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trzy three. trzeci, trzecia, trzecie third

Baran ram, Aries


3.A. Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa?

Waiting for someone to get ready to go out.

3.B. W szkole, na uniwersytecie.

Working at a school. Studying at a university.

3.C. Interesujàca/nudna praca.

Discussing kinds of work.

3.D. Nie pami´tam.

Asking for an introduction.

3.E. Bardzo mi mi∏o.

A social introduction.


3.A. Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa?

A husband and wife get ready to go out.

Mà˝: Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa? Are you finally ready? I've been waiting
Czekam na ciebie ju˝ doÊç d∏ugo. for you a fairly long time already.
˚ona: Nie, nie jestem jeszcze No, I'm not ready yet. <I'm still getting
gotowa. <Jeszcze si´ ubieram.> dressed.>
Mà˝: Wi´c kiedy wreszcie b´dziesz So when will you be ready at last?
I'm never going to be ready if you're
˚ona: Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowa, jeÊli
mnie ciàgle b´dziesz pytaç. Lepiej going to keep asking me. Better wait
czekaj na mnie na dworze. for me outside.
Mà˝: Dobrze, b´d´ tam czekaç. Fine, I'll wait there.


For active knowledge and dictation practice:

B´d´ tam czekaç. Czy jesteÊ nareszcie gotowy

Kiedy wreszcie b´dziesz gotowy (gotowa)?
(gotowa)? Nie jestem jeszcze gotowy (gotowa).
Czekaj na mnie na dworze. Nied∏ugo b´d´ gotowy (gotowa).
Czekam na ciebie ju˝ doÊç d∏ugo.
Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowy (gotowa).


1. Gdzie odbywa si´ ta rozmowa?

2. O co pyta mà˝? Jak d∏ugo on czeka?
3. Czy ˝ona jest gotowa do wyjÊcia? Dlaczego?
4. Kiedy ona b´dzie gotowa?
5. Gdzie mà˝ ma czekaç?

6. Czy ty d∏ugo si´ ubierasz? Czy jesteÊ punktualny (punktualna)?

7. Czy lubisz czekaç, kiedy ktoÊ si´ ubiera?

Using mówiç wie -wisz say, odpowiadaç –am -asz answer, pytaç –am -asz ask,
retell the conversation.


ciàgle av continuously, constantly. nareszcie av finally

ciàgle pytaç keep asking nied∏ugo av before long, in a bit
czekaç -am -asz na +A wait for. odbywaç si´ -a us 3p. take place
czekaj! wait! (informal) pytaç -am -asz ask o+A ask about.
d∏ugo av for a long time b´dziesz pytaç you are going to
do wyjÊcia for leaving, to leave, to ask.
go ubieraç si´ -am si´ -asz si´ get
jeszcze av still, jeszcze nie not yet dressed. Contrast with rozbieraç
ju˝ av already, ju˝ nie no longer, si´ get undressed.
ma czekaç is supposed to wait wi´c so, then, in that case
mà˝ mp husband wreszcie av finally, at last
na dworze outside ˝ona f wife


Kto mówi, kobieta czy zupa? A ready-made soup (zupa) is talking, saying
that ‘her’ (since zupa is feminine) competitors are left in the dust (w
proszku). The juxtaposition of the lower and upper billboard, with the
reclining girl (advertising a supermarket), surely intentional, causes one to
do a double take.

Beer this evening, yogurt tomorrow morning. Another intentional

billboard juxtaposition, and suggested hangover recipe.



REVIEW OF PLACES WHERE c OCCURS. The letter c is associated with the

spelling of four different sounds.
a. Other than for the combinations cz, ch, and ci, the letter c, without
any mark above it, expresses the Polish "ts" sound: co what, taca tray, noc
night. The Polish letter c never has the sound of "k".
b. The combination cz expresses the 'hard' "ch" sound similar to ch in
English chalk: czas time, oczy eyes, wstecz backwards.
c. The combination ch expresses the Polish rough "h" sound: chyba
perhaps, ucho ear, dach roof .
d. The letter ç (kreska c) represents the 'soft' "ch" sound similar to ch in
English cheat, but with the tip of the tongue pressed farther forward. The
letter ç occurs only before consonants and at word-end: çma moth, laç to pour.
Otherwise, one spells ci-; see point e.
e. Before i, the letter c, like ç, represents the soft Polish "ch" sound: cicho
"çicho" quiet, leci "leçi" it flies, ciasto "çasto" dough, cake, zaj´cia "zaj´ça"
spelling sound examples
c "ts" co
cz "hard ch" czas
ch Polish "h" chyba
ç "soft ch" laç, çma
ci- "" ciasto, cicho

PRACTICE WITH ç, dê, ƒ, Ê, ê BEFORE i (spellings ci, dzi, ni, si, zi). Before
the letter i, the sounds ç, dê, ƒ, Ê, ê are written without the "kreska";
pronunciation remains the same. This principle also holds in reverse; i.e.,
the combinations ci, dzi, ni, si, zi are always to be interpreted as "çi", "dêi",
"ƒi", "Êi", "êi". Practice:
ci "çi" to you cicho "çi-cho" quiet , koÊci "ko-Êçi" bones
dziwny "dêi-wny" strange, chodzi "cho-dêi" walks
ani "a-ƒi" neither, nisko "ƒi-sko" low, pani "pa-ƒi" Ms.
sito "Êi-to" sieve, nosi "no-Êi" he carries
zima "êi-ma" winter, wozi "wo-êi" he transports.

PRONOUNCING THE PREPOSITION w in. The preposition w is

pronounced as if part of the following word, without any pause. Before
voiced consonants, it is pronounced "v": w banku "VBAN-ku". Before
voiceless consonants, it is pronounced "f": w kinie "FKI-nie". The
combination w+w is pronounced as a double "vv": w Warszawie "vvar-SZA-
wie"; the combination w+f is pronounced as a double "ff": w fabryce "FFA-
bryce". These different pronunciations of w will occur automatically as long
as one remembers to pronounce the w together with the following word.


POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (SINGULAR). Personal pronouns have associated

possessive forms which, if adjectival take gender-number-case endings.

base pronoun: possessive pronoun:

ja I mój, moja, moje my, mine
ty you (sg., informal) twój, twoja, twojeyour, yours
on he, it jego his, its
ona she, it jej her, hers, its
ono it jego its
reflexive: swój, swoja, swoje one's own
pan you, sir pana your, yours, sir's-formal m.
pani you, madam pani your, yours, madam's-formal f.
kto who czyj, czyja, czyje whose

Plural pronouns, for passive learning until Lesson 8:

my we nasz, nasza, nasze our, ours
wy you-pl. wasz, wasza, wasze your, yours
oni they-masc.pers., one they- ich their, theirs


a. Note the vowel-change in mój moja moje and twój twoja twoje:
mój zeszyt my notebook "MUJ"
moja ksià˝ka my book "MO-ja"
moje mieszkanie my apartment "MO-je" .
The vowel ó here appears when there is no ending; o appears when an
ending is added. This change appears in various places in Polish grammar.
See also, for example, pokój room, w pokoju in the room; stó∏ table, sto∏y

b. The words jego his, its, jej her, pana yours (m. formal), pani yours (f. formal)
function as possessive adjectives but do not take endings:
Czy to jest jego magnetofon? Is that his tape recorder?
Jej sàsiadka jest doÊç mi∏a. Her neighbor is rather nice.
Pana (pani) nazwisko? Your (last) name, sir (madam)?

c. The 3rd-person possessives jego his, its, jej her, pana yours (m. formal),
pani yours (f. formal) are usually replaced by swój, swoja, swoje in the
predicate of a sentence:
To jest jego zeszyt. That is his notebook. (jego zeszyt is not in the
predicate, but is rather the subject of a to jest sentence).
Czy on ma swój zeszyt? Does he have his notebook? (jego zeszyt is in the
predicate, the direct object after the verb ma).
This rule becomes more important after the introduction of the
Accusative case (next lesson).


d. Questions using czyj czyja czyje often use the following construction,
where the question-word czyj czyja czyje is separated by to jest from the
word it agrees with:
Czyj to jest o∏ówek? Whose pencil is that?
Czyja to jest ksià˝ka? Whose book is that?
Czyje to jest dziecko? Whose child is that?

d. Possessive pronouns may occupy the position of predicate adjective, in

which case their translation in English changes to 'mine', 'yours', 'his', 'hers':
Ta ksià˝ka jest moja. That book is mine.
Czy ten o∏ówek jest twój? Is that pencil yours?
To dziecko jest nasze. That child is ours.

THE WORDS ju˝ AND jeszcze. The four concepts 'still', 'already', 'no
longer', and 'yet' are expressed in Polish by the two words ju˝ and jeszcze,
used with or without nie:
jeszcze still, yet ju˝ nie no longer
ju˝ already jeszcze nie not yet

In effect, the negative counterpart of jeszcze is ju˝ nie; the negative

counterpart of ju˝ is jeszcze nie.
Czy ju˝ tam pracujesz? Are you working there yet (already)?
Nie, jeszcze tam nie pracuj´. No, I'm not working there yet.

Czy jeszcze tam pracujesz? Are you still working there?

Nie, ju˝ tam nie pracuj´. No, I'm not working there any longer.

Czy twój dziadek jeszcze ˝yje? Is your grandfather still alive?

Nie, on ju˝ nie ˝yje. No, he's no longer alive.

The word jeszcze is often used to expressed 'else', as in Czy jeszcze coÊ? Is
there anything else? (Do you want anything else?) In this sense, it is used to
express 'more' of some food or drink item:
Prosz´ jeszcze jedno piwo. One more beer, please.

THE USE OF b´d´ b´dziesz TO EXPRESS FUTURE-TENSE. The future tense

forms of byç, b´d´ I will, am going to be b´dziesz you will, are going to be
b´dzie he, she, it will, is going to be can be used in combination with an
infinitive to express future repetitive or drawn-out action:
B´d´ wiedzieç jutro. I will know tomorrow. .
Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowa, jeÊli b´dziesz mnie ciàgle pytaç. I will never be
ready if you are going to be constantly asking me.
In practice, forms of b´d´ are more often used in combination with 3rd-
person past-tense forms (see Lesson 5). The b´d´ construction cannot be used
with verbs marked in the glossary as Perfective (pf) for example, not with
poznaç -am -asz meet, get to know pf.



SINGULAR POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: czyj, mój, twój, jego, jej, pani,


3.1. zeszyt: a. Czyj to jest zeszyt? Whose notebook is that?

b. Mój. Mine
mieszkanie, samochód, radio, ksià˝ka, o∏ówek, kreda, pióro.


3.2. biuro: a. Gdzie jest twoje biuro? Where is your office?

b. Ono jest tutaj. It is here.
This exercise uses nouns from the section on Locative phrases; but in the
Nominative case.
hotel, pokój, gabinet, szko∏a, uniwersytet, bank, mieszkanie, dom, fabryka.


3.3. dom: a. Czy to jest twój dom? Is that your house?

b. Czy ten dom jest twój? Is that house yours?
c. Nie, on nie jest mój. No, it's not mine.
d∏ugopis, pralka, krzes∏o, samochód, lampa, zeszyt, ksià˝ka, radio.


3.4. on, znajomy: Czy to jest jego znajomy? Is that his acquaintance?

pani, kolega; pan, narzeczona; ona, znajoma; ty, kole˝anka; pan, sàsiad.


3.5. pan: a. Czy pan jest ju˝ gotowy? Are you ready yet?
b. Nie, jeszcze nie jestem gotowy. No, I'm not ready yet.

pani, on, ona, twój kolega, twoja kole˝anka, ty.



THE WORDS ju˝ AND jeszcze. Answer the 2nd-person cues with a 1st-person
3.6. mieç: a. Czy jeszcze coÊ masz? Do you still have something?
b. Nie, ju˝ nic nie mam. No, I don't have anything any more.
robiç, pami´taç, mówiç, rozumieç, wiedzieç, jeÊç, chcieç.



3.7. pracowaç: a. Czy teraz pracujesz? Are you working now?
b. Nie, ale nied∏ugo b´d´ pracowaç. No, but I will be
working before long.

studiowaç prawo-law, mieszkaç w Poznaniu, byç gotowy (-a), mówiç po

polsku, rozumieç coÊ, mieç coÊ, ubieraç si´.


