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LAST-MINUTE
NOTES ON THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATION IN LABOR LAW BASED ON THE
SUPREME COURT-PRESCRIBED SYLLABUS
Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT

[These 8-part Notes discuss all topics/sub-topics in the Supreme Court-prescribed Syllabus for Labor Law]

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS

1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers

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a. Remittance of foreign exchange earnings


b. Prohibited activities
c. Regulatory and visitorial powers of the Labor Secretary
d. Penalties for illegal recruitment

Introduction:

TheSyllabusspeaksofrecruitmentof:

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TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS:
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
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1. LocalWorkers;and
2. MigrantWorkers.
Indeed,therulesaredifferentforthetwo(2)situationsmentionedabove.Hence,discussionhereinshallbe
dividedintothesetwoclassifications.

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1.LOCALEMPLOYMENT;RECRUITMENTANDPLACEMENT.1

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a.Definitionofimportantterms.
Thefollowingdefinitionsarerelevanttotherulesgoverninglocalemployment:
1. Employmentcontractreferstothecontractenteredintobetweentheemployerandtherecruit;
2. License refers to the document issued by the DOLE Regional Office authorizing a person or entity to
operateanemploymentagency;
3. Licensee refers to any person or entity duly licensed and authorized by the Department of Labor and
Employment(DOLE)tooperateaprivateemploymentagency;
4. Placementfeereferstotheamountchargedbyprivateemploymentagencyfromanapplicantworkerfor
itsservicesintherecruitmentandplacementofsaidworker;
5. PrivateEmploymentAgencyreferstoanypersonorentityengagedintherecruitmentandplacementof
workersforlocalemploymentforafee,whichischargeddirectlyorindirectlytotheaccountoftherecruit
and/oremployers;

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2. Regulation and Enforcement

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a. Recruitment and placement; defined


b. Illegal Recruitment, Art. 38 (Local), Sec. 6, Migrant Workers Act, RA 8042
(a) License vs. Authority
(b) Essential elements of illegal recruitment
(c) Simple illegal recruitment
(d) Illegal recruitment in large scale
(e) Illegal recruitment as economic sabotage
(f) Illegal Recruitment vs. Estafa
(g) Liabilities
(a) local employment agency
(b) foreign employer
i. Theory of imputed knowledge
(h) Pretermination of contract of migrant worker
c. Direct hiring

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B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT

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The discussion under this topic is based on the provisions of the Rules and Regulations Governing Private Recruitment and Placement Agencies for Local Employment.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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c.Authoritytoestablishoroperatebranchoffice(s).

1.Prohibition.Nolicenseeshallestablishoroperatebranchoffice(s)unlessthesamehasbeenregisteredand
itsoperationdulyauthorizedbytheRegionalOffice. 10

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d.Grantofauthoritytorecruiters.

1. Prohibition. No person shall act as an agent or recruiter of a private recruitment and placement agency
withoutpriorauthorityfromtheDOLERegionalOfficehavingjurisdictionovertheplacewhererecruitmentactivitieswill
beundertaken.11

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e.Renewaloflicenseoflocalprivaterecruitmentandplacementagency.

1.Requestforrenewaloflicense.AlicenseemayapplyfortherenewalofhislicensewiththeRegionalOffice
concernedwithinfortyfive(45)daysbeforetheexpirationofhiscurrentlicense.12

Section 1, Rule I, Rules and Regulations Governing Private Recruitment and Placement Agencies for Local Employment.
Rules and Regulations Governing Private Recruitment and Placement Agencies for Local Employment
Section 1, Rule II, Ibid..
5 Section 2, Rule II, Ibid..
6 Section 3, Rule II, Ibid..
7 Section 4, Rule II, Ibid..
8 Section 9, Rule II, Ibid..
9 Section 10, Rule II, Ibid..
10 Section 2, Rule III, Ibid..
11 Section 2, Rule IV, Ibid..
12 Section 1, Rule VI, Ibid..
13 Section 2, Rule VII, Ibid..
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f.Cancellationorsuspensionoflicense.

1.Complaintsagainstprivateemploymentagency.Complaintsbasedonanyprohibitedpracticesenumerated
underRuleIXoftheRulesandRegulationsGoverningPrivateRecruitmentandPlacementAgenciesforLocalEmployment
againstaprivateemploymentagencyshallbefiledwiththeRegionalOfficewheretheagency/branchofficeislocated,
where the prohibited act was committed or at complainants place of residence, at the option of the complainant:
Provided,ThattheRegionalOfficewhichfirstacquiresjurisdictionoverthecaseshalldosototheexclusionoftheothers.

2.Conductofinvestigation.Theproceedingsshallbesummaryincharacterwheretechnicalrulesofprocedure
mayonlybeappliedsuppletorily.Theinvestigationshallbeterminatedwithinfifteen(15)workingdaysfromthefirst
hearing.TheRegionalDirectorshallresolvethecasewithinten(10)daysthereafter.13

3.Suspensionoflicensependinginvestigation.Pendinginvestigationofacomplaint,theDirectormaysuspend
thelicenseoftheprivateemploymentagencyconcerned,onanyofthefollowinggrounds:
(a) Failure on the part of the agency to submit its position paper/comment on the complaint within the
prescribedperiodorwhereitrefusestoattendthehearingcalledbytheRegionalOffice;

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b.Licensingoflocalrecruitmentandplacementagencies.

1. Coverage. The Rules3 apply to all persons, entities and associations engaged in the recruitment and
placementofworkersforlocalemploymentforafee,whetherthisischargedfromtheworkerortheemployerorboth.4

2.Prohibition.Noperson,entity,orassociationshallengageintherecruitmentandplacementofworkersfora
feeunlessithasfirstsecuredalicensefromtheRegionalOffice.5
3.Citizenshiprequirement.OnlyFilipinocitizensorcorporations,partnershipsorentitiesatleastseventyfive
percent(75%)oftheauthorizedandvotingcapitalstockofwhichisownedandcontrolledbyFilipinocitizensshallbe
permittedtoparticipateintherecruitmentandplacementofworkersforlocalemployment.6

4.Qualificationsoflicenseapplicants.Allapplicantsforlicensetooperateprivaterecruitmentandplacement
agenciesforlocalemploymentshallpossessthefollowingqualifications:
(a) Citizenshiprequirement;
(b) AppropriatecapitalizationofP25,000.00incaseofsingleproprietorsoraminimumpaidupcapitalornet
worthofP25,000.00inthecaseofpartnershiporcorporation;and
(c) Applicantshouldbeofgoodmoralcharacterandnototherwisedisqualifiedbylaw,rulesandregulations.7

5. Validity of license. The license shall be valid for one (1) year from the date of issuance unless sooner
cancelledorsuspendedbytheDirectorforviolationofanyoftheconditionsprescribedinthelicenseorofanyapplicable
provisionoftheLaborCodeoritsImplementingRules.8

6.Nontransferabilityoflicense.Nolicenseshallbetransferred,conveyedorassignedtoanyotherpersonor
entity,orusedinanyplaceotherthanthatstatedinthelicense,unlessauthorizedbytheDirector.Anytransferofthe
business address, appointment or designation of any agency or representative of the licensee or establishment or
branchofficesshallbesubjecttothepriorapprovaloftheRegionalOffice.9

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6. Recruitreferstoanypersonwhodirectlyappliedtoaprivateemploymentorauthorizedrecruiter;
7. Recruiter refers to a recruitment agent of a licensed private employment agency who has been duly
registeredandauthorizedbytheDOLERegionalOfficetorecruitworkers;
8. Recruitmentandplacementreferstoanyactofcanvassing,enlisting,contracting,transporting,utilizing,
hiring,assigning,oradvertisingemploymentlocally,whetherforprofitornot,provided,thatanypersonor
entity which, in any manner, offers or promises employment for a fee to one or more persons shall be
deemedengagedinarecruitmentandplacement;
9. Recruitmentcontractreferstothecontractenteredintobetweenaprivateemploymentagencyandthe
recruit.
10.Workerreferstoanymemberofthelaborforcewhetheremployedorunemployed.2

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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(b)PrimafacieevidenceshowsthattheagencyhasviolatedandcontinuetoviolatetheLaborCodeprovision
on the recruitment and placement of workers, its implementing rules and other issuances by the
Secretary;and
(c) Thereexistreasonablegroundsshowingthatthecontinuedoperationoftheagencywillleadtofurther
violationsoftheconditionsofthelicenseortheexploitationoftheworkersbeingrecruited.14

4.Cancellationoflicense.TheDirectorshallhavethepower,afterduenoticeandhearing,tocancelthelicense
or authority of private employment agency for any violation of the provision of the Labor Code on recruitment and
placementofworkersanditsimplementingrules,andotherissuancesbytheDOLESecretary.15

5.Appeals.AnypartyaggrievedbythedecisionoftheRegionalDirectormayappealthesametotheDOLE
Secretarywithinten(10)workingdaysfromreceiptofhiscopyoftheorderongroundsof:(a)graveabuseofdiscretion;
and(b)grossincompetence.TheappealshallbefiledintheDOLERegionalOfficewhichshalltransmittherecordstothe
DOLE Secretary within five (5) days from receipt of the appeal. The DOLE Secretary shall have thirty (30) days from
receipt of the records of the case to resolve the appeal. The decision of the DOLE Secretary shall be final and
inappealable.16

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2.OVERSEASEMPLOYMENT;RECRUITMENTANDPLACEMENT.

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c.TermsofanemploymentcontractgoverntheemploymentofanOFWs.
In cases involving employment of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs), the rights and obligations among and
between the OFWs, the local recruiter/agent, and the foreign employer/principal are governed by the employment
contract.Acontractfreelyenteredintoisconsideredthelawbetweenthepartiesand,therefore,shouldberespected.
Informulatingthecontract,thepartiesmayestablishsuchstipulations,clauses,termsandconditionsastheymaydeem
convenient,providedtheyarenotcontrarytolaw,morals,goodcustoms,publicorder,orpublicpolicy.

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Section 3, Rule VII, Ibid..


