37.34 = 3
35,28=98
39.33" 3
37.95=94
37.94=96

79.89"97
69.87= 9
71.97 = 8
69.36=96
67.58" 7
7Z.59* 3
59,.39"98
73.74* 3
67.98"93
58.95*94

717
799
719
353
719
715
718
719
717
717

27MAY57
Z8MAY67
39MAY67
92JUL6 ~
94AUGT,
28AUG67
11SEP67
95JAN68
99FEB58
19F9868

199548.1
129393.1
185529.4
~83239.7
A89791.4
183444.3
961299.5
964244.4
143946
179393.

36.97*92
37.55"96
31.68 = 5
33.21W 4
34.47= 4
39.36* 7
27.48 = 9
39.41" 4
Z9.89= 8
34.12"
4

11FE868
11FE858
28FE868
93HAM68
94APR68
IZAPR68
130UN68

92Z511.
Z93827.
995454.
9931215
914426.1
193353.
153742.Z

33.7 "1Z
34.15"
3
39.34 W 3
34.71* Z
24.58 = 5
36.89*94
24,61 w 7

TIME

DEPTH
(KM)

NO. 5 . E .
Q
5TA RESID G
($EC) D

LONGITUDE
(DEG=KM)

39MAR66
96APR55
15APR66
25APR55
11MAY66
13MAY66
13MAY66
Z7HAY66
11JUN66
Z~JUN66

ORIGIff

4 <CONTINUED)

LATITUDE
(DEGWKM)

DATE

815

5.3BISC
5.gBISC
9.9
4.78CGS
5.181SC
4.3B15C
4.581SC
5.981SC
4.8B15C
4.781SC

14

2.64 B
1.34 A
2.24 C
1.79 B
Z.3Z B
Z.lZ B
1.95 B
1,43 A
1.67 B
1.74 C

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

ISC

361
36Z
383
364
355
366
367
368
369
379

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ZSC
I5C
ISC
ISC
ISC

371
37Z
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
389

47
I 13 A
111
1 55 A
75
1 41A
954 91 Z5 A
941BZ
61C
27
1 57 B
919 93 36 C
52
1.37 A
912 9 1 , 1 3 C
53
1.37 A

ISC
15C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
]SC

381
38Z
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
399

4.781$C
9.9
4.98I$C
4.48CG5
4.881SC
4.781$C
6.4SUPP
5.981SC
4.9815C
4.781$C

Z1
1.85 8
19 9 . 9 3 8
35
2.99 B
16
1.83 C
54
1.75 B
29 9 1 . 1 3 8
188
1.35 A
79
1.41A
3Z
9.99 A
933 9 1 . 7 1 8

ISC
ISC
I$C
15C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

391
39Z
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
49~

955=97
54=19
45" 9
36=99
15=23
Z9* 8
9fi6=11
2"11
936*95
941"98

5.ZBCG$
4.381SC
4.95CG$
4.98ISC
4.68ISC
6.1SUPP
4.48I$C
6.1SUPP
4.88ISC
4.78CGS

914
19
12
926
59
15Z
934
Z4Z
935
926

91.67
2.19
1.45
1.38
2.15
1.68
92.73
2.95
gl.19
91.79

8
B
8
A
C
A
A
8

ISC
ISC
I$C
ISC
I$C
ISC
I$C
ISC
ISC
ISC

491
49Z
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
419

77.56=93
73.15"95
79.95" 4
75.71" 5
69.77" 7
69.93 t 9
55.43 = 7
79.25= 7
68.82 = 6
78.54 = 6

324
9Z8=92
715
948=97
719
44" 6
392
42 = 6
799
66 = 6
719 C 3 3 " 9
718
35=15
395 C 7 = 9
719
Z6"16
394
Z9*11

5.481SC
4.6815C
4.5BISC
4.881$C
5.9815C
4.2BISC
4.68CG$
5.gBISC
4.6BISC
4.98ISC

229 9 1 . 5 7
959 9Z.96
16
1.13
74
1.67
29
1.49
32
Z.59
15
1.49
64
1.81
ZZ
1.63
75
1.59

A
B
B
8
B
8
B
8
8
8

I$C
ISC
1SC
ISC
ISC
I$C
CGS
ISC
ISC
ZSC

411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
4Z3

78.g "14
78.78= 4
67.69 t 4
72.36 t 3
66.23" 4
6
99*94
66.42 = 8

392
14Z*Zl
394
Z4= 9
719
8"11
719
43 = 4
719 C 33 = g
718
914"15
719
19 = Z

4.48I$C
5.1BISC
4.781$C
5.98ISC
5.9815C
4.7815C
4,781$C

916 B I . Z 3 C
117
1.69 A
55
1.25 A
78
1.21A
78
1.64 A
955 9 2 . 9 8 8
53
2.54 B

ISC
ISC
1SC
I$C
1$C
ISC
I5C

421
4Z2
423
4Z4
425
426
427

718

719
739
718
718
719

5"11
7=1Z
47" 1
944=95

4.68ISC
5.2815C
4.9BISC
4.781SC
953=11 4 . f i 8 1 5 C
C 33 = g 5 . 9 8 I $ C
949"18 4.78I$C
32"19 5.9BISC
9 8 4 " 9 5 5.18CG$
Z7=19 4 . 8 8 I $ C

1.89
1.15
94.29
91.99
1.26
91.49
1.96
92.35
1.82
2.47

B
A
D
8
A
A
8
C

ISC

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

I5C

ISC
ISC

ISC

816

R. C. Q U I T T M E Y E R AND K. H. JACOB
APPENDIX 4 (CONTINUED}

DATE

LONGIFE
O R I G I N LATITUDE
REG
TIME
TUDE
(DEG*KM) (DEG'KM) NO.

DEPTH
{KM)

MAGNITUDE

SAC

SEO
NO.