Your day, your water. Cindy Crawford selling bottled water to Poland.


Uniwersytet we Wroc∏awiu. Main buildings of Wroc∏aw Univeristy.

3.B. W szkole, na uniwersytecie

Two friends meet on the street and catch up on family news.

Jarek: Gdzie mieszka teraz twoja Where is your <younger/older> sister Irena
<m∏odsza/starsza> siostra? living now?
Jadzia: Irena mieszka teraz w Poznaniu. Irena's living now in Poznaƒ. She works as
Pracuje jako nauczycielka w szkole. a teacher in a school.
Jarek: Czy jest zadowolona? Is she satisfied?
Jadzia: Tak, jest bardzo zadowolona Yes, she's very satisfied, <even though she
<, mimo ˝e niedu˝o zarabia>. doesn't make very much>.
Jarek: A twój brat, gdzie on teraz jest? And your brother, where is he now?
Jadzia: Adam jest teraz we Wroc∏awiu. Adam is now in Wroc∏aw. He's studying
Studiuje prawo na uniwersytecie. law at the university.
Jarek: Czy on te˝ jest zadowolony? And is he happy too?
Jadzia: Nie, on mówi, ˝e jest ciàgle No, he says that he's always tired, because
zm´czony, bo za du˝o pracuje. he works too much. <But he always talks
<Zresztà on zawsze tak mówi.> that way>.


For passive knowledge and dictation practice:

Brat studiuje prawo na On mówi, ˝e za du˝o pracuje.

uniwersytecie. On studiuje prawo we Wroc∏awiu.
Gdzie mieszka teraz twoja siostra? Ona pracuje jako nauczycielka.
Gdzie studiuje twój brat? Ona mieszka w Poznaniu.
Moja siostra pracuje w szkole. Ona mówi, ˝e jest zadowolona.
On mówi, ˝e jest ciàgle zm´czony.


1. Gdzie mieszka siostra? Czy ona pracuje? Co ona robi?

2. Gdzie jest brat? Czy on te˝ jest w Warszawie? Co on robi?
3. Czy siostra jest zadowolona?
4. A brat? Czy on te˝ jest zadowolony? Dlaczego?

5. Czy za du˝o pracujesz? Czy jesteÊ ciàgle zm´czony (zm´czona)?

6. Czy masz brata czy siostr´? Gdzie on(a) jest? Co robi? Czy jest zadowolony

Using mówiç say, odpowiadaç answer, pytaç ask, retell the conversation.
Write T/F statements to the dialogue.


ciàgle av constantly, continually Poznaƒ Poznan. w Poznaniu in

du˝o a lot. niedu˝o not much. za Poznan
du˝o too much starszy comp aj older. najstarszy
Jadzia diminutive or affectionate oldest
form of Jadwiga Wroc∏aw Wroc∏aw. we Wroc∏awiu
jako as, in the function or capacity of zadowolony aj satisfied. Used
Jarek diminutive or affectionate where English would probably
form of Jaros∏aw use 'happy'.
m∏odszy comp aj younger. zarabiaç -am -asz earn, "make"
najm∏odszy youngest zresztà for all that, for that matter, in
any case, as far as that goes.




reporting verbs (verbs used to report on speech, thought, events, and states
of affairs) are
mówiç -wi´ -wisz speak, talk, say, ˝e…
myÊleç -Êl´ -Êlisz think, ˝e…
odpowiadaç -am -asz answer, ˝e…
pami´taç -am -asz remember, ˝e… (or: nie pami´taç, czy…)
sàdziç -dz´ -dzisz judge, think, consider, ˝e
uwa˝aç -am -asz think, consider, ˝e…
wàtpiç -pi´ -pisz doubt, ˝e…
wiedzieç wiem wiesz know (information) +˝e (or: nie wiedzieç, czy…)
mieç mam, masz wra˝enie have the impression, ˝e…


a. The verb znaç -am -asz 'know' is not a reporting verb. It may not be
followed by either ˝e that or czy whether, but only by direct objects:
Dobrze go znam. I know him well.
Czy znasz jà? Do you know her?

b. Reporting verbs used to convey declarative information or indirect

speech must be followed by a conjunction, usually ˝e that, preced by a
comma The conjunction ˝e is never omitted (as the conjunction 'that' may be
in English):
Wiem, ˝e on tam pracuje. I know (that) he works there.
Ona mówi, ˝e b´dzie spóêniona. She says (that) she will be late.
Wàtpi´, ˝e on b´dzie w domu. I doubt whether he'll be at home.

Verbs introducing yes-no information whose factual status is in doubt take

the conjunction czy:
Nie wiem, czy b´d´ gotowa. I don't know whether I'll be ready.
Ona pyta, czy jestem gotowy. She's asking whether I'm ready.
The word wàtpiç 'doubt' can also take czy, but ˝e is considered better.

c. The verbs uwa˝aç consider, be of the opinion, and myÊleç think are used
in statements expressing opinions like
Uwa˝am, ˝e on za du˝o pracuje. I consider (think) that he works too much.
MyÊl´, ˝e on b´dzie teraz w domu. I think he'll be at home now.

d. The adjectives pewien (or pewny), f. pewna sure, certain is often used
in a reporting function in combination with the verb byç:
Jestem pewien (pewny), ˝e skàdÊ panià znam. I'm certain I know you from
On nie jest pewien (pewny), czy on mnie pami´ta. He's not sure whether
he remembers me.


This use is similar to the use of ciekaw(y), f. ciekawa in the sense 'curious',
'wonder' which, because of its meaning, occurs with the conjunction czy,
used with yes-no information:
Jestem ciekaw(y), czy ona b´dzie ju˝ w domu. I wonder whether she will
already be at home.

WORDS FOR 'FRIEND'. Polish distinguishes words for 'close friend',

'acquaintance', and 'work- or school-mate'.
1. The word for 'work- or schoolmate' is kolega (pl koledzy) f. kole˝anka
(pl kole˝anki) colleague. The word kolega is masculine in gender: mój
kolega my colleague.

2. The word for 'acquaintance' is znajomy (pl znajomi) f. znajoma (pl

znajome). These words are adjectives in form but function as nouns.

3. The words przyjaciel (pl. przyjaciele) przyjació∏ka f. (pl przyjació∏ki)

friend are reserved for especially close friends.