Section 4, Rule VII, Ibid..
Section 5, Rule VII, Ibid..
17 Section 1[hh], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
18 Section 1[JJ], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
19 Section 1[rr], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
20 Section 1[ss], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
21 Section 1[tt], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
22 Section 1[vv], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
23 Section 1[II], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
24 Section 1[qq], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
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b.Definitionofrelevantterms.
1. OverseasFilipinosrefertomigrantworkers,otherFilipinonationalsandtheirdependentsabroad.17
2. OverseasFilipinoWorkerorMigrantWorkerreferstoapersonwhoistobeengaged,isengaged,or
hasbeenengagedinaremuneratedactivityinastateofwhichheorsheisnotacitizenoronboarda
vesselnavigatingtheforeignseasotherthanagovernmentshipusedformilitaryornoncommercial
purposes, or on an installation located offshore or on the high seas. A "person to be engaged in a
remuneratedactivity"referstoanapplicantworkerwhohasbeenpromisedorassuredemployment
overseas.18
3. Regular/DocumentedFilipinoMigrantWorkersrefertothefollowing:
(1)Thosewhopossessvalidpassportsandappropriatevisasorpermitstostayandworkinthe
receivingcountry;and
(2)ThosewhosecontractsofemploymenthavebeenprocessedbythePOEA,orsubsequentlyverified
andregisteredonsitebythePOLO,ifrequiredbylaworregulation.19
4. Seafarerreferstoanypersonwhoisemployedorengagedinoverseasemploymentinanycapacity
on board a ship other than a government ship used for military or noncommercial purposes. The
definition shall include fishermen, cruise ship personnel and those serving on mobile offshore and
drillingunitsinthehighseas.20
5. Skilled Filipino Workers refer to those who have obtained an academic degree, qualification, or
experience, or those who are in possession of an appropriate level of competence, training and
certification, for the job they are applying, as may be determined by the appropriate government
agency.21
6. Underage Migrant Workers refers to those who are below 18 years or below the minimum age
requirementforoverseasemploymentasdeterminedbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment.22
7. OverseasFilipinoinDistressreferstoanOverseasFilipinowhohasamedical,psychosocialorlegal
assistanceproblemrequiringtreatment,hospitalization,counselling,legalrepresentationasspecified
inRuleIXoftheseRulesoranyotherkindofinterventionwiththeauthoritiesinthecountrywherehe
orsheisfound.23
8.Rehires refer to landbased workers who renewed their employment contracts with the same
principal.24

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a.Relevantlawsonrecruitmentforoverseasemployment.
1.TheLaborCode;
2.MigrantWorkersandOverseasFilipinosActof1995[R.A.No.8042],asamendedbyR.A.No.10022
(March8,2010).

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

2.1.LICENSINGANDREGULATIONFOROVERSEASRECRUITMENTANDPLACEMENT.

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b.Disqualifications.
The following are not qualified to engage in the business of recruitment and placement of Filipino workers
overseas:
a. Travelagenciesandsalesagenciesofairlinecompanies;
b. OfficersormembersoftheBoardofanycorporationormembersinapartnershipengagedinthebusiness
ofatravelagency;
c. Corporations and partnerships, when any of its officers, members of the board or partners, is also an
officer,memberoftheboardorpartnerofacorporationorpartnershipengagedinthebusinessofatravel
agency;
d. Persons, partnerships or corporations which have derogatory records, such as, but not limited to, the
following:
1) ThosecertifiedtohavederogatoryrecordorinformationbytheNationalBureauofInvestigationorby
theAntiIllegalRecruitmentBranchofthePOEA;
2) Thoseagainstwhomprobablecauseorprimafaciefindingofguiltforillegalrecruitmentorotherrelated
casesexists;
3) Thoseconvictedforillegalrecruitmentorotherrelatedcasesand/orcrimesinvolvingmoralturpitude;
and
4) Those agencies whose licenses have been previously revoked or cancelled by the Administration for
violationofRA8042,PD442,asamended,andtheirimplementingrulesandregulationsaswellasthe
Rulesandregulations.
All applicants for issuance/renewal of license shall be required to submit clearances from the National
BureauofInvestigationandAntiIllegalRecruitmentBranch,POEA,includingclearancesfortheirrespective
officersandemployees.
e. AnyofficialoremployeeoftheDOLE,POEA,OWWA,DFAandothergovernmentagenciesdirectlyinvolved
intheimplementationofR.A.No.8042and/oranyofhis/herrelativeswithinthefourth(4th)civildegreeof
consanguinityoraffinity;and
f. Personsorpartners,officersanddirectorsofcorporationswhoselicenseshavebeenpreviouslycancelledor
revokedforviolationofrecruitmentlaws.28

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c.Provisionallicense.
Applicantsfornewlicenseshallbeissuedaprovisionallicensewhichshallbevalidforalimitedperiodofone(1)
yearwithinwhichtheapplicantshouldbeabletocomplywithitsundertakingtodeployonehundred(100)workersto
itsnewprincipal.Thelicenseofacomplyingagencyshallbeupgradedtoafulllicenseentitlingittoanotherthreeyears
ofoperation.Noncomplyingagencieswillbenotifiedoftheexpirationoftheirlicense.29

Issued by DOLE Secretary Patricia Sto. Tomas on February 4, 2002.


Issued on May 23, 2003.
Section 1, Rule I, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 1, Rule I, Part II, 3003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
28 Section 2, Rule I, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 2, Rule I, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
29 Section 5, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 5, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
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d.Validityofthelicense.
Exceptincaseofaprovisionallicense,everylicenseshallbevalidforfour(4)yearsfromthedateofissuance
unlesssoonercancelled,revokedorsuspendedforviolationofapplicablePhilippinelaw,theRulesandotherpertinent

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a.Qualifications.
Onlythosewhopossessthefollowingqualificationsmaybepermittedtoengageinthebusinessofrecruitment
andplacementofoverseasFilipinoworkers:
1. Filipinocitizens,partnershipsorcorporationsatleastseventyfivepercent(75%)oftheauthorizedcapital
stockofwhichisownedandcontrolledbyFilipinocitizens;
2. A minimum capitalization of Two Million Pesos (P2,000,000.00) in case of a single proprietorship or
partnershipandaminimumpaidupcapitalofTwoMillionPesos(P2,000,000.00)incaseofacorporation;
Provided, that those with existing licenses shall, within four years from effectivity hereof, increase their
capitalizationorpaidupcapital,asthecasemaybe,toTwoMillionPesos(P2,000,000.00)attherateofTwo
HundredFiftyThousandPesos(P250,000.00)everyyear.
3. Thosenototherwisedisqualifiedbylaworothergovernmentregulationstoengageintherecruitmentand
placementofworkersforoverseasemployment.27

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d.Rulesaffectingoverseasemploymentmakeadistinctionbetweenlandbasedoverseasworkersand
seafarers.
Therulesonoverseasemploymentisdividedintotwo,namely:
1. POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the Recruitment and Employment of LandBased Overseas
Workers;25and
2. POEARulesandRegulationsGoverningtheRecruitmentandEmploymentofSeafarers.26
Theobviousintentforthetwo(2)separateissuancesistodistinguishbetweentherulesapplicabletoland
basedoverseasworkersandthoseapplicabletoseafarers(formerlytermedasseamen).Thisisasitshouldbebecause
oftheuniqueandpeculiardistinguishingfeaturesofmaritimeemployment.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

issuances. Such license shall be valid only at the place/s stated therein and when used by the licensed person,
partnershiporcorporation.30

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f.Changeofownership/relationshipofsingleproprietorshiporpartnership.
Transferorchangeofownershipofasingleproprietorshiplicensedtoengageinoverseasemploymentshall
causetheautomaticrevocationofthelicense.
Achangeintherelationshipofthepartnersinapartnershipdulylicensedtoengageinoverseasemployment
whichmateriallyinterruptsthecourseofthebusinessorresultsintheactualdissolutionofthepartnershipshalllikewise
causetheautomaticrevocationofthelicense.32

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g.Upgradingofsingleproprietorshipsorpartnerships.
License holders which are single proprietorships or partnerships may, subject to the guidelines of the
Administration (POEA), convert into corporations for purposes of upgrading or raising their capabilities to respond
adequatelytodevelopments/changesintheinternationallabormarketandtoenablethemtobettercomplywiththeir
responsibilitiesarisingfromtherecruitmentanddeploymentofworkersoverseas.
The approval of merger, consolidation or upgrading shall automatically revoke or cancel the licenses of the
singleproprietorships,partnershipsorcorporationssomerged,consolidatedorupgraded.33

h.Derogatoryrecordafterissuance/renewaloflicense.
ThelicenseofasingleproprietorshiporapartnershipshallbesuspendeduntilclearedbytheAdministration
(POEA)shouldanyderogatoryrecordbefoundtoexistagainstthesingleproprietorshiporanyorallofthepartners,as
thecasemaybe.Theappointmentofanyofficeroremployeeofanylicensedagencymaybecancelledorrevokedatany
time with due notice to the agency concerned, whenever said officer or employee is found to have any derogatory
record,ashereincontemplated.34

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i.Appointment/changeofofficersandpersonnel.
Every appointment of agents or representatives of a licensed agency shall be subject to prior approval or
authority of the Administration (POEA). The acknowledgment or approval may be issued upon submission of or
compliancewiththefollowing:
a. proposedappointmentorspecialpowerofattorney;
b. clearancesoftheproposedrepresentativeoragentfromtheNationalBureauofInvestigation(NBI)/Anti
IllegalRecruitmentBranch,POEA;and
c. sworn or verified statement by the designating or appointing person or company assuming full
responsibility for all acts of the agent or representative done in connection with the recruitment and
placementofworkers.
Every change in thecomposition of theBoard ofDirectorsof acorporation, appointment or termination of
officersandpersonnelshallberegisteredwiththeAdministration(POEA)withinthirty(30)calendardaysfromthedate
ofsuchchange.TheagencyshallberequiredtosubmittheminutesofproceedingsdulycertifiedbytheSECincaseof
electionofnewmembersoftheBoardofDirectorswiththeirbiodata,IDpicturesandclearances.
The Administration (POEA) reserves the right to deny the acknowledgment or appointment of officers,
employeesandrepresentativeswhoweredirectlyinvolvedinrecruitmentirregularities.35

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j.Publicationofchangeofdirectors/otherofficersandpersonnel;revocationoramendmentofappointment
ofrepresentatives.
InadditiontotherequirementofregistrationwithandsubmissiontotheAdministration(POEA),everychange
in the membership of the Board of Directors, termination for cause of other officers and personnel, revocation or
amendmentofappointmentofrepresentativesshallbepublishedatleastonceinanewspaperofgeneralcirculation,in
ordertobindthirdparties.ProofofsuchpublicationshallbesubmittedtotheAdministration(POEA).36

Section 6, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 6, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
Section 7, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 7, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
Section 8, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 8, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
33 Section 9, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 9, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
34 Section 10, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 10, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
35 Section 11, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 11, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
36 Section 12, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 12, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
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k.Transferofbusinessaddress.
AnytransferofbusinessaddressshallbeeffectedonlywithpriorauthorityorapprovaloftheAdministration
(POEA).Theapprovalshallbeissuedonlyuponformalnoticeoftheintentiontotransferwiththefollowingattachments:
a. Inthecaseofacorporation,aBoardResolutiondulyregisteredwiththeSECauthorizingthetransferof
businessaddress;and
b. Copyofthecontractofleaseorproofofbuildingownership.

