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Chapter 5

Question 1
a)

= 0.1666

b)

= 0.5

c)

= 0.333

d)

=1

e) P(greater than 3 and odd number)


P(>3) + P(odd) P(>3 and odd)

f)

= 0.8333

P(greater than 3 and odd)


=

= 0.1666

Question 2
n = 325 + 406 + 203 + 732 + 1021 + 97
= 2784

a) Home

=
= 0.335
b) Business

=
= 0.6645

c) First class letter

=
= 0.3796

d) An advertisement

=
= 0.5126

e) Magazine

= 0.1078

f) P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A & B)

+
=

= 0.8103

g) P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A & B)

+
=

=
= 0.5984

h)

= 0.0348

i)
= 0.1167

j) P(A/B)

=
= 0.4358

k) P(A/B)

=
= 0.3233

Question 3
N = 8 + 12 + 3 + 5 + 15 + 2
= 45
a) Cashier

=
= 0.2889

b) Stock clerk

=
= 0.6

c) Deli personnel

=
= 0.1111

d) Married

=
= 0.5111

e) Not married

=
= 0.4889

f) Married and stock clerk

= 0.2667

g) Deli personnel and not married

= 0.4444

h) P(A/B)

=
= 0.3478

i) P(A/B)

=
= 0.5556

Chapter 6 and 7
Question 1
a) A discrete random variable can assume only certain clearly separated values which is
usually the result of counting but a continuous random variable can assume an infinite
number of values within a given range which is usually the result of some type of
measurement.
b) Two examples of a discrete random variable
i.
The number of students who wear spectacles in this class
ii.
The number of red beans in the basket
c) Two examples of a continuous random variable
i.
The length of each rope used to tie the bundles
ii.
The weight of each ball on the table
d) Probability distribution is a listing of all the outcomes of an experiment and the
probability associated with each outcome.
Example :
The probabilities of obtaining x marks in four exams are shown below.
x
0
1
2
3
4

P(x)
0.625
2.500
3.750
2.500
0.625

Question 2
a) Variance and standard deviation
x

P(x)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0.262
0.393
0.246
0.082
0.015
0.002
0.000
Total

0
0.393
0.492
0.246
0.060
0.010
0
1.201
= 1.201

= 1.4424
= 0.0404
= 0.6384
= 3.2364
= 7.8344
= 14.4324
= 23.0304

Variance
= 0.9626
Standard Deviation

= 0.9811

b) P(x>4)
P(x = 5) + P(x = 6)
= 0.002 + 0.000
= 0.002
c) P(2<x<5)
P(x = 3) + P(x = 4)
= 0.082 + 0.015
= 0.097

Question 3
a) Characteristics of normal probability distribution

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

0.262 = 0.3779
0.393 = 0.0159
0.246 = 0.1570
0.082 = 0.2654
0.015 = 0.1175
0.002 = 0.0289
0.000 = 0
= 0.9626
= 0.9626

i.

The normal probability distribution is bell shaped and the mean, median and
mode are all equal and are located in the center of the distribution.

ii.

The distribution is symmetrical about the mean. A vertical line drawn at the
mean divides the distribution into two equal halves and these halves possess
exactly the same shape.

iii.

It is asymptotic which is the tails of the curve approach the axis but never
actually touch it.

iv.

It is completely described by its mean and standard deviation. This indicates that
if the mean and standard deviation are known, a normal probability distribution
can be constructed and its curve drawn.

v.

The family of normal distribution means there is a different normal probability


distribution for each combination of and s.

b) Similarities and differences between normal and standard normal distribution.


The normal and standard distribution is both used to collect data. The
differences are the normal distribution is used for large samples whereas the standard
normal distribution is used for small samples. The standard normal distribution is a
normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. The normal
distribution has a symmetrical mean. Any normal distribution can be converted to the
standard normal distribution with the formula

The actual distribution is converted to a standard normal distribution using a z


value where the z is the signed distance between a selected value designated x, and the
population mean, , divided by the population standard deviation,

Question 4
a) P(0<z<2.16)

0 2.16
2.16 = 0.4846

= 0.4846 0.000
= 0.4846

b) P(-1.87<z<0)

-1.87 0
-1.87 = 0.4693
= 0.4693 0.000
= 0.4693

c) P(-1.87<z<2.16)

-1.87 0 2.16
-1.87 = 0.4693
2.16 = 0.4846
= 0.4846 0.4693
= 0.0153

d) P(1.72<z<1.98)

0 1.72 1.98

1.72 = 0.4573
1.98 = 0.4761
= 0.4761 0.4573
= 0.0188
e) P(-2.17<z<0.71)

-2.17

0 0.71

-2.17 = 0.4850
0.17 = 0.0675
= 0.4850 0.2611
= 0.2239
f) P(z>1.77)

0
1.77 = 0.4616
= 0.5 0.4616

1.77

= 0.0384

g) P(z<-2.37)

-2.37 0
-2.37 = 0.4911

h) P(z>-1.75)

-1.75 0

1.75 = 0.4599
= 0.5 0.4599
= 0.0401

i) P(z<2.03)

0
2.03 = 0.4788

2.03

j) P(z>-1.02)

-1.02 0
1.02 = 0.3461
=0.5 0.3461
= 0.1539

Question 5

= 53

a) Greater than 59 inches

=
= 1.5
= 0.4332

1.5

b) Less than 45 inches

=
= -2
= 0.4772

-2

c) Between 50 and 55 inches

= - 0.75

= 0.5

-0.75 = 0.2734
0.5 = 0.1915
= 0.2734 + 0.1915
= 0.4649

-0.75 0 0.5

d) Between 58 and 62 inches

= 1.25

=2.25

1.25 = 0.3944
2.25 = 0.4878
= 0.4878 0.3944
= 0.0934

0 1.25 2.25