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Spyridon Koutandos

skoutandos@yahoo.com

In this article we observe first that there is an extension of Dirac notation to include

the so called external interchangeability of the hermitian operators when taking

the real part of the bracket in the bra-ket notation. Then we conclude that this,

together with the usual internal interchangeability of the hermitian operators

concerning the real part of the bracket leads to the commutability of operators as to

both cross and dot product therefore (by making use of the fact that operators are

linear) all the vector algebra is valid when taking the real part of the bracket and we

have hermitian operators. We deal with one particle situations and bound states.

Finally we find a new way for calculating the square of the Runge-Lenz vector and

we make speculations about hidden variable. First principles are used for the

deduction of our conclusions,like the independence of the phase angle of from

its absolute value and the commutation relationships which are valid for any

function. Integration as to volume is meant from zero to infinity and units are

omitted for ease of calculations.

Let us begin by giving some definitions. The so called in this article external

interchangeability that is to be proved is the following:

(1.1)

Re

[ B | | A ] = Re [ | A B | ]

Re | AB | = Re B | A

(1.2)

Both are valid when A,B are hermitian.

We are going to start by proving that the operator - is antihermitian when

, are hermitian. First we notice that :

| AB BA | = A | B B | A =

(1.3)

= A | B A | B *

The last part of the equality containing the two terms is obviously purely imaginary,

thus:

(1.4) Re | AB BA | = 0

The validity of identity (1.4) by taking in mind that A,B are hermitian and can be

interchanged readily proves (1.2) that is the internal interchangeability of the

operators concerning the real part of the bracket.

Next we are going to prove that :

(1.5)

] [

v

Re B | | A = Re | A B | = Re(C )

(1.6)

Re B | | A | A B | = 0

(1.5) is written as:

(1.7)

Re(C x ) = Re By | Az Bz | Ay =

= Re | By Az | | Bz Ay | = Re | By Az Bz Ay |

The vector operators A,B are hermitian and so are their components. Therefore the x

component of the last part of (1.7) is written as:

(1.8)

Re(C x ) = Re | B y Az Bz Ay | = Re | Ay Bz Az By |

By subtracting the second part of (1.8) from the second (out of the three ) part of

(1.7) we get:

(1.9)

= Re[< | ( Bz Ay Ay Bz ) ( By Az Az B y ) | >]

Both terms in the bracket are of the form - and therefore are antihermitian

with zero real part which concludes the proof of (1.6) since from symmetry the rest

of the components are going to obey the same laws.

II.

DECOMPOSING INTO HERMITIAN AND ANTIHERMITIAN PARTS

THE ANTI COMMUTATIVITY OF OPERATORS

By using the identity (A.1) proved in the appendix and equation (1.6) we obtain the

following identity where we have used the notation that:

r

v

A = A , B = B

(2.1)

Re | A B B A | = Re B | | A + Re A | | B =

v v

v v v v

= Re ( B * A + A * B )dV = 2 Re A * BdV = 2 Re | B A |

From equating the first and last part of (2.1) we conclude that:

(2.2)

Re | A B | = Re | B A |

product and the real part of the bracket is readily proved. Similarly we find that:

(2.3) Re < | AB | >= Re < A | B >

And

(2.4) Re < | BA | >= Re < B | A >

Since from (1.4) we may equate (2.4) and (2.3) we arrive at:

(2.5)

Re < A | B >= Re < B | A > Re < | AB | >= Re < | BA | >

Thus we have proved a similar identity for the dot product. By the way we also find

that the operators A B + B A and - are antihermitian, that is they have no

real part.

The operator + is hermitian if , are hermitian. Proof:

Due to hermitian property of A,B

(2.6) < A | B >=< | AB | >, < B | A >=< | BA | >

By observing that:

(2.7)

(2.8)

=< A | B > + < A | B > * = real

Proof:

Its x component is written as

Cx=(yBz-AzBy)-(ByAz-BzAy)

= (AyBz+BzAy)-(AzBy+ByAz)

(2.9)

As can be seen Cx has the form (KL+LK)-(MN+NM) where K,L,M,N, are hermitian

operators and thus the operator C is hermitian by making use of what we have

proved so far (see 2.8).

We finally may decompose:

A B B A A B + B A

+

(2.10)

A B =

2

2

with the first part being hermitian and the second part being antihermitian.

In a similar fashion we may decompose into hermitian and antihermitian parts the

dot product:

= (+)/2+(-)/2. (2.11)

By looking at the form of the decomposition into hermitian and antihermitian

parts of (2.10) we deduce that A B is hermitian if and only if A B = B A .