4. English 'boyfriend' and 'girlfriend' are usually rendered in Polish by

ch∏opak and dziewczyna, respectively. The words narzeczony and
narzeczona, literally 'fiancé(e)', are sometimes used in the sense 'steady
boyfriend or girlfriend', especially narzeczony by young women.

Koledzy i kole˝anki m. and f. colleagues

Koledzy Marka Poêniaka Colleagues of Marek Pozniak.



3.8. Retell each line of Conversation 3.B., using reporting verbs mówiç,
pytaç, odpowiadaç.

3.9. moja zadowolona siostra:

a. MyÊl´, ˝e moja siostra jest zadowolona.
I think that my sister is satisfied.
b. Nie wiem, czy moja siostra jest zadowolona.
I don't know whether my sister is satisfied.
c. Wàtpi´, ˝e moja siostra jest zadowolona. I doubt that my sister
is satisfied.

to zepsute radio, ten zm´czony pan, ten interesujàcy film, twój nowy
samochód, to interesujàce muzeum, moja zaj´ta-busy kole˝anka, mój
spóêniony kolega.


TOO LITTLE, TOO MUCH. Use either za du˝o or za ma∏o with the following
verbs, according to the model.

3.10. pracowaç: a. On za du˝o pracuje. He works too much.

b. On mówi, ˝e za du˝o pracuje. He says he works too much.

wiedzieç, rozumieç, robiç, mieç, chcieç, studiowaç, pami´taç, uczyç si´,



3.11. spóêniony: a. Zawsze jestem spóêniony (-a). I'm always late.
b. Nigdy nie jestem spóêniony (-a). I'm never late.

chory sick, gotowy, pewien (pewny), zadowolony, zm´czony, zaj´ty busy.



biblioteka library

Czy praca w bibliotece mo˝e byçinteresujàca? Can work in a library be

interesting? Naprawd´? Really?

3.C. Interesujàca praca

Can work in a library really be interesting?

Pani A: Rozumiem, ˝e pan I understand that you work at the

pracuje na uniwersytecie. university.
Pan B: Tak, to prawda, pracuj´ Yes, that's right, I work there in the
tam w bibliotece. library.
Pani A: Czy to jest interesujàca Is it an interesting job?
Pan B: OczywiÊcie. Ka˝da praca Of course. Every job is interesting.
jest interesujàca.
<or: Nie, jest raczej nudna.> <No, it's rather boring.>


For active knowledge and dictation practice:

Czy pani pracuje na uniwersytecie? Rozumiem, ˝e pan pracuje na

Czy to jest interesujàca praca? uniwersytecie.
Ka˝da praca jest interesujàca. Ta praca jest raczej nudna.
Pracuj´ tam w bibliotece. To prawda.


1. Gdzie pracuje Pan B?

2. Czy jego praca jest interesujàca?
3. Czy praca w bibliotece mo˝e byç interesujàca? Naprawd´?

4. Czy zgadzasz si´, ˝e ka˝da praca jest równie interesujàca? Jaka praca nie
jest zbyt interesujàca?
5. Czy pracujesz? Czy to jest interesujàca praca?

Using mówiç say, odpowiadaç answer, pytaç ask, retell the conversation.


biblioteka library. w bibliotece in naprawd´ really

the library. nudny aj boring
ka˝dy, ka˝da, ka˝de each, every równie equally
mo˝e byç can be zgadzaç si´ -am -asz agree


THE WORDS który, która, które which AND ka˝dy, ka˝da, ka˝de each,
every. These two words are often used in tandem:
Która winda jest czynna? Which elevator is good (operable)?
Ka˝da winda jest czynna. Every elevator is good.
The word ka˝dy (-a, -e) may also answer questions formed with jaki (-a, -ie):
Jaka praca jest interesujàca? What sort of work is intersting?
Ka˝da praca jest interesujàca. Every kind of work is interesting.

THE WORD ˝aden, ˝adna, ˝adne no, none, not any. This word is more or less
the negative of ka˝dy (-a, -e). It requires that the verb be negated:
˚adna praca nie jest interesujàca. No work is interesting.
˚aden film nie jest interesujàcy. No film is interesting.
˚adne dziecko nie jest grzeczne. No child is polite.


SOME LOCATIVE-COMPATIBLE VERBS. The following common verbs of

state or activity may be followed by a phrase of location (see further below):
byç jestem jesteÊ jest be or b´d´ b´dziesz b´dzie will be
czekaç -am -asz wait
jeÊç jem jesz eat
mieszkaç -am -asz live, reside
pracowaç -cuj´ -cujesz work
spaç Êpi´ Êpisz sleep
studiowaç -iuj´ -iujesz study (as a course of study)
uczyç si´ -cz´ -czysz study (in a concrete situation)
˝yç ˝yj´ ˝yjesz live
On jest teraz w domu. He is at home now.
Czy zwykle jesz w restauracji? Do you usually eat at a restaurant?
Czekaj na mnie w parku Wait for me in the park.
Mieszkamy i pracujemy w Warszawie. We live and work in Warsaw.
Ucz´ si´ w bibliotece. I study in the library.

One tends to say Studiuj´ na uniwersytecie. I study at the university. (more or

less the equivalent of saying "I am a student there"), but Ucz´ si´ w
bibliotece. I'm (momentarily) studying in the library.

Some Locative-compatible verbs of body position are

le˝eç -˝´ -˝ysz lie, be lying
siedzieç -0dz´ -dzisz sit
staç stoj´ stoisz stand
wisieç -sz´ -sisz hang
Ona teraz le˝y chora w ∏ó˝ku. She's lying sick now in bed.
On siedzi teraz w gabinecie. He's sitting now in his of fice.
W pokoju stoi du˝a lampa. A large lamp is standing in the room.