Z.#l
9.67
3.86

C
C

ISC
ISC
ISC

428
~29
43.9

69
168
77
13Z
Wlg
957
987
937
919
139

1.25
1.89
1.73
81.39
#~.98
HI.43
91.12
91.Z9
91.54
91.86

A
A
A
A
C
A
A
5
C
A

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
I$C
ISC
ISC
ISC

431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
449

5.1516C
5.Z81SC
5.15ISC
4.88I$C
~.9
5.15CGS
5.#BISC
4.66I$C
5.2SM06
4.SBISC

135
175
196
987
19
116
53
54
69
39

91
H1
91
82
1
I
2
1

48 A
67 A
51A
13 B
85 C
98 A
33 B
59 A
95 A
9 98 A

ISC
ISC
ISC
1SC
I$C
I$C
I$C
I5C
ISC
ISC

441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
459

719
35* 5
713
6" 9
71g
28* 6
799
49" 4
353
59*#8
353
19"18
356 C 3 9 * H
719
14"11
719
76* 9
718
28*25

4.55CG$
4.8816C
5.#SMOS
5.#SMOS
4.6B1$C
4.58ISC
4.5BISC
4.8BISC
5.2SCGS
4.56CG$

25
55
58
152
923
834
II
65
2Z
15

1.14
1.95
9.83
1.15
1.#1
1.58
1.65
1.Z7
1.19
Z.43

A
A
A
A
B
C
C
A
8
C

15C
15C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
469

4.58CGS
6.55M0$
5.#SMOS
4.55MO$
4.7615C
4.781$C
4.4BNEI
5.ZBCGS
4.58M0$
5.16M0$

921
249
61
919
925
Z7
@12
14
54
152

91.46
#1.34
Z.4Z
8~.95
91.42
1.Z9
92.25
3.99
1.94
91.33

C
A
8
B
8
B
C
C
8
A

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
1$C
ISC
I$C
I5C
ISC

461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
479

91.89
91,35
91.67
~1.49
1.Z#
81.18
91.39
1o51
91.Z9
9.99

14JUN68 # 4 9 2 2 3 .
280UN68 1 9 3 9 5 ~ . 2
83JUL68 194655.

31.33"
4 7#.94 = 7 719
3 7#9
34.59"
4 79.83"
74.69"29
711
34.8H'18

ZSJULS-8
#ZAUG58
934U558
93SEP68
99SEP68
15SEP68
2655P68
28SEP58
#8OCT68
190CT68

294895.I
133323.3
14#14~o7
184812.1
~24615.
141656.2
994611
992535.8
229544.5
923328.#

3Z.23"
3
27.54"#Z
25 19* 5
36 3 B ' 9 2
28.48"~8
37.#8"93
33.73*
3
27 5 9 * 9 3
27.99*#5
37.42*#3

79.19"
3
69.92"92
6Z.87" 4
69.18"8~
65.~'95
72,57~94
69199"93
65.87"H4
65.56"99
73.11"94

718
5~" 4
353
65*84
35~
29" 1
718
#38"#4
354
##2"23
715
939*#6
799
915"98
719 C#33"99
719 9 5 6 * 1 4
715
#41=96

4.bBISC
5.78ISC
4.7815C
5.2815C
4.10UE
4.851SC
5.ZBISC
4.881SC
9.#
5.5BISC

190CT68
190CT68
390CT58
95NOV58
#5HOV68
99NOV6#
18NOV68
ZZOAN69
13FE869
18FE859

979132.4
995294.5
~49725.7
9Z9244,7
#397~8.3
134336.
959595.1
194229.
IIIIZ5.1
195124.6

37
37
37
32
32
23
33
32
24
29

73.25"94
73.27"93
73.14"84
76.48*96
76.58"11
64.73*
4
71.19"
7
59.92"
4
62.75* Z
68.28"
3

715
~39"95
715
941"95
715
955*95
3#3 C B 3 3 " ~ #
393
~*49
356
15"17
719
41" 7
719
23* 9
356
27" 1
71~
26" 7

38"93
46=93
33"93
28*95
25" 9
79" 4
24= 4
Z4" 3
99* 3
7Z* Z

~0. $ . .
Q
STA RESID G
(SEC) O

23"12 4.65I$C
28 = 7 4 . 5 8 1 5 C
88"31 4 . 6 8 1 S C

48
11
36

#3HAR69 1 4 # 3 ~ 1 . 3
#lAPR59 16362Z.
25APR69 # 7 3 6 3 5 . 8
15MAY69 2 # 3 9 4 9 . 3
813UN59 123639.2
#4JUN69 162134.7
98JUL59 162721.9
18AUG59 1 4 5 7 5 7 .
27AUG69 2 2 3 5 5 4 . 6
235EP59 lZ3156.

31.12"
39.95"
35.86"
34.62"
26.66"#6
25.5#'19
23.57"
29.89"
35.36*
38,41"

6
3
6
9

71.72" 4
67.45* 3
79.49* 2
7~.82" 2
59.52"~4
61.13"97
64.44"
7
67.43* 3
71.13"
7
69.76"19

#5NOV69
97NOV69
93DEC69
15DEC69
29DEC69
170AN79
19JAN7#
13FEB7#
#5MAR79
23MAR79

~89918.
183494,3
923149.~
H34618,1
189857.9
18339Z.
293159.5
158551.
183421.Z
915391.

36.2 "IZ
27.89*92
24.88"
6
36.33"~5
37.92"94
32.79"
4
25.39"16
24.4#*11
32.32"
4
21.69"#3

76.12"~9
69.92"#2
65.56"
7
68.45"95
71.65"95
75.64"
7
61.34"11
68.69"17
76.6t*
6
72.96"#3

324
353
356
718
717
3#3
353
71Z
3#3
314

Z4MAR7H
I#APR78
Z3APK79
3#APK79
1ZMAY79
980UN79
#8JULT#
ZTJUL7#
28JUL79
llAUG7#

154557.H
192355.~
189229.1
~32454.3
229739.
978555.7
231327.
29394~.9
963333.8
H19615.