Similarly AB is hermitian if and only if [A,B]=0. Now we know that if AB is

hermitian then we have the commutation law. We are going to prove that if A B is

hermitian, then :

(3.1) B | | A = | A B |

Proof of (3.1):

We are going to prove that A B = B A by taking its cartesian components. For

the x component we will have to prove(the rest follows by symmetry

considerations):

AyBz-AzBy=ByAz-BzAy

By taking a look at the first part we may recall that we have proved (1.1) and (1.9):

B | | A | A B | =

= | (Bz Ay Ay Bz ) (B y Az B y Az ) |

The last terms can be rearranged to give (ByAz-BzAy)-(AyBz-AzBy)=0

This means that in the case A B is hermitian we no longer need to take the real

part of the bra-ket in external interchangeability of operators.

IV. ALGEBRA OF Re(bra-ket)

Since vector calculus is obeyed by operators concerning the real part of the bra-ket

one might be tempted to think that the usual vector identities can be applied.

However according to the authors investigations these must be applied with

caution. Particularly I have come to the conclusion that each time we transform an

expression every member that is multiplied in the left part of the equation must be

hermitian in order for these identities to hold. In other words one part of the identity

at least must contain hermitian multipliers. For example since the cross product of

two real vectors is again hermitian as is the real vector and so is the momentum

operator p, indeed we could make use of the following identity:

v v v

v v v

v v r

(4.1) A ( B C ) = B (C A) = C ( A B )

Using (4.1) we are able to transform:

v v

v v

(4.2) p ( A B ) = A ( B p )

PROPERTIES OF THE NULL OPERATORS

As a counterexample one could mention that the transformation does not work for

the following expression which is part of the square of the Runge-Lenz vector:

(5.1) L p ( p L )

This is so because the two parts multiplied are not hermitian although L,p are

hermitian operators. We may not apply a vector identity in that case although one

might argue that in expanding the expression we would find hermitian operators.

However one also gets the operator (pL)2 which is double the null operator in our

algebra which is problematic for the following reason: Although Re(|pL| >)=0 it

still is Im(|pL| >)0 and since (pL)2 is hermitian it splits and one (pL) goes to the

bra and Re(< |pL|)=0 while Im(< |pL|)0 .

(< |pL)= Re(|pL| >)-i Im(|pL| >) = -i Im(|pL| >) (5.3)

< |pL|pL| >= Re< |pL|pL| >= Im( pL | > ) dV (5.4)

2

r r

(5.5) Re r L = Re | ihr (r ) = 0

Finally we will find that:

Re<rp>=0.

(5.6)

Proof:

Its components follow the same rule as its x component:

2Re(xpx)=xpx+pxx=[xpx,-pxx]=x[px,-pxx]+[x,-pxx]px=

=xpx[px,-x]+[x,-px]xpx=0

The wavefunction as every complex function may be written as:

=| |ei

= + i =| | ei =| |cos +i | |sin

Actually

The Imaginary part of (|pL| >) exists due to the fact that the phase of the wave

function is not single-valued and if we were to calculate |pL| > we would find:

r

v

pl | >= i | | (r ) = i | | r 0

If we go round a curve f may change by multiples of 2 . Thus if A is the integral

over an open surface:

r

r

r

A = dS = dl = = 2n

, n integer

However the deviations must be zero if is to change in a logical manner:

( )dV = 0

In the previous expression B is an integral over a closed surface. We conclude that:

( )

VII. THE RUNGE-LENZ VECTOR

The work of the author was based on trying to find an alternative way for

calculating difficult operators such as is the Runge-Lenz vector. For the sake of

being brief we will omit the units:

= Re K

(7.1)

r 2

L p p L r

=

+ =

r

2

r 2

r 2

L p p L r

r

= Re

+ = Re L p +

r

r

2

One may decompose the operator and estimate only hermitian parts for the real part.

For our purposes we will make use of the following well known vector identity:

r r v v

v v v r

v r v r

(7.2) (A B ) C D = A C B D A D (B C )

By expanding the hermitian form of (7.1) one expects indeed to find hermitian

operators:

r 2

L p p L r

2

(7.3) K =

+

r

2

r

r L p p L

2(L2 p 2 + p 2 L2 ) 2( Lp + pL) 2

2

+1

(7.4) K =

+ 2

r

4

4

2

) (

)(

) (

The first , third and fourth part of (7.4) by using usual vector identities when taking

the real part are found to be exactly what reference books give as:

(7.5) 2 L2 ( p 2 / 2 1 / r ) + 1 + X = 2 L2 H + 1 + X

There is also one unknown X term missing from (7.5). This is given by the

problematic second term of (7.4). It is doubly zero so we will use a trick:

( Lp + pL) 2 ( Lp pL) 2

(7.6) Re X = Re

+

4

4

The first part in the square of the second member of (7.6) has zero imaginary part

since it is of the form (AB+BA)2 with zero imaginary part.

