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12/23/2014

70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

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DearTechie!!
Welcometobobi.blog.comatechnoworldofBusinessIntelligence.
Throughthisblog,IhavetriedtoinitiateandsharemytechnialskillsinareaofSAPBusiness
Intelligence,SAPVisualIntelligence,BusinessAnalytics,Datawarehouse,Reportingand
databasesolutions.
Iwouldinviteandencourageyoutoreadthepostsandshareyourcommentandexpertiesonthe
topicsmentionedintheblogssothatthisblogcouldturnintotruehelpforthebeginnersandthe
advancelevelpractitionerofSAPBO/BI.
Thanksinadvanceforyourvaluablecontribution!!

70factsofUniverseDesigner!!
UniverseDesignerInterviewQuestions
1. Whatisbusinessobjects?
2. WhatarethevariousBusinessObjectsproducts?
3. WhataretheadvantagesofBusinessObjectsoverotherDSS?
4. HowmanymodesarethereinBO&Designer
5. WhatareEnterpriseandWorkgroupmodes?
6. How do you save a Business Objects document which can be accessed by all users in
workgroupmode?
7. Whatisonlineandofflinemode?
8. Whatisauniverse?
9. CanaUniverseconnecttomultipledatabases?
10. Howdoyoudefineuniverseparameters?
11. Whatisadatabaseconnection?
12. Whatarethetypesofconnectionsweusewhenconnectingtothedatabase?
13. WhataredifferenttypesofjoinsavailableinUniversedesign?Explaineach
14. Howdoyoudesignauniverse?
15. WhatarethecomponentsoftheDesignerinterface?
16. Whatareclasses/objects?
17. Whatareclasses?
18. Whatareobjects?
19. WhatareDimensionMeasureDetailObjects?
20. Whatishierarchy
21. HowtocreatehierarchiesinBO?
22. WhatareContexts?
23. WhatareaggregatedtablesandhowwouldyouuseitinBOUniverse
24. WhatisIncompatibility?
25. Whatisthetypicalstrategyemployedindeveloping/maintaining/distributingUniverses?
26. I have Customer dimension table and a fact table with cust_to_ship_key and
cust_to_bill_key.HowdoIgetthecorrespondingcustomernames?
27. Whatarestrategies?
28. WhatarethedifferenttypesofStrategies?
29. Howdoyouspecifyexternalstrategies?
30. Whatarethevisualizationoptionsavailable?
31. WhatisJoinPathProblem?
32. Howtoaddaggregatetableinuniverseinreallifescenario?
33. Ifwehaveausergroupandwewanttogivetheaccesstothereportfrom1990to2000.
andfromthatgroupwewantoneusertorestricttoseethereportfrom1990to1995.
ThenwhattodoinBOdesigner,sothatthiscanbepossible(Notinreportlevel).
34. Whatisshortcutjoin?Whatisitsuseexplainwithanexample
35. Whatisisolatedjoin,explainwithanexample
36. WhatiscardinalityanditssignificanceinBOuniverse
37. HowwillyouknowtheversionofBOdesigneryouareusing
38. WhatisloopinUniverse?Explainitsproblemanddifferentmethodologiestoresolveit.
http://bobi.blog.com/bethemasterofinterview/70factofuniversedesigner/

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DeepakChaubey

AuthorIntroduction
Iamkeenenoughtolearntechnical
stuffasmuchpossible.Iusemy
leisuretimetosharemyknowledge
inareaofSAPbusinessobject,Business
Inteligence,DatawarehouseandDatabase
conceptswithcontexttodatabses(likeSql
server2005/2008/2012,Oracle
9i/10g/11i,SybaseASE,SybaseIQ,Mysql
5.5).Mypurposeistocreateasuper
BO/BI/Databaseblogwhichcontainsalmost
alltherespectivequestionsrelatedtoSAP
BOBI/BODS/HANAplatformInterviewsin
areaofadministration,developmentand
analysisfrombasictoadvancelevel.Idea
behindthisblogistosaveenoughtimefor
beginneraswellasexperiencedone.Ifyou
haveanyqueryregardinganyofthepostin
thisblog.youcanwritemeon:
sapbobiinfo@gmail.comIoffer&conducts
offline/OnlinetrainingcoursesforSAP
BO/BIandBODScourses.Checkbelowlink
toknowmoreaboutme:
http://about.me/deepakchaubey

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12/23/2014

70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

39. WhatisCHASMtrapandhowtoresolveit
40. Whenanynewuniversechangesaredeployedhowdoestheendusergettheviewofthenew
classes/objectsadded(apartfromspecsdoc)?
41. Ihave2universesthatisu1andu2.Fromu1,icreatedonereportthatisr1.Nowiwantto
givetheconnectionr1tou2andatthesametimedeletetheconnectionfromu1tor1?
Howisitpossibleexplain?
42. WhatismeantbyZABOandFC(fullclient)?
43. Whathappensifcardinalitiesarenotresolved?
44. Whatisaggregatenavigation.
45. WhatisIndexAwarenessinUniverse.
46. Whatare@functions
47. WhatiscoreUniverse
48. Whatisderiveduniverse.
49. Whatarelinkeduniverses?Explainwithadvantagesanddisadvantages.
50. WhatisObjectQualification
51. HowtocreatefilterinUniverseandwhatisadvantagesanddisadvantages.
52. WhydoweneedtocreatederivedtableinUniverse.
53. ExplainsecuritylevelinBOUniverse
54. HowtoimplementrowlevelsecurityinUniverse.
55. Howdoyoudeterminewhentousealiasandwhentousecontext.
56. Whataredifferentwaystolinkuniverses.
57. HowdoyoudistributeUniverse?
58. Whatisthelistmode?
59. WhatisParsechecking?.
60. WhatarethedisadvantagesofAlias?
61. WhatarelinkedUniverses
62. ExplainUniverseDesignMethodology.
63. ExplainUniverseDevelopmentLifecycle.
64. Whatisfailoverandfaultover?
65. WhatisroleofCMS?
66. WorkingwithFRSPruningandTracing
67. WhatisPRMfile?
68. UniverseParameters/DatasourceConnection
69. WhatisSqlEditor?
70. WhatisFileRepositaryserver?

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1.Whatisbusinessobjects?
BUSINESSOBJECTS is an integrated query, reporting and analysis solution for business
professionals that allow them to access the data in their corporate databases directly from their
desktopandpresentandanalyzethisinformationinaBUSINESSOBJECTSdocument.
ItisanOLAPtoolthathighlevelmanagementcanuseasapartofaDecisionSupportSystems
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BUSINESSOBJECTS makes it easy to access the data, because you work with it inbusiness
termsthatarefamiliartoyou,nottechnicaldatabasetermslikeSQL.

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2.WhatarethevariousBusinessObjectsproducts?

November2014
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UserModule,Designer,Supervisor,Auditor,SetAnalyzer,InfoView(WebIntelligence),Business
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3.WhataretheadvantagesofBusinessObjectsoverotherDSS?
UserFriendly.
FamiliarBusinessTerms.
GraphicalInterface
DragandDrop.
Powerfulreportsinlesstime.
EnterprisewideDeploymentofdocumentsusingWebI
CustomizeddashboardsusingApplicationfoundationandBusinessObjectsSDK.
4.HowmanymodesarethereinBO&Designer
Thereare2types:EnterpriseMode,Workgroup
5.WhatareEnterpriseandWorkgroupmodes?
Designer lets you save universes in either enterprise or workgroup mode.Enterprisemode means
that you are working in an environment with a repository. Workgroupmode means that you are
workingwithoutarepository.Themodeinwhichyousaveyouruniversedetermineswhetherother
designers are able to access them. By default, a universe is saved in the mode in which you are
already working. For example, if you launched a session in enterprise mode, any universe you
saveisautomaticallyinthatmode.
http://bobi.blog.com/bethemasterofinterview/70factofuniversedesigner/

