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UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS AND LAW

FACULTY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

TEAM PROJECT

DEVELOPING NEW INSTANT NOODLE BRAND FOR


VINAACECOOK IN SOUTH AFRICA
SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

LECTURER: M.A. NGUYEN CONG HOA


CLASS: K11402T
MEMBERS:
Duong Hang Anh, St. Code: K114020096
Nguyen Hoang Anh Duy, St. Code: K114020109
Do Thi Bich Nghiem, St. Code: K114020160
Bui Anh Tu. St. Code: K114020350
Dang Ba Anh Thi, St. Code: K114020192

HO CHI MINH CITY, MAY 2014

REVIEW OF THE LECTURER


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Since its inception in 1995, Acecook Vietnam Joint Stock Company has been
developing dramatically and becomes a leading manufacturer of foodstuffs in
Vietnam. Acecook Vietnam, attained a strong position in the market while providing
instant processed products with high quality and nutritional values. The companys
goal is to become one of the world leading manufacturers of instant noodles and
processed foodstuffs. Over 20 years of growth and development, at present,
Acecook Vietnam operates 10 factories throughout Vietnam. Products of Acecook
Vietnam are sold in over 40 countries throughout Asia, Europe, America, Africa and
Middle East such as pouch, cup, bowl and tray of instant noodles, instant vermicelli,
instant rice noodles, etc. And now the next target is South Africa, which is one of
the most sophisticated and promising emerging markets globally and is also one of
the highest ranking developing economies, surpasses countries such as Hungary,
Italy, Brazil and Thailand. The question is, how VinaAcecook can enter South
African competitive and potential market? With which product? How to compete
against existing competitors?
In the report, through statistics and information obtained from reliable
governmental organizations source and pieces of research about South African
market, we will construct the strategy for MISUP VinaAcecooks instant noodle
brand to attract consumers and play a strategic role in the industry. In the first part
of the report is the overall analysis of South African external environment:
political/legal, economic, competitive, level of technology, structure of distribution,
geography and infrastructure and cultural forces, which will help realize the pros
and cons of the countrys economy and have the matching solutions. In the second
part is the analysis of the strategies chosen based on 4Ps and consumer behavior
theory with consideration about the elements of external environment, especially
the culture. This is the core part of the report, which decide the position of MISUP
and VinaAcecook in the market for long term, which also in some aspects,
determine Vietnamese image globally.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
REVIEW OF THE LECTURER...............................................................................2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.......................................................................................3
TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................4
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION..............................................................................5
1.1.

Purpose........................................................................................................5

1.2.

Scope............................................................................................................ 5

1.3.

Methodology................................................................................................5

1.4.

Limitations...................................................................................................5

CHAPTER 2: FOREIGN ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS.........................................6


2.1.

Political/Legal..............................................................................................6

2.2.

Economic.....................................................................................................7

2.3.

Cultural forces..............................................................................................9

2.4.

Competitiveness.........................................................................................10

2.5.

Level of technology...................................................................................10

2.6.

Structure of distribution.............................................................................10

2.7.

Geography and infrastructure.....................................................................12

CHAPTER 3: MARKETING MIX.........................................................................13


3.1.

Product Strategy.........................................................................................13

3.2.

Distribution................................................................................................14

3.3.

Promotion...................................................................................................15

3.4.

Price...........................................................................................................17

CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION................................................................................18
REFERENCES........................................................................................................19

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1.

Purpose
The aim of this study is to help VinaAcecook introduce the position of its

new brand MISUP to the South African urban instant noodles market. This
research also intends to gain MISUP a competitive position against Maggi (the most
popular instant noodle brand in South Africa) and other competitors.
1.2.

Scope
The project sought to examine the key issues associated with instant noodle

consumption in South Africa. The results loosely base on data and practice of South
African instant noodle markets and the economic potentiality of South African
market. The research will give an overview of South African external environment
together with the effects of the countrys culture. The object mostly concentrated is
the instant noodle market with overall analysis of competitors, suppliers,
distributorsincluded in the 4Ps strategies.
1.3.

Methodology
The South African market is investigated in three fields: marketing research,

consumer behavior and marketing mix. We base on the theories from the three fields
to facilitate the discussion of our research. Through marketing research, we have an
overall description of South African environment and identify the market target and
the market position for the product. The consumer behavior theory analysis supports
our decision in promotion campaign and in how to approach targeted consumers.
The marketing mix is the core part in our report. We have attempted to build the
strategies for MISUP under the guidance of the 4Ps and provide our
recommendations on the four aspects.
1.4.

Limitations
The foundations of our research are the theories and statistics obtained from

South African government official organizations. However, we do not have the


capability to conduct a survey to gain a thorough insight into South Africa
consumption behavior. Furthermore, the study do not focus substantially on the
influence of cultural and geographical in the strategies. And we also do not have the
accessibility to the financial capability of VinaAcecook when invest in South Africa
to adjust the 4Ps strategies for MISUP.

2.1.

CHAPTER 2: FOREIGN ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS


Political/Legal
South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of

government and an independent judiciary. The national, provincial and local levels
of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, and
are defined in the Constitution as "distinctive, interdependent and interrelated".
The Republic of South Africa held its first universal suffrage elections in
April 1994. The ANC is South Africas most supported political party, and can be
seen to be central to the maintenance of peaceful relations between the differing
racial groups (specifically between the white and black ethnicities), the
unprecedented growth of the national economy, and its many initiatives to develop
previously disadvantaged peoples and communities. ANC holds a majority of 65%
under South Africa's proportional representation system, and governs eight of the
countrys nine provinces. In December 2012, President Zuma was re-elected as the
ANC President and the presidential candidate for the 2014 election.
The leadership of the ANC was, undoubtedly, of key importance in South
Africas transition to the liberal, human rights orientated constitution that South
Africans enjoy today: South Africas constitution has been hailed as the most
progressive and liberal in the world (truly an achievement of which the nation can
be proud).
As for South Africas legislation, they face a few boundaries with their
mixed/ hybrid legal system. It is composed of interweaving a number of distinct
legal traditions such as: civil law of the Dutch, common law of British, and an
indigenous law system from African Natives. With these traditions having a
complex interrelationship, the procedural aspects of the legal system still
prominently prevail to be correlated with the Roman-Dutch legal system. Due to
this, their court system is organized hierarchically, and consists of Magistratess
Court, High Courts, a Supreme Court of Appeal, and a Constitutional Court. The
Constitutional Court has the highest authority in all matter. With a world-class and
progressive legal framework, South African legislation governing commerce, labour

and maritime issues is particularly strong, and laws on competition policy,


copyright, patents, trademarks and disputes conform to international norms and
standards
2.2.

Economic
The economy of South Africa is the largest in Africa, it accounts for 24% of

its gross domestic product in terms of purchasing power parity, and is ranked as an
upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. South Africa is currently
included, along with China, Brazil and India, in group of nations with emerging
economies collectively known as BRICS. In addition, South Africa is the foremost
member of SADC (the Southern African Development Community), an intergovernmental organization formed to further social co-operation and integration
amongst its 15 member states, as well as create political and security co-operation
in the southern African region.
South Africa has a comparative advantage in the production of agriculture,
mining and manufacturing products relating to these sectors. The country's
economy is diversified with key economic sectors including mining, agriculture and
fisheries, vehicle manufacturing and assembly, food processing, clothing and
textiles, telecommunication, energy, financial and business services, real estate,
tourism, transportation, and wholesale and retail trade.
South Africas success in reforming its economic policies is probably best
reflected by its GDP figures, which reflected of uninterrupted economic growth
between 1993 and 2007, when GDP rose by 5.1%. With South Africas increased
integration into the global market, there was no escaping the impact of the 20082009 global economic crisis, and GDP contracted to 3.1%. While the economy
continues to grow, driven largely by domestic consumption, growth is at a slower
rate than previously forecast. It is projected to grow at 2.7% in 2013, 3.5% in 2014
and 3.8% in 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity) (Billion $)

Under its inflation-targeting policy, implemented by the South African


Reserve Bank (SARB), prices have been fairly steady. In January 2013, the annual
consumer inflation rate was 5.4%, dipping from December 2012's 5.7%. Stable and
low inflation protects living standards, especially of working families and lowincome households.
The overall investment environment remains encouraging. A G20 country,
South Africa is considered a low-risk investment destination for investors looking
for a foothold into Africa. As the continents largest African investor, South Africa
sends more than 25% of its manufactured products into the continent.
Through investment incentives and industrial financing interventions, the
government actively seeks to encourage commercial activity and attract foreign
capital. South Africa earned around 42 billion dollar in foreign direct investment in
2011, which was more than four times the amount in 2010.
Principal international trading partners of South Africa (besides other African
countries) include: China, the United States, Germany, Japan, and the United
Kingdom.
Chief exports are metals and minerals. Machinery and transportation
equipment make up more than one-third of the value of the countrys imports. Other
imports include automobiles, chemicals, manufactured goods, and petroleum.
According to official estimates, a quarter of the population is unemployed.
According to a 2013 Goldman Sachs report, that number increases to 35% when
including people who have given up looking for work. A quarter of South Africans

live on less than US $1.25 a day. Unemployment, remains the most challenging of
South Africas hurdles. It is at the top of government priorities and at the heart of its
economic policies.
South Africa is ranked 35th out of 183 countries for ease of doing business
according to Doing Business 2012, a joint publication of the World Bank and the
International Finance Corporation.
2.3.

Cultural forces
With a growing population of above 51 million people and eleven official

languages, South Africa is one of the most diverse countries among the world. They
have a large mass media sector that commonly uses the English language. Many
urban areas in South Africa have a different ethnic group that reflects the whole
population. The population of South Africa includes the original black peoples and
European, Chinese, Indian and many more from rest of the world have migrated
to South Africa. 70% of the populations in South Africa are the black Africans,
whereas the white people make up 11% of the total population, Coloureds are 8%,
more than two percent are Indians, and other minorities come under less than 2% of
the population. The South African culture and etiquettes is much complicated and
not easy describe due to its diversity.
In South Africa a huge differences is seen between the rural and urban areas.
Many rural black people of South Africa are still attached and follow their old
traditions; on the other hand the urban black people are more and more influenced
by the urban environment and international and modern life style that surrounds
them.
South Africans do not believe in long relationships or creating a personal
relation in conducting a business. These people are more of a transactional nature.
In most part of South Africa, the people keep harmonious working relationships
among each other and avoid conflicts. These people often use the metaphors to
demonstrate a point. Most of the South Africans, although ethnic, prefer to meet
face-to-face above common communication means such as telephone email, letter,
etc. It is very important to develop mutual trust and understanding before any
business negotiation.

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2.4.

Competitiveness
South Africa was ranked 52nd out of 144 countries in the World Economic

Forum's Global Competitiveness Index for 2012. It remains the highest ranked
country in sub- Saharan Africa, and claimed third place among the BRICS
countries. Thass because the government policies in manufacturing projects,
industrial innovation, finance and small business development. Also industrial
development zones have been established in close proximity to major ports and
airports, offering world-class infrastructure, dedicated customs support and reduced
taxation.
Their competition legislation follows European Union, US and Canadian
models. The law places various prohibitions on anti-competitive conduct, restrictive
practices (such as price fixing, predatory pricing and collusive tendering) and
"abuses" by "dominant" firms (firms with a market share of 35% or more).
2.5.

Level of technology
South Africa has the prospect to compete internationally, there exists an huge

potential to exploit and leverage selected technologies. South Africa is not a leader
in technologies but rather an adaptor, integrator, assembler and follower, the South
African technology sector does have various competitive advantages. These usually
comprise a well-developed telecommunications industries, established

and

competitive call centers, highly regarded capabilities in software development, elearning and system integration. There is an intense increase of ecommerce
technologies throughout South Africa. However, the integrated implementation of
ecommerce solutions and security-enabling applications is incredibly limited.
2.6.

Structure of distribution
South Africa offers foreign suppliers a variety of methods to distribute and

sell their products, including using an agent or distributor, selling through


established wholesalers or dealers, selling directly to department stores or other
retailers, or establishing a branch or subsidiary with its own sales force.
Wholesalers: Consumer goods requiring maintenance of stocks and
industrial raw materials are often exported to South Africa through established
wholesalers.

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Retail organizations: Many exporters of consumer goods sell directly to


South African retail organizations including consumer corporations, department
stores, chain stores, and co-operative groups of independent retailers which
assume the functions of wholesale buying, selling and warehousing.
Consumer retail: South Africa offers the full spectrum of retail outlets: small
general dealers; specialty stores handling a single product line (such as clothing,
electronics, or furniture); exclusive boutiques; chain stores (groceries, clothing,
toiletries, household goods); department stores; cash and carry wholesale retail
outlets; and co-operative stores serving rural areas. Large-scale supermarkets, or
hypermarkets, are located in suburban shopping malls and sell large quantities of
almost all consumer goods.
About 90 percent of the consumer trade inventories of these stores are
domestically sourced.
Franchises: Franchising is well-established in South Africa, with the sector
showing strong and continued growth. Around 30% of South African franchises are
non-food systems, with an emphasis on service. Building, office and home services
sectors are dominant, with automotive, restaurant, health, education and training
franchises also available.
After-sales agents: For products of a technical nature, it maybe necessary to
appoint an official after- sales agent in South Africa. This may be a company that
does not import or market the product in question, but rather, because of its
geographical reach, technical ability and goodwill in the market, acts as the certified
service agent.
Agents & distributors: For certain products, this is the best ways to bring the
goods through every single part of the country, especially places with the lack of
national support in infrastructure. Larger companies who take on agencies often
have an office in each of the major centres, making any agency agreement easier to
control.

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2.7.

Geography and infrastructure


South Africa is a medium-sized country, with a total land area of 1 219 090

square kilometres. It is one- eighth the size of the US, about a third the size of the
European Union, twice the size of France and over three times the size of Germany.
South Africa has a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km and along two
oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian).
Climate: South Africa has generally temperate climate. A subtropical
location, moderated by ocean on three sides of the country and the altitude of the
interior plateau, makes South Africa a warm and sunny country. But it's also dry,
with an average annual rainfall of about 450mm, with about 21% of the country
receiving less than 200mm a year.
Topography: The average elevation rising steadily towards the north
(towards the equator) and further inland. Due to this varied topography and oceanic
influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist.
Natural resources: South Africa is rich in a variety of minerals. In addition
to diamonds and gold, the country also contains reserves of chromium, antimony,
coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds,
platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas.
The mining sector continues to form the core of the South African economy
as mining-centred holding companies invest in other economic activity. Gold
remains the most important mineralSouth Africa is the worlds largest producer
and reserves are large; however, production is slowly declining
Environmental protection is a most important part of the socio economic
development, and this is one of the most critical problem in South Africa. The
increasing population, high degree of urbanization and unreasonable

rise

in

energy use, has affected the sustainability of the environment. Deforestation


results in the reduction of the sink for carbon dioxide and increases soil deprivation.
Industrialization leads to water and air pollution. The water resources get polluted
due to the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastes from industry, domestic
dirt and fertilizer and pesticide run off from agricultural fields.

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CHAPTER 3: MARKETING MIX


Product

MISUP, an instant noodle brand of VinaAcecook with four


flavours: Curry, Shrimp, Pork and Chicken

Slogan
Feature

Product type: FMCG Fast Moving Consumer Good


MISUP Taste for more
Low calory and Phenomenal Taste for daily meals

emphasized
Price

1 pack - $0.99
5 packs - $4.80 or $4.85
10 packs - $9.00 or $9.25

Target customers

30 packs (1 carton) - $26.00


European and American in South Africa, especially: busy

Entry strategy

office workers, families with young children


Export from Vietnam to South Africa in the first 2 years.
After thorough market research and economic stability of
South African market, build factories in South African rural

Competitors
3.1.

areas to produce instant noodles.


Maggi, Cintan and Nano

Product Strategy
Flavors and types: The biggest competitor of us in South Africa is Maggi,

which is successful by applying product line expansion strategy. Maggi has


stretched its product line by launching a series of different flavors, especially in
three flavors: chicken, beef and cheese. VinaAcecook is a late-mover in South
African instant noodles market. Therefore, the first step to compete with other
competitors is introducing 4 main flavors of instant noodles: Curry, Shrimp, Pork
and Chicken. Two types/forms of instant noodles that we will launch are traditional
forms (instant noodles with soup) and dried instant noodles (instant noodles without
soup). MISUP will be the prime product line to educate customers about
VinaAcecook. 3 months after MISUP launched, the next product lines: King Chef
and Good (bean vermicelli) will be introduced with higher price.

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Packaging and Packing: MISUP will be sold in packs. Product packing will
be divided into 4 types: single packs, 5 packs in plastic bag, 10 packs in plastic bag
and 30 packs in carton. In addition, 5 packs and 10 packs bag will be launched in
monoflavor and multiflavors bags. For office workers and travelers: we will
produce a foam box line but under an another brand.
3.2.

Distribution
South Africa is a large country, with nine provinces. Lacking the support of

national infrastructure, smaller agents often tend to operate provincially. Some


characteristics of informal channels in South Africa: very fragmented, unorganized;
retail formats vary widely; source from multiple suppliers, often buy from
wholesalers or local distributors; small stores with limited working capital.
Approximately 90% of South Africa's economically active population is found in
areas surrounding the cities of Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria, and
Port Elizabeth, representing the country's major areas of economic activities and
consumer markets. Which requires Acecook to appoint an agent capable of
providing national coverage together with a VinaAcecook Management company in
Johannesburg to manage all the business in South Africa. Acecook will source and
sell products entirely to the agent, who stands alone as an individual enterprise,
buying inventory on his own account and then selling in onwards. Firstly, base on
some research, we have found out that this mode is particularly appropriate when
products are highly competitive and lack a large market. Secondly, the agent-based
networks are effective in targeting key vulnerable segments (children and
housewives) in South Africa. Thirdly, agents will stand alone, require little training,
and are no cost to the center.
Instant noodle is a Fast Moving Consumer Good, so the products always
have to be in sight of the consumers which require the distribution channels to be
versatile and wide. The agent will establish store-based networks in Johannesburg,
Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Durban throughout their existing retails stores
having the advantage of a broader product mix with which to earn returns and to
enhance the companys image more widely to South African consumers. The retail
networks include: small general dealers; specialty stores handling a single product

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line; grocery chain stores; cash and carry wholesale retail outlets; co-operative
stores serving rural area; large-scale supermarkets; hypermarkets located in
suburban shopping malls and sell large quantities of almost all consumer goods.
About 90% of the South African consumer trade instant noodles in these channels.
The distribution channel can be visualized in the
following graph:
First Distributor: Agent
Second Distributor: Wholesalers
Marketing Sites: Retailers

3.3.

Promotion

The purposes of the promotion are to attract and increase market share and
communicate information about product and company (brand) to customer. At the
early stage, we will concentrate our marketing activities in Johahnnesburg only.
After MISUP has been acknowledged by many customers, we will move the

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campaign to Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria, and Port Elizabeth. Strategies used: both
Pull and Push at Introduction period.
Advertisement: focus on advertising in media. In the introduction stage, we
will screen the trailers of our products on the media seamlessly in the primetime, so
that customers are aware of new products as well as creating value for products. For
agents, we give them MISUP umbrellas to promote products together with
billboards in public places.
TV ADS: Initially VinaAcecook will focus the product to the office workers
and their children, then the entire family with vivid and colorful image, with focus
on phenomenon flavours and low in calory. The commercials will be at breakfast
and dinner time of South African families. VinaAcecook will be a sponsor for "Deal
or No Deal", a popular television show in South Africa. The activities will include
launching FREE VinaAcecook Meals campaign in commensuration of 20 years of
VinaAcecook in the market.
Digital Marketing: We will print MISUP advertisements in Sunday Times
and Rapport, the two most popular newspapers in South Africa. MISUP instant
noodles will also appear in some online newspaper:

www.bdlive.co.za

(Johannesburg), www.citypress.co.za (Johannesburg), www.capetime.co.za (Cape


Town)
Sales promotion : organize for customers to try the product in supermarkets
and markets, to attract customers by suggesting the need of using noodles,
presenting a number of additional products for customers (Eg: 3 + 1, 5 + 2,...) on
every order to enhance their benefits. Besides, we will increase Commercial
discount for the sales dealers that have skyrocketed in the first stage to improve
their effectiveness and binding them to focus on our products.
Public Relations: The Acecook Club - the children under 14 will be invited
through press advertisements and giving leaflets to become a member of Acecook
club with the condition that the child sends logos cut from 5 empty Acecook
wrappers. Acecook projects it as Acecook clubbers are fun lovers and intends to
use it as reference group. Benefits offered to Acecook-clubbers are various games
like Freaking Math game, Flappy bird contest, Travel through South Africa game,

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Disney today comic. To obtain one gift the member has to send 5 wrappers as
purchase proof. Some special privileges will be given to regular members time to
time like, discount tickets of Appu Ghar. Organized Acecook school quizzes and
sketching.
3.4.

Price
Instant noodle is a product which has high price-elasticity of demand and

South Africa is a big potential market with a world-class and progressive legal
framework. We select the following pricing methods to avoid the dumping, make
products entry market easily and rapidly expand the market.
Penetration Strategy: We use this valuation method to penetrate the market
as this is the first time VinaAcecook introduce instant noodles in South Africa The
price will be low. After MISUP has gained a position in South African market, we
will introduce new product lines: King Chef (with two flavours: Seafood and
Kimchi) and Bean Vermicelli Good with higher price.
Quotation (In United States Dollar) for final users
(Base on http://southafricanfood.ie/store/category/28/404/Maggi/ )
Items
1 pack
5 packs in

Competitors
(Maggi)
1.00
plastic bag 4.85

price VinaAcecook Price


0.99
4.80 (5 + 1)

(mono-flavor)
5 packs in plastic bag -

4.85 (5 + 1)

(multi-flavor)
10 packs in plastic bag
9.50
10 packs in plastic bag -

9.00 (10 + 2)
9.25 (10 + 2)

(multi-flavor)
30 packs in carton

26.00 (30 + 5)

27.00

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CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION
Through the investigation and research to gain an insight into South African
instant noodle market, we decided that this is a very potential and promising place
for investors to put their footholds into. Firstly, South African economy is exploding
and they are at the moment the best economy in South Africa. The people are
getting more prosperous and have the intention of spending more money to improve
life quality. Secondly, South African government is reforming its economic policies,
the infrastructure and the legal system to attract more investments to the country.
This explains why in the coming years, the flow of investment will land in South
Africa. At the moment, gaining a position in their market will be a smart move since
the competition will get tougher day by day. We consider it is a very strategic
decision of VinaAcecooks attack in South African instant noodle market. Last but
not least, we have to take VinaAcecoook experience and sophistication in the
instant noodle industry. The company has products sold in more than 40 countries
across Europe, America, Australia and Asia. Its their strength to have understanding
about how to succeed in foreign markets, then expertise the knowledge through
adapting the flavors and methods. VinaAcecook high-quality products, excellence
and expertise will be the basis for their success in South African market.
Through thorough investigation, we have figure out the best entry strategy
for VinaAcecook. In the early stage, MISUP will be exported from Vietnam to
South Africa due to the close geographic distance and low production cost of
Vietnam. Products then will be sold to the agents by VinaAcecook Management
company. The product price in South Africa will be determined by VinaAcecook
with sales policy. After 1 year, we intend to build factories in the rural areas of
Johannesburg and Cape Town so that product costs will get lower and more product
lines will be introduced. From South Africa, VinaAcecook can expand their market
to Kenya, Botswana, Angola, DR Congo, Nigeria This entry strategy will help
VinaAcecook reduce the risks, obtain understanding about the market, lower the
costs and gain a competitive position against competitors.

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REFERENCES
1 SAinfo reporter, 2012, South Africa's geography,
http://www.southafrica.info/about/geography/geography.htm#.U2pTAPl_t_p
2 Government Communication and Information System Republic of South
Africa, 2012, South Africa Yearbook
3 SouthAfrica.info reporter, 2012, Distribution and sales in South Africa,
http://www.southafrica.info/business/trade/import/importdistribution.htm#.U2pS-vl_t_p
4 SAinfo reporter, 2013, South Africa: economy overview,
http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/econoverview.htm#.U2pV__l_t
_p
5 Wikipedia, 2014, Culture of South Africa,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_South_Africa
6 South Africa politics, 2013, http://www.sapolitics.co.za/