36 3 2 " 9 3
25 3 5 " 8 3
37 5 9 * 9 3
33 Z 6 " 9 3
Z7 6 Z " 4
36 2 4 " 9 2
37 2 1 " 9 4
35.99 = 3
35.18=93
34.Z5"
5

68.86*94
66.83"83
72.54*#4
73.43*84
57.52*
4
68.99"#4
66,98"#3
72.61"
6
68.34"93
79.45"11

718
938"#6 4.68I$C
719 C933"9H 4.9816C
715
949"35 5.98ISC
719
9 3 3 " ~ 5 4.55MOS
719
11"13 4.58ISC
718
B47*94 4,75I$C
717
999"12 4.9815C
71B
45= 6 4 . 5 5 I $ C
718
9 4 5 " # 4 5.981SC
394
5*27 4.9SM05

945
873
1#6
#5#
37
952
956
43
1~1
4#

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
5
A
C

ISC
15C
ISC
ISC
I$C
I5C
ISC
I$C
I$C
ISC

471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
48~

19$EP79
18SEP79
14OCT7H
190CT79
940AN71
#8JAN71
3HOAN71
15MAR71
24MAR71
94APR71

9242Z~.
Z99228.9
9#3634.5
854811.
199129.9
Z35219.
291549.9
225718.2
133948.
961226,

29 95= 3
35 3 5 * 9 3
31 5 6 * 4
26 9 1 * 6
29 1 9 " 5
29 28 = 3
39.54 = 4
33.92*
3
39.37*
4
39.41"
4

79.4Z"
8
68.84*#4
74.5#*
7
67.93"11
59,37*
5
fi9.13* 3
78.97"
8
68.14"
5
67.86* 5
67.94*
6

719
15"11
718
B6#'95
712
44 w 7
719
29"24
719
24= 1
719
19" 8
3#8 C 5 6 " 9
799
42" 6
719
18"12
71#
7"15

5.9815C
4.9613C
5.25CG$
5.45CGS
4o7BISC
4.88ISC
4,78I$C
4.7$M03
4.TBISC
4.5SM03

34
I.ZZ B
#53 81.42 A
35
1.68 B
18
1.71C
1HZ
2.45 B
91
1.48 A
36
1.37 B
38
1.25 A
53
1.64 A
52
1.66 B

15C
I$C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
499

28APR71 1 5 1 2 4 2 . 6
#8MAY71 9 3 9 9 9 8 . 5
#9MAY71 1 9 2 6 3 4 . 2
14MAY7I 1 7 1 4 4 H ,
16MAY71 1 7 2 9 5 8 , 2
#1~UL71 143723.9
190UL71 8 6 1 9 4 ~ . 8
974UG71 1 5 2 1 4 9 .
14AUG71 2 2 1 5 5 8 .
29AUG71 1 5 1 7 # 4 . 8

34.44*
Z
29.53*
4
35.54*
Z
25.99"
8
35.19*93
36.78*95
36.36"94
35.#4*84
27 2 9 * 5
35.19"#5

73.6M" 3
68.24* 3
71.95"
Z
68.#4 w 8
77.96*98
68.4#'94
75.84*96
77.56*96
54.55"19
77.99"#8

71#
43" 3
719 C 33* g
719
82" 3
~I~
44"11
324
995=95
718
#11"17
3Z4
136"98
324
918"15
354
'~#=12
324
l~l'~g

5.ESMO$
4.96M06
5.66M05
4.56NEI
4.56ISC
4.78ISC
9.9
4.8BISC
5.ZBISC
4.4SMOS

69
87
229
Z1
847
958
912
199
23
~33

9.88
1.57
8.98
Z.H7
91.13
#1.98
#9.55
91.91
1.48
91.85

A
A
A
B
A
B
B
5
C
B

ISC
I$C
ISC
ISC
15C
13C
ISC
ISC
1SC
ISC

491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
599

985EP71 9~3325.
983EP71 125337.3
Z6$EP71 1 6 3 9 4 1 . 1
26$EP71 1 6 5 9 5 7 .
gSNOV71 1 4 5 5 5 1 . 9

33.12"
3
Z9.19*92
35.98"
6
35.85"
9
24.74*
4

69.86*
5
6~.94"~Z
72.67"
6
72.98 = 8
63.4"
5

789
25"1#
324
~34"55
71#
87" 9
71#
IEZ*IZ
356 C 5~ w B

5.ZSMOS
5,3813C
H.#
4.581$C
4.961SC

1~3
1.75
151 E l . 1 7
11
#.79
11
1.95
55
1.53

A
A
C
C
B

ISC
ISC
I5C
ISC
I5C

5#1
5BZ
5#3
594
5#5

4
3
Z
Z

949*Z1
974"95
C 33" 9
#41"11
#63*87
22"12
C833"99
C 33" #
C 33" ~
998"1~

HISTORICAL AND MODERN

S E I S M I C I T Y OF S O U T H - C E N T R A L

APPENDIX
DATE

ORIGIN
TIME

817

ASIA

4 (CONTINUED]

LATITUDE
(DEG'KM)

LONGIFE
TUDE
KEG
{DEG=KM] NO.

NO. S . E .
Q
STA RESID G
(SEC) D

SRC

SEQ
NO.

27DEC71 2 2 3 4 1 4 . 4
21DEC71 2 9 5 4 4 2 . 8
27DEC71 2 8 5 9 3 9 . 3
] 2 J A N 7 Z 183721 9
Z80AN72 1 9 2 6 5 3 . 9

35.8#'~6
35.57*24
34.98" 4
37.68"92
26.61"
3

67.87"96
74.28"84
73.82 = 5
75.87"*82
66.27" 6

718
234"89
722
gl5=ll
719
55" 5
719
296*23
712 C 3 3 * B

4.3BNEI
5.2B]$C
5.2815C
5.381$C
5.98NE1

232 8 1 . 9 9
125 8 1 . 8 2
57
1.37
ZZ5 2 1 . 2 4
31
1.42

B
A
A
A
B

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

596
597
528
529
519

Z2OANTZ
12MAR72
8ZAPR7Z
92APR72
29APR72
]IAPR7Z
17APR72
17MAY7Z
17MAY72
25MAY72

#649B9.5
]43616.9
g33428.8
275254.5
224738.2
262223.
822459.1
293935.6
128685.
212235 4

32.91" 5
33.91" 3
36,14*82
36,24*84
35.17"94
37.36"24
33.95* 3
33.13" 5
33.45"
3
37.75"85

76.23 = 9
72.72 = 5
73.69*83
73.82"26
74.7]'g5
62.97"24
7Z.86 = 5
79.]4 = 6
71.52 = 5
69.32"85

383
47"12
712
42 = 5
722
849*24
722
253"98
728
253"98
342
829*12
7]9
52 = 4
718 C 8 = #
718
17 = 9
717
828=88

4.25MOS
4.95M05
5.gSMOS
4.58]SC
4.5B]SC
4.98NEI
4.SBISC
4.8BMOS
5.25MOS
5.ZBNEI

32
83
127
257
252
259
58
15
1Z8
848

B
A
A
8
B
B
A
B
A
C

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

511
512
513
514
515
5]6
517
518
519
528

gSOUN7Z
18JUN72
16JUN72
24JUN72
24JUN72
Z5OUN7Z
ZBJUN72
27JUN72
Z7JUN72
Z7OUN7Z

t15254.1
11Z911.3
185751.6
152922.3
211758.5
975545.3
994732.7
953944.
194857.5
155935.9

29.7fi" 5
28.25"
7
35.96"23
36.28*
1
36.33"96
36.32"2Z
36.35*94
29.72 = Z
29.78"
Z
36.28"94

78.35 = 5
66.57 ~ 7
69.33*94
fi9.69* 2
69.33*95
69.22"22
69.58"25
79,25 = 2
79.23" Z
69.61"24

718
38 = 6 4 . 8 8 N E I
7 1 2 C 17" 8 4 . 5 B N E I
718 2 3 3 = 8 5 4.4BISC
718
47" 3 6.1SNEI
718
2 5 Z ' 2 9 4.SBNEI
718
2 5 3 " 2 4 4.75MOS
718
9 5 5 " 9 7 4.SBMOS
718
11 = 7 4.7SMOS
719
18" 6 4 . 5 5 M 0 5
718
235"28 4.78ISC

14
38
866
323
941
157
948
131

1.93 B
2.11 B
21.68 A
1.13 A
22.31 B
21.27 A
21.87 B
1.21A
116
1.25 A
121 2 2 . 7 7 C

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

521
5Z2
523
524
525
525
527
528
529
538

26AUG7Z
86AUG7Z
28AUG72
]7AUG72
18AUGTZ
835EP72
235EP72
23SEP72
235EP72
235EP72

811258.5
213213.
192931.5
181425.3
129395.
164829.5
172922.5
174628.2
283228.
Z38353.6

25.84"9Z
25.2 "14
25.14"23
38.75*24
24.82"21
35.94"92
35.99"94
35.94"24
36.8 "13
35.96"82

61.Z2"82
68.98"28
61,22*22
78,42"26
63.14"12
73,33*82
73.34=24
73.2Z'25
73,5 "12
73.24=22

353
236*95
353 C 8 3 3 " 2 2
353
226"22
398 C 8 3 3 " 9 2
356 C 3 3 " 2
728
245"83
722
262=89
722
862*27
722
249"22
728
846=83

5.35MO5
4.8BISC
5.gSNE[
5.281$C
4.35MO5
6.ZSNEI
4.7815C
4.5615C
5.ZBISC
5.68ISC

181
835
183
831
25
343
234
229
239
]99

81.11A
21.25
91.38
21.47
Z.Z6
8].13
81.8Z
22.92
22.51C
81.82

C
A
A
C
A
A
A

84$EP72
24SEP72
B4SEP7Z
24SEP72
84SEP7Z
245EP72
2459P72
945EP7Z
8559P72
95$EP72

295825.7
912352,4
923619.3
235123.2
123544.9
133752.3
134229.7
224429,3
23#822,3
942729.1

35.97"82
35.92=82
35.98"92
35.97"92
35.79*83
35-89=92
35.91"92
35.95~23
35,78*~7
35.95"94

73.25*23
73.37"83
73.38*23
73.32=83
73,41"25
73.32w93
73.35*82
73.51=24
73.26=87
73,39"84

729
729
722
729
728
729
728
722
722
729

252=24
253"84
849"93
259=23
254"25
241"94
257=83
252"25
259*99
249*97

5.3BISC
5.2BISC
5,1815C
5.1815C
4.88ISC
5.1BISC
5.7815C
4.8815C
4.5B15C
4.8815C

135
145
132
137
954
131
2#9
934

BSSEP7Z
96SEP7Z
275EP7Z
17SEP7Z
185EP72
235EP72
23SEP72
27SEP72
2759P72
27SEP72

891428.3
925128.
942417.4
173749.9
214292.1
972358.5
232719.2
929339.3
291828.3
292456.3

35.87"82
32 4 9 " 3
35.97"93
35.94"92
35 7 8 " 9 3
25.35" 4
25.35" 5
33.99 = Z
35.23"97
35.27*~Z

73.33*23
78.51 = 5
73.42*24
73.31"25
73.5'~4
86.75 ~ 7
66,72" 7
72.79" Z
73.59"99
72.91"23

728
394
722

958*83
14"19
254"94
949=94
257*95
C 19" 9
C 33" #
41" 3
C833"28
849"84

5.181SC
4.75M0$
4.8BISC
5.4815C
4 8815C
4 4BISC
4 5BMOS
4 5SMOS
5 2BISC
4 86ISC

glOCT7Z
28OCT72
12OCT72
13OCT72
150CT72
16OCT72
26OCT72
g3NOV7Z
#4NOV72
25NOV72

172846.8

292115.9
252449.1
144753.5
893657.1
I49555.5
235891.7
124321.9
#15418.3

34.88*
8
34.53 = 4
35.98"9Z
35.99=82
35.88=92
29.46"
7
32.g5* 7
34.11 = 3
24.34" 8
34.61 = 5

72.79" 9
73.83" 8
73.38*#Z
73.31"93
73.Z7=23
79.19" 7
75.95"1t
69.53" 3
69.44* 8
79.81" 9

1#NOV72
ZINOV72
ZZNOV72
23NOV72
29DEC72
22DEC72
28DEC7Z
12JAN73
13JAN73
]4JAN73

944723.
225115.2
189554.
125752.
241519.
132943.1
165745.8
#32233.
141438.
113926.#

34.29"
32.23"
35.82"I1
35 1 5 "
29 8 3 "
32 5 3 "
34 69"
32 5 5 "
25 5 2 "
32 9 4 "

212353.1

]6JAN73 2 1 3 1 2 5 . 9
]8JAN73 119813.1
9JAN73 9 3 1 5 4 ] . 9

6 69.61 = 9
5 69.82 = 6
74.49w]7
g 72.17" 9
8 68.58*15
3 72.75" 3
Z 7~.37" Z
4 68.33* 7
4 63,83 = 5
6 75.52* 8

7~9

722
712
718

718

729
719

DEPTH
(KM)

MAGNITUDE

712
42" 9 #.2
712 C 4 7 " B 4 . 4 B N E I
729
257"23 5.3818C
729
~69=23 5 . 2 B I $ C
728
962"93 4.9815C
712 C 3 3 " 9 2 . 8
3#3
82*18 4,4818C
799
3 8 " 4 5.4SNEZ
729 C 3 3 " 8 g . #
799
5# = 9 4 . 6 8 M 0 $
799
719
392
719
719
719
7#9
799
354
323

3 3 . 2 9 " 2 7 5 . 8 3 * Z 382
32.72"
3 6 8 . 2 9 w 3 799
3 2 . 6 9 ~ 4 6 8 . 4 9 " 6 799

15"21
46" 8
954=92
66"11
79"16
48" 5
69" 3
28"12
22"49
98" 8

2.2Z
1 58
81 46
22 22
21 97
21 12
1 46
B 57
1 93
82 27

ISC
ISC
ISC
]SC
15C
ISC
I5C
15C
ISC
ISC

531
532
533
534
535
535
537
538
539
548

838

21.32
81.14
21.24
81.25
21.53
21.Z5
99.93
21.98
81.31
99.88

A
A
A
A
8
A
A
B
B
B

ISC
]SC
ZSC
ISC
ISC
ISC
[SC
ISC
ISC
ISC

541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
559

119
74
255
184
857
41
23
193
222
278

81.88
1.16
21.13
91.53
21.45
1.85
1.76
1.93
81.89
91.44

A
A
A
A
A
8
B
A
C
A

ISC
ISC
ISC

15C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
I5C

551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
56#

A
A
C
C
A
C
C

ISC
1$C
ISC
I$C
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

56]
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
572

8
B
C
C
C
C
A
B
A
B

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
I5C
ISC

571
57Z
573
574
575
575
577
578
579
588

A
A
B

ISC
ISC
ISC

581
582
583

228

14
1.61
17
1.48
128 8 9 . 9 1 A
182 9 9 . 9 7
978 2 2 . 9 2
18
1.29
29
1,65
]45
1.39
19
1.78
18
1.8#

5.95MOS
Z9
1.55
4.4BNEI
22
1.57
5.98I$C
927 8 2 . 9 7
4.3BN91
14
1.55
4.SBISC
12
1.79
B.9
11
8.79
5.4SMOS 238
1.79
4.5BISC
36
1.46
4.7BISC
84
1.44
4.2BNEI
15
1o38

3 9 " 4 5.95MOS
a8 = 4 4 . 8 B N E I
47 = 7 4 . 5 B N E I

ISC
ISC
ISC
]5C
15C
ISC

173
45
49

1.37
1.97
1.67

C
B

ISC

818

R.c.

Q U I T T M E Y E R AND K. H. JACOB
APPENDIX 4 (CONTINUED)

DATE

ORIGIN
TIME

LATITUDE
(DEG*KM)

LONGITUDE
(DEG'KM)

FE
REG
NO.

19JAN73 1 3 3 6 4 2 . 8
190AN73 1 5 1 8 8 3 . 8
ZgJAN73 1 Z 3 4 2 0 . 1
ZSJAN73 I 2 4 6 4 5 , 8
210AN73 84424Z
Z1JAN73 9 5 2 5 Z 3 . 7
29JAN73 843298.Z

3Z.68"
5
32.75*
3
29.32"
3
29.44*
5
29.Z7*
3
Z9.38" 4
35.98"8Z

68
68
68
58
68
58
73

789
55* 9
7~9
38* 6
19" 4
718
18" Z
719
718
12"18
718 C ll*
8
7Z8
861"84

4.4815~
4.95M05
5.TSNEI
5.55M05
4.85M05
4.fiSMO5
4.78ISC

31
2.~4
9Z
1,93
143
1.44
97
2.31
186
1.28
79
1.81
852 81.17

310AN73
84F8873
88FE873
89FE873
24F8873
15MAR73
31HART3
8ZAPR73
9ZAPR73
18APR73

2Z4995.5
192558.
8ZZ883.8
145752.4
215794.
232427.8
892985.
81Z714.3
9243Z4.3
881883.

37.25*85
31.73"
9
36.64"83
35.58*
Z
26.79*
5
37.49*84
38.99"
5
27.57*85
37.73*94
33.17"
8

69.49"86
67.48"1Z
68.Z1"94
71.81*
3
65 3 8 " 9
77 5 4 * 8 8
fi5 5 7 * 1 8
61 5 7 " 8 3
59 8 3 " 9 4
75 7 8 = I 1

717
7J~J
718
718
718
321
719
353
717
38Z

836"18
45*Z8
83Z'85
83* 5
48"12
855*88
48=18
858"07
949"08
61=II

4.1BNE_
3.98NE1
4.881$C
4.5815C
4.5815C
4.88M05
4.58M05
4.7815C
4.481$C
4.4B1$C

14APR73
17APR73
Z4APR73
Z6APR73
Z7APR73
Z7APR73
29APR73
86MAY73
25MAY73
850UN73

294614.
833748.5
975438.
143885.4
854322.4
160917.
195514.8
183745.1
983953.
811927.

35 8 9 " 1 1
33 3 2 " 3
Z9 5 6 " 5
27 1 4 * 8 Z
36 5 5 = 8 6
27 9 * 1 8
29.Z8 w 3
38.39"
7
Z5.48"
7
25.85*
4

73.31*97
58.18"
3
68.25*
9
68.83"8Z
64.5Z'86
58. I5"88
68,74 = 3
57.74 w 7
66,34*
8
58.15*
5

7Z8
879"14
789
43 = 5
718
15*~7
353
942"85
342 C 8 3 3 " 9 9
353
8Z2"25
718
ZZ = 2
718
58"11
718
Z9"28
718
19"14

080UHZ3
880UN73
ZSJUN73
13JUL73
13JUL73
18JUL73
13AU573
14AUG73
39AUG73
925EP73

17578~.3
Z14955,
292226.
229338.1
ZZ5427.8
ZZ5513.2
8288Z4.
182416.
Z18425.8
972317.1

26.54*88
26.34"88
28.28"1Z
33.17"
3
33.18"
3
33,19"
6
38.81" 5
25.44 m 3
38.13"
5
24.98 = 8

61.12*85
51.93*84
56,85* 9
75.67"
3
75,71"
5
75.54"
9
58.42"
fi
55.58"
3
5 8 , 8 5 * .I
63,14"

Z75EP73
960CT73
240CT73
240CT73
Z70CT73
15NOV73
27NOV73
99DEC73
16DEC73
16DEC73

8Z9423.8
t9Z914.9
852351.8
195717 9
895838 Z
1718Z2 Z
884734 6
8Z3653 9
991614 1
198947 7

33.85 = 8
35.91"9Z
33.11"
3
33.85"
4
24.63*
9
29.25"
3
31.71"
8
35.93"8Z
32.Z8*
5
34.19 w S

72,15",8,
73.18"84
75.89*
2
75,73*
3
52.L4* 4
69,77"
3
7~.97"
4
73,35"83
76.83*
5
74.85*
5

17JAN74
22FE874
24FE874
98MAR74
ZMAR74
85APR74
87APR74
13APR74
llMAY7
15MA74

974839,Z
87963Z.6
Z13288.9
814841.7
Z84585.3
281933.4
158745.8
153439.4
234745.4
881243.8

35.51"
5
29.69*
5
38.94=97
33.18"
5
25.62"
5
37.19*82
32.84*
4
35.59"84
35.65"
9
36.41"83

ZSMAY74
#5JUL74
87JUL74
25JUL74
38JUL74
940CT74
940CT74
3~0CT74
15NOV74
15NOV74

173917.9
871752.8
295549.7
284546.8
1141Z7.4
222432.7
231549.Z
8Z3336.6
173745.8
2231Z9.Z

IfiNOV74
18DEC74
18DEC74
Z DEC74
ZSDEC74
Z8DEC74
ZSDEC74
ZSDEC74
38DEC74
]9JAN75

151835.6
195812.5
832618.4
932846.B
121143.8
I24588.5
ZZ2817.4
Z23858.9
162447.8
889824.3

DEPTH
[KM)

MAGNI- NO. S . E .
O
TUDE
$TA R E S I B G
(5EC) D

SRC

SEO
NO.

B
A
A
8
A
B
A

ISC
ISC
ISC
15C
ISC
15C
I5C

584
585
586
587
588
589
598

833 92.26
19
2.9~
853 91.55
58
1.88
27
1.78
BZ1BI.3Z
18
Z.35
879 91,39
188 9 Z . 1 8
16
1.73

C
C
B
A
8
B
C
A
B
C

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
588

4.9815C
4.781SC
4.ZBHEZ
4.85M05
9.9
4.8BQUE
5.15M05
4.68M05
5.15M05
4.8815C

B18
52
13
134
815
81Z
99
35
181
lZ

C
A
B
A
8
C
A
B
B
8

ISC
I$C
15C
ISC
ISC
ISC
15C

681
68Z
693
684
695
696
687
588
589
61~

353 C 8 3 3 * 8 8
353
827=15
718
51w15
38Z
48" 4
382
55" 5
38Z
63* 8
718
Z1"13
718
2"13
718
3"13
355 C 25" 9

4.75M05
4.4815C
4.4BISC
4.8BISC
4.4815C
4.88NE1
4.35NEI
4.55M05
4.8815C
5.38EDR

845 B1.81B
864 81.58 8
17
2.11C
74
1.ZZ A
Z5
1.11A
14
1.29 8
79
Z,13 8
186
1.95 A
42
1.22 A
3Z
9.9B A

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC
I5C
ISC
EDR

611
612
613
814
615
815
617
818
519
620

718
35* 9
7Z9
963"94
382 C 3 3 " 8
39Z
52" 5
356 C 3 3 * g

4
4
5
5
4

719
IZ
728
848"93
383 C 3 3 * 9
711
47* 9

4
5
4
5

15
1.18
849 88.99
79
9.88
32
8.88
17
8.88
Z3 8 . 8 8
13
].89
133 8 1 . Z 4
Z8
1.38
35
].~8

B
A
A
A
8
A
8
A
8
A

EDR
ISC
EDR
EDR
DR
EDR
EDR
ISC
EDR
EDR

821
6ZZ
6Z3
624
8Z5
6Zfi
6Z7
6Z8
6Z9
838

71,54"
4
67,68*
4
78,95"13
59,38"
6
56.24*
6
72,56"82
8973" 5
76,96"95
7Z.11" 8
76,76"84

718
191" 7
718 C 33x 8
388
845"16
789 C 3 3 * 8
718 C 33" 9
715
845*93
719
27" 5
324
186"88
719
38"16
324
839=85

4,888DR
5.88EDR
4.TBEDR
5.8BEDR
4.7BEDR
5.ZBISC
4.888DR
4.7BEDR
4.7BEDR
4.9515C

14
51
813
Z5
14
159
Z7
814
11
852

9.78
B1.18
91.88
1.18
1.18
81.31A
9.88
88.58
1.99
81.38

8
A
C
8
~
A
5
B
A

EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
ISC
EDR
EDR
EDR
ISC

831
532
633
634
635
636
637
538
639
548

34.58"
4
37.33"82
30.54*
4
36.86*87
35.54*
3
Z6.Z9"
Z
25.3Z*
7
35.58*
5
27.63"14
37.48*86

74
72
78
69
71
68
66
77
6Z
76

28* 4
52"83
69* 3
31"86
51" Z
54* Z
75* 6
54* 9
45"B5
9~'96

711C
33" B
715
855"83
398 C 3 3 * 8
718
877*89
718 C 78* 8
719 C 33* 8
718 C 33* 8
38Z
1B3 = 9
353
875"89
3Z1
934"Z8

4.98EDR
5.8815C
4.9BEDR
4.5815C
5.3BEDR
5.9$EDR
4.8BEDR
4.8BEDR
4.788DR
4.8815C

Z1
855
44
841
86
133
Z2
18
819
831

9.78
88.87
8.59
81.49
g.99
9.98
1.48
8.78
99.98
81.28

A
A
A
B
A
A
8
C
C
8

EDR
ISC
EDR
]SC
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR

541
542
643
644
645
646
547
648
549
558

3Z.85"
7
Z7.58"13
37.35w19
26.48"97
35.95*
3
35.13"19
35.~4"
3
35.Z1"
4
35.71~1~
3Z.44=93

76.14"
5
55.Z~
7
7Z.9Z'1~
61.24*84
7Z.87"
3
7Z.9Z*15
7Z.95*
3
73.99*
4
71.9~"95
78.68=B3

3J3
63"13
718
43"11
715
848"34
353
987"13
719
ZZ" 8
718 C 33* 8
729 C 33* 8
729 C 33* 8
717
848=18
394
859*95

4.SBEDR
4.5BEDR
4.3BEDR
5.98EDR
6.ZSEDR
5.88EDR
5.gEEDR
5.SBEDR
4.9BEDR
5.38EDR

Zg
11
gll
8Z1
119
]Z
29
13
815
867

B.7B
1.Zg
81.19
89.78
8.99
8.98
9.78
8.58
98.88
88.98

B
C
C
B
A
C
8
B
B
A

EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDK
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR

551
852
653
654
855
555
857
858
659
6fi8

38" 9
37* 5
59" 3
62" 7
68" 3
56* 5
32"84

98EDR
8815C
48EDR
gBEDR
78EDR
1BEDR
6BEDR
1BISC
9BEDR
ZBEDR

81.27
1.89
1.85
91.13
81.50
82.88
1.77
Z.Z3
2.73
1.89

ISC

ISC
15C

ISC

ISC
ISC
ISC
ISC

ISC

819

HISTORICAL AND MODERN SEISMICITY OF SOUTH-CENTRAL ASIA


APPENDIX

DATE

ORIGIN
TIME

4 (CONTINUED)

LATILONGITUDE
TUDE
(DEG'KM) ( D E G ' K M )

FE
REG
NO.

DEPTH
(KM)

MAGNITUDE

78.43"83
78.64"93
78,64"83
73.83"85
78 5 7 " 9 6
78 5 1 " 8 6
68 6 3 " 9 6
78 7 3 " 8 6
78 6 4 " 9 5
78 5 8 " 8 8

384
394
384
7Z8
384
384
718
384
384
384

C933"88
C833"98
C833"89
C833"98
948"98
851"98
C933"88
C933"98
C933"8~
C833"88

19OAR75
190AN75
19JAN75
Z JAN75
ZgJAN75
2ZJAN75
27JAN75
27JAN7~
Z7JAN75
Z70AN75

988282.5
881298.1
139436.6
99Z758.9
118553.9
172638.1
8~298~.9
981818.7
99Z337.8
134138,8

3Z
31
3Z
35
3Z
31
29
3Z
3Z
3Z

46"84
95"85
13"83
18"94
58"85
99"94
81"89
46*84
93"94
3Z'99

Z9JAN75
31JAN;~
91FE875
9ZFEB75
28FEB75
l~MAR75
16MAR75
ZZHAR75
Z3MAR75
24MAR75

1549Z5.9
148411,8
181658.8
191499.7
185549.5
838783.4
]8Z388.7
153215.4
811934,4
853346.6

31.88"87
3Z.4Z'87
35.97"95
3Z,68"94
37.18"87
3Z.ZI*g5
29.63"84
Z9.97"83
35.47"92
29.55"84

78
78
7Z
78
71
78
68
68
74
68

Z6MAR75
81APR75
87APR75
14APR75
15APR75
Z3APR75
ZBAPR75
Z8APRT5
28APR75

195622.2
161844.8
864181.4
918534.5
894432.7
9997Z6.8
891981.5
118643.5
138559.6

38.88"93
31,88"87
34,94"95
36.ZZ'84
29.84"89
35.87"87
35.67"89
35.8Z'93
35.68"Z8

68.93"83
78.47"88
73.85"85
69 4 6 " B Z
69 3 5 " 9 4
73 Z 4 " 8 9
79 9 4 " 1 Z
79 9 2 " 8 2
79 9 5 " 1 8

(1965)

49"94
48"85
98"86
53"94
56"85
78"85
5Z'96
98"8Z
42"84
68"83

NO. S . t .
Q
STA RESID G
(SEC) D

SRC

SEQ
NO.

6.8SPAS
6.BBEDR
5, BEDR
4.8BEDR
4.BBEDR
4.7BEDR
4.1BEDR
5.BBEDR
4, BEDR
4.8BEDR

188
966
841
8Z8
843
BZ4
917
911
9Z6
913

81.58
89,89
89.79
81.89
91.18
89.98
81.48
88,79
81.Z8
~1.68

A
A
A
B
B
B
B
C
B
C

EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR

661
66Z
663
664
665
tiff6
667
668
669
678

385 C 9 3 3 " 9 9
384 C 8 4 5 * 9 8
7Z9 879"19
394
9ZI'IZ
717
975"13
384
849"18
719
835"96
719
84Z'85
729 C 8 3 3 " 9 9
718
8Zfi'13

4. BEDR
4.6BEDR
4.9BEDR
5.1BEDR
5.1BEDR
4, BEDR
5.ZBEDR
5.1BEDR
4.8BEDR
5.5BEDR

816
81Z
919
938
9Z8
924
968
867
91Z
983

88.79
89.68
99,88
88.99
89.78
88.99
98.89
88,88
89.59
88.98

B
B
B
A
B
B
A
A
C
A

EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR

671
57Z
673
574
675
676
577
678
679
688

718
385
719
718
718
7Z8
384
384
384

4.3BEDR
4.7BEDR
5.BBEDR
4.3BEDR
4.8BEDR
4.8BEDR
4.8BEDR
6.3SEDR
4.8BEDR

B1Z
819
9=Z
81Z
818
811
815
1Z9
812

88.68
81.18
88.88
98.58
81.98
88.68
81.79
99.98
81.18

8
C
8
C
B
C
C
A
D

EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR
EDR

681
68Z
683
584
685
686
687
688
689

847"84
C833"88
837"17
868"95
C833"89
879"I1
C833"98
C933"88
853"41

(1)

FLINN-ENGDAHL

(Z)

MAGNITUDE-A VALUE OF " B . 8 " S I G N I F I E S THE MAGNITUDE IS UNDETERMINED.


TYPE:
S - SURFACE-VAVE MAGNITUDE
B - BODY-WAVE MAGNITUDE
SOURCE:
GTR
GUTENBERG AND RICHTER ( 1 9 5 4 ) , THEIR CATAGORY "D" IS
ASSIGNED M ' 5 . 6
DBN - DETERMINED FROM D E B I L T ( D B N ) STATION DATA
UPP - DETERMINED FROH UPPSALA ( U P P ) STATION DATA
UDA - AVERAGE OF VALUES DETERMINED FROM UPP AND DBN DATA
UCA - AVERAGE OF VALUES DETERMINED FROM UPP AND GRANADA ( C R T ) DATA
UPA - AVERAGE OF VALUES DETERMINED FROM UPP AND PRAGUE { P R A ) DATA
GGR - GELLER AND KANAHORI 1 1 9 7 7 )
ROT - ROTHE ( 1 9 6 9 )
CGS - U . S . COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY
ISC - BULL. OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEISMIC CENTRE
BCI - BULL. OF THE BUREAU CENTRAL INTERNATIONAL DE SEISMOLOGIE
EDR - EARTHQUAKE DATA REPORTS
NEI - NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION CENTER

REGION NUMBER

(3)

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE ARE GIVEN


THE VALUE AFTER THE ASTERISK ( * )

IN DECIMAL DEGREES.
IS THE STANDARD ERROR IN KM.

(4)

THE VALUE FOLLOWING THE ASTERISK ( ' )


THE LETTER "C" BEFORE A DEPTH VALUE
STRAINED AT THE GIVEN VALUE.

(5)

QUALITATIVE

(6)

ISS

IS THE STANDARD ERROR IN KM.


INDICATES THE DEPTH WAS CON-

GRADE - A (GOOD) TO D (NO RELOCATION POSSIBLE)

INTERNATIONAL SEISMOLOGICAL SUMMARY (OR ITS PREDECESSOR,


BULLETIN OF THE B R I T . ASSOC. ADV. SCIENCE, SEISMOLOGICAL
BCI
BUREAUCENTRAL INTERNATIONAL DE SEISMOLOGIE
EDR - EARTHQUAKE DATA REPORT
ISC -t INTERNATIONAL SEISMIC CENTRE

THE MONTHLY
COMMITTEE)

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821

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822

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LAMONT DOHERTY GEOLOGY OBSERVATORY OF
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
PALISADES, NEW YORK 10964 (R.C.Q., K.H.J.)
CONTRIBUTION NO. 2816
Manuscript received July 6, 1978

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES


COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
PALISADES, NEW YORK 10964 (R.C.Q.)