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2/22

12/23/2014

70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

6.How do you save a Business Objects document which can be accessed by all users
inworkgroupmode?
Ifwewanttomakeauniverseaccessibletoanotherdesignerworkingwithoutarepository,then
clicktheSaveForAllUserscheckboxintheSaveasuniversedialogbox.
7.Whatisonlineandofflinemode?
Ifyouwantauniversetobeaccessibleinofflinemode,youmustfirstlyensurethatthe
universehasbeenopenedatleastonceinonlinemode,andthatithasbeensavedwiththeSavefor
AllUserscheckboxselectedintheSaveUniverseAsbox.TomakeOfflinemodeavailable:
ModeDescription
OnlineDefaultmodeofoperationforDesignerwhenyouareworkinginan
environmentwitharepository.
OfflineModeofoperationforDesignerwhenyouarenotconnectedtoarepository.
Onlyavailableifyouhavepreviouslyconnectedinonlinemode.
In offline mode you can open universes that are stored on your local computer only if those
universeshavebeenopenedpreviouslyinonlinemode.
Youcanaccessdatabaseswheretheconnectionandsecurityinformationarestoredonyourlocal
machine(personnelandsharedconnections.)
You can use offline mode when you do not have access to the repository, for example when
workingwithalaptopoffsite,orwhenthenetworkisnotavailable.
8.Whatisauniverse?
Universeprovidesasemanticlayerbetweenyouandthedatabase.Itconsistsofclassesandobjects
named in business terms. It is basically a mapping of table and the columns in the database to
classesandobjectsrespectivelyinthequerypanel.
Alternatively,Itislogicalmappingofdatainbusinessterms.
IntheBusinessObjectsUsermodule,universesenableenduserstobuildqueriesfromwhichthey
can generate and perform analysis. Universes isolate end users from the complexities of the
databasestructureaswellastheintricaciesofSQLsyntax.
9.CanaUniverseconnecttomultipledatabases?
NO
10.Howdoyoudefineuniverseparameters?
The first step in creating a universe is to specify its parameters. These parameters include the
definitionofauniverse,whichiscomprisedof:theuniversename,adescriptionoftheuniverse,a
connection to an RDBMS. You enter universe parameters from the Universe Parameters dialog
box.Thisdialogboxalsoletsyousetupdatabaseoptions,externalstrategies,graphicoptions,and
printsettings.
11.Whatisadatabaseconnection?
AconnectionisasetofparametersthatprovidesaccesstoanRDBMS.Theseparametersinclude
system information such as the data account, user identification, and the path to the database.
Designerprovidesthreetypesofconnections:secured,shared,andpersonal.
12.Whatarethetypesofconnectionsweusewhenconnectingtothedatabase?
Therearethreetypesofconnectionsnamely:Secured,SharedandPersonal.
Asecuredconnectionisusedtocentralizeandcontrolaccesstosensitiveorcriticaldata.Itisthe
safesttypeofconnectionforprotectingaccesstodata.
Asharedconnectionisusedtoaccesscommonresourcessuchasuniversesordocuments.Several
userscanthususeit.
Apersonalconnectionisspecifictooneuserandcanbeusedonlyfromthecomputeronwhichit
wascreated.
13.WhataredifferenttypesofjoinsavailableinUniversedesign?Explaineach
EquiorInnerorNaturalorSimplejoin:isbasedontheequalitybetweenthevaluesinthecolumn
ofonetableandthevaluesinthecolumnofanother.Becausethesamecolumnispresentinboth
tables,thejoinsynchronizesthetwotables.
SelfJoin: join a table to itself i.e create a selfjoin to find rows in a table that have values in
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70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

commonwithotherrowsinthesametable.
Theta or NonEqui join: links tables based on a relationship other than equality between two
columns.Ajoinisarelationaloperationthatcausestwoormoretableswithacommondomainto
be combined into a single table. The purpose of joins is to restrict the result set of a query run
againstmultipletables.
Outerjoin:linkstwotables,oneofwhichhasrowsthatdonotmatchthoseinthecommoncolumn
oftheothertable.
LeftOuterJoin:Allrecordsfromfirsttablewithmatchingrowsfromsecond.
RightOuterJoin:Allrecordsfromsecondnamedtablewithmatchingrowsfromleft.
Fullouterjoin:Allrowsinalljoinedtablesareincluded,whethertheyarematchedornot.
Shortcutjoin:canbeusedinschemascontainingredundantjoinpathsleadingtothesameresult,
regardlessofdirection.ImprovesSQLperformance.
14.Howdoyoudesignauniverse?
Thedesignmethodconsistsoftwomajorphases.
During the first phase, you create the underlying database structure of your universe. This
structure includes the tables and columns of a database and the joins by which they are linked.
You may need to resolve loops which occur in the joins using aliases or contexts. You can
concludethisphasebytestingtheintegrityoftheoverallstructure.
Duringthesecondphase,youcanproceedtoenhancethecomponentsofyouruniverse.Youcan
alsopreparecertainobjectsformultidimensionalanalysis.Aswiththefirstphase,youshouldtest
the integrity of your universe structure. Finally, you can distribute your universes to users by
exportingthemtotherepositoryorviayourfilesystem.
15.WhatarethecomponentsoftheDesignerinterface?
InDesigner,youcreateauniverseusingthreeareas:theUniversepane,theStructurepane,the
TableBrowser.TheUniversepanedisplaysthecomponentsoftheuniversefromthepointofview
of BusinessObjects that is the classes, objects, and conditions. The Structure pane reflects the
underlyingdatabasestructureoftheuniverseincludingthetables,columns,andjoins.TheTable
Browser is the component that lets you create the classes and objects of the universe from the
tablesandcolumnsofadatabase.
16.Whatareclasses/objects?
An object maps to data or a derivation of data in the database. For the purposes of
multidimensionalanalysis,anobjectcanbequalifiedasoneofthreetypes:adimension,detail,or
measure.
Aclassisacollectionofobjectsbasedonbusinesscategories.
Auniverseisasetofclassesandobjectsintendedforaspecificapplicationorgroupofusers.
17.Whatareclasses?
Aclassisalogicalgroupingofobjectswithinauniverse.Ingeneral,thenameofaclassreflectsa
business concept that conveys the category or type of objects. For example, in a universe
pertainingtohumanresources,oneclassmightbeEmployees.Aclasscanbefurtherdividedinto
subclasses.Inthehumanresourcesuniverse,asubclassoftheEmployeesclasscouldbePersonal
Information.Asdesigner,youarefreetodefinehierarchiesofclassesandsubclassesinamodel
thatbestreflectsthebusinessconceptsofyourorganization.
18.Whatareobjects?
Anobjectisthemostrefinedcomponentinauniverse.Itmapstodataoraderivationofdatain
thedatabase.Usingobjects,enduserscanbuildqueriestogeneratereports.Thenameofanobject
suggestsaconceptdrawnfromtheterminologyofabusinessordiscipline.Forahumanresources
manager, objects might be Employee Name, Address, Salary, or Bonus, while for a financial
analyst, objects might be Profit Margin, Return on Investment, etc. For the purposes of
multidimensional analysis, objects are qualified as one of three types: dimension, detail, or
measure.
19.WhatareDimensionMeasureDetailObjects?
When creating universes, universe designers define and qualify objects. The qualification of an
objectrevealshowitcanbeusedinanalysisinreports.Anobjectcanbequalifiedasadimension,
adetail,orameasure.
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70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

Adimensionobjectistheobjectbeingtrackedinotherwords,itcanbeconsideredthefocusofthe
analysis.AdimensioncanbeanobjectsuchasService,Price,orCustomer.
Dimensionobjectsretrievethedatathatwillprovidethebasisforanalysisinareport.Dimension
objectstypicallyretrievecharactertypedata(customernames,resortnames,etc.),ordates(years,
quarters,reservationdates,etc.)
Adetailobjectprovidesdescriptivedataaboutadimensionobject(orattributeofadimension).It
isalwaysassociatedwithaspecificdimensionobject.However,adetailobjectcannotbeusedin
drill down analysis. E.g. Address & phone number can be attributes about the customer
dimension.
Ameasureobjectisderivedfromoneofthefollowingaggregatefunctions:
Count,Sum,Minimum,Maximumoraverageorisanumericdataitemonwhichyoucanapply,
at least locally, one of those functions. This type of object provides statistical information.
Examplesofmeasureobjectsincludethefollowing:
Revenue,unitpriceetc
20.Whatishierarchy
Groups of related dimension objects are referred to as dimension hierarchies. An example of a
dimensionhierarchyisGeography,whichcanconsistofCity,Region,andCountry.(Hierarchyis
an ordered series of related dimensions, which can be used, in multidimensional analysis) Good
examplesofhierarchyaregeographyandtime
21.HowtocreatehierarchiesinBO?
Ahierarchy,whichthedesignersetsupwhencreatingtheuniverse,consistsofdimensionobjects
rankedfromlessdetailedtomoredetailed.Theobjectsthatbelongtohierarchiesaretheones
youcanusetodefinescopeofanalysis.
22.CanaUniversehavemorethan1factTable?
Yes.Typicallyauniversecanhavemorethan1facttableandnumerousaggregatedtables.
23.WhatareContexts?
Acontextisarulethatdetermineswhichoftwopathscanbechosenwhenmorethanonepathis
possible in the database from one table to another. It helps in resolving the loops created by
variousjoinsintheuniversetables.
Withcertaindatabasestructures,youmayneedtousecontextsratherthanaliasestoresolveloops.
A situation where this commonly occurs is a transactional database with multiple fact tables
(multiplestars)thatsharelookuptables.
24.WhatareaggregatedtablesandhowwouldyouuseitinBOUniverse
Aggregatetable
Aggregate tables are table which contains summarized data at different level depending on the
need of reports. Imagine a fact table which contains granular data up to minutes transaction.
Now if you are developing a reports which has hour, day, week, month, quarter, year level
summaries.Queriestogetthesesummaryvalueswillscanmillionsofrecordswhichwouldinturn
resultinpoorperformanceofreports.Onecanaddressthisissuebycreatingaggregatesummary
table.
PossibleproblemsofusingAggregatetable
Aggregatetablearegoodtoachieveperformanceforhighlevelsummeryqueries.Howeverifthere
aremultipleaggregatetableswhichcontainssummaryvaluesthenusingaggregatetablemightbe
anissue.
Considerfollowingexample
e.g.youhavetwoaggregatetable
Table1
AggregateIDYearQuarterMonthSalesRevenue
Table2
AggregateIDYearQuarterMonthServiceTypeSalesRevenue
Now if you have a requirement wherein one of your report is displays year wise sales revenue
whereasotherreportisdisplaysYearwiseServiceTypesalesrevenue.Howwouldyoutellreport
tousetable1foryearwisesalesrevenueandusetable2foranotherreport.
UsingAggregateTableinBusinessObjects
BusinessObjectsprovidesawonderfulfunctiontouseaggregatedtables.
Aggregate_aware().Thisfunctiondetermineswhichaggregatetabletousebasedontheattributes
usedinthequery.
http://bobi.blog.com/bethemasterofinterview/70factofuniversedesigner/

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TypeofConnection
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70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

Syntax:
Aggregate_aware(<expression1>,
<expression2>,

)
Expression=fieldorvalidSQLexpressionorcalculation

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Help&Support
SapBOXIR3UniverseDesigner
Book:

e.g.soformulaforsalesrevenuemightbe.
Aggregate_aware(table1.salesrevenue,
table2.salesrevenue,
sum(sometable.column)
)
Noticethearrangementofcolumnusedinfunction.Itishighestsummarizedtoleastsummarized.
Nowifwhilecreatingreportifyouuseonlyyearattributeandsalesrevenue.Aggregate_awarewill
usetable1togetthesalesrevenue,ifusedservicetypeinreportItwillusetable2,inallothercases
itwillusesum(sometable.column)whichcouldbeafacttable.
Rulestouseaggregate_aware
1.Iftheobjectisatthesamelevelofaggregationorhigher,itisOMPATIBLEwiththesummary
table.
e.g.InaboveexamplenoneofthetablecontainsaggregatedvalueforArticlesoarticleobject
willbeincompatible.
Youcannotuseaggregate_awarewithArticleobject
2.Iftheobjectisatalowerlevelofaggregation,itisINCOMPATIBLE.
3.Iftheobjecthasnothingtodowiththesummarytable,itisINCOMPATIBLE.
25.WhatisIncompatibility?
The set of incompatible objects you specify determines which aggregate tables are disregarded
duringthegenerationofSQL.Withrespecttoanaggregatetable,anobjectiseithercompatibleor
incompatible.Therulesforcompatibilityareasfollows:
Whenanobjectisatthesameorhigherlevelofaggregationasthetable,itiscompatiblewiththe
table.
Whenanobjectisatalowerlevelofaggregationthanthetable(orifitisnotatallrelatedtothe
table),itisincompatiblewiththetable.
26.Whatisthetypicalstrategyemployedindeveloping/maintaining/distributingUniverses?
Phase1:Breakdowntheinformationalsystemintofunctionalareas.
Phase2:Analyzetheinformationneedsofusers.
Phase3:Designaconceptualschema
Designthespecificationoftheuser.
Phase4:CreateaUniversewithdesigner.
TesttheUniversewiththeBusinessObjectsmodule.
DistributetheUniverse.
RepeattheotherstepsforotherUniverses.
Phase5:UpdateandmaintaintheUniverse.
Notifyendusersofchanges.
27.IhaveCustomerdimensiontableandafacttablewithcust_to_ship_keyandcust_to_bill_key.
HowdoIgetthecorrespondingcustomernames?
Create an Alias table for Customer dimension table. Join the cust_to_ship_key with a customer
keyofActualcustomertableandjointhecust_to_bill_keywithcustomerkeyoftheAlias.
28.Whatarestrategies?
Astrategyisascriptthatautomaticallyextractsstructuralinformationfromadatabaseorflatfile.
29.WhatarethedifferenttypesofStrategies?
InDesignerwecanspecifytwotypesofstrategies:
1)Builtinstrategiesand
2)Externalstrategies
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BuiltinStrategies:Designerprovidesanumberofdefaultstrategieswhichwecanuse.Theseare
strategies for extracting joins, detecting cardinalities, and creating default classes and objects.
OptionsforindicatingdefaultstrategiesarelocatedintheDatabasetaboftheOptionsdialogbox.
External Strategies: We can also create our own strategies. Such strategies are referred to as
externalstrategies.Withanexternalstrategy,wecanspecifytheexactwaythatobjectsandjoins
aretobeextractedfromthedatabasestructure.Thestrategyweuse,forexample,canbeascript
generatedfromaCASEAccesstool.AnexternalstrategyisspecifictooneRDBMS.
30.Howdoyouspecifyexternalstrategies?
Withanexternalstrategy,youcanspecifytheexactwaythatobjectsandjoinsaretobeextracted
from the database structure. All external strategies are contained within the same text file. The
name of this text file is indicated in the .prm file specific to your RDBMS. In the .prm file, the
strategyfileisdeclaredasfollows:STG=[StrategyFileName]whereStrategyFileNameisthename
ofthestrategyfile.
Anexternalstrategy,whetherforobjectsorforjoins,ismadeupofthefollowingsections:
anameanddescription(ThesearevisibleintheStrategiestaboftheUniverseParametersdialog
box.)
atypeparameter:objectorjoin
anSQLparameterorfileparameter
anoptionalparameterthatpointstoaconnectionotherthantheuniverseconnection.
AnexternalstrategycanbebasedonSQLorafile.
31.Whatarethevisualizationoptionsavailable?
Designercontainsavarietyoffeaturesfororganizingandviewingthetablesandcolumnsinthe
Structure pane. Among these features are: List Mode, which adds three panes to the Structure
pane. These panes are for viewing the names of tables, joins, and contexts. When you click a
component in a pane, its corresponding graphical representation in the schema is highlighted.
Graphic options, which let you customize the shape or appearance of the tables, columns, joins,
andcardinalitiesintheStructurepane.
Arrange tables, a feature that reorganizes the tables in the Structure pane so as to produce an
orderlydisplay.Gridlines,acommandthatdisplaysagrid,whichyoucanusetoaligntablesinthe
Structurepane.
Table(Column)Values,commandsthatdisplaythedatavaluesassociatedwithaparticulartable
orcolumn.
32.WhatisJoinPathProblem?
A one to many join links a table, which is in turn linked by a one to many join. This type of
fanningoutofonetomanyjoinscanleadtoajoinpathproblemcalledafantrap.
Thefanningouteffectofonetomanyjoinscancauseincorrectresultstobereturnedwhena
queryincludesobjectsbasedonbothtables.
33.Howtoaddaggregatetableinuniverseinreallifescenario?
Decidethereportswhichareusinghighaggregates
CreateAggregatetableinDB
InserttheminUniverse
Jointhemwithdimensiontable
34.Ifwehaveausergroupandwewanttogivetheaccesstothereportfrom1990to2000.and
fromthatgroupwewantoneusertorestricttoseethereportfrom1990to1995.Thenwhattodo
inBOdesigner,sothatthiscanbepossible(Notinreportlevel).
Thiscanbedoneusingrowlevelsecurityinuniverseparameter.
35.Whatisshortcutjoin.Whatisitsuseexplainwithanexample
A shortcut join is a join which links two table by bypassing intervening tables that exists in the
universe.ThisisusedwhenitispossibleincertaincircumstancestomakeSQLmoreefficient.
e.g. in Above example if you want get the client list and there countries you can simple join
country ID from client table to country id from country table. However this would introduce a
loop.Soinsteadofusingnormaljoinyoumakeitasshortcutjoin.Soifquerycontainsobjectfrom
client table and country table it would you shortcut join. This would result in efficient query
avoidingextrajoinofregion.
36.Whatisisolatedjoin,explainwithanexample.
Isolatedjoinsmeansthejoinswhicharenotincludedin
anycontext.supposeyouhave15joinsinuruniverse.in
contextAyouincluded7joinsandincontextB7joins.
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Therestmeansonejoinisurisolatedjoin.
37.WhatiscardinalityanditssignificanceinBOuniverse
CardinalityexpressestheminimumandmaximumnumberofinstancesofanentityBthatcanbe
associatedwithaninstanceofanentityA.Theminimumandthemaximumnumberofinstances
canbeequalto0,1,orN.
Becauseajoinrepresentsabidirectionalrelationship,itmustalwayshavetwocardinalities.
Therearetwomainmethodsfordetectingoreditingcardinalities:
DetectCardinalitiescommand
EditJoindialogbox
IfyouselectedtheDetectcardinalitiesinjoinsoptionsintheDatabasetaboftheOptionsdialog
box,Designerdetectsandretrievesthecardinalitiesofthejoins.Ifyoudonotusethisoption,you
canstillretrievethecardinalitiesforoneoralljoinsintheuniverse.
SQLTrapsinBusinessObjectsUniverse:HowtoSolveCHASMTrap

AChasmtrapisajoinpathtypeproblembetweenthreetableswheretwomanytoonejoinpath
convergeonasingletableandthereisnocontexttoseparatetheconvergingpath.
Howeverevenifwehaveabovetypeofjoinsinuniverseweexperiencechasmtrapproblemonly
when
1. Thereismanytoonetomanyrelationshipbetweenthreetables
2. Reportingqueryhaveobjectsontablesfrommanyend
3. Thereismoretheonevalueforasingledimensionalvalue.
Letsseeitindetail.Considerbelowdiagram.
NowinabovecasewhenaqueryincludesobjectfromtableBandTableCandobjectsfromtable
A, the CHASM trap causes a query to return every possible combination of one measure with
other. This result gets multiplied by number of rows in result set and output is similar like a
Cartesianproduct.
This CHASM trap can be resolved by executing separate query for each measure and then
mergingtheresults.
HowtodetectCHASMtrapinauniverse
CHASM trap can be detected automatically you would need to use multiple ways to identify a
possibleCHASMtrapissue.
Makesureyouarrangeonetomanytablefromlefttorightinuniverseandanalyzeoneto
manyrelationshiptodetectpossibleCHASMtrapissue.
Usedetectcontextautomatictooltodetectpossiblecontextinuniverseandusetheminorder
toavoidCHASMtraps.
Testmanytoonetablesbycreatingreportsusingobjectfromtableatmanyend.Tryadding
additional dimension object in report. If there is a CHASM trap aggregated values will be
doublewhichmighthelpyoutodetectpossibleCHASMtrap.
LetsseeapracticalCHASMtrapexampleinauniverse
Letconsiderafollowingjoinsinuniverse.Infollowingdiagramthreetablesarejoinedbymany
toonetomanyjoinrelationship.
IfIwanttoseenumberofguestforasportsservice,reportreturnsfollowingresult
Service
Sports

NumberofGuests
145

IfIwanttoseenumberoffutureguestforasportsservice,repotreturnsfollowingresult
Service
Sports

NumberofFutureGuests
8

HoweverIfIincludemoththemeasuretogetherinthesamequery.
Service
Sports

NumberofGuests
188

NumberofFutureGuests
96

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ResultseemstobeinflatedduetoCHASMtrapissue.
HowdoesCHASMtrapinflatetheresultofaquery?
CHASMtrapcausesquerytoreturneverypossiblecombinationofameasurewithothermeasure,
whichmakesquerytoreturnCartesianproductresultandsinceresultisgroupedagainstsingle
dimensionvalueitsgetsaggregated.
Inaboveexample
Numberofgueststransactions*Numberoffutureguesttransactions
Numberoffutureguesttransactions*Numberofgueststransactions
Letsgodeepertounderstandwhathashappened.
In order to examine what all rows are included in aggregation we would need to split the
aggregateddataintogranularlevel.
For Number of Guest we would include additional dimension Days Billed to see granular
data.
Service
Sports
Sports
Sports

NumberofGuests
4
133
8

DaysBilled
3
4
6

For Number of Future Guest we would include additional dimension Days Reserved to see
granulardata.
Service
Sports
Sports

NumberofFutureGuests
7
1

DaysBilled
1
2

Now lets combine the result (Disable generate separate query for measure from universe
parameters)
Service

DaysBilled

NumberofGuests

DaysReserved

Sports
Sports

3
3
4
4
6
6
Sum

4
4
129
35
8
8
188

1
2
1
2
1
2
Sum

No.ofFuture
Guests
3
1
75
9
6
2
96

You could see, query returns every possible combination of future guests with number of guests
andwhenresultisaggregateditgiveswrongnumbers.
HowtosolveCHASMTrap?
YoucansolveCHASMtrapusingcontext.Inaboveexampleyoucancreatecontext.
1. AnalyzemanytoonemanyrelationshiptodetectpossibleCHASMtrap.
2. UseDetectContexttocreatecontexts
1. SelectthecontextsandclickonAdd.
2. SelectFile>Parameterstolaunchuniverseparameterbox.
3. ClickSQLTab
4. SelectMultipleSQLforeachcontextsoption.
5. ClickOK
Nowwhenyoucreatequery,twoseparatequerieswillbegeneratedandresultwillbemergedon
commondimension.ThisishowCHASMtrapgetsresolvedusingcontexts.
UsingMultipleStatementforMeasuretosolveCHASMtrap.
If you have only measure objects defined for both fact tables, then you can use the Universe
Parameters option Multiple SQL statements for each measure. This force the generation of
separateSQLqueriesforeachmeasurethatappearsintheQuerypane.
Thissolutiondoesnotworkfordimensionanddetailobjects.
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HowtoDefineCardinalitiesinBusinessObjectsUniverse
byBIDWTEAM
InpreviouspostwehavelearnedhowtosetupjoininBOuniverse.inthispostwewillleanwhat
iscardinalityandhowtodefinecardinalitiesinSAPBusinessObjectsUniverse.
Whatiscardinality?
Cardinality means a relationship between two tables based on a join. Means how many rows of
onetablewillmatchwithrowsinothertableswhenthesetablesarejoined.
SettingupcardinalityisveryimportanttoresolveloopsBOuniverse.
Letstakeapracticalexampleofcardinality.
Amanagercanhavemanyemployeesreportingtohim,sotherelationshipbetweenmanagerand
employeetableis1N.
Thecardinalitycanbeanyofonetype.
OnetoOne(11)
OnetoMany(1N)
Manytomany(NN)
Manytoone(N1)
Settingupcardinalitymanuallyorusingautomaticdetectiontool
Cardinalityinuniversedesignisbasedonalogicalalgorithm,whichusesphysicalcountofrecord
fromthetable.
The automatic detection tool only gives correct cardinality if the database is populated with
realisticdata.
Also,theautomaticdetectiontoolfiresthreequeriesforeveryjointosetthecardinality.Soifyou
have lots of table in schema, automated cardinality detection tool is not a good idea as it
mightoverloadthedatabasewithqueries.
Letstakeanexampleofhowcardinalitydetectiontoolworks.
Managertablehasmultipleemployeesreportingtoeachmanagersocardinalityofmanagerand
employee table is 1N. Let understand how automated cardinality detection tools determines the
cardinalityforthisjoin.
1. Onequerytofindnumberofrowsfrommanagertable
2. Onequerytofindnumberofrowsfromemployeetable
3. Onequerytofindnumberofrowswhenthesetwotablesarejoined
Ifmanagertablehas10rows,Employeetablehas20rows.
1stquerywillreturn10,secondquerywillreturn20,andthirdquerywillreturn20whichwould
tellthatemployeetableisatmanysidesandmanagertableisat1side.
Theoutputofqueriesisveryimportantforautomatedtoolandthatswhydatabaseshouldcontain
realisticdata.
Detectcardinalityusingautomationtool.
Todetectcardinalityofalljoins
1. FromTools>AutomationDetection>DetectCardinality
2. Ifnojoinsisselected,itasksforifyouwanttodetectcardinalityforalljoins.
3. ClickOK.
Todetectcardinalityforspecificjoin
1. Rightclickonspecificjoin
2. ClickondetectCardinality
Tosetcardinalitymanually
1. Doubleclickonjoinforwhichyouwanttosetcardinality
2. Editjoindialogappearswithjoinexpression
3. Checkoncardinalitycheckbox
4. Selectappropriate1,Nradiobox
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5. Clickok.
After reading this article you should be comfortable with cardinality concept and its usage
inSAPBusinessObjectsUniverseDesign.
ListofValues(LOV)inBusinessObjectsUniverse
byBIDWTEAM
List of values or LOV is a distinct list of data values associated with an object. When any
dimensionofdetailsobjectiscreatedLOVisassignedtoanobjectautomatically.
UseofListofvalues.
Whenuserneedstofilterdatainaquerybasedonspecificobjectvalues,Usercansimplyviewthe
LOVofthatobjectsandchoosethevalueonwhichtheywanttofilterthedata.
e.g.ifCOUNTRYdimensionhasfollowingdistinctvalues
A,B,CandifuserwantstofilterthedataofcountryB,usercanputafilteronCountrydimension
andchoosetheBasfilterwhileexecutingthequery.
HowtocreateaLOVforanobject.
1. Doubleclickonobjectindesignertoviewitsproperties.
2. ClickonPropertiesTab
3. ClickonAssociateaListofValuescheckbox.
4. SelectotherLOVoptionsbasedonrequirement.
WhenfirstLOViscreateditisstoredin.LOVfilenameatuniversesubfolderonthesystemfile
system.
Thedefaultlocationis
C:\Documents and Settings\<UserName>\Application
Objects12.0\Universes\@<ServerName>\<UniverseName>

Data\Business

Objects\Business

LOVOptions
ListName
ItsthenameofLOVfilebywhichitwillstoredonlocalfilesystem.Usercanoverridethedefault
nameandcanenterhisownLOVname.Maximumcharacterlimitis8.
AllowUserstoEditListofValues
Whencheckedthisoptionallowsreportuserstoeditthelistofvaluesofanobjects.Thepurposeof
alistofvaluesisusuallytolimitthesetofavailablevaluestoauser.Iftheycaneditalist,youno
longer have control over the values they choose. Normally, if you are not using a personal data
fileasalistofvaluessource,youclearthisoptiontoensurethatusersdonoteditlistsofvalues.
AutomaticRefreshbeforeUse
WhenselectedthisoptionLOVwillberefreshedeachtimesitisreferredandusedinreport.You
should choose this option only if contents of underlying column are frequently changing. This
optionsshouldbeuseverycarefullyafterevaluation.IfthisoptionisnotselectedLOVisrefreshed
firstwhentheobjectsisusedinausersession.
HierarchicalDisplay
Selectthe Hierarchical Displayproperty to displaythecascading listofvalues asahierarchy in
WebIntelligence.
ExportwithUniverse
WhenthisoptionisselectedLOVfileassociatedwithobjectisexportedtouniverseCMSandgets
storedasXMLonCMS
ViewingtheLOVofanobject
ToviewtheLOVofanobjectsclickondisplaybuttononpropertiestabofanobject
ModifyingtheLOVofanobject
YoucanremovethevaluesfromLOVofanobjectbyapplyingafilteroraddvaluestoLOVby
addingacolumn.
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ApplyconditiononLOV
ToapplyconditiononLOV
1. ClickonEditbuttononobjectseditpropertiestab
2. ThedesignerquerypanelwillappearshowingdefaultobjectofaLOV
3. Dragdroptheconditionobjectinconditionpaneandspecifytheappropriatecondition.
4. YoucanalsoviewtheSQLoftheLOVquerybyclickonSQLiconontoolbar.
5. RunthequerytotestthevaluesafterapplyingconditiononLOV
ViewandEditLOVofcompleteuniverse
YoucanalsoviewalltheobjectwhichhasLOVassociatedwiththemandeditthem.
1. ClickonTools>ListofValues>Edit
2. Listofvaluesdialogwillappear
3. SelecttheLOVobjectsandclickonEditifyouwanttoeditaLOV.
1. InadditiontoqueryyoucanalsodefineLOVforanobjectusingpersonaldatafilelikeCSV
andvaluesfromthisfilecanalsobeusedasLOVforanobject.Todoso.
2. ClickonPersonalDataandprovidethedetailsonPersonaldataLOVdialogbox.
CascadingLOV
CascadingLOVisaLOVassociatedwithhierarchyofanobjectintheuniverse.CascadingLOVis
created,andifanyoftheobjectisusedaspromptfilterinreportquery,userhastoanswerseries
ofvaluesfromcascadingLOV.
HowtocreateCascadingLOV
1. ClickonTools>ListofValues>CreateCascadingLOV.
1. Addtheobjectandrearrangethemasperyourhierarchy
2. ClickongenerateLOVs
3. ClickOK.
Nowifyouuseanyoftheobjectsaspromptinquery.ItwillpromptthehierarchicalLOVtouser.

UsingDerivedTableinSAPBusinessObjectsUniverse

WhatareDerivedtableanditsuse?
Derived table is not a physical in database however its logical table created in Business Objects
UniverseusingSQL.Derivedtablecanbeconsideredlikeviewsindatabasewhereitsstructureis
definedusingSELECTstatement.
AdvantagesofDerivedTable:
Derived table in Universe lets you create a SQL statement to fetch data
usingvariousexpressions,joinswhichisnotpossibleusinguniversestructure.
Its lets you put inline views (select statement in FROM clause) which are not possible in
Universenormally.
e.g.
selectagg1_idasidfrom
(select*fromAgg_yr_qt_mt_mn_wk_rg_cy_sn_sr_qt_ma)
Derived table can be treated as normal tables and can be joined with actual table in
Universe.
Itsletsyoumergedatafromdifferenttablewhichisnotpossibleusingnormalinuniverse
usingunderlyingdatasources.
Onecanembedpromptsinderivedtabledefinition.
You can use derived table as a lookup when you have multiple fact table separated by
contexts. Normally if you want to use measured from different fact table thenBusiness
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Objects creates two queries one for each measure. Now some time this mayresult
inperformanceissues.Youcanavoidthisbycreatingalookuptablefordifferentfacttables
usingderivedtables.
e.g.
Suppose you have measure1 in fact1 and measure2 in fact2 and dimension is dim1. Now if you
createaquerywithdim1,measure1,measure2youwillgettwodifferentqueries.Nowinsteadof
thisyoucancreateseparatederivedtablewhichincludesdim1,measure1,measure2.
Disadvantagesifderivedtable.
Since derived table is not an actual table you may face performance issues if underlyingSQL
queryhasperformanceissues.
HowtoCreateDerivedTables
FrommenumarselectInsert>DerivedTables
Now write the SELECT statements which to define the structure of derived table.
RemembertogiveAliastocolumnifyouareusinganyexpressionincolumnlist.
ClickonCheckSyntaxtoconfirmthedefinitionofderivedtable
ClickOK
Jointhenewlycreatedderivedtabletoexistingtable.
Ifyouhavecontext.Includethejoininrelevantcontext.
SavetheUniverse.
Nowyoucancreateobjectusingderivedtablejustlikenormaltables.
NestedDerivedTables
Nestedderivedtableisnothingbutaderivedtableusinganotherderivedindefinition.Itbehaves
similar to normal derived tables. Nested derived tables are generally using when underlying
derived table is complex to build. In that case you can create different small derived tables and
thenusethisderivedtableinmainderivedtable.
Advantage of using nested derived table is the simplicity in derived table creating. AlsoBusiness
ObjectscombinesthedefinitioninsingleSQLanditstreatedassingleSQL.
BusinessObjectsdoesnotlimitnumberofderivedtablesbutnestingislimitedto20levels.
Youcancreateanestedderivedtablebyusingexistingderivedtableinthefromclause.
LinkingUniverseinUniverseDesigner

Therearemanytimeswhenuniversedevelopmenttaskisbiganditsnotpossibletodingleperson
to develop the universe in stipulated time. To cater this need Business Objects has provided the
facilitytodividetheuniversedesigntaskamongstseveraldesignersandthenintegratetheworkin
singleuniverseusinguniverselinkingmethod.