SOME LOCATIVE PHRASES. The following phrases, expressing 'place

where' after the prepositions w in, at and na on, at, should be learned for the
time being next to the basic form of the noun. In the sense of at, the
preposition na is used with attendance at events, like performances, films,
concerts, meetings, and the like. Other nouns tend to take w. These forms
exhibit the Locative case, more fully presented in other lessons.
Nominative Locative:
bank bank w banku in the bank
biblioteka library w bibliotece in/at the library
biuro of fice, bureau w biurze at/in the of fice
budynek building w budynku in the building
hotel hotel w hotelu in the hotel
kino movie-house w kinie at the movie-house
koÊció∏ church w koÊciele in church
miasto town w mieÊcie in town


muzeum museum w muzeum in the museum

park park w parku in the park
poczta post- of fice na poczcie at the post-office
restauracja restaurant w restauracji in the restaurant
sklep store w sklepie in the store
szko∏a school w szkole in/at school
szpital hospital w szpitalu in the hospital
teatr theater w teatrze in the theater
ulica street na ulicy on the street
uniwersytet university na uniwersytecie at the university

Home, Apartment, Rooms:

biurko desk na biurku on the desk
dom house, hom w domu at home
gabinet of fice (room) w gabinecie in the of fice
kuchnia kitchen w kuchni in the kitchen
∏azienka bathroom w ∏azience in the bathroom
∏ó˝ko bed w ∏ó˝ku in bed
mieszkanie apartment w mieszkaniu in the apartment
pod∏oga floor na pod∏odze on the floor
pokój room w pokoju in the room
stó∏ table na stole on the table
sufit ceiling na suficie on the ceiling
Êciana wall na Êcianie on the wall

film film, movie na filmie at the film, movie
impreza get-together na imprezie at a get-together
koncert concert na koncercie at the concert
przedstawienie performance na przedstawieniu at the performance
prywatka (private) party na prywatce at the party
przyj´cie reception, party na przyj´ciu at the reception
wystawa exhibit na wystawie at the exhibit
zaj´cia class(es) na zaj´ciach in class(es)

Countries, Polish Cities:

Ameryka America w Ameryce in America
Polska Poland w Polsce in Poland
Gdaƒsk Gdansk w Gdaƒsku in Gdansk
Kraków Krakow w Krakowie in Krakow
Lublin Lublin w Lublinie in Lublin
¸ódê Lodz w ¸odzi In Lodz
Poznaƒ Poznan w Poznaniu in Poznan
Warszawa Warsaw w Warszawie in Warsaw
Wroc∏aw Wroclaw we Wroc∏awiu
One may often form the Locative case of new nouns based on analogy to
forms already known, as long as one keeps feminine nouns separate from
masculine and neuter nouns. For example, on the basis of ulica street, na


ulicy on the street, one can correctly guess tablica blackboard, na tablicy on the


NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. Experience shows that the Locative case,
illustrated in the words just above, is best learned on the example of actual
forms rather than rules. However, here are the rules for those who are
interested in learning them at this point. These rules depend on the
distinction between so-called ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ consonants. Here is a chart of
Polish Hard (H) and corresponding Soft (S) consonants (spelled as if before
the ending -e):

H p b f w m t d s z n ∏ r
S pi- bi- fi- wi- mi- ci- dzi- si- zi- ni- l- rz-

H k g ch st zd s∏ z∏ sn
S c dz sz Êci- êdzi- Êl- êl- Êni- cz ˝ j


1. Masculine and neuter nouns. (a) If the stem ends in a a hard
consonant, the consonant is softened, and the ending is -e: zeszyt, L
zeszycie notebook. (b) If the stem ends in a soft consonant, or in k, g, ch, the
ending is -u: hotel, L hotelu hotel, mieszkanie, L mieszkaniu apartment,
r´cznik, L r´czniku towel, pude∏ko, L pude∏ku box. Irregular: dom, L domu
house, pan, L panu Sir, syn, L synu son. The adjective ending is -ym (-im):
dobrym good, drogim expensive, dear, moim my.
2. Feminine nouns. (a) If the stem ends in a hard consonant,
including in k, g, ch, the consonant is softened, and the ending is -e:
kobieta, L kobiecie woman, ksià˝ka, L ksià˝ce book. (b) If the stem ends in a
soft consonant, the ending is --y (-i): ulica, L ulicy street, rzecz, L rzeczy
thing, restauracja, L restauracji restaurant. The adjective ending is -ej: nowej
new, drogiej expensive, dear, mojej my.
3. The Locative plural of all nouns, without exception, is -ach:
zeszytach notebooks, mieszkaniach apartments, zaj´ciach classes. The adjective
ending is -ych (-ich): nowych new, drogich expensive, dear, moich my.

a. Before the ending -'e (e plus preceding softening), nouns
containing ia or io/ió before t, d, s, z, may change ia to ie and io/ió to ie
(sàsiad, L sàsiedzie neighbor, miasto, L mieÊcie town, koÊció∏, L koÊciele
b. The possible change of root à and ó to ´ and o in masculine
nouns before all endings holds here too: mà˝, L m´˝u husband, stó∏, L stole
table. Mobile (dropping) e occurs before endings in many masculine noun
stems, especially before k: budynek, L budynku building.


THE WORDS który, ka˝dy, ˝aden.
3.12. dobra pralka: a. Która pralka jest dobra? Which washing machine is
b. Ka˝da pralka jest dobra. Every wachine machine is
c. ˚adna pralka nie jest dobra. No washing machine is
wymagajàcy lektor, interesujàca ksià˝ka, zm´czony student, zepsute radio.


3.13. bank: a. Czy on jeszcze pracuje w banku? Does he still work at the bank?
b. Nie, on ju˝ nie pracuje w banku. No, he doesn't work at the
bank any longer.
restauracja, hotel, uniwersytet, szko∏a, biblioteka, muzeum, poczta, biuro.


3.14. Polska:a. Czy on jeszcze mieszka w Polsce? Does he still live in

b. Nie, on ju˝ nie mieszka w Polsce. No, he doesn't live in
Poland any more.
Ameryka, Kraków, Warszawa, Lublin, Poznaƒ, ¸ódê.


3.15. ty, pracowaç w biurze: a. Czy jeszcze pracujesz w biurze? Do you

still work in an office?
b. Nie, ju˝ nie pracuj´ w biurze. No, I don't
work in an office any more.
pan, mieszkaç w domu; pani, studiowaç na uniwersytecie; ona, uczyç si´ w
bibliotece; on, pracowaç w szkole; ty, byç zadowolony; pan, mówiç po
w∏osku; pani, coÊ jeÊç; on, coÊ robiç; ona, coÊ chcieç.