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e.Nontransferabilityoflicense.
Nolicenseshallbetransferred,conveyedorassignedtoanyperson,partnershiporcorporation.Itshallnotbe
useddirectlyorindirectlybyanyperson,partnershiporcorporationotherthantheoneinwhosefavoritwasissued.
Incaseofdeathofthesoleproprietorandtopreventdisruptionofoperationtotheprejudiceoftheinterestof
legitimateheirs,thelicensemaybeextendeduponrequestoftheheirs,tocontinueonlyforthepurposeofwindingup
thebusinessoperations.31

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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Thenewofficeshallbesubjecttotheregularocularinspectionproceduresbydulyauthorizedrepresentatives
oftheAdministration(POEA).
Anoticetothepublicofthenewaddressshallbepublishedinanewspaperofgeneralcirculation.37
l.Establishmentofadditional/extensionoffices.
Additional/extensionofficesmaybeestablishedsubjecttothepriorapprovaloftheAdministration(POEA).38

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a.Requisites.
InorderforanactivitytobeconsideredasrecruitmentandplacementasdescribedinArticle13[b]of
theLaborCode,thefollowingelementsmustconcur:
1. Apersonorentityisengagedinanyactofcanvassing,enlisting,contracting,transporting,utilizing,
hiring or procuring workers, including referrals, contract services, promising or advertising for
employment;
2 Therecruitmentandplacementofworkersiseitherforlocaloroverseasemployment;and
3. Therecruitmentandplacementmayormaynotbeforprofit.

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1.RECRUITMENTANDPLACEMENTOFWORKERS.

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o.Nonexpirationoflicense.
Wherethelicenseholderhasmadetimelyandsufficientapplicationforrenewal,theexistinglicenseshallnot
expire until the application shall have been finally determined by the Administration (POEA). For this purpose, an
applicationshallbeconsideredsufficientiftheapplicanthassubstantiallycompliedwiththerequirementsforrenewal.41

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TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS:
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
a. Recruitment and placement; defined
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b.Presumptionofengaginginrecruitmentandplacement.
Anypersonorentitywhich,inanymanner,offersorpromisesforafee,employmenttotwo(2)ormore
personsisdeemedengagedinrecruitmentandplacement.

Section 13, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 13, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
Section 14, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 14, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
Section 15, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers. Note: There is no similar provision in the POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the Recruitment and Employment of Seafarers, May 23, 2003. But this certainly applies to the cases contemplated
thereunder.
40 Section 16, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 15, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
41 Section 18, Rule II, Part II, 2002 POEA Rules for Land-Based Overseas Workers; Section 17, Rule II, Part II, 2003 POEA Rules for Seafarers.
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n.Renewaloflicense.
Anagencyshallsubmitanapplicationfortherenewalofitslicenseonorbeforeitsexpiration.Suchapplication
shallbesupportedbythefollowingdocuments:
a. RenewedorrevalidatedsuretybondamountingtoOneHundredThousandPesos(P100,000.00);
b. RenewedescrowagreementintheamountofP1,000,000.00withacommercialbanktoprimarilyanswer
forvalidandlegalclaimsofrecruitedworkersasaresultofrecruitmentviolationsormoneyclaims;
c. Auditedfinancialstatementsforthepasttwoyearswithverifiedcorporateorindividualtaxreturns.Incase
theequityoftheagencyisbelowtheminimumcapitalizationrequirement,itshallbegiventhirty(30)days
fromreleaseoftherenewedlicensetosubmitproof(s)ofcapitalinfusion,suchasSECcertificationofsuch
infusionorbankcertificationcorrespondingtotheamountinfusedandtreasurersaffidavitdulyreceivedby
theSEC.Otherwise,thelicenseshallbesuspendeduntilithascompliedwiththesaidrequirement;
d. ClearancesfromtheNationalBureauofInvestigationandtheAntiIllegalRecruitmentBranchfortheBoard
ofDirectorsandresponsibleofficers;and
e. OtherrequirementsasmaybeimposedbytheAdministration(POEA).40

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m.Conductofrecruitmentoutsideofregisteredoffice.
No licensed agency shall conduct any provincial recruitment, jobs fair or recruitment activities of any form
outsideoftheaddressstatedinthelicenseorapprovedadditionaloffice(s)withoutfirstsecuringpriorauthorityfrom
theAdministration(POEA).39

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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=========================================
TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS:
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
b. Illegal Recruitment, Art. 38 (Local), Sec. 6,
Migrant Workers Act, RA 8042, as amended
by R.A. No. 10022 (March 8, 2010).
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2.R.A.NO.8042,ASAMENDEDBYR.A.NO.10022(MARCH8,2010):

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Section 6 of R.A. No. 8042 (Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995) which defines illegal
recruitment was amended by Section 5 of R.A. No. 10022 (March 8, 2010). Consequently, illegal recruitment is now
definedasfollows:

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SEC. 6. Definition. For purposes of this Act, illegal recruitment shall mean any act of
canvassing,enlisting,contracting,transporting,utilizing,hiring,orprocuringworkersandincludes
referring,contractservices,promisingoradvertisingforemploymentabroad,whetherforprofitor
not,whenundertakenbynonlicenseeornonholderofauthoritycontemplatedunderArticle13(f)
ofPresidentialDecreeNo.442,asamended,otherwiseknownastheLaborCodeofthePhilippines:
Provided,Thatanysuchnonlicenseeornonholderwho,inanymanner,offersorpromisesfora
fee employment abroad to two or more persons shall be deemed so engaged. It shall likewise
includethefollowingacts,whethercommittedbyanyperson,whetheranonlicensee,nonholder,
licenseeorholderofauthority:
(a) Tochargeoracceptdirectlyorindirectlyanyamountgreaterthanthatspecifiedintheschedule
ofallowablefeesprescribedbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment,ortomakeaworker
pay or acknowledge any amount greater than that actually received by him as a loan or
advance;
(b) Tofurnishorpublishanyfalsenoticeorinformationordocumentinrelationtorecruitmentor
employment;
(c) To give any false notice, testimony, information or document or commit any act of
misrepresentationforthepurposeofsecuringalicenseorauthorityundertheLaborCode,or
for the purpose of documenting hired workers with the POEA, which include the act of
reprocessing workers through a job order that pertains to nonexistent work, work different
fromtheactualoverseaswork,orworkwithadifferentemployerwhetherregisteredornot
withthePOEA;
(d) Toincludeorattempttoinduceaworkeralreadyemployedtoquithisemploymentinorderto
offerhimanotherunlessthetransferisdesignedtoliberateaworkerfromoppressiveterms
andconditionsofemployment;
(e) Toinfluenceorattempttoinfluenceanypersonorentitynottoemployanyworkerwhohas
notappliedforemploymentthroughhisagencyorwhohasformed,joinedorsupported,or
hascontactedorissupportedbyanyunionorworkers'organization;

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Article 38. Illegal Recruitment. (a) Any recruitment activities, including the prohibited
practices enumerated under Article 34 of this Code, to be undertaken by nonlicensees or non
holders of authority, shall be deemed illegal and punishable under Article 39 of this Code. The
Department of Labor and Employment or any law enforcement officer may initiate complaints
underthisArticle.
(b)Illegalrecruitmentwhencommittedbyasyndicateorinlargescaleshallbeconsidered
anoffenseinvolvingeconomicsabotageandshallbepenalizedinaccordancewithArticle39hereof.
Illegalrecruitmentisdeemedcommittedbyasyndicateifcarriedoutbyagroupofthree
(3)ormorepersonsconspiringand/orconfederatingwithoneanotherincarryingoutanyunlawful
or illegal transaction, enterprise or scheme defined under the first paragraph hereof. Illegal
recruitmentisdeemedcommittedinlargescaleifcommittedagainstthree(3)ormorepersons
individuallyorasagroup.
(c) The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representatives shall
havethepowertocausethearrestanddetentionofsuchnonlicenseeornonholderofauthorityif
afterinvestigation,itisdeterminedthathisactivitiesconstituteadangertonationalsecurityand
publicorderorwillleadtofurtherexploitationofjobseekers.TheSecretaryshallorderthesearch
of the office or premises and seizure of documents, paraphernalia, properties and other
implementsusedinillegalrecruitmentactivitiesandtheclosureofcompanies,establishmentsand
entities found to be engaged in the recruitment of workers for overseas employment, without
havingbeenlicensedorauthorizedtodoso.

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Article38oftheLaborCodeprovides:

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1.LABORCODEPROVISION.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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3.APPLICATIONOFARTICLE38TOBOTHLOCALANDOVERSEASEMPLOYMENT.

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4.CONCEPTOFILLEGALRECRUITMENT.

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The term illegal recruitment is defined as any recruitment activities, including the prohibited practices
enumeratedunderArticle34oftheLaborCode,tobeundertakenbynonlicenseesornonholdersofauthority.43

Basedonparagraph[a]ofArticle38,illegalrecruitmentasdefinedtherein,inrelationtoArticles13[b]and34
andpenalizedunderArticle39oftheLaborCode,maybecommittedonlybynonlicenseesornonholdersofauthority.

R.A.No.8042,asamendedbyR.A.No.10022(March8,2010)anditsImplementingRules,havebroadenedthis
concept of illegal recruitment as far as overseas placement and recruitment activities are concerned. Consequently,
illegal recruitment for overseas employment likewise includes the acts described in Section 6 of R.A. No. 8042, as
amended by Section 5 of R.A. No. 10022, whether committed by any person, whether a nonlicensee, nonholder,
licenseeorholderofauthority.

=======================================
TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS:
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
b. Illegal Recruitment
(a) License vs. Authority
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1.DISTINCTIONBETWEENALICENSEANDANAUTHORITY.

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LicensereferstothedocumentissuedbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmploymentauthorizingaperson,
partnershiporcorporationtooperateaprivaterecruitment/manningagency.44

Authority refers to a document issued by the Secretary of Labor and Employment authorizing the
officers,personnel,agentsorrepresentativesofalicensedrecruitment/manningagencytoconductrecruitment
andplacementactivitiesinaplacestatedinthelicenseorinaspecifiedplace.45
2.PRIVATEEMPLOYMENTAGENCY.

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A private feecharging employment agency is any person or entity engaged in recruitment and
placementofworkersforafeewhichischarged,directlyorindirectly,fromtheworkersoremployersorboth.46

Such entity may be a partnership or corporation duly licensed by the Secretary of Labor and
Employmenttoengageintherecruitmentandplacementofworkersforoverseasemployment.

Article 38 [a], Labor Code.


People v. Cabacang, G.R. No. 113917, July 17, 1995, 246 SCRA 530.
Section 1[w], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
45 Section 1[b], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
46 See Article 13 [c] of the Labor Code.
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ThedefinitionofillegalrecruitmentunderArticle38oftheLaborCodeappliestobothlocalandoverseas
employment.Thelawisclearinitscoveragethatanyrecruitmentactivitiesincludingthecommissionoftheprohibited
practices enumerated under Article 34 of the Labor Code, to be undertaken by nonlicensees or nonholders of
authority,shallbedeemedillegalandpunishableunderArticle39ofthisCode.42

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(f) To engage in the recruitment or placement of workers in jobs harmful to public health or
moralityortothedignityoftheRepublicofthePhilippines;
(h) To fail to submit reports on the status of employment, placement vacancies, remittance of
foreign exchange earnings, separation from jobs, departures and such other matters or
informationasmayberequiredbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment;
(i) To substitute or alter to the prejudice of the worker, employment contracts approved and
verifiedbytheDepartmentofLaborandEmploymentfromthetimeofactualsigningthereof
by the parties up to and including the period of the expiration of the same without the
approvaloftheDepartmentofLaborandEmployment;
(j) Foranofficeroragentofarecruitmentorplacementagencytobecomeanofficerormember
oftheBoardofanycorporationengagedintravelagencyortobeengageddirectlyorindirectly
inthemanagementoftravelagency;
(k) Towithholdordenytraveldocumentsfromapplicantworkersbeforedepartureformonetary
or financial considerations, or for any other reasons, other than those authorized under the
LaborCodeanditsimplementingrulesandregulations;
(l) Failure to actually deploy a contracted worker without valid reason as determined by the
DepartmentofLaborandEmployment;
(m) Failuretoreimburseexpensesincurredbytheworkerinconnectionwithhisdocumentation
andprocessingforpurposesofdeployment,incaseswherethedeploymentdoesnotactually
takeplacewithouttheworker'sfault.Illegalrecruitmentwhencommittedbyasyndicateorin
largescaleshallbeconsideredanoffenseinvolvingeconomicsabotage;and
(n) ToallowanonFilipinocitizentoheadormanagealicensedrecruitment/manningagency.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

3.PRIVATERECRUITMENTENTITY.