WhatisUniverseLinking?
Linkeduniverseareuniverseswhichsharecommoncomponentsuchasobjects,classesandjoins.
Whentwouniversesarelinkedtheoneuniverseiscalledascoreuniverse.Itsthemainuniverse
whichcontainscommoncomponentswhereotheruniverseiscalledasderiveduniverse.Changes
madetocoreuniverseareautomaticallypropagatedtoderiveduniverse.
Usesandadvantagesofuniverselinking.
When you have to develop multiple universes but there are some common components
across these universes in that you can create a core universe of common components and
linkittootheruniverses.
Linking of Universe enables to distribute the universe designing task amongst other
developers.
Itsalsohelpstofollowthecodereusabilitypractices.
Ifthereareanychangestocommonobjects.Itneedstobedoneonlyincoreuniverse.Itgets
propagatedtoallderiveduniverses.
Linkingofuniverseshelpinuniversemaintenance.
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UniverseLinkingStrategies.
CoreStrategy:Thisstrategyisusedwhenyouneedtodevelopauniversefordifferentfunctions.In
suchcaseyoucancreatemultipleuniversesforeachfunctionandthelinkalluniversesinsingle
universe. This strategy allows us to create a common object only once and also help to split the
universedesigntaskamongstdevelopers.
Master Strategy: Suppose you have a requirement to create clone of existing universe. You can
achievethisbycreatinganothercopyofexistinguniversehoweverthiswillincreasemaintenance
as you would need to maintain two universes now. To avoid that you can use master linking
strategy.Inwhichexistinguniverseislinkedtonewblankuniversesoitcreatesacopyofexisting
universe with different CUID and we need to maintain only one universe as core universe is
linked.
Multiple Core Strategy: Now if you want divide the development task then you can follow this
approach in which developers can develop their universe and at the link all universe in one
universe.
LimitationsandRestrictionsofLinkingUniverses:
Boththeuniverses(coreandderived)mustusesameconnectionandshouldconnecttosame
database.
Boththeuniversemustbepresentinsamerepositoryinordertolink.
Only one level of linking is allowed you can create derived universe from another derived
universe.
Bothuniversesshouldhaveuniqueobjectandclasses.Ifthereareduplicateobjects/classesit
willberenamedincoreuniverse.
TablesfromtwouniversesmustbejoinedafterlinkinginordertoavoidCartesianproduct.
Whencoreuniverseislinkedinderiveduniverseonlyclasses,objectsandtablesaremade
availableinderiveduniverse.ContextandLOVneedstoberecreatedinderiveduniverse.
HowtoLinkUniverses?
Tolinkuniversemakesure
Coreuniverseisexportedtorepository
Itsopenindesigner.
NowopenuniverseparametersfromFile>Parameters
ClickonLinktab
ClickonAddLink
Selectthecoreuniversetolink.
ClickOK
Afterthiscomponentsfromcoreuniversewillbeavailableinderiveduniverseanditwillbe
grayed.
Now analyze the derived universe and create joins between tables added from core
universe.
Createcontext/Aliaswhereverrequired.
SaveandExportthederiveduniverse.
UsingIncludetoimportoneuniverseintoanother
In linking universe contents are not copied to derived universe and one cannot edit the core
universecomponentsinderived.Howeversometimesoneneedtomergetwouniverseintoone.For
this purpose one can use Include universe approach instead of linking. When universe are
includedcomponentsofoneuniversearecopiedintoanother.
DifferencebetweenLinkingandIncludingUniverses
IncludingandLinkingdecisionneedstobetakenbasedonyourownneedfollowingarethepoints
whichmayhelp.
Linking.
Coreuniversestructureiscreatedonceandusedinmanyderiveduniverse.
Onlyonecopyofcomponentsfromcoreuniverseexistsinrepository.
Changesneedstodoneonlytocoreuniverseanditgetspropagatedtoallderiveduniverse.
Linkinguniverseneedsboththeuniversetobepresentinrepository.
Onlyoneleveloflinkingisallowed.
ContextandLOVneedstorecreateinderiveduniverse.
Boththeuniversemustusesameconnectionandconnecttosamedatabase
Including
Itstheeasiestandfastestwaytocopyuniverseintoanother.
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Contextneedstoredefineafterincluding.
Changesarenotpropagatedfromcoretoderiveduniverse.
Boththeuniversemustexistinrepositorylikeinlinking.
One can easily maintain one universe rather than multiple universe o maintenance
becomesbiteasy.

BusinessObjectsUniverseOptimization
Every Business Objects Universe designer faces performance problems in his/her career at least
once and in most of the cases he will use push down strategy ask DBA to optimize the
warehouse
However it works very well but there are some thing which can also help to optimize the
performanceofUniverse.
AnalyzeReportSQLforunnecessaryJoins
1.FirstgetthelistofreportswhichareperforminglowandgettheirSQL.
2. Analyze the report SQL for joins. There could be unnecessary join which is causing query to
performlow.makeachangeinyouruniverseaccordinglytogeneratequerywithoptimizedjoins.
AnalyzereportQueryforIndexes.(workwithDBAforthis)
1.GetthereportSQL,checkthewhereclause
2.CheckifindexesareuserproperlyinSQLandalsotheyexistindatabase
3.Also,checkifstatisticsindatabaseisupdated,asitsitsnotthenDBmaynotgenerateoptimized
query.
UseAggregatesformeasures
1.UseAggregateawareforyourmeasureobjectstousesummarytablesformDatabase\
2.YoucanalsothinkofAutomaticQueryrewriteinsteadofusingAggregateAwareinUniverse
designer,HoweverthisrequirescarefulplanningandhighinvolvementfromDBA
UsePartitionsforhighvolumefacttables
1.Partitioningthefacttablecanboostyourqueryperformance.
2.WorkwithDBAtogetitdone
ArrayFetchSize
1.PlaywithUniverseoptionsforsettingupoptimalvalueofArrayfetchSizeparameter.
UniverseAnalysisforShortcutjoins
1. Analyze your reports and universe for possible use of shortcut joins as they play little but
importantroleinperformance.
IndexAwareness
1.TryusingIndexAwarenessfromUniversesidetogenerateoptimizedquery.
Note:Thisrequiresthoroughtestingofreportdataanddetailunderstatingofdatawarehousedata
UniverseCleaning.
1.MakesureLOVisdisabledmeasureobjects
2.MakesureLOVisdisableforunnecessarydimensionobjects
JOIN_BY_SQL
1.TryevaluatingJOIN_BY_SQLuniverseparameter
I will try posting above Universe Tuning/Optimization practical examples one by one in coming
time.Needtodofewexperiments.BusinessObjectsUniverseOptimizationisnotaonenighttask
itrequirescarefulplanningandeffort.

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DifferencebetweenCMC,CMSandCCM
CMS = Central Management Service, a process running as part of your Business Objects
Enterprise servers, including the CMS database, authenticating users, storing access rights, etc.
TheCMSistheheartofaBusinessObjectsEnterprisesystem.
CMSmaintainstheCMSdatabase(systemdatabase)andAuditdatabase.ItactslikeanAuditor
notauditingdatabase.
TheCMS(CentralManagementServer)isaservice/daemonthatmanagestheentireBOXIserver
deployment,authentication,objectrepository,servicesschedulingetc.
We can say CMS keep the track of Security details, objects hierarchy, managing servers, user
activity
CMC = Central Management Console, web based administration interface for your Business
ObjectsEnterprisesystem,whereonecanaddnewusers/groups,createfolders,setaccessrights,
configureSSO,configureyourBusinessObjectsEnterpriseserverservices,etc.
TheCMCisawebapplicationinterfaceforadministratingtheBOXIserver.
MostservermanagementtasksarenowhandledthroughtheCMC,notintheCCM.
WecansayCMSiswebbasedtoolforhandlingdaytodayadministrativetasksi.e.data(content)
management,servermanagement(stoppingtheprocess),usermanagement
The CMC is used by SAP Business Objects Administrators to access and configure the SAP
BusinessObjectsBIsystem.
TheCMCprovidesmanagementofandconfigurationforthefollowingsystemelements:
Security
Authentication
Userandgroupcreationandmanagement
Objectrights
Licensekeys
FolderandCategorymanagement
Scheduling
Services/serverconfiguration
Servergroups(clusters)
Universesanddataconnections
Userinterfacesettingsandpreferences
Businesscalendars
CCM = Central Configuration Manager, an application which allows you to
configure/add/remove/stopBusinessObjectsserverservices.
TheCCMisaservertroubleshootingandnodeconfigurationtool.
The CCM allows you to view and to modify server settings only while Business Objects server
processesareoffline.TheCMCisusedtostopserverprocesses,thentheCCMisusedtomodify
performancesettingsorchangeserverportnumbers.
LetssaythatyourCMSisdown,whatwouldyoudo?CanyoulogintoCMCtostartit?Ofcourse
youcant.YouneedtouseCCM.
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70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

1.XIR3canuseExceldocumentasadataproviderwhichwasnotpossibleinXIR2.

2.WecanopenXIR2universesusingXIR3DesignerbutXIR3universecannotbeopenedusing
earlierversionsofdesigner.
?WecancreateuniversefromstoredprocedureinBOXI3butnotinBOXIR2
?Webintelligentreport?whenwesaveasexcelreportthatreportcontainsmorethan65Krows
it?sautomaticallypopulatedtonextsheet.

CentralManagementServer(CMS)
TheaptlynamedCentralManagementServer(CMS)isthemainserverintheBOXIcollection.
The CMS maintains a database of information about your BusinessObjects Enterprise system.
This is known as the CMS database. All the platform services are managed and controlled by
theCMS.
The CMS handles communication with the RDBMS tables that store the metadata about
the BO XI objects. Any commands issued by the SDK to the servers are communicated via
theCMS.
CMSisalsoknownas:
InApplicationFoundation6.xversionsandearlier,BusinessObjectsrepository
Beforetherebrandingeffort,theCrystalManagementServer,
andbeforethatastheAutomatedProcessScheduler(APS).
There are still a few active properties that are named for the old APS designation. One of these
APS references is found in the ServerKind propertyof the Server class. The CMS ServerKind
designationoftheCentralManagementServerisstillaps.
TheCMSalsomanages:
theauditingdatabase
allscheduleandcustomevents.
TheCMScanalsomaintainanoptionalauditingdatabaseofinformationaboutuseractions,and
fileswiththeFileRepositoryServers.
FileeventsalonearehandledbytheEventServer.
TheCMSmanages:
securityandcontrolsauthenticationofallusers
aswellaslicensemanagement.
BecausetheCentralManagementServeristheprincipalserver,itcannotbestoppedfromwithin
theSAPBOBJCentralManagementConsole(CMC).YoumustusetheCentralConfiguration
Manager.
In a production environment, its a good idea to disable all servers first so they can finish any
pending requests before shutting them down, with the CMS being the last to close. If youre
workingwithacluster,shuttingdownoneCMSwillshifttheworkloadtotheotheractiveonesa
featurethatallowsmaintenancewithoutcausingdowntime.
TheCMSalsomanagesaccesstothesystemfilestorewherethephysicaldocumentsaremanaged.
CMSdataincludesinformationabout:
usersandgroups,
securitylevels,
content,
services.
license.

Maintasks
ThisdataallowstheCMStoperformfourmaintasks:
Maintainingsecurity
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The CMS enforces the application of rights at both the folder and object level, and supports
inheritanceattheuserandgrouplevel.Italsosupportsaggregationthroughaflexible,groupuser
membership model. An integrated security system is available for customers who do not
currently use an entitlement database, although BusinessObjects Enterprise is designed for
integration with multiple concurrent thirdparty security systems, such as LDAP, Siteminder, or
MicrosoftActiveDirectory.
When a change is made to a user in the entitlement database, the change is then propogated to
BusinessObjectsEnterprise.
Managingobjects
The CMS keeps track of the object location and maintains the folder hierarchy. InfoObjects are
system metadata objects that contain contain index information, and the actual documents or
objects are stored in a file store. The separation of the object definition (metadata) from the
documentallowsforfastobjectprocessingasonlytherequiredinformationisretrievedfromthe
systemsrepository.TheCMSalsorunsscheduledreportjobs.
Managingservers
ServerprocessaremonitoredbytheCMSandallocatesworktolessbusyprocesses.Itwillalsoadd
or remove service instances as work loads change or services become unavailable.
The CMS handles load balancing and automated clustering to avoid bottlenecks and maximize
hardware efficiency. In some multiserver environments, BusinessObjects Enterprise may not
requireaseparatethirdpartyloadbalancingsystem.
Managingauditing
User actions can be monitored and written to a central audit database. This information allows
system administrators to better track and manage their BusinessObjects Enterprise deployment.
The auditing functionality allows administrators to better understand which users accessed the
enterprisesystem,whichdocumentstheyinteractedwith,andtheoverallsystemmetricsforsystem
optimization. Usage data is collected from the system interactions recorded in the auditing
database.Asampleuniverseandsampleauditingreportsarealsoavailabletoprovidefastaccess
toinformationsuchasthemostaccessedreports,peaksystemusetimes,andaverageusersession
times.
ItisstronglyrecommendedthatyoubackupandaudittheCMSsystemdatabasefrequently.
TheCMSdatabaseshouldnotbeaccesseddirectly.Systeminformationshouldonlyberetrieved
using the calls that are provided in the BusinessObjects Enterprise software development kit
(SDK).

The Central Management Server (CMS)


Repository
ThecontentoftheBusinessObjectsEnterprise(BOE)systemconsistsofthephysicalfilesandthe
metadatainformationaboutthephysicalfiles.
For a Crystal Report, the physical file as well as the metadata about the file should exist in the
BOE system. The Crystal report is stored as a file on File Repository Server (FRS) with an
extension of .rpt . The Metadata information such as report name, type, report ID, path, etc is
storedasanInfoObjectintheCMSRepository.
TheCMSmetadataisphysicallystoredonadatabaseasInfoObjects.Therearesixtables,the
purposeofwhichisgivenbelow.
Sno PhysicalTableName
1
CMS_VersionInfo
2
CMS_InfoObjects6
3

CMS_Aliases6

CMS_IdNumbers6

CMS_Relationships6

Purpose
ContainsthecurrentversionofBOE.
EachrowinthistablestoresasingleInfoObject.Thisisthe
maintableintherepository.
Mapstheuseralias(es)tothecorrespondinguserID.For
example,ausermayhavebothaWinNTaliasandanLDAP
alias.Regardlessofthenumberofaliasesausermayhave,inthe
BIPlatformeachuserhasonlyoneuserID.Themapisstoredin
aseparatetabletoenablefastlogins.
TheCMSusesthistabletogenerateuniqueObjectIDsandType
IDs.Ithasonlytworows:anObjectIDrowandaTypeIDrow.
TheCMSsinaclusterusethistablewhengeneratinguniqueID
numbers.
Relationshiptablesareusedtostoretherelationsbetween

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CMS_LOCKS6

70factsofUniverseDesigner!!|SAPBO,BI,Database&DatawarehouseFAQ

InfoObjects.Eachrowinthetablestoresoneedgeintherelation.
Forexample,therelationbetweenaWebIntelligencedocument
andaUniversewouldbestoredinarowintheWebIUniverse
Relationtable.Eachrelationshiptablehasthesecolumns:Parent
ObjectID,ChildObjectID,RelationshipInfoObjectID,member,
version,ordinal,data.
ThisisanauxiliarytableofCMS_RELATIONS6.

The CMS repository tables cannot be queried directly. Query builder is the tool to be used to
retrieve Business Objects metadata information using the virtual tables such asci_systemobjects,
ci_infoobjectsandci_appobjects.

WorkingwithFRSPruningandTracing
HaveyouevergotthechancetoseehowaCrystalorWebIdocumentorInstancestoredinternally
intheFileSystem?Hereitis.
Thedocumentwillbesavedinternallyinthefilesystemwithinoneormorefoldersnamedbased
onrandomnamegeneration.
WhatwillhappenifthereportortheInstancedeleted?
The report or the Instance alone will be deleted and leaving the temporary folders as it is. As a
resultofthisovertheperiodoftime,therewillbethousandsoffoldersintheFRSandwillbea
intricacy for the Administrator when he goes for the FRS Backup. The Backup process will be
verytimeconsumingaswellasoccupymorespaceandfinallytheFRSwillbeinefficient.
Howtogetridofthis?
ThePrunecommand,addedattheendofthecommandlineoftheFilerepositoryserverswill
behandyatthismoment.
WorkingwithFRSPruningandTracing
Prune command, added at the end of the command line of servers triggers the server to go
through the Input or Output folders in the internal Filestore folder of Business Objects
Enterprisetocleanupalltheemptydirectories.
Trace command, added at the end of the command lines of the servers logs the activity of that
specificserverintheLoggingfolderoftheBOEinstallationdirectory.
We need to periodically delete the empty FRS directories to cleanup the disk but not to be
manually.InsteadtheFRSservershouldbestartedwiththePrunecommandlineswitch.When
this switch is used, the FRS servers status will remain Starting till the deletion is done. Once
deletionisdone,theserverswillstop.ThePruneswitchwillhavetoberemovedmanuallytoallow
theserverstostartnormally.
WorkingwithFRSPruningandTracing
AddTraceandPrune
1.StopFileServers(bothIFRSandOFRS)inCCM(XIR2)orinCMC(XI3.x).
2. Add Prune command at the end of the line to FRS (Input and Output) and also
TraceCommandattheendofthelinetocheckitiscleaningupfilesandfoldersthatareempty.
3.StarttheserversandMonitorthepruningprocess,youshouldgainmoreharddiskspace.
RemoveTraceandPrune
1.StoptheServersandremovetraceandprunecommandsfromthecommandlineParameters
ofFRS.
2.StarttheServersagainnormally.
ViewingLogfiles
Youcanfindthelogfilesinthebelowlocation(forXI3.x)
C:\ProgramFiles\BusinessObjects\BusinessObjectsEnterprise12.0\Logging
Pointstoremember

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AfterthePruningprocessifanyemptyfoldersstillexists,theymaybeusedbyBOtokeep
foritshousekeepingprocess.
Dont leave the prune option enabled even after the prune completed. Once pruning
completedsuccessfullytheFRSwillbestopped.Wehavetoremodifythecommandlineby
removingPruneandTraceandServerhastobestartedmanually.
PruningprocessdoesnotcleanupanyCMSobjectthatlosttheFRSfilesthattheyneedto
pointto.
PleaseNotePruneisanundocumentedfeatureinBusinessObjects.

WhatisPRMFile?
The PRM file is a text file that lists parameters used to configure universes creation
andSQLquerygenerationinWebIntelligence.ThereisaPRMfileforeachsupportedRDBMS.
PRMfilesarelocatedinthedatabasefoldersunder
<INSTALLDIR>\win32_x86\dataAccess\ConnectionServer\

VerifyingwhichPRMfileisusedbyaconnection
ToverifywhichPRMfileisusedbyauniverseconnection:
SelectFile>Parameters.
TheParametersdialogboxappears.
v:shapes=_x0000_i1044>
ClicktheTestbutton.
TheTestConnectionmessageboxappears.
ClicktheDetailsbutton.
Thedetailsofyourconnectionappearinadropdownmessagebox.
ScrolldownthemessageboxtothelinethatstartswithPRM.
ThislineindicatesthefilepathandnameofthePRMfilecurrentlyusedbytheactiveuniverse.

UniverseParameters/DataSourceConnection
A connection is a named set of parameters that defines how a Business Objects application
accessesdatainadatabasefileandisdefinedinanuniversesviauniversedesigner.

Createanewconnection
Fromtheparametersdialog
YoucancreateanewconnectionfromtheDefinitionpageoftheUniverseParametersdialogbox
(File>Parameters>Definition).

ConnectionWizard
You can view all connections available to a universe from the Connections list (Tools >
Connections).

Selectingstrategies
A sstrategy is a script that automatically extracts structural information from a database or flat
file.Strategieshavetwoprincipleroles:
Automaticjoinandcardinalitydetection(Joinstrategies)
Automaticclass,object,andjoincreation(ObjectsandJoinsstrategies)
Strategiescanbeusefulifyouwanttoautomatethedetectionandcreationofstructuresinyour
universebasedontheSQLstructuresinthedatabase.
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InDesigneryoucanspecifytwotypesofstrategies:
Strategy

Description

Builtin
Builtinstrategiescannotbecustomized.DefaultstrategyshippedwithDesigner.
strategy
External UserdefinedscriptthatcontainsthesametypeofinformationasaBuiltinstrategy,but
strategy customizedtooptimizeinformationretrievalfromadatabase.

SQLparameters
ManyoftheparameterscommontomostsupportedRDBMSmiddlewareareavailableforediting
intheParameterstabintheuniverseparametersdialogbox(File>Parameters>Parameter).
These parameters apply only to the active universe, and are saved in the UNV file. When you
modifyanSQLparameterforauniverseinDesigner,thevaluedefinedinDesignerisused,and
notthevaluedefinedinthePRMfile(parametersfile)associatedwiththedataaccessdriverfor
theconnection.
Toknowthelistofavailableparameters,seetheproductguidexi3_designer.pdfpage88section
UniverseSQLparametersreference.

PRMFile
ThePRMfileisatextfilethatlistsparametersusedtoconfigureuniversecreationandSQLquery
generationinWebIntelligence.ThereisaPRMfileforeachsupportedRDBMS.

Support
ConnectionsthroughODBCtoExcelandtextfiles
YoucancreateconnectionsthroughODBCtoExcelfiles,andtotextfilesin.csvformat.Inorder
that Web Intelligence can use a universe based on a text file or an Excel file accessed through
ODBC,youmusteditthemsjet.prmfilefortheconnection.
This file is located in the folder: $INSTALLDIR$/BusinessObjects
12.0/win32_x86/dataAccess/connectionserver/odbcwhere

Enterprise

where$INSTALLDIR$isthedirectoryinwhichyourBusinessObjectsapplicationsareinstalled.
Inthemsjet.prmfile,changetheDB_TYPEparameterasfollows:
From:<ParameterName=DB_TYPE>MSJetEngine</Parameter>
To:<ParameterName=DB_TYPE>MSJet</Parameter>
YoumuststopandrestarttheBusinessObjectsEnterpriseserveraftermakingthischange.
IfyouarerunningDesigneronthesamemachineasyourWebIntelligenceserverandyouwant
tocreateadditionaluniversesbasedontextorExcelfilesafterchangingthisvalue,youmustreset
thevalueto<ParameterName=DB_TYPE>MSJetEngine</Parameter>

SqlEditor
About
YoucanuseanSQLeditortohelpyoudefinetheSelectstatementoraWhereclauseforanobject.
TheSQLEditorisagraphicaleditorthatliststables,columns,objects,operators,andfunctionsin
treeviews.YoucandoubleclickanylistedstructuretoinsertitintotheSelectorWhereboxes.

Functions
number,character,anddatefunctions.
@FunctionsspecifictoBusinessObjectsproducts.
AvailablefunctionsarelistedundertheFunctionsentryintheparametersBOBJPRMFilefor
thetargetdatabase.

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ShowobjectSQL
When selected, the SQL syntax is displayed for the objects that appear in the Select, or Where
boxes.

Parse
Whenclicked,parsesthesyntax.Ifthesyntaxisnotvalid,amessageboxappearsdescribingthe
problem.

FileRepositoryServers(FRS)
nputandOutputFileRepositoryServer(FRS)processesrunoneachBusinessObjectsEnterprise
servermachine.
The Input FRS manages report and program objects that have been published to the system by
administratorsorendusersusing:
theSAPBOBJPublishingWizard,
theSAPBOBJCentralManagementConsole(CMC),
theImportWizard,
or a Business Objects designer component such as Crystal Reports, or SAP BO Web
Intelligencereportpanels).
Objectswithassociatedfiles,suchastextfiles,MicrosoftWordfiles,orPDFs,arestoredonthe
InputFileRepositoryServer.
The Output FRS manages all of the report instances generated by the Report Job Server or the
Web Intelligence Processing Server, and the program instances generated by the Program Job
Server.
IfyouusetheBusinessObjectsEnterpriseSDK,youcanalsopublishreportsfromwithinyourown
code.
TheFRSesareresponsibleforlistingfilesontheserver,queryingforthesizeofafile,querying
forthesizeoftheentirefilerepository,addingfilestotherepository,andremovingfilesfromthe
repository.
Toavoidconflictsbetweeninputandoutputobjects,theInputandOutputFRSescannotsharethe
samefilesystemdirectory.Inlargerdeployments,theremaybemultipleInputandOutputFRSes.
However,onlyonesetisactiveatanygiventime.Inthiscase,allInputFileRepositoryServers
sharethesamedirectory.Likewise,allOutputFileRepositoryServerssharethesamedirectory.

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