In the last three items, in b replace coÊ something with nic nothing.



3.16. dom: Ona pewnie jest teraz w domu. She's probably at home now.
mieszkanie, hotel, restauracja, praca, gabinet, pokój, biuro, poczta.


3.17. Polska: Czy by∏eÊ (by∏aÊ) kiedyÊ w Polsce? Have you ever been to
Poland? Uses 2nd pers. sg. past tense of byç (see Lesson5).

Ameryka, Poznaƒ, Kraków, Wroc∏aw, Gdaƒsk, Lublin, ¸ódê.


3.18. dom, praca: a. Czy ona jest w domu, czy w pracy? Is she at home or at
b. Ona b´dzie albo w domu, albo w pracy. She'll be
either at home or at work.
bank, biblioteka; hotel, restauracja; kino, koncert; szko∏a, uniwersytet;
muzeum, park; Poznaƒ, Warszawa; Ameryka, Polska; miasto, koÊció∏.


More Signs Talking to Each Other

Bàdê legalny. Be legal! ˚aden cz∏owiek nie jest nielegalny. No man is illegal.
The first sign, on the left, is addressed to unregistered aliens, encouraging
them to register. The sign on the right responds to it philosophically.


Jak ma na imi´ twoje piwo? What's your beer's first name? (outdoor
advertisement for Lech Beer)

Piwo jedno ma imi´ beer has but one name. niejedno razem more than one at a
time. piwo bezalkoholowe non-alcoholic beer. Since outdoor advertising of
alcoholic beer is presently prohibited in Poland, the advertising of non-
alcoholic beer with the same brand name has proliferated. The slogan
alludes to the book by Pierre la Mure, translated into Polish as Mi∏oÊç
niejedno ma imi´, literally, Love has more than one name.

3.D. Nie pami´tam

One person asks another about his (her) friend.

Jurek: Jak ma na imi´ twój kolega What's your friend's name?

(twoja kole˝anka)? Which one??
Julia: Który (która)? The one on the right (on the left).
Jurek: Ten (ta) po prawej <po lewej>. Jan (Janina). Why do you ask?
Julia: Leon (Lena). Dlaczego pytasz? He (she) is rather nice. Where do you know
Jurek: On (ona) jest doÊç sympatyczny him (her) from?
(sympatyczna). Skàd go (jà) znasz? I don't remember, but I've known him (her)
Julia: Nie pami´tam, ale znam go (jà) for a long time. Do you want to meet
od dawna. Chcesz go (jà) poznaç? him (her)?
Jurek: Tak, bardzo ch´tnie go (jà) Yes, I'll meet him (her) very gladly.


For active knowledge and dictation practice:

Bardzo ch´tnie go poznam. Ta po prawej stronie.

Chcesz jà poznaç? Ten po lewej stronie.
Jak ma na imi´ twój kolega? Twoja kole˝anka jest doÊç
Nie pami´tam. sympatyczna.
Skàd go znasz? Znam go od dawna.
Skàd jà znasz? Znam jà od dawna.


1. Jak kolega (kole˝anka) ma na imi´?

2. Skàd Julia go (jà) zna?
3. Czy Jurek chce go (jà) poznaç?

4. Jak twój kolega (twoja kole˝anka) obok ma na imi´?

5. Czy znasz go (jà) od dawna? Skàd go (jà) znasz? Jak d∏ugo go (jà) znasz?
6. Jak ma na imi´ najlepszy twój przyjaciel (najlepsza twoja przyjació∏ka)?

Using mówiç say, odpowiadaç answer, pytaç ask, retell the conversation.


ch´tnie av gladly, willingly. od dawna av phr for a long time,

This word is often used to express since a long time ago
'I'd be glad to', as in ch´tnie go po lewej (stronie) on the left
poznam. I'll gladly meet him. (-hand side)
go him, jà her. The Accusative po prawej (stronie) on the right
(direct object) forms of on, ona. See (-hand side)
below in this section. poznaç -am -asz pf meet
Jurek diminutive or affectionate skàd literally means 'where
form of Jerzy from'. It also has an idiomatic use in
kolega (m.) kole˝anka (f.) the sense 'why no', 'not at all'.
colleague, work-mate, class-mate sympatyczny aj nice,
nie pami´tam I don't remember. sympathetic.
The negation of 'remember' is often znaç -am -asz know, be familiar
used in Polish to express what with (a person, place, thing). i.e.,
English often expresses with 'I not in the sense 'know information',
forget', or 'I can't remember'. which is expressed with wiedzieç
obok av alongside wiem, wiesz.




When a pronoun is placed in the direct-object position after a verb (the
position designating the person or thing receiving the action of the verb), it
will appear in its Accusative case form. The following common verbs take
objects in the Accusative case:
czekaç -am -asz na wait for pami´taç -am -asz remember
jeÊç jem jesz eat rozumieç -em -esz understand
lubiç -bi´ -bisz like widzieç -dz´ -dzisz see
mieç mam masz have znaç -am -asz know (someone)
Accusative case forms of pronouns are roughly analogous to the Objective
forms of English pronouns: I-me, he-him, she-her, who-whom (but you-you). The
subject forms of the pronouns are in the Nominative case. The Accusative
forms of the singular personal pronouns are as follows:

Nom. ja ty on ona ono pan pani kto co

Acc. mnie ci´ go jà je pana panià kogo co
ciebie jego
+ prep. mnie ciebie niego nià nie pana panià kogo co

Nom. nikt nic

Acc. nikogo nic

The forms ciebie and jego are emphatic or contrastive: Ciebie lubi´, ale
jego nie lubi´. You I like, but him I don't like. The forms in the third row
above occur after prepositions; see Czekam na ciebie. I'm waiting for you. On
czeka na nià. He's waiting for her. Nouns and adjectives have Accusative
forms as well, introduced in the following lesson.
In normal unemphatic speech, Accusative pronouns often go in front of
the verb, avoiding final position, but they do not usually go in absolute
initial position; see
On jà lubi. He likes her.
Lubi´ ci´. I like you.
Czy pami´tasz mnie? Do you remember me?
Skàd go znasz? Where do you know him from?
Dobrze pana pami´tam. I remember you-m.formal well.