4.DISTINCTIONSBETWEENAPRIVATEEMPLOYMENTAGENCYANDAPRIVATERECRUITMENTENTITY.
A private employment agency technically may be distinguished from a private recruitment entity as
follows:

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Thefollowingareauthorizedtoengageinrecruitmentandplacementofworkers:
a. Publicemploymentoffices;
b. PhilippineOverseasEmploymentAdministration(POEA);
c. Privaterecruitmententities;
d. Privateemploymentagencies;
e. Shippingormanningagentsorrepresentatives;
f. SuchotherpersonsorentitiesasmaybeauthorizedbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment;and
g. Constructioncontractors.

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6.OTHERRELEVANTTERMS.

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1.ELEMENTSOFSIMPLEILLEGALRECRUITMENT.

Theessentialelementsofsimpleillegalrecruitmentwithouttheattendantqualifyingcircumstances,are:
1. The person charged with the crime must have undertaken recruitment and placement activities under
Article13[b]oranyoftheactivitiesenumeratedinArticle34oftheLaborCode,asamended;and

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FilipinoServiceContractorreferstoanyperson,partnershiporcorporationdulylicensedasaprivate
recruitment agency by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to recruit workers for its accredited projects or
contractsoverseas.50

Manning Agency refers to any person, partnership or corporation duly licensed by the Secretary of
Labor and Employment to engage in the recruitment and placement of seafarers for ships plying international
watersandforrelatedmaritimeactivities.51

NonLicensee refers to any person, partnership or corporation with no valid license to engage in
recruitment and placement of overseas Filipino workers or whose license is revoked, cancelled, terminated,
expiredorotherwisedelistedfromtherolloflicensedrecruitment/manningagenciesregisteredwiththePOEA.52
PlacementFeesrefertoanyandallamountschargedbyaprivaterecruitmentagencyfromaworker
foritsrecruitmentandplacementservicesasprescribedbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment.53

========================================
TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
b. Illegal Recruitment
(b) Essential elements of illegal recruitment
(c) Simple illegal recruitment
========================================

According to Article 13 [e] of the Labor Code.


As defined in Article 13 of the Labor Code.
Section 1[pp], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
50 Section 1[p], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
51 Section 1[y], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
52 Section 1[cc], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
53 Section 1[ll], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
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5.ENTITIESAUTHORIZEDTOENGAGEINRECRUITMENTANDPLACEMENTOFWORKERS.

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1. Aprivateemploymentagencyhasarightdulyrecognizedinlawtochargeafee,directlyorindirectly,
fromtheworkersortheemployersorfromboth;whileaprivaterecruitmententitydoesnotcharge
anyfeeeitherdirectlyorindirectlyfromtheworkersoremployerstowhichtheywouldbedeployed;
2. The former is authorized to recruit only for overseas placement or deployment; while the latter is
allowedtorecruitforbothlocalandoverseasdeployment.
3. The former derives its authority to recruit and place workers from a document denominated as a
license;whilethelattersourcesitsauthorityfromadocumentcalledauthority.48
ButundertheOmnibusRulesandRegulationsImplementingtheMigrantWorkersandOverseasFilipinos
Actof1995,asamendedbyR.A.No.10022(March08,2010),thesetwotermshavenowacommondefinitionas
follows:
Private Recruitment/Employment Agency refers to any person, partnership or corporation
duly licensed by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to engage in the recruitment and
placementofworkersforoverseasemploymentforafeewhichischarged,directlyorindirectly,
fromtheworkerswhorenewedtheiremploymentcontractswiththesameprincipal.49

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A private recruitment entity refers to any person or association engaged in the recruitment and
placementofworkerswithoutcharging,directlyorindirectly,anyfeefromtheworkersoremployers.47

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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2.Saidpersondoesnothavealicenseorauthoritytodosoormorespecifically,thathehasnotcompliedwith
suchguidelines,rulesandregulationsissuedbytheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment,particularlywith
respecttothesecuringoflicenseorauthoritytorecruitanddeployworkers,eitherlocallyoroverseas.54

InPeoplev.DeLeon,[G.R.No.104995,August26,1993,225SCRA651],itwascategoricallydeclaredthat
violationsofArticles13[b],34,38and39oftheLaborCode,asamended,constituteillegalrecruitment.
2.FIRSTELEMENT:RECRUITMENTANDPLACEMENTACTIVITIES.

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b.Someprinciplesonillegalrecruitment.
1. Mere impression is sufficient to constitute illegal recruitment.56 But if no such impression is given, the
accusedshouldnotbeconvictedforillegalrecruitment.57
2.. Merepromiseorofferofemploymentabroadamountstorecruitment.58
3. Thereisnoneedtoshowthataccusedrepresentedhimselfasalicensedrecruiter.59
4. Referralsmayconstituteillegalrecruitment.60
5. Recruitmentwhetherdoneforprofitornotisimmaterial.61
6. Theactofreceivingmoneyfarexceedingtheamountasrequiredbylawisnotconsideredasrecruitment
andplacementasthisphraseiscontemplatedunderthelaw.62
7. Actualreceiptoffee,notanelementofthecrimeofillegalrecruitment.63
8. Conductofinterviewsamountstoillegalrecruitment.64
9. Absenceofreceipt,notessential.65
10. Convictionforillegalrecruitmentmaybemadeonthestrengthofthetestimoniesofthecomplainants.66
11. Absenceofdocumentsevidencingtherecruitmentactivitiesstrengthens,notweakens,thecaseforillegal
recruitment.67
12. Onlyonepersonrecruitedissufficienttoconvictoneforillegalrecruitment.68
13. Nonprosecutionofanothersuspect,immaterial.69
14. Executionofaffidavitofdesistanceaffectsonlythecivilliabilitybuthasnoeffectonthecriminalliabilityfor
illegalrecruitment.70
15. Conspiracyinillegalrecruitmentcases,howproved.Directproofofpreviousagreementtocommitacrime
is not necessary. Such previous agreement may be deduced from the mode and manner in which the
offense was perpetrated, or inferred from the acts of the accused which point to a joint purpose and
design,concertedactionandcommunityofinterest.71

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3.SECONDELEMENT:NONLICENSEEORNONHOLDEROFAUTHORITY.

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People v. Cabacang, G.R. No. 113917, July 17, 1995, 246 SCRA 530; People v. Coral, G.R. Nos. 97849-54, March 1, 1994, 230 SCRA 499/
Article 13 [b], Labor Code; People v. Goce, G.R. No. 113161, Aug. 29, 1995, 247 SCRA 780; People v. Bautista, G.R. No. 113547, Feb. 9, 1995, 241 SCRA 216.
Lapasaran v. People, [G.R. No. 179907, February 12, 2009]; People v. Manungas, Jr., [G.R. Nos. 91552-55, March 10, 1994, 231 SCRA 1].
57 Darvin v. CA, [G.R. No. 125044. July 13, 1998].
58 People v. Gallardo, G.R. Nos. 140067-71, Aug. 29, 2002, 436 Phil. 698, 711; People v. Delmo Valle, [G.R. No. 126933, February 23, 2001].
59 People v. Ballesteros, [G.R. Nos. 116905-908, August 6, 2002].
60 Article 13 [b] of the Labor Code; Rodolfo v. People, [G.R. No. 146964, August 10, 2006].
61 People v. Jamilosa [G.R. No. 169076, January 23, 2007, 512 SCRA 340, 352]; People v. Valenciano, [G.R. No. 180926, December 10, 2008].
62 People v. Gaoat, G.R. No. 97028, May 21, 1993, 222 SCRA 385.
63 People v. Ballesteros, [G.R. Nos. 116905-908, August 6, 2002]; People v. Arabia, [G.R. Nos. 138431-36, September 12, 2001].
64 Section 6 of R.A. No. 8042; C.F. Sharp Crew Management, Inc. v. Hon. Espanol, Jr., [G.R. No. 155903, September 14, 2007].
65 People v. Juego, [G.R. No. 123162. October 13, 1998].
66 People v. Saulo, [G.R. No. 125903, November 15, 2000]; People v. Remullo, [G.R. Nos. 124443-46, June 6, 2002].
67 People v. Pantaleon, [G.R. No. 108107, June 19, 1997].
68 People v. Panis, [G.R. Nos. L-58674-77, July 11, 1986, 142 SCRA 664].
69 People v. Sendon, [G.R. Nos. 101579-89, December 15, 1993, 228 SCRA 489].
70 People v. Laurel, [G.R. No. 120353, February 12, 1998].
71 People v. Ballesteros, [G.R. Nos. 116905-908, August 6, 2002].
72 Section 1 [d], Rules Implementing P.D. No. 1920, July 12, 1984.
73 People v. Bodozo, G.R. No. 96621. Oct. 21, 1992, 215 SCRA 33.
74 2nd paragraph, Section 1, Rule V, Book II, POEA Rules and Regulations on Overseas Employment [May 21, 1985].
75 People v. Taguba, G.R. Nos. 95207-17, Jan. 10, 1994, 229 SCRA 188; People v. Sendon, G.R. Nos. L-101579-82, Dec. 15, 1993, 228 SCRA 489.
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Thephrasenonlicenseeornonholderofauthorityreferstoanyperson,corporationorentitywhichhas
not been issued a valid license or authority to engage in recruitment and placement by the Secretary of Labor and
Employment,orwhoselicenseorauthorityhasbeensuspended,revokedorcancelledbythePOEAortheSecretaryof
LaborandEmployment.72

TheactsmentionedinArticle13[b]oftheLaborCodecanlawfullybeundertakenonlybylicenseesorholders
ofauthoritytoengageintherecruitmentandplacementofworkers.73

Asfarasagentsorrepresentativesappointedbylicenseesorholdersofauthorityareconcerned,theyshallbe
consideredasfallingwithintheambitofthetermnonlicenseeornonholderofauthorityiftheirappointmentswere
notpreviouslyauthorizedbythePOEA.Consequently,theiractivitiesshallbeconsideredillegalrecruitment.74

Nonpossession of a license to recruit is, under the law, an essential ingredient of the crime of illegal
recruitmentpenalizedundertheLaborCode.75

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a.Recruitmentandplacementactivities,defined.

Thephraserecruitmentandplacementreferstotheactsdescribedinparagraph[b]ofArticle13oftheLabor
Code,viz.:

[b] Recruitment and placement refers to any act of canvassing, enlisting, contracting,
transporting,utilizing,hiringorprocuringworkers,andincludesreferrals,contractservices,promising
or advertising for employment, locally or abroad, whether for profit or not: Provided, That any
person or entity which, in any manner, offers or promises for a fee, employment to two or more
personsshallbedeemedengagedinrecruitmentandplacement.55

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

Apersonwhopromisedajobplacementabroadtoanother,foraconsideration,whenheisnotdulylicensed
norauthorizedtoengageinrecruitment,iscriminallyliableforillegalrecruitment.76

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4.ANYPERSON,WHETHERANONLICENSEE,NONHOLDER,LICENSEEORHOLDEROFAUTHORITYMAYBEHELD
LIABLEFORILLEGALRECRUITMENT.

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Illegal recruitment is considered a crime involving economic sabotage when the commission thereof is
attendedbythefollowingqualifyingcircumstances:
1. whencommittedbyasyndicate;or
2. whencommittedinlargescale.

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2.ILLEGALRECRUITMENTCOMMITTEDBYASYNDICATE.

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a.Whencommittedbyasyndicate.
Illegal recruitment is deemed committed by a syndicate if it is carried out by a group of three (3) or more
personsconspiringorconfederatingwithoneanother.

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3.ILLEGALRECRUITMENTINLARGESCALE.

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b.Elementsofillegalrecruitmentbyasyndicate.
Theessentialelementsofthecrimeofillegalrecruitmentcommittedbyasyndicateareasfollows:
1. Thereareatleastthree(3)personswho,conspiringand/orconfederatingwithoneanother,carriedout
any unlawful or illegal recruitment and placement activities as defined under Article 13 [b] or in any
prohibitedactivitiesunderArticle34oftheLaborCode;and
2. Saidpersonsarenotlicensedorauthorizedtodoso,eitherlocallyoroverseas.78

Thelaw,itmustbenoted,doesnotrequirethatthesyndicateshouldrecruitmorethanone(1)personinorder
toconstitutethecrimeofillegalrecruitmentbyasyndicate.Recruitmentofone(1)personwouldsufficetoqualifythe
illegalrecruitmentactashavingbeencommittedbyasyndicate.79

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Illegal recruitment is deemed committed in large scale if committed against three (3) or more persons
individuallyorasagroup.

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b.Elementsofillegalrecruitmentinlargescale.
Theessentialelementsofillegalrecruitmentinlargescale,asdistinguishedfromsimpleillegalrecruitment,are
asfollows:
1. TheaccusedengagesintherecruitmentandplacementofworkersasdefinedunderArticle13[b]orinany
prohibitedactivitiesunderArticle34oftheLaborCode;
2. The accused has not complied with the guidelines issued by the Secretary of Labor and Employment,
particularlywithrespecttothesecuringoflicenseoranauthoritytorecruitanddeployworkers,either
locallyoroverseas;and
3. Theaccusedcommitsthesameagainstthree(3)ormorepersons,individuallyorasagroup.

People v. Alforte, G.R. Nos. 91711-15, March 3, 1993, 219 SCRA 458.
People v. Jimmy Ang, [G.R. No. 181245, August 06, 2008]; People v. Nogra, [G.R. No. 170834, August 29, 2008]; People v.Gasacao, [G. R. No. 168445, November 11, 2005].
Id.; Id.; Id.; People v. Bodozo, G.R. No. 96621. Oct. 21, 1992, 215 SCRA 33.
79 People v. Hernandez, [G.R. Nos. 141221-36. March 7, 2002].
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1.ILLEGALRECRUITMENT,WHENCONSIDEREDECONOMICSABOTAGE.

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b.Recruitermaybeanaturalorjuridicalperson.
AccusedappellantinPeoplev.Saulo,[G.R.No.125903.November15,2000],contendsthathecouldnothave
committedthecrimeofillegalrecruitmentinlargescalesinceNancyAvelino,alaborandemploymentofficeratthe
POEA,testifiedthatlicensesforrecruitmentandplacementareissuedonlytocorporationsandnottonaturalpersons.
Holdingthatthisargumentisspeciousandillogical,theSupremeCourtratiocinatedthatanyperson,whethernaturalor
juridical,thatengagesinrecruitmentactivitieswithoutthenecessarylicenseorauthorityshallbepenalizedunderArt.39
oftheLaborCode

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TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
b. Illegal Recruitment
(d) Illegal recruitment in large scale
(e) Illegal recruitment as economic sabotage
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a.UnderR.A.No,8042,licenseorauthorityoftheillegalrecruiterisimmaterial.
Under R.A. No. 8042, the crime of illegal recruitment may be committed by any person, whether a non
licensee,nonholder,licenseeorholderofauthority.Itisclearthatunderthislaw,inordertoproveillegalrecruitment,
thereisnoneedtoestablishwhethertheaccusedisalicenseeorholderofauthorityornotbecauseitisnolongeran
elementofthecrime.77

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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c.Distinguishedfromillegalrecruitmentbyasyndicate.
Asdistinguishedfromillegalrecruitmentcommittedbyasyndicate,illegalrecruitmentinlargescalemaybe
committedbyonlyone(1)person.Whatisimportantasqualifyingelementisthatthereshouldbeatleastthree(3)
victimsofsuchillegalrecruitment,individuallyorasagroup.80

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TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
b. Illegal Recruitment
(f) Illegal Recruitment vs. Estafa
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d.Someprinciplesonillegalrecruitmentinvolvingeconomicsabotage.
1. The number of persons victimized is determinative of the crime. A conviction for large scale illegal
recruitment must bebased on a finding in each caseof illegal recruitment ofthree(3)or more persons
havingbeenrecruited,whetherindividuallyorasagroup.81
2. Failuretoproveatleast3personsrecruitedmakesthecrimeacaseofsimpleillegalrecruitment.82
3. Noillegalrecruitmentinlargescalebasedonseveralinformationsfiledbyonlyonecomplainant.83
4. Thenumberofoffendersisnotmaterialinillegalrecruitmentinlargescale.84
5. Recruitmentinlargescaleismalumprohibitumandnotmaluminse.85

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a.ConvictionundertheLaborCodedoesnotprecludeconvictionunderotherlaws.
Incaseswheresomeothercrimesorfeloniesarecommittedintheprocessofillegalrecruitment,conviction
undertheLaborCodedoesnotprecludepunishmentunderotherstatutes.86Illegalrecruitmentispenalizedunderthe
LaborCodewhichisaspeciallaw,andnotundertheRevisedPenalCode.87Notallactswhichconstitutethefelonyof
estafaundertheRevisedPenalCodenecessarilyestablishthecrimeofillegalrecruitmentundertheLaborCode.Estafa
iswiderinscopeandcoversdeceitswhetherrelatedornotrelatedtorecruitmentactivities.88

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1.NATUREOFLIABILITYOFLOCALRECRUITMENTAGENCYANDFOREIGNPRINCIPAL.

2.PERSONSCRIMINALLYLIABLEFORILLEGALRECRUITMENT.

People v. Bautista, G.R. No. 113547, Feb. 9, 1995, 241 SCRA 216; People v. Taguba, G.R. Nos. 95207-17, Jan. 10, 1994, 229 SCRA 188.
People v. Honrada, G.R. Nos. 112178-79, April 21, 1995, 243 SCRA 640; People v. Reyes, G.R. No. 105204, March 9, 1995, 242 SCRA 264.
People v. Hu, [G.R. No. 182232, October 06, 2008].
83 People v. Hernandez, [G.R. Nos. 141221-36. March 7, 2002].
84 People v. Laurel, [G.R. No. 120353, February 12, 1998].
85 People v. Enriquez, [G.R. No. 127159, May 5, 1999], citing People v. Reyes, [G.R. Nos. 104739-44, November 18, 1997, 282 SCRA 105].
86 People v. Turda, G.R. Nos. 97044-46, July 6, 1994, 233 SCRA 702.
87 People v. Duque, G.R. No. 100285, Aug. 13, 1992, 212 SCRA 607.
88 People v. Turda, G.R. Nos. 97044-46, July 6, 1994, 233 SCRA 702.
89 People v. Alzona, [G.R. No. 132029, July 30, 2004].
90 People v. Billaber, [G.R. Nos. 114967-68, January 26, 2004].
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a.Personswhomaybecriminallyheldliableforillegalrecruitment.

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Thenatureofliabilityisasfollows:
1. LocalAgencyissolidarilyliablewithforeignprincipal.
2. Severance of relations between local agent and foreign principal does not affect liability of local
recruiter.

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====================================
TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
1. Recruitment of Local and Migrant Workers
b. Illegal Recruitment
(g) Liabilities
(a) local employment agency
(b) foreign employer
i. Theory of imputed knowledge
(h) Pretermination of contract of migrant
worker
c. Direct hiring
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b.Someprinciplesonillegalrecruitmentandestafaasseparatecrimes.
1.Sameevidencetoproveillegalrecruitmentmaybeusedtoproveestafa.89
2.Convictionforbothillegalrecruitmentandestafa,notdoublejeopardy.90

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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b.Someprinciplesonthepersonsliableforillegalrecruitment.
1. Employeesofalicensedrecruitmentagencymaybeheldliableforillegalrecruitmentasprincipalbydirect
participation,togetherwithhisemployer,ifitisshownthatheactivelyandconsciouslyparticipatedinillegal
recruitment.92
2. Goodfaithandmerelyfollowingordersofsuperiors,notvaliddefenseofanemployee.93
3. Amanagerofarecruitment/manningagencyisnotamereemployee.Assuch,hereceivesjobapplications,
interviewsapplicantsandinformsthemoftheagencysrequirementofpaymentofperformanceorcash
bond prior to the applicants deployment. As the crewing manager, he was at the forefront of the
companysrecruitmentactivities.94

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CRIMINALLIABILITYFORILLEGALRECRUITMENT.

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Thistheoryreferstocognizanceofacircumstanceorfactattributedtoapartybecauseofitsposition,or
itsrelationshipwithorresponsibilityforanotherparty.
The relationship of the local recruitment/manning agency visavis its foreign principal is that of agent
principal, the former being the agent and the latter, the principal. Consequently, the theory of imputed
knowledgeascribestheknowledgeoftheagenttotheprincipalbutnottheotherwayaround.
Thus, the violations of the terms and conditions of an extension contract, the execution thereof the
recruiter did not know and did not consent to, shall not make said recruiter solidarily liable for the reason that
knowledgebyhisprincipalofsaidcontractcannotbeimputedtohim

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SunaceInternationalManagementServices,Inc.v.NLRC,[G.R.No.161757,January25,2006].
TheHighCourthastheopportunitytodiscusstheapplicationofthetheoryofimputedknowledgeinthis
case.Here,theOFW(Divina),adomestichelperinTaiwan,hasextendedher12monthcontractafteritsexpiration
for two (2) more years after which she returned to the Philippines. It was established by evidence that the
extension was without the knowledge of the local recruitment agency, petitioner Sunace. The Court ofAppeals,
however, affirmed the Labor Arbiter and NLRCs finding that Sunace knew of and impliedly consented to the
extension of Divinas 2year contract. It went on to state that "It is undisputed that [Sunace] was continually
communicating with [Divinas] foreign employer." It thus concluded that "[a]s agent of the foreign principal,
petitionercannotprofessignoranceofsuchextensionasobviously,theactoftheprincipalextendingcomplainant
(sic)employmentcontractnecessarilyboundit."
Infindingthattheapplicationofthistheoryofimputedknowledgewasmisplaced,theHighCourtruled
that the theory of imputed knowledge ascribes the knowledge of the agent, Sunace, to the principal, employer
Xiong,nottheotherwayaround.Theknowledgeoftheprincipalforeignemployercannot,therefore,beimputed
toitsagentSunace.TherebeingnosubstantialproofthatSunaceknewofandconsentedtobeboundunderthe
2yearemploymentcontractextension,itcannotbesaidtobeprivythereto.Assuch,itandits"owner"cannotbe
held solidarily liable for any of Divinas claims arising from the 2year employment extension. As the New Civil
Codeprovides:Contractstakeeffectonlybetweentheparties,theirassigns,andheirs,exceptincasewherethe
rights and obligations arising from the contract are not transmissible by their nature, or by stipulation or by
provisionoflaw.96
Furthermore,asSunacecorrectlypointsout,therewasanimpliedrevocationofitsagencyrelationship
with its foreign principal when, after the termination of the original employment contract, the foreign principal
directlynegotiatedwithDivinaandenteredintoanewandseparateemploymentcontractinTaiwan.Article1924
oftheNewCivilCodereading:Theagencyisrevokediftheprincipaldirectlymanagesthebusinessentrustedto
theagent,dealingdirectlywiththirdpersonsthusapplies.

Section 6, R.A. No. 8042, as amended by Section 5, R.A. No. 10022.


People v. Cabais, [G.R. No. 129070, March 16, 2001, 354 SCRA 553, 561].
People v. Gutierrez [G.R. No. 124439, February 5, 2004, 422 SCRA 32, 43-44].
94 People v.Gasacao, [G. R. No. 168445, November 11, 2005].
95 Section 12, Republic Act No. 8042; Section 12, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 dated Feb. 29, 1996; Section 2, Rule I, Part V, POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the Recruitment and Employment of
Seafarers, May 23, 2003.
96 See also Rovels Enterprises, Inc. v. Ocampo, [G.R. No. 136821, October 17, 2002, 391 SCRA 176].
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holderofauthoritycognizablebythePOEAwhichcouldproceedindependentlyofthecriminalaction.95

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Thepersonscriminallyliableforillegalrecruitmentare:
1.Incaseofnaturalpersons
a. Principals;
b. Accomplices;and
c. Accessories.
2.Incaseofjuridicalpersons
a. Officershavingownership,control,managementordirectionoftheirbusinesswhoareresponsible
forthecommissionoftheoffense;and
b. Responsibleemployees/agentsthereof.91

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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a.TerminationofemploymentofOFWs.
Terminationofemploymentmaymeananyofthefollowing:
1. Theworkerhasrequestedforanearlyterminationofemployment;
2. Theworkerandemployermutuallyagreedonanearlyterminationofemployment;
3. Thecontractofemploymenthasexpired;
4. Theworkerhasbeendischargedforjustcauseordisciplinaryreasons;
5. theemployerterminatedtheworkersemployment;
6. Theworkersufferedinjuryorillness;or
7. Theworkerhasdied.
Whicheverground,themigrantworkerhastherighttoinsistthatheberepatriatedtothePhilippines.The
onlyexceptioniswhenthemigrantworkerischargedforcertaincrimesorchargesinforeigncourtsandthusmay
notbeallowedtogohomeuntilthecaseisterminatedinhis/herfavor.

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c.RepatriationWhenaSeafarerRequestsforEarlyTermination.
Aseafarerwhorequestsforearlyterminationofhiscontractshallbeliableforhisrepatriationcostaswell
asthetransportationcostofhisreplacement.100

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b.EffectofunauthorizedsubstitutionoralterationofPOEAapprovedemploymentcontract.
R.A.No.8042explicitlyprohibitsthesubstitutionoralterationtotheprejudiceoftheworker,ofemployment
contractsalreadyapprovedandverifiedbythePOEAfromthetimeofactualsigningthereofbythepartiesuptoand
includingtheperiodoftheirexpirationwithouttheapprovalofthePOEA.99
Consequently,itwasheldinChavezv.BontoPerez,[G.R.No.109808,March1,1995,242SCRA73,82;312
Phil. 88], that the subsequently executed side agreement of an overseas contract worker with her foreign employer
whichreducedhersalarybelowtheamountapprovedbythePOEAisvoidbecauseitisagainstourexistinglaws,morals
and public policy. The said side agreement cannot supersede her standard employment contract approved by the
POEA.

Followingthesamerule,theunauthorizedalterationintheemploymentcontractoftheOFWinthecaseof
PlacewellInternationalServicesCorp.v.Camote,[G.R.No.169973,June26,2006],particularlythediminutioninhis
salaryfromUS$370.00toSR800.00permonth,wasdeclaredvoidforviolatingthePOEAapprovedcontractwhichset
the minimum standards, terms, and conditions of his employment. Thus, the original POEAapproved employment
contractoftheOFWsubsistsdespitethesocallednewagreementwiththeforeignemployerattheKingdomofSaudi
Arabia, to which he was deployed by petitioner. Consequently, the solidary liability of petitioner with the foreign
employerfortheOFWsmoneyclaimscontinuesinaccordancewithSection10ofR.A.No.8042.

6.DIRECTHIRING.

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DirectHiringreferstotheprocessofdirectlyhiringworkersbyemployersforoverseasemploymentas
authorizedbytheDOLESecretaryandprocessedbythePOEA,including:
1. Thosehiredbyinternationalorganizations
2. Thosehiredbymembersofthediplomaticcorps.
3. Name hires or workers whoare able to secure overseasemployment opportunity with an employer
withouttheassistanceorparticipationofanyagency.101

Section 1[oo], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010)
Section 1[s], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
See Sec. 6[i], R.A. No. 8042.
100 Section 19.G, Standard Terms and Conditions Governing the Employment of Filipino Seafarers on Board Ocean-Going Vessels.
101 Section 1[i], Rule II, Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, As Amended by R. A. No. 10022 (March 08, 2010).
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Asdefined,aprincipalreferstoanemployerorforeignplacementagencyhiringorengagingFilipino
workersforoverseasemploymentthroughalicensedprivaterecruitment/manningagency.97
Itbearsstressingthatthenatureoftheliabilityofthelocalrecruitment/manningagencyanditsprincipal
isjointandseveral.Thisholdstrueforanyandallclaimsarisingoutoftheimplementationoftheemployment
contractinvolvingFilipinoworkersforoverseasdeployment.Iftherecruitment/manningagencyisajuridicalbeing,
the corporate officers and directors and partners, as the case may be, shall themselves be jointly and severally
liablewiththecorporationorpartnershipfortheaforesaidclaimsanddamages.98
5.PRETERMINATIONOFCONTRACTOFMIGRANTWORKERS.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


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LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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2. Regulation and Enforcement


a. Remittance of foreign exchange earnings
b. Prohibited activities
c. Regulatory and visitorial powers of the
Labor Secretary
d. Penalties for illegal recruitment

b.Reasonwhyobligationismandatory.
RemittancetothePhilippinesofforeignexchangeearningsofFilipinoworkersabroadisnecessarytoprotect
the welfare of their families, dependents and beneficiaries and to ensure that their foreign exchange earnings are
remitted through authorized financial institutions of the Philippine government in line with the countrys economic
developmentprogram.Noncompliancewiththelawsandregulationsonremittanceofforeignexchangeearningsand
recourse to the use of unauthorized and unofficial financing institutions had led to the detriment of the countrys
balance of payments and economic development program. Consequently, it is imperative that the mandatory
remittance requirement be fully complied with by all concerned through the institution of appropriate remittance
facilitiesandtheimpositionofeffectivesanctions.103

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a.Remittanceofforeignexchangeearningsismandatory.
ItshallbemandatoryforallFilipinoworkersabroadtoremitaportionoftheirforeignexchangeearningsto
theirfamilies,dependents,and/orbeneficiariesinthecountryinaccordancewithrulesandregulationsprescribedbythe
SecretaryofLabor.102

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Thepercentageofforeignremittanceshallbeasfollows:
1.Seamenandmariners:Eightypercent(80%)ofthebasicsalary;
2. WorkersofFilipinocontractorsandconstructioncompanies:Seventypercent(70%)ofthebasicsalary;
3. Doctors, engineers, teachers, nurses and other professional workers whose employment contracts
provideforfreeboardandlodgingfacilities:Seventypercent(70%)ofthebasicsalary;
4. All other professionals whose employment contracts do not provide free board and lodging facilities:
Fiftypercent(50%)ofthebasicsalary;
5. Domesticandotherserviceworkers:Fiftypercent(50%)ofthebasicsalary;
6. All other workers not falling under the aforementioned categories: Fifty percent (50%) of the basic
salary.107
7. Performingartistsoverseasarerequiredtoremitatleastfiftypercent(50%)oftheirmonthlysalaryto
thePhilippines.108

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d.Mandatoryobligationtoremit.

Itismandatoryforaworkerorseamantoremitregularlyaportionofhisforeignexchangeearningsabroadto
hisbeneficiarythroughthePhilippinebankingsystem.105

Theobligationtoremitisrequiredtobestipulatedinthefollowingdocuments:
(1) Contractofemploymentand/orservicebetweenaforeignbasedemployerandaworker;
(2) Affidavit of undertaking whereby a worker obligates himself to remit a portion of his earnings to his
beneficiaries;
(3) Applicationforalicenseorauthoritytorecruitworkers;
(4) Recruitmentagreementand/orservicecontractbetweenalicensedagencyorauthorityholderandits
foreignemployerorprincipal;and
(5) Applicationforaccreditationofaprincipalorproject.106

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f.Formofremittance.

Remittance of foreign exchange may be done individually by a worker or collectively through an employer
underapayrolldeductionscheme,tobeapprovedbytheDepartmentofLaborandEmployment.109

Article 22, Labor Code.


Whereas clauses, Executive Order No. 857; Section 1, Rule II, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
Section 1, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code.
105 Section 2, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code; Section 1, Executive Order No. 857; Section 2, Rule III, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
106 Section 2, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code.
107 Section 2, Executive Order No. 857 [Section 2 (a) was amended by Executive Order No. 925, issued on Nov. 22, 1983 and became effective on Jan. 1, 1984]; Section 4, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857; Section 3, Rule VIII, Book VIII, POEA Rules and
Regulations Governing Overseas Employment, as amended in 1991.
108 Section B [7], DOLE Order No. 35, Series of 1994.
109 Section 4, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code; Section 6, Executive Order No. 857.
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c.Coverage.

Thismandatoryrequirementappliestoeverycontractworkerandseamenrecruitedandplacedinoverseas
employment.Theyalsoapplytolicensedagenciesandauthorityholders.104

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TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS
B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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h.Failureorrefusaltoremitandtraffickinginforeigncurrency.

Alicensedagency,authorityholder,ormanningagentoraworkerwhowilfullyfailsorrefusestoremitthe
assigned portion of his foreign exchange earnings or is found to have engaged or is engaging in the illegal traffic or
blackmarketofforeignexchange,shallbeliableundertheLaborCodeandexistingCentralBankrules.111

j.Obligationtoreport.

AgenciesshallsubmitperiodicreportstotheCentralBankofthePhilippines(nowBangkoSentralngPilipinas)
ontheirforeignexchangeearnings,copiesofwhichshallbefurnishedthePOEA.113

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k.Noncompliancewiththemandatoryremittancerequirement;effectonissuance,renewalandextension
ofpassport.

UnderExecutiveOrderNo.857[December13,1982]aswellasitsImplementingRules,itisdeclaredthatno
passport shall be issued, renewed or extended by the Department of Foreign Affairs unless proof of applicants
substantial compliance with the mandatory remittance requirement in the percentages provided under the law, is
submitted.114

Passports issued to Filipino contract workers shall have an initial period of validity of one (1) year. The
DepartmentofForeignAffairsmay,however,adjust,ascircumstancesmayrequire,theinitialpassportvalidityperiod.115

The passport shall be renewable every year upon submission of usual requirements and presentation of
documentaryproofofcompliancetotheremittancerequirement.116

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The InterAgency Committee of the Central Bank Ministry (now Department) of Labor and Ministry (now
Department)ofForeignAffairsfortheImplementationofExecutiveOrderNo.857,initsResolutionNo.183passedon
February9,1983,clarifiedtheforegoingeffectofnoncompliancewiththemandatoryremittancerequirementonthe
issuance,renewalandextensionofpassport.SaidCommitteedeclaredthatinaccordancewiththenormaldurationof
contractsofemploymentandtakingintoaccounttheprovisionsofbothExecutiveOrdersNos.855and857mandating
theDepartmentofForeignAffairstoadjust,ascircumstancesmayrequire,theinitialvalidityperiod,passportsissuedto
contractworkersshallbevalidfortwo(2)years,renewableforanothertwo(2)years,subjecttocompliancewiththe
mandatoryremittancerequirement.

Clarifyingthedefinitionofthephrasesubstantialcompliance,theCommitteedeclaredthat,asageneralrule,
compliance with the percentages of mandatory remittance defined in Section 2 of Executive Order No. 857 shall be
required.However,duringtheinitialperiodoftheimplementationoftheExecutiveOrderwhichisfromFebruary1,
1983,consularofficersmayrenewoldpassportsorissuenewpassportsandofficialsoftheMinistry(nowDepartment)
ofLaborandEmploymentmayrenewemploymentcontractsifthecontractworkersconcernedareabletosubmitproof
ofsubstantialcompliancewiththemandatoryremittancerequirements.

Section 5, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code.


Section 8, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code.
Section 7, Rule XIII, Book I, Rules to Implement the Labor Code; Section 6, Executive Order No. 857; Section 1, Rule V, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
113 Section 2, Rule VIII, Book VIII, POEA Rules and Regulations Governing Overseas Employment, as amended in 1991; Section 3, Rule III, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
114 Section 3, Executive Order No. 857; Section 1, Rule IV, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
115 Section 3, Executive Order No. 857; Section 2, Rule IV, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
116 Section 3, Executive Order No. 857; Section 3, Rule IV, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
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i.Responsibilityofemployerorhisrepresentative.

Theemployerorhisrepresentativeshallundertaketheproperimplementationoftherelevantprovisionsofthe
RulestoImplementtheLaborCodebyprovidingfacilitiestoeffecttheremittanceandmonitoringofforeignexchange
earnings. Failure to do so shall be subject to appropriate sanctions specified in the Labor Code and Central Bank
regulations.112

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g.Procedureofremittance.

(a)Theworker,priortodeparture,isrequiredtoopenadepositaccountforhismandatoryremittanceinfavor
ofhisbeneficiaryinanyPhilippinebank.Aforeigncurrencyaccountmayalsobeopenedbytheworkertobefundedby
savingsinexcessofthemandatoryremittance.TheapplicantshouldinformthePOEAofhisdepositaccountnumber.

(b)Inthecaseofseamen,constructionworkersandotherorganizedworkcrewsinvolvingatleasttwentyfive
(25)workers,theforeigncurrency/pesoaccountshouldbeopenedbytheemployeewithanyPhilippinebankuponthe
signing of the employment contract. The account shall be accompanied by a covering letter of nomination of
beneficiariesandthedateofpaymentoftheallotmenttothebeneficiariesasmaybestipulatedbytheemployeeand
thelicensedagency,manningagencyorconstructioncontractor.

(c)Attheendofeveryperiodasmaybestipulatedinthenoticeaspayment,thelicensedagency,construction
contractorormanningagentshallprepareapayrollsheetindicatingthenamesoftheworkerscoveredbythescheme,
their beneficiaries, their individual bank account numbers, the amount of foreign currency remitted and the peso
equivalentthereof.Thispayrollsheet,togetherwiththepesocheckrepresentingtheremittance,shallbeforwardedto
thebankconcernedwithinstructionstocredittheaccountoftheworkerorbeneficiaries.Acopyofthepayrollsheet
shallbefurnishedthePOEAonamonthlybasis.

(d) No local agent or representative shall pay directly the beneficiaries of the worker. The agent or
representativeshallsubmittothePOEAcopiesofthereportswhichthebankmayrequirehimtosubmitandpayroll
sheets on or before the end of the succeeding month of the payroll period together with the bank credit advice
evidencingremittanceofforeignexchange.110

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

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LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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n.Conflictinmandatoryremittancerequirementandhostcountrysregulationsonthematter.

Shouldtherebeconflictincomplyingwiththemandatoryremittancerequirementinviewofthehostcountrys
regulationsonthematter,thepercentagesofremittanceshallbe,withinallowablelimits,setdownbylocallaws.123

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o.Beneficiarieslivingwithcontractworkersabroad.

A contract worker whose immediate family members, dependents or beneficiaries are residing with him
abroad,isnotcompelledtocomplywiththemandatoryremittancerequirementexceptifthedependentsthemselves
arecontractworkers,subjecttoverificationofhisfamilystatusbytheMinistries(nowDepartments)ofForeignAffairs
and/orLaborandEmployment.Heshouldbeencouraged,nevertheless,toremitaportionofhisforeignearningstothe
Philippines.124

of

p.PunitiveprovisionsofExecutiveOrderNo.857,repealed.

Executive Order No. 1021 [On Encouraging the Inward Remittances of Contract Workers Earnings Through
OfficialChannels]issuedonMay1,1985byPresidentFerdinandE.Marcos,repealedthepunitiveprovisionsofExecutive
OrderNo.857.

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q.Roleofembassyaschannelforremittance.

TheroleoftheEmbassyasdefinedinSection7ofRuleIIIoftheImplementingRulesofExecutiveOrderNo.857
is only temporary, in the absence of banking facilities in the jobsite and pending the establishment of appropriate
arrangementsbytheCentralBank(nowBangkoSentralngPilipinas).Inexercisingthisfunction,theEmbassyshallabide
bycustomarylocallawsandregulationsofthehostcountry.125

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r.Remittancesofcontractworkers,notdeemedpersonaldeductionsforincometaxationpurposes.

ObligationsofcontractworkerstoremitportionsoftheirforeignexchangeearningsunderExecutiveOrderNo.
857areseparateanddistinctfromthepersonaldeductionsdefinedundergrossincometaxationlaws.126

Item I [Guidelines], Resolution No. 1-83 dated Feb. 9, 1983 issued by the Inter-Agency Committee of the Central Bank, Ministry of Labor and Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Implementation of Executive Order No. 857.
Section 4, Executive Order No. 857; Section 1, Rule V, Rules and Regulations Implementing Executive Order No. 857.
Section 4, Ibid.; Section 2, Rule V, Ibid..
120 Section 9, Ibid.; Section 3, Rule V, Ibid..
121 Section 9, Ibid.; Section 4, Rule V, Ibid..
122 Section 9, Ibid.; Section 5, Rule V, Ibid..
123 Item I [Guidelines], [1.5], Resolution No. 1-83 dated Feb. 9, 1983 issued by the Inter-Agency Committee of the Central Bank, Ministry of Labor and Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Implementation of Executive Order No. 857.
124 Item I [Guidelines], [1.6], Resolution No. 1-83 dated Feb. 9, 1983, Ibid..
125 Item I [Guidelines], [1.7], Resolution No. 1-83 dated Feb. 9, 1983, Ibid..
126 Item I [Guidelines], [1.8], Resolution No. 1-83 dated Feb. 9, 1983,Ibid..
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118
119

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Acontractworkershallbedeemedtohavesubstantiallycompliedwiththemandatoryrequirementif,atthe
timeheappliesforrenewalofpassportorrenewalofhisemploymentcontractduringtheperiodcitedabove,hecan
show proof that he has remitted and sold for pesos at least onehalf (1/2) of the amount of foreign exchange
correspondingtothemandatoryremittancerequiredofhim.

The requirement to remit on a monthly basis need not be strictly applied during the initial period of
implementationprovidedthattheamountremittedandsoldforpesosthroughauthorizedfinancinginstitutionsshallat
leastbeequaltoonehalfoftheamountcorrespondingtothemandatorypercentagerequirementdefinedunderthe
ExecutiveOrder.

Forexample,ifthesalaryofacontractworkerisUS$200amonthorUS$2,400ayear,suchworkerisrequired
to remit 50% thereof or US$1,200 annually under Executive Order No. 857. Pursuant to the substantial compliance
formula,acontractworkerneedsonlytoshowproofthathehasatleastremittedandsoldforpesos50%ofUS$1,200
thereoforUS$600.00ayear.

Thesubstantialcomplianceasdefined,appliestocontractworkersremittingonanindividualbasis.Itdoes
notapplytothosecontractworkersalreadyremittingorwhowillberemittingunderthepayrollsystem,oronamonthly
basis.117
m.Noncompliancewiththemandatoryremittancerequirement;effectonaccreditationofemployer,
issuanceoflicenseorauthorityandapproval/renewalofcontractsofemployment.

Noaccreditationshallbeissuedtoanemployer,andnolicenseorauthorityshallbegrantedtoanagencyor
entitybytheDepartmentofLaborandEmploymentunlesstheysubmitproofthattheyhaveprovidedfacilitiestoeffect
theremittanceofforeignexchangeearningsofFilipinoworkersundertheiremploy.118

Nocontractsofemploymentand/orserviceagreementshallbeapprovedorrenewedbytheDepartmentof
LaborandEmploymentunlessproofofcompliancewiththemandatoryremittancerequirementissubmitted.119

A contract worker who fails to comply with the mandatory remittance requirement shall be suspended or
excludedfromthelistofeligibleworkersforoverseasemploymentandincaseofsubsequentviolations,heshallbe
repatriatedathisownexpenseorattheexpenseofhisemployer,asthecasemaybe.120

Filipinoorforeignemployersand/ortheirrepresentativeswhofailtocomplywiththelawshallbeexcluded
fromtheoverseasemploymentprogram.121

Inthecaseoflocalprivateemploymentagenciesandothersimilarentities,theirfailuretocomplywiththe
mandatoryremittancerequirementshallbeagroundforcancellationoftheirauthoritytorecruitworkersforoverseas
employmentwithoutprejudicetotheirliabilitiesunderexistinglawsandregulations.122

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

2.PROHIBITEDACTIVITIES.

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3.1.REGULATORYPOWER.

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a.2separateprovisionsintheLaborCode.

Asfarasrecruitmentandplacementofworkersforlocalandoverseasemploymentareconcerned,the
Labor Code contains two (2) separate provisions on the regulatory and visitorial powers of the DOLE Secretary,
namely:
1. Article36RegulatoryPower;and
2. Article37VisitorialPower.

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Article36.RegulatoryPower.TheSecretaryofLaborshallhavethepowertorestrict
and regulatethe recruitment andplacement activities of all agencies withinthecoverageofthis
Titleandisherebyauthorizedtoissueordersandpromulgaterulesandregulationstocarryoutthe
objectivesandimplementtheprovisionsofthisTitle.

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a.Natureofregulatorypower.

ThepowertoregulateandrestricttherecruitmentandplacementactivitiesofallagenciesconferredbyArticle
36totheSecretaryofLaborandEmploymentisavalidgrantofpolicepower.127

Beingregulatory,theDOLESecretarymayvalidlyissuerulesandregulationsrestrictingorotherwiseregulating
therecruitmentandplacementactivitiesofpersonsandentitiesengagedintherecruitmentandplacementofworkers
locallyoroverseas.

127

Philippine Association of Service Exporters, Inc. v. Torres, G.R. No. 101279, Aug. 6, 1992, 212 SCRA 298.

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b.Exerciseoftheregulatorypower.

PursuanttoArticle36andinaccordancewithotherpertinentandrelatedprovisionsoftheLaborCode,the
DOLESecretaryhasissuedseveralimplementingrules,guidelinesandregulationssuchas,amongothers,thefollowing:

1.RulesandRegulationsGoverningPrivateRecruitmentandPlacementAgenciesforLocalEmploymentissued
bySecretaryRubenD.TorresonApril4,1991;

2.RulesandRegulationsGoverningOverseasEmploymentissuedbySecretaryRubenD.TorresonMay31,
1991;and

3.PolicyInstructionssuchasPolicyInstructionsNo.22,Seriesof1977[GuidelinesGoverningtheEmployment
ofConstructionWorkersOverseasbyApril1,1977]anditsImplementingRulesandRegulations;PolicyInstructionsNo.
34, Series of 1978 [Omnibus Instructions Governing the Deployment of Construction Workers Overseas]; and Policy
InstructionsNo.45,Seriesof1981[DirectingtheOEDBtoMonitor,DevelopandAdministertheHiringandEmployment
ofFilipinosinForeignHouseholds];

4.CircularssuchasCircularNo.0191issuedbySecretaryRubenD.TorresonNovember20,1991prescribing
additionalrequirements,conditionsandproceduresforthedeploymentofperformingartists;

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3.REGULATORYANDVISITORIALPOWERSOFTHELABORSECRETARY.

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Besidesillegalrecruitment,Section6ofR.A.No.8042,asamendedbySection5ofR.A.No.10022(March8,
2010),additionallyprovidesthatitshallalsobeunlawfulforanypersonorentitytocommitthefollowingprohibited
acts:
(1) GrantaloantoanoverseasFilipinoworkerwithinterestexceedingeightpercent(8%)perannum,which
willbeusedforpaymentoflegalandallowableplacementfeesandmakethemigrantworkerissue,
eitherpersonallyorthroughaguarantororaccommodationparty,postdatedchecksinrelationtothe
saidloan;
(2) Impose a compulsory and exclusive arrangement whereby an overseas Filipino worker is required to
availofaloanonlyfromspecificallydesignatedinstitutions,entitiesorpersons;
(3) Refuse to condone or renegotiate a loan incurred by an overseas Filipino worker after the latter's
employmentcontracthasbeenprematurelyterminatedthroughnofaultofhisorherown;
(4) Impose a compulsory and exclusive arrangement whereby an overseas Filipino worker is required to
undergohealthexaminationsonlyfromspecificallydesignatedmedicalclinics,institutions,entitiesor
persons, except in the case of a seafarer whose medical examination cost is shouldered by the
principal/shipowner;
(5) Impose a compulsory and exclusive arrangement whereby an overseas Filipino worker is required to
undergo training, seminar, instruction or schooling of any kind only from specifically designated
institutions, entities or persons, except for recommendatory trainings mandated by
principals/shipownerswherethelattershoulderthecostofsuchtrainings;
(6) Forasuspendedrecruitment/manningagencytoengageinanykindofrecruitmentactivityincludingthe
processingofpendingworkers'applications;and
(7) For a recruitment/manning agency or a foreign principal/employer to pass on the overseas Filipino
workerordeductfromhisorhersalarythepaymentofthecostofinsurancefees,premiumorother
insurancerelatedcharges,asprovidedunderthecompulsoryworker'sinsurancecoverage.

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LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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5.DOLEOrderNo.35,Seriesof1994,issuedonOctober14,1994bySecretaryMa.NievesConfesorregarding
theComprehensiveWelfareProgramforArtistsOverseas.

6.POEARulesandRegulationsGoverningtheRecruitmentandEmploymentofLandBasedOverseasWorkers
issuedonFebruary4,2002.

7. POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the Recruitment and Employment of Seafarers issued on May 23,
2003.
3.2.VISITORIALPOWER.

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4.PENALTIESFORILLEGALRECRUITMENT.

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a.Penaltiesforillegalrecruitmentseparateanddistinctfrompenaltiesforcommissionofprohibited
acts.

RepublicActNo.8042,asamendedbyR.A.No.10022,providesseparatepenaltiesforillegalrecruitment
andcommissionofprohibitedacts.

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Thepenaltiesforcommissionofprohibitedactsareasfollows:

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Thepenaltiesforillegalrecruitmentareasfollows:
(a) Any person found guilty of illegal recruitment shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of not less
thantwelve(12)yearsandone(1)daybutnotmorethantwenty(20)yearsandafineofnotlessthan
Onemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00)normorethanTwomillionpesos(P2,000,000.00).
(b) ThepenaltyoflifeimprisonmentandafineofnotlessthanTwomillionpesos(P2,000,000.00)nor
more than Five million pesos (P5,000,000.00) shall be imposed if illegal recruitment constitutes
economic sabotage; Provided, however, That the maximum penalty shall be imposed if the person
illegally recruited is less than eighteen (18) years of age or committed by a nonlicensee or non
holderofauthority.

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(a) Anypersonfoundguiltyofanyoftheprohibitedactsshallsufferthepenaltyofimprisonmentofnot
lessthansix(6)yearsandone(1)daybutnotmorethantwelve(12)yearsandafineofnotlessthan
Fivehundredthousandpesos(P500,000.00)normorethanOnemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00).

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Iftheoffenderisanalien,heorsheshall,inadditiontothepenaltiesabove,bedeportedwithoutfurther
proceedings.132

Article 37, Labor Code.


Article 128, Labor Code; San Jose v. NLRC, G.R. No. 121227, Aug. 17, 1998.
See Article 34 [g], Labor Code; Section 6, Republic Act No. 8042; Section 9 [VI], Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 dated Feb. 29, 1996.
131 See Article 34, Labor Code; Section 6, Republic Act No. 8042; Section 9 [VI], Omnibus Rules and Regulations Implementing the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 dated Feb. 29, 1996.
132 Section 7, R.A. No. 8042, as amended by Section 6, R.A. No. 10022; Article 39 [d], Labor Code.
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b.Effectofobstructionofexerciseofvisitorialpower.
Theactofanyperson,whetheranonlicensee,nonholder,licenseeorholderofauthority,inobstructingor
attemptingtoobstructinspectionbytheDOLESecretaryorbyhisdulyauthorizedrepresentativeunderArticle37ofthe
LaborCodeisoneoftheprohibitedpracticesandunlawfulactswhichconstitutesillegalrecruitment.130

Alsoconstitutiveofillegalrecruitmentistheactoffurnishingorpublishinganyfalsenoticeorinformationor
documentinrelationtorecruitmentoremployment;orgivinganyfalsenotice,testimony,informationordocument;or
committinganyactofmisrepresentationforthepurposeofsecuringalicenseorauthorityundertheLaborCode;or
failingtosubmitreportsonthestatusofemployment,placementvacancies,remittanceofforeignexchangeearnings,
separationfromjobs,departuresandsuchothermattersorinformationasmayberequiredbytheSecretaryofLabor
andEmployment.131

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a.DistinctionsofthevisitorialpowersoftheDOLESecretaryunderArticles27and128oftheLaborCode.

ThevisitorialpoweroftheDOLESecretaryorhisdulyauthorizedrepresentativesdescribedinArticle37ofthe
LaborCodeshouldbedistinguishedfromtheothervisitorialpowersgrantedtohimbyotherprovisionsoftheLabor
CodesuchastheonesprovidedforunderArticle128andArticle274thereof.

Here,thevisitorialpowerpertainstotheinspectionofthepremises,booksofaccountsandrecordsofpersons
andentitiesengagedintherecruitmentandplacementofworkersforlocaloroverseasemployment.Italsoincludesthe
powertorequirethesubmissionofreportsregularlyoncertainprescribedformsandtoactonanyviolationofTitleI,
BookIoftheLaborCode.128

ThevisitorialandenforcementpoweroftheDOLESecretaryorhisdulyauthorizedrepresentatives,including
laborregulationofficers,treatedinArticle128pertainstotheinspectionofpremises,booksofaccountsandrecordsof
employerstodetermineviolationsoftheLaborCodeorwhichmayaidintheenforcementthereofandofanylaborlaws,
wageordersorrulesandregulationsissuedpursuantthereto.129
Article 274 dwells on the visitorial power of the DOLE Secretary to inquire into the financial activities of
legitimatelabororganizations.

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Article37.VisitorialPower.TheSecretaryofLabororhisdulyauthorizedrepresentatives
may, at any time, inspect the premises, books of accounts and records of any person or entity
coveredbythisTitle,requireittosubmitreportsregularlyonprescribedforms,andactonviolation
ofanyprovisionsofthisTitle.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review : ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

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Ineverycase,convictionshallcauseandcarrytheautomaticrevocationofthelicenseorregistrationof
therecruitment/manningagency,lendinginstitutions,trainingschoolormedicalclinic.133

END OF DISCUSSION ON
TOPIC B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT

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133

Section 7, R.A. No. 8042, as amended by Section 6, R.A. No. 10022.

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LABOR LAW: B. RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT


Prof. Joselito Guianan Chan

www.chanroblesbar.com : www.chanroblesbar.com.ph