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Chapter 22 Urbanization and Sustainable Cities

1. Urbanization began to grow especially quickly after the


A. development of agriculture.
C. beginning of the twentieth century.
B. invention of commerce and religion.
D. industrial revolution.
E. invention of record keeping.
Answer: D
Question Classification: Knowledge

2. The most useful definition of a city, rural area, or village is based on


A. the land uses involved.
B. functions.
C. the geographical area.
D. the size of the land used.
E. the size of the population.
Answer: B
Question Classification: Comprehension

3. Historically, ________ of the worlds population has always lived in _______, at least since the beginning of
written history.
A. at least half; urban areas
B. at least half; rural communities
C. the vast majority; urban areas
D. the vast majority; rural communities
E. a small percentage; rural communities
Answer: D
Question Classification: Comprehension

4. In rural areas, the majority of people


A. are involved in harvesting natural resources.
B. work in trade and manufacturing.
C. are economically dependent on cities.
D. work in goods exchange.
E. work in information exchange.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

5. When you first met your roommate, she said she missed the connectedness of the people in the area where she
lived. Your roommate probably lived in a(n)
A. city.
B. urban area.
C. suburb.
D. urban farm.
E. rural village.

Answer: E
Question Classification: Comprehension

6. A collection of rural households linked by custom, culture, or family, is known as a(n)


A. city.
B. urban area.
C. megacity.
D. urban farm.
E. rural village.
Answer: E
Question Classification: Knowledge

7. Cities are distinguished by their


A. sheer size.
B. differentiated, specialized jobs and functions.
C. large groups of interdependent households.
D. strong traditions and cultural character.
E. dependence on natural resource-based occupations.
Answer: B
Question Classification: Knowledge

8. A city with a population greater than ______ is considered a megacity.


A. 1 million
B. 200 thousand
C. 10 million
D. 30 million
E. 1 billion
Answer: C
Question Classification: Knowledge

9. An example of a megacity is
A. Mexico City, Mexico.
B. Los Angeles, USA.
C. Tokyo, Japan.
D. Calcutta, India
E. All of these.
Answer: E
Question Classification: Knowledge

10. The current urbanization experience of many developing countries is similar to the United States __________
that occurred in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.
A. demographic rural shift
B. demographic transformation
C. rural-to-urban shift
D. urban-to-rural shift
E. demographic transition

Answer: C
Question Classification: Comprehension

Curve A
Perc
ent
of
Worl
d
Popu
latio
n

Curve B
C

Year

11. Based on your knowledge of the history of urban and rural populations, Curve A in the graph above reflects the
US
A. rural population.
B. suburban population
C. urban population.
D. urban core population.
E. baby boom.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Application

12. If urbanization had continued to level off significantly (as in C), which of the following scenarios would best
reflect what would have happened to curve A in the graph above?
A. Curve A would be the same as it is now.
B. Curve A would decrease significantly.
C. Curve A would increase significantly.
D. Curve A would also level off.
E. It is not possible to predict what would happen with the data provided.
Answer: D
Question Classification: Application

13. The principal problem with rapid urban growth, especially in developing countries, is
A. finding skilled labor.
B. physically finding room for people to live.
C. the building of infrastructure cannot keep up with increasing needs.
D. the air and water pollution problems.
E. All of these are equally difficult.
Answer: C
Question Classification: Knowledge

14. Natural increase is an especially important factor in urban areas of


A. Latin America and Asia.
B. the United States.
C. Europe.

D. the former Soviet region.


E. Africa.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

15. Natural increase factors in urban growth result from __________ while immigration results from ___________.
A. improved medical care; better sanitation
B. better sanitation; improved medical care
C. improved medical care; push and pull factors
D. push and pull factors; improved medical care
E. push and pull factors; better sanitation
Answer: C
Question Classification: Knowledge

16. Which of the following is a push factor for urban growth?


A. jobs in rural manufacturing
B. unemployment in farming communities
C. better access to education at big universities
D. high unemployment in cities
E. opportunities for specialization in an occupation
Answer: B
Question Classification: Knowledge

17. Which of the following is a pull factor for urban growth?


A. Jobs in rural manufacturing.
B. Unemployment in farming communities.
C. Better access to education at big universities.
D. High unemployment in cities.
E. None of these is a pull factor for urban growth.
Answer: C
Question Classification: Knowledge

18. Televisions and other mass media contribute to urban growth because
A. people must move close to town to get TV reception.
B. there are so many jobs in media.
C. TV is used to advertise about labor shortages.
D. TV makes urban life appear luxurious and accessible.
E. TV educates people about the drawbacks of living in rural areas.
Answer: D
Question Classification: Knowledge

19. Which of the following statements is false?


A. Even crowded, squalid living conditions in expanding Third World cities are sometimes better than what people
left in the countryside.

B. When governments set commodity prices to make urban life easier, rural populations often suffer, leading to
further migration to cities.
C. Agricultural mechanization is a major pull factor in urbanization of developing countries.
D. Political instability can play a major role in urban growth.
E. All of these are true.
Answer: C
Question Classification: Comprehension

20. Air pollution in major cities of developing countries is


A. usually negligible.
B. responsible for extremely high rates of respiratory diseases.
C. rapidly becoming less of a problem.
D. not well understood.
E. decreasing because of the use of scrubbers and other technologies.
Answer: B
Question Classification: Knowledge

21. The diseases that are caused by water pollution in the major cities of developing countries are mainly due to the
A. lack of waste treatment systems to accommodate the population.
B. high amount of runoff that includes pesticides, fertilizers, and animal waste.
C. high number of industries that dump their wastes into surface water.
D. practice of swimming in water contaminated by toxic chemicals.
E. high use of pesticides and fertilizers by urban residents.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Comprehension

22. Slums are usually dwelling places that are


A. illegal and built by squatters.
B. legal but have inadequate living conditions.
C. small but up to city code.
D. condemned by the city but illegally occupied.
E. on undeveloped lands in the outskirts of a city.
Answer: B
Question Classification: Knowledge

23. The principal difference between shantytowns and slums is that shantytowns are
A. maintained by the city.
B. built by the city but condemned.
C. illegal and built by residents.
D. legal but below code.
E. built on land that the residents own.
Answer: C
Question Classification: Comprehension

24. Squatter towns are often dangerous places to live because the land they are on is commonly
A. unstable, polluted, or near industrial sites.

B. owned by powerful political figures.


C. in the densest parts of the city.
D. close to new building construction zones.
E. close to major highways.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

25. Which of the following statements is false?


A. Most future urban growth is expected to occur in developing countries.
B. Rural areas are always safer places to live, in terms of violent crime, than urban areas.
C. Squatter towns, while illegal, are sometimes very large and highly organized places.
D. Shantytowns are found in the developed and developing world.
E. All of these are true.
Answer: B
Question Classification: Comprehension

26. The main problem facing major US city centers is


A. the growth of shantytowns.
B. runaway air pollution and an absence of sewage treatment facilities.
C. the loss of tax dollars and jobs to the suburbs.
D. a great deal of new infrastructure and no population to use it.
E. All of these are problems associated with urban city centers.
Answer: C
Question Classification: Comprehension

27. When compared to less-developed countries, shantytowns are _________ found in more developed countries
due to the ____________.
A. not; lack of poverty
B. also; same conditions of poverty and lack of infrastructure
C. not; high levels of public support for a nations poor
D. also; lack of initiative among poorer people
E. not; strict land use codes
Answer: B
Question Classification: Comprehension

28. In many US cities, poor, undereducated, minority, and other less powerful groups are often concentrated
A. in urban centers.
B. at city margins.
C. outside of the city entirely.
D. in a ring of satellite settlements around a city.
E. None of these, usually the poor, undereducated, minority, and other less powerful groups are distributed
throughout the area.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

29. Texas colonias are examples of

A. urban redesign projects in the United States.


B. shantytowns in the United States.
C. rural ghost towns resulting from rapid migration to cities.
D. sustainable projects in the United States to help urban people help themselves.
E. public housing projects built in the past.
Answer: B
Question Classification: Knowledge

30. The Lake Calumet Industrial District on Chicagos South Side is an excellent example of the cleanup
A. and use of brownfields.
B. of a shantytown.
C. and elimination of a squatter town.
D. and elimination of a shantytown.
E. that results from laws and regulations.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Application

31. What is the source of funding for the cleanup of projects in The Lake Calumet Industrial District?
A. State funds for job retraining.
B. Local residents have raised the funds through donations.
C. Federal funds from CERCLA.
D. Federal funds from RCRA.
E. Fines levied on companies for illegal dumping.
Answer: E
Question Classification: Knowledge

32. One of the most important things influencing land use is the
A. building of mass transit systems.
B. original zoning in a city.
C. siting of cities.
D. siting of industry.
E. building of freeways.
Answer: E
Question Classification: Comprehension

33. Traditional suburban development does not


A. consist of only house lots and streets.
B. typically consist of identical parcels of land without open space.
C. facilitate social interactions among neighbors.
D. consume agricultural land and wildlife habitat.
E. All of these are characteristics of traditional suburban development.
Answer: C
Question Classification: Comprehension

34. Suburbs are known for


A. uniform, single family detached houses.

B. affordable housing for minorities.


C. presence of artistic and cultural opportunities.
D. creating a sense of community and identity.
E. independence from an automobile.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

35. The emphasis in the United States traditional suburban development is on ____. This is reflected by the _____.
A. flexible housing; variety of living arrangements supported by most suburban zoning ordinances
B. walking; pedestrian-friendly streets
C. social interactions; pedestrian-friendly streets and parks
D. ease of shopping and running errands; nearby availability of goods and services
E. the automobile; prominent streets, garages, and driveways
Answer: E
Question Classification: Comprehension

36. New towns are designed to


A. accommodate the reliance most people have on the automobile.
B. improve the efficiency of industrial areas in urban centers.
C. separate income classes to prevent crime.
D. incorporate open space with the convenience of living in an urban area.
E. urbanize rural communities.
Answer: D
Question Classification: Comprehension

37. Curitiba, Brazil, is famous for its


A. creative solutions to environmental problems.
B. runaway population growth.
C. particularly disastrous rainforest destruction.
D. complete environmental breakdown due to uncontrolled industry.
E. revitalized city nightlife.
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

38. Nearly half of the worlds population currently lives in cities.


A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Question Classification: Knowledge

Short Answer/Essay Question:


39. Describe three push and three pull factors that have influenced the demographic shift from rural areas to urban
areas (2 points for each accurately identified factor).

40. Consider the following statement: A city is like an ecosystem. Discuss why or why you do not agree with this
statement and provide supporting evidence in your explanation (use the relationships discussed in chapters 2 and 3
to compare and/or contrast cities and ecosystems).
Answer: For a total of 15 points (Note: The numbers can be changed to fit your assessment needs.)
15 =
Provided at least three accurate comparisons and Supported the comparisons with accurate evidence
AND/OR Provided at least three accurate contrasts and Supported the contrasts with accurate evidence;
Communicated effectively with a well written summary
10 =
Provided at least two accurate comparisons and Supported the comparisons with accurate evidence
AND/OR Provided at least two accurate contrasts and Supported the contrasts with accurate evidence;
Communicated with a fairly well written summary
5=
Provided at least one accurate comparison and Supported the comparison with accurate evidence AND/OR
Provided at least one accurate contrast and Supported the contrast with evidence; Communicated with a
poorly written summary
0=
Provided an inaccurate comparison and Supported the comparison with inappropriate evidence AND/OR
Provided an inaccurate contrast and Supported the contrast with inappropriate evidence; Communicated
with a poorly written summary