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Trickle-down effect in flash pasteurization:

A hydraulic problem and microbiological risk


Melbourne, 28 March 2012
Kristina Be, Patrick Bahns & Dr. Rudolf Michel
GEA Brewery Systems
Huppmann Tuchenhagen

Agenda
Flash pasteurization
General design of flash pasteurizers
Product conditions
CO2 equilibrium

Flash pasteurizer
90 bend / Pt100
Conditions at the wall of the holding tube

Effects on microorganisms and PU


Conclusion

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Pasteurization
Definition pasteurization
Pasteurization is the reduction of the number of living microorganisms
by thermal treatment. A selected temperature is applied for a defined
period of time resulting in a lethal rate of log 5 to log 6 (depending on
the type of microorganism). Pasteurization is a technique suitable for
beer and similar products (pH, hops, carbonated).

But: more sensitive beverage required aseptic cold filling (ACF)


technologies. Here the thermal treatment of the beverage, i.e. UHT or
sterilization, applies lethal rates of log 13 to log 14.

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Pasteurization targets
Realization:
Flash pasteurization
Tunnel pasteurization
Pasteurizing targets:
Extending shelf life of product by gentle heat treatment
Reducing quantity of microorganisms (but not spores)
Preventing product parameters (color, flavor) constant

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Flash pasteurizer General design

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Flash pasteurizer - Layout

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Beer a carbonated beverage


Beer is a carbonated beverage.
Besides carbon dioxide it contains alcohol, sugar and flavors.
To keep the CO2 solved in the beer, a certain pressure is required.
The equilibrium pressure depends on temperature and type of
beverage: water, soft drink, beer type (sugar concentration, alcohol).
Available data from beer dispense (temperature range 0 C to 20 C).

Mineral water
Beer 12,5 P

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Strong beer, soft


drinks (10 Bx)

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Equilibrium curve for CO2 in beer


GEA data base up to
5 bar system pressure

KrichevskyKasarnovskyapproximation

Rammert, Pahl und


Grathwohl calculation
using the a pressurerelated adsorption
coefficient for CO2

All data are limited to temperatures below 60 C; above this temperature no experimental verification.

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Equilibrium curve for CO2 different beer types


The influence of
different beer types
become more
significant at higher
temperatures

All data are limited to temperatures below 60 C; above this temperature no experimental verification.

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GEA equilibrium curves for CO2 Vollbeer


0

10

20

30

40

Calulated equilibrium

50 [C]

60 C

70 C

curves for Vollbeer


- 12.5 P,
- 4.5 Vol-% EtOH
for temperatures between
0 C and 70 C
(isothermal curves)

All data are limited to temperatures below 60 C; above this temperature no experimental verification.

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Risk of bubble formation


Example:
CO2 concentration:
5.4 g/l

At 65 C an equilibrium
pressure of 11.3 barg
is required

Bubble formation in small


gaps and impurities in the
material surface
Adhearent gas
at particles

Micro bubble

Gasbubbles at incomplete
wetted surfaces

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Risk of bubble formation Pressure drop


Example:
CO2 concentration:
5.4 g/l / 65 C / 11.3 barg

Pressure shock 0.5 barg


Release of 0.2 g CO2/l
from the liquid

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The trickle-down effect


Gas bubbles inside the holding
tube have a potential risk.

A yeast cell inside a gas bubble

Yeast cell
12 m

has a significant reduced thermal


load during the transportation
through the holding tube of the
flash pasteurizer.

The gas around the yeast cell


reduces heat application to the
cell and result in a lower PU load.
CO2 bubble
50 m

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Critical elements
90 bend
Instrumentation

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Pressure conditions in a 90 bend


Areas of reduced pressure:
a) At the outside curve
due to secondary flow
b) At the inside curve due to
acceleration in the bend
a)
a)

b)

b)

Source: Kmmel, W.: Technische Strmungsmechanik, 3rd Ed., Teubner 2007


www.flow-optimization.com 02.12.2012

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Pressure conditions behind a cylinder

Overpressure
Pt100

p = 9 bar

p=?

Example: Pt100 probe: 5 mm

(Dead water)
Underpressure

Pressure difference between system pressure and dead water zone:


Approx. - 0,2 bar
Source: Sigloch, H.; Technische Fluidmechanik, 6th Ed., Springer, 2007

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Critical elements
Tubes of the holding section
All tubes with a turbulent flow inside have a boundary layer with a
thickness of at the wall. The boundary layer is characterized by:
a) The velocity drops down to Zero (no-slip condition)
b) A temperature decrease towards the wall
Laminar boundary layer
Turbulent flow

Momentary
velocity

Average velocity
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Temperature profile at the wall of the holding tube


Temperature of beer
71.0 C

Velocity: v = 2 m/s
Holding tube DN 65
Wall thickness: s = 2 mm
Air temperature 20.0 C
Holding tube

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Temperature profile at the wall of the holding tube

Temperature of beer
71.0 C

Velocity: v = 2 m/s
Holding tube DN 65
Boundary layer
= 72 m

Wall thickness: s = 2 mm
Air temperature 20.0 C
Thickness of boundary

Wall
s = 2 mm
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Holding tube
DN 65

layer approx. 5-times the


size of a yeast cell

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Heat flux at the wall of the holding tube DN 65

Heat transfer coefficient


at the outer surface of
the wall
a = 6.8 W/mK

Specific heat loss


Boundary layer
= 72 m

Wall
s = 2 mm
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a) Convection

76 /
b) Radiation
90 /

Holding tube
DN 65
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Function of a flash pasteuriser, definitions, PU

Tunnel Pasteuriser

Time [sec]

Flash Pasteuriser

Temperature [C]

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Function of a flash pasteuriser, definitions, PU


PU = t 1.393(T-60)
t = 60 s = 1 min
T = 71 C

60 s

PU = 1 1.393(71-60)
PU = 38.3

Time [sec]

Note: 1.393 is a product


specific factor for all malt
beer with 12.5 P and
4.5 vol-% EtOH

71 C
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Temperature [C]

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Effects on microorganisms and PU

Model:
Microorganism has 10 s residual time in the boundary layer at the wall
before returning to the turbulent central flow.

Consequence:
PU in turbulent central flow:
PU application in boundary layer:
TOTAL PU:

Design PU

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55 s at 71.0 C 35.1 PU
10 s at 70.3 C 5.1 PU
40.2 PU
38.0 PU

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Pressure & temperature curves of a flash pasteurizer


Product pressure
CO2 saturation pressure = f(T)
Temperature
Delta p

16
14

Negative
pressure
gradient

12
10
8
6
4
2

Minimum CO2 pressure buffer

0
Feedpump

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Heat recoverynon-pasteurized side

Heater

Holding tube

Heat recovery
pasteurized side

Cooler

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The ECO-FLASH unit

Cooling section
Circulation pump
Steam sterilisation
Sampling valve
Pressure / temperature
Product inlet pressure
Original wort meas.
Insulation of tank

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Difference of system pressure - saturation pressure


16

Product pressure
CO2 saturation pressure = f(T)
Temperature
Delta p

14
12

Positive
pressure
gradient

10
8
6
4
2

Minimum CO2 pressure buffer

Feed pump

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Heat recovery- Booster pump Heater


non-pasteurized
side

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Holding tube

Heat recoverypasteurized
side

Cooler

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Conclusion
Pressure impact of bends and measure instruments is in the range on
0.2 bar. With a pressure buffer of 1.5 bar above equilibrium pressure
there is only a minimum risk for the formation a small bubbles.

The ECO-FLASH unit is designed with a booster pump to create a


positive pressure difference between the non-pasteurized and the
pasteurized side of heat recovery section. This is an additional
contribution to product safety.

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Contact
GEA Brewery Systems GmbH
Kristina Be
Technical Director
Tel. + 49 4155 49-2829
Fax + 49 4155 49-2662
kristina.boee@geagroup.com
www.gea-brewery.com

Thank you very much for your kind attention!

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