Terms in (7.6) are all equal to <(Lp)2>=<pL2>=<pL |Lp > = [Im(Lp | >)]2 dV

By making use of commutation relationships such as [Lx,py]=i h pz one finds:

(7.7) [ pL, Lp ] = [ Lp, pL] = ihp L p

2ihp L p

Thus far Re X = Re

(7.8)

4

(7.9) L p p L = 2ihp

Using (7.9) we find:

(7.10) Re X = 2 p 2 / 2 ihp p L / 2 = Re 2 H

The first part of the right member of (7.10) is the familiar <2H> term found in

standard textbooks for the electron in the field of a hydrogen like atom since from

Virial theorem it is minus two times the mean kinetic energy. The second part is

zero because only in the particular problem there is some symmetry concerned. We

will estimate it in the following paragraph.

From what was said in paragraph VII and by taking in mind that the deviation of the

square of the Lenz vector was quite general one expects that the operator X/2 in

(7.8) should be the Hamiltonian at least for central potentials. Next we are going to

estimate it:

r

ihp p L

(8.1) H =

= 1 / 4 * [ (r )]dV

4

r

r

(8.2) H = 1 / 4 { * [ (r )]} * [ (r )]dV

0

We assume that the first part of (8.2) inside the div operator behaves well at infinity

and vanishes. Then:

v

v

(8.3) H = 1 / 4 ( * (r ) ) + (r ) * dV

0

r

H = 1 / 2 1 / 2(| | r ) | | dV =

(8.4)

v r

= 1 / 4 r J

The substitutions in (8.4) it is well established that one may associate a true current

density J with the probability current density and the magnetization M is one half

the position vector cross product the current density J(which is e/N the probability

current density). One might associate then a magnetic field caused by the current

density of the electron for then (8.4) would read as minus the magnetic energy. So

we would have, where C is constant (accounting for units we have omitted):

r

B = C

(8.5)

r

(8.6) B = 0

Also we know that the time dependence of is associated with constants, the

Bohr frequencies therefore has no space dependence.

r

r

B

=0

(8.7) E =

t

r

v

(8.8) B = A

r

v

(8.9) J = h / m | |2 A

In this line of thinking we should assume a polarization current to exist.

The last equation (8.9) is used in superconductors. Another fact is that in that case

we would have quantized flux through any surface just like is the case with

superconductors.

On the other hand it is known that the polarization is:

r

v

P = | |2 r (8.12)

According to the virial theorem:

v

v v

(8.13) r U = | |2 r F = 2 K .E.

Since the potential is usually electrostatic (even when accounting for interacting

dipoles):

1 v v

(8.14) P EdV =< K .E. >

2

The half of the potential energy can be written as the familiar electrostatic energy:

1

(8.15) 1 / 2 < U >= | |2 UdV = 1 / 2 qdV

2

It seems that we should add a +3/2 factor to have the mean potential energy. We

will discuss this matter in paragraph X.

Therefore the dielectric susceptibility should be

The polarization is assumed to vary as:

v

P

v | |2

(8.16)

= r

t

t

Finally since the magnetic work involving B is zero and does not influence things

and since the magnetic flux of B is quantized B should depend on energy E so that

each time a quantum of light is emitted the flux should change accordingly and that

is because of the classical law of Faraday that the change of flux is associated with

the electric work done.

Since all these results have been obtained based on the thinking of independency of

the space part of the phase and || inside the real part of the volume integral we

should check the validity of this line of thought. By estimating the real part of the

kinetic energy (which is integrated over the volume) one finds:

1

2

[ | |2 + | |2 ( ) ]dV = | |2 [ E U (r )]dV

2

It sounds familiar from Fourier analysis that half the gradient of phi squared is the

kinetic energy. According to our convention:

1 v v

(9.2) < K .E. >= J AdV

2

In this form the magnetic work does not vanish.

Another consequence of this independence is that the magnetic induction B should

depend only on . So we should write:

v v

| |2 v

B = (M + H )

(9.3)

N

It should also be true that:

r

v

v

v

(9.4) D =| |2 Etotal = P + 0 E

0 0

2

(9.5) | | =

=

0

(9.1)

We are going to prove that

r r r r

r r

A * B B * A = 2 Re A * B

(A.1)

r r

r r r r

For let :

A = + i , = + i

Then we can find for the external products used in (A.1) that:

r r

r r r r

r r

r r r r

r r

A * B = (a i ) + i = + + i + (A.2)

r r

r r r r

r r r r r r r r

B *A = ( i ) (a + i ) = + + i( ) =

(A.3)

r r r r

r r r r

= + + i( )

By adding up (A.2) and (A.3) we have the proof of (A.1)

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