THE TWO VERBS 'KNOW'. The verb wiedzieç wiem, wiesz means 'know
information'. It is usually followed by the conjunction ˝e 'that' or by a
questioning adverb used as a conjunction:
Wiem, ˝e rozumiesz po francusku. I know that you understand French.
Nie wiem, kiedy b´d´ gotowy. I don't know when I'll be ready.
The verb znaç znam, znasz signifies familiarity with some person or thing. It
is followed by direct objects in the Accusative case.


Dobrze go znam. I know him well.

Kogo tu znasz? Whom do you know here?



otherwise, omit 1st and 2nd person subject pronouns; do not omit 3rd person
subject pronouns, including pan and pani.

3.19. on: Dobrze go znam. I know him well.

ona, ty, pan, pani.


3.20. ja, ty: Pami´tam ci´. I remember you

on, ona; ona, on; ja, pani; on, pan; ona, ja.
You may use the verbs lubiç or rozumieç instead of pami´taç.


3.21. on, pani: On skàdÊ panià zna. He knows you (fem. formal) from
ona, pan; ja, ty; on, ja; on, ona; ja, on.


3.22. on, pani: a. On panià lubi. He likes you (fem. formal).

b. Czy pani go lubi? Do you (fem. formal) like him?
ona, pan; ja, ty; on, ona.


3.23. ty: Czekam na ciebie. I'm waiting for you.

on, ona, pani, pan.


3.24. on, ona, park: On b´dzie czekaç na nià w parku. He'll be waiting
for her in the park.
ona, on, teatr; ja, pan, pokój; on, pani, muzeum; ja, ty, poczta; ty, ja, koÊció∏.



3.E. Bardzo mi mi∏o

A social introduction. The man in the picture is probably not going to get one.

A: Pan(i) pozwoli, ˝e si´ przedstawi´. Allow me to introduce myself. Jan

Jan Âliwiƒski (Joanna Âliwiƒska). Sliwinski (Joanna Sliwinska).
B: Bardzo mi mi∏o. Dariusz Trzmiel Nice to meet you. Dariusz Trzmiel
(Danuta Trzmiel). (Danuta Trzmiel)
A: Mam wra˝enie, ˝e skàdÊ pana I have the impression that I know you from
(panià) znam. somewhere.
B: To chyba niemo˝liwe, nie jestem That's probably impossible, I'm not from
stàd. here.
A: A skàd pan (pani) jest? And where are you from?
B: To moja tajemnica. That's my secret.


For active knowledge and dictation practice:

Bardzo mi mi∏o. Skàd pan(i) jest?

Mam wra˝enie, ˝e panià (pana) SkàdÊ panià (pana) znam.
znam. To chyba niemo˝liwe.
Nie jestem stàd. To moja tajemnica.
Pan(i) pozwoli, ˝e si´ przedstawi´.


1. Jak ta kobieta si´ nazywa? A ten m´˝czyna?

2. Czy on jà zna? Czy ona go zna?
3. Skàd on mo˝e jà znaç, skoro ona nie jest stàd?
4. Dlaczego ona nie chce powiedzieç, skàd ona jest?

5. Czy wiesz, skàd jest twój kolega (twoja kole˝anka) obok?

6. A czy ty jesteÊ stàd? Skàd jesteÊ, jeÊli nie jesteÊ stàd?


bardzo mi mi∏o literally, 'it's very nice pana, panià. The Accusative (direct
for me' object) forms of pan, pani.
Danuta Trzmiel (trzmiel bumblebee). pozwoliç -l´ -lisz pf allow, permit
Women's last names ending in a przedstawiç -wi´ -wisz pf present,
consonant do not take special gender introduce. przedstawiç si´ introduce
endings. oneself
Joanna Âliwiƒska. Last names ending skàd av from where. skàdÊ from
in -ski are treated as adjectives and somewhere
take gender endings in the same skoro conj since
way as any adjective. stàd av from here.
mi to, for me. The short Dative case ...˝e si´ przedstawi´ that I introduce
form of ja I (see Lesson 7). myself.
pan (pani) pozwoli. literally, 'you will wra˝enie n impression. mam
allow'. wra˝enie, ˝e… I have the
impression that…



ciàgle constantly na pewno surely teraz now
czasami sometimes naprawd´ really za du˝o too much
cz´sto often pewnie probably za ma∏o too little
du˝o a lot prawie almost zawsze always
ma∏o not much rzadko rarely zwykle usually


Adverbs modify the meaning of adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs:

modifying an adjective: Jestem ciàgle zm´czony. I'm constantly tired.
modifying a verb: On du˝o rozumie. He understands a lot.
modifying another adverb: Ona jest prawie zawsze zaj´ta. She is almost
always busy.


comprehension of a dialogue is to make up sentences which may be verified
or disconfirmed, so-called True/False sentences or, in Polish, tak/nie
sentences. Of course, in many instances, a statement purporting to be factual
will best be qualified as mo˝e 'maybe', chyba tak 'probably so', chyba nie
'probably not', nie wiem 'I don't know', nie wiemy 'we don't know,' or in
some other way. Here is an example of a set of True/False statements, based
on Dialogue A of this lesson. You can determine the answers on your own.

Mà˝: Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa? Czekam na ciebie ju˝ doÊç d∏ugo.
˚ona: Nie, nie jestem jeszcze gotowa. Jeszcze si´ ubieram.
Mà˝: A kiedy wreszcie b´dziesz gotowa?
˚ona: Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowa, jeÊli mnie ciàgle b´dziesz pytaç.

T/F Statements. Answer them. If the answer is nie, then explain why.
1. Mà˝ jest gotowy. 6. ˚ona b´dzie nied∏ugo gotowa.
2. Mà˝ nied∏ugo czeka. 7. Mà˝ b´dzie czekaç w pokoju.
3. ˚ona jest gotowa. 8. Mà˝ i ˝ona spó˝niajà si´-are late.
4. Mà˝ jest cierpliwy-patient. 9. ˚ona si´ Êpieszy.
5. ˚ona robi makija˝-makeup. 10. ˚ona nigdy nie b´dzie gotowa.

SOME PROFESSIONS. The second word given is the female variant, if

adwokat, f. adwokatka lawyer in˝ynier engineer
aktor, f. aktorka actor (f. actress) kelner, f. kelnerka waiter
architekt architect lekarz, f. lekarka doctor
dentysta, f. dentystka dentist piel´gniarka f nurse
dziennikarz, f. dziennikarka journalist profesor professor
ekspedient, ekspedientka salesperson sekretarka f secretary
farmaceuta, f. farmaceutka pharmacist nauczyciel, f. nauczycielka teacher
fryzjer, f. fryzjerka barber, hairdresser urz´dnik, f. urz´dniczka clerk

The conjunction jako as can be used with professions in the phrase pracowaç
jako work as, in the capacity of:
Mój brat pracuje jako adwokat. My brother works as an lawyer.
Moja siostra pracuje jako farmaceutka. My sister works as a pharmacist.

A verb often applied to professions is zarabiaç -am -asz earn, make money':
Mój brat dobrze zarabia jako kelner. My brother makes good money as a
Ten adwokat du˝o (ma∏o) zarabia. That lawyer makes a lot (not much).


3.25. Think of a short sentence to go with each of the adverbs.

ciàgle: Jestem ciàgle zm´czony (-a), I'm constantly tired.

czasami, cz´sto, du˝o, ma∏o, na pewno, naprawd´, pewnie, prawie, rzadko,

za du˝o. za ma∏o, zawsze, zwykle.

3.26. Using'surely', 'constantly', 'always' with Locative phrases.

praca: On jest zawsze w pracy. He's always at work.
Substitute ciàgle, na pewno, zwykle, for zawsze in differentLocative sentences.

biblioteka, biuro, gabinet, koÊció∏, park, szko∏a, ∏ó˝ko.

3.27. Give a question that the statement might answer:

Nie, nie jestem jeszcze gotowa. Czy ju˝ jesteÊ gotowa?
1. Jeszcze si´ ubieram.
2. Ju˝ nied∏ugo b´d´ gotowa.
3. Czekaj na mnie na dworze.
4. Moja siostra mieszka teraz w Poznaniu.
5. Siostra pracuje jako nauczycielka w szkole.
6. Mój brat jest teraz we Wroc∏awiu.
7. Brat studiuje na uniwersytecie.
8. Brat mówi, ˝e jest ciàgle zm´czony, bo za du˝o pracuje.
9. Brat jest zawsze zm´czony, bo za du˝o pracuje.
10. Pracuj´ w bibliotece na uniwersytecie.
11. Praca w bibliotece jest zawsze interesujàca.
12. Mój kolega ma na imi´ Jan.
13. Znam jà od dawna.
14. Nie jestem stàd.

3.28. Sentence pairs based on the conversations. Translate.

1. Where is your sister living now?

She's living in Warsaw. 5. What does your brother do?
He's studies at the university.
2. Does your sister work?
Yes, he works as a teacher in a 6. Is he satisfied?
school. No, he says he works too much.

3. Is your sister satisfied? 7. Is he satisfied?

Yes, she's very satisfied. No, he's never satisfied.

4. Where is your brother now? 7. He says he's always tired.

My brother is in Krakow. He always talks that way.


14. Your colleague is rather nice.

8. If I remember rightly, you work in Do you want to meet him/her?
the library.
Yes, that's right. 15. Do you want to meet him (her)?
Yes, very gladly.
9. Is that a good job?
I don't know whether it's good. 16. Are you ready yet?
No, I'm not ready yet.
10. The work is always interesting.
Can work in a library really be 17. I'm still dressing.
interesting? Well then when will you be ready?
11. Is that job interesting? 18. When will you finally be ready?
Every job can be interesting. I'll never be ready.
12. What's you friend's name? 19. You speak Polish quite well.
Jadwiga. I speak French even better.
13. Where do you know him/her 20. It seems to me I know you from
from? somewhere.
I don't remember, but I know That's impossible. I'm not from here.
him/her for a long time.

3.29. Fill in the blanks:

12. Nie jestem --- gotowy.
1. Chcesz --- poznaç? yet
him (her) 13. Nie jestem ---.
2. Czy ju˝ jesteÊ ---? from here
ready (f.) 14. Ona jest --- sympatyczna.
3. Czy on --- jest zadowolony? rather
also 15. On nie jest --- zadowolony.
4. Czy praca w szkole --- too
interesujàca? can be 16. Pan (pani) pozwoli, ---.
5. --- pytasz? that I introduce myself
why 17. On pracuje jako nauczyciel ---.
6. --- si´ ubieram. in school
still 18. --- go znasz?
7. --- praca jest interesujàca. From where
every 19. Ona nie jest --- zadowolona.
8. Kiedy b´dziesz --- gotowa? too
finally 20. Tak, to ---.
9. Mój brat jest --- w Krakowie. right
now 21. To chyba ---.
10. On mówi, ˝e --- jest zm´czony. impossible
constantly 22. ---, ˝e pana (panià) znam.
11. Ona mówi, ˝e --- pracuje. It seems to me
too much


23. Znam jà ---. 32. On nie jest ---, czy mnie pami´ta.
for a long time certain
24. Czy on b´dzie ---? 33. Ona mówi, ˝e b´dzie ---.
at home late
25. Czy to jest --- magnetofon? 34. Pami´tam ---.
his you (male, formal)
26. --- to jest magnetofon? 35. Ta ksià˝ka jest ---.
Whose mine
27. --- to jest dziecko? 36. ---, ˝e on za du˝o pracuje.
Whose I consider
28. Jej sàsiadka jest --- mi∏a. 37. ---, czy on b´dzie w domu.
rather I doubt
29. --- tu znasz? 38. ---, ˝e on tam pracuje.
Whom I know
30. Lubi´ ---. 39. SkàdÊ --- pami´tam.
you you (female, formal)
31. Nie, on --- ˝yje. 40. Ona b´dzie teraz w ---.
no longer the office

brakujàce wyrazy

Gdaƒsk, w Gdaƒsku

1000 Years of Gdaƒsk. Postage stamp commemorating the millenial

anniversary of the city of Gdaƒsk.



Ameryka f America. w Ameryce Kraków -kowa mi Krakow. w

bank mi bank. w banku Krakowie
biblioteka f library. w bibliotece le˝eç -˝´ -˝ysz lie, be lying
biuro n office. w biurze lubiç -bi´ -bisz impf like
brat mp Npