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We're about to begin lecture one on

functions.

Welcome to chapter one.

Every story begins with a cast of

characters.

In this story of calculus, our characters

are functions.

And the plot revolves around how these

functions interact with each other, and

what characterizes them.

From the local workings of their inner

behaviors, to the global sweep of their

asymptotics, this lesson and this course,

begin with functions.

Calculus is all about functions.

And indeed, that is where this course

begins.

Now you're probably used to thinking

about functions in terms of their graphs.

The pair, x with f of x, for a function

f.

One can also take a more mechanistic

view, where x is considered as an input

to f, and f of x is considered as the

output.

Indeed, visualizing this as a machine is

extremely helpful, where one feeds x into

f.

And receives, as an output, f of x.

With this in mind, certain terminology

about functions becomes natural.

For example, the domain of a function f,

consists of all possible inputs.

All the things you might put into the

function.

The range of a function, f, consists of

all possible outputs, things you might

receive from f.

Now this is single variable calculus, and

because of that, our domain's in our

ranges, are going to be relatively

simple.

There going to consist of either the real

number line, or a certain sub intervals,

there of.

Certain operatios on functions become

critical.

Perhap's the most important is that of

composition.

F composed with g, this is the function

that takes, as it input, x and returns

its output.

Denoted f composed with g of x, and that

is g of x fed into the function f.

We say f of g of x.

One can visualize this, as chaining

together the functions f and g.

and then f.

For example, if one considers the

function, square root of 1 minus x

squared.

How can one decompose this into the

composition of f and g?

Well, f, in this case, would be the

function that is on the outside, or that

is done last.

This is the square root function.

G, that which comes first, is, what is on

the inside of the square root function,

mainly g of x equals, 1 minus x squared.

One additional important operation on

functions, is that of inverse.

The inverse of a function f is denoted

with an f with superscript negative 1.

Don't let that fool you, that does not

mean you take the reciprocal of f of x,

indeed f inverse of x is defined.

As that function which takes as its input

x, and returns as an output f inverse of

x.

Such that if one composes with f, one

gets back the original value of x, for

all such x.

Now, one can also run this in reverse.

If you do f first, and then f inverse,

one again obtains x.

that means that intuitively, f inverse is

the machine that undoes whatever f does.

Let's look at a specific example.

Where we take as f the function x cubed.

What would be the inverse of this be?

Well, it has to be a function that undoes

whatever x cubed does.

This is, as you may have guessed, x to

the 1 3rd power, or the cube root of x.

Now there are several ways to see why

this is right.

One is that, in taking the inverse we are

reversing the role, the input and the

output.

Or geometrically, we are flipping the

graph of this function along the diagonal

line, where the input and the output are

equal.

Of course, we can also think in terms of

what the inverse has to satisfy, if we do

x cubed and then take it's cubed root, we

get x.

Or the other way around, if we take the

cube root of x and cube it, we get x.

Certain classes of functions wind up

being extremely important throughout

calculus.

Perhaps the simplest such class, is that

of the polynomials.

That is, functions of the form a

constant times x squared, all the way up

to some finite degree, constant times x

to the n.

That largest power of x is called the

degree.

There is a summation notation, that makes

writing out polynomials very simple.

We use the Greek capital Sigma, and right

polynomial as the sum Sigma, as k goes

from 0 to n of c sub k times x to the k.

Here the c k's are coefficients, or

constants.

Another class of commonly observed

functions are the irrational functions.

These are functions of the form P of x

over Q of x, where P and Q are

polynomials.

Simple examples, like 3x minus 1 over x

squared plus x minus 6, are very common

throughout mathematics and its

applications.

Rational functions are very nice to work

with.

You do, however, have to be careful of

what happens in the denominator?

When you try to plus in a value of x, it

evaluates the denominator to 0.

Your function is not necessary well

defined, at such a point.

Other powers besides integer powers are

important and prevalent.

I'm guessing that you all know what x to

the 0 is, that is, of course, equal to 1.

What is x to the minus one half?

And recall that fractional powers can

note roots, and negative powers mean that

you take the reciprocal.

So that x to the negative one half is 1

over the square root of x.

And what is x to the 22 7th's?

Well, break this up into pieces.

First, we take x to the 22nd power, and

then we take the 7th root of x.

Lastly, what is x to the pi?

Well we're not going to answer that quite

yet, but you may have a guess, especially

considering the fact that there are

rational numbers that are very close to

the irrational number pi.

Trigonometric functions are extremely

common, and important.

You should already know a bit about sine,

and cosine.

Let's review.

Perhaps the most important of the

trigonometric identities, that is cosine

squared plus sine squared equals 1.

There's several ways to interpret this.

You've seen the interpretation involving

to 1 and with angle set to theta.

Then, in this case, the sine of theta is

the length of the opposite edge to theta,

and the cosine of theta, is the length of

the adjacent edge.

If we think of those as x and y

coordinates respectively, then we see

that there's a relationship between this

trigonometric identity, and the equation

for the circle, x squared plus y squared

equals 1.

And indeed, if we think of what happens

when we move a point along a unit circle,

rotating it by an angle theta, from the

positive x axis.

Then the x and y coordinates, of that

point on the unit circle, are precisely,

cosine and the sine, respectively.

Other trigonometric functions are common

and important.

I'm sure you recall that tangent is the

ratio of the sine to the cosine function,

and it's reciprocal, the cotangent

function.

One can also take reciprocals of cosine,

obtaining the secant function, and of

sine, obtaining the co-secant function,

respectively.

Now all of these that involve ratios,

wind up having vertical asymptotes in

their graphs, that is, places where the

function is undefined, and the

denominator goes to 0.

The inverse of the trigonometric

functions are very useful, but somewhat

treacherous.

You've got to be careful, some students

like to write the inverse of sine as sine

with a negative 1 superscript.

That can lead to some confusion thinking

that it is the co-secant, or the

reciprocal of sine.

That is unfortunate notation, and I

encourage you to use instead arcsin to

denote the inverse of the sine function.

The arcsin is that function which, when

composed with sine gives you the identity

back.

One of the things that you'll note about

both the arcsin, and the arccos, is that

they have a restricted domain.

The domain must be the close general from

negative 1 to 1.

Because of course, sine and co-sine can

only take values in that interval.

In contrast to this, the arc tangent

function, does have an infinite domain.

Its range however, is limited between

negative pi over 2, and pi over two.

to want to be familiar with, for moving

forward in calculus.

The last class of functions that is of

critical importance, are the exponential

functions.

These are functions of the form e to the

x.

to the x being the canonical example of

an exponential function.

It's inverse is the logarithm or more

precisely, the natural logarithm, ln of

x.

You've seen these functions before, you

know, because they're inverses, that

their graphs have this symmetry about the

diagonal.

So for example if e to the 0 is 1, as it

must be, then log of 1 must be equal to

0, certainly.

The question that is often unanswered in

pre-calculus or even elementary calculus

courses is, what is e?

And why is it so important in this

exponential function?

Well one could say that e is that value

whose logarithm is equal to 1.

But since we've defined the natural

logarithm in terms of base e, that's a

bit of circular reasoning.

How do we reason about e?

Well certainly e is a number.

It is a particular location, on the real

number line.

It has a decimal expansion, but being

irrational it is a little bit hard to

remember all of it.

That doesn't really answer the question

of what is e?

Why is it so important?

Before we get to the answer to that,

let's review some of the algebraic

properties associated with the

exponential function.

I hope you remember that e to the x times

e to the y is e to the x plus y.

The exponents add and e to the x raised

to the y power is e to the x times y.

In your prior exposure to calculus, I'm

sure that you've seen some of the

differential and integral properties of

this function.

E to the x has this wonderful property

that it is it's own derivative, and of

course, but it is its own integral, at

least up to a constant.

These facts are easy to remember, but

maybe not so easy to fully comprehend.

There is one last ingredient that we're

going to need before we go deep into

This is something called Euler's formula.

This is simple looking.

It states that e to the i times x, equals

cosine of x plus i times sine of x.

This is a wonderful formula, but whatever

it means.

What does it mean?

What is this i that is in here?

I am sure that you've seen before, the

notation for the square root of negative

1, for the primal imaginary number, i.

That is what is meant in Euler's formula,

it has the property of course that, i

squared is equal to negative 1.

>> Well, this is a formula.

It's a true statement, but what does it

mean?

Well, that is the subject for our next

lesson.

>> And so, we end with a mystery about

the exponential function, and what it

means to exponentiate something, that is

not a real number.

In our next lesson, we'll resolve this

mystery, in part, by contemplating what

the exponential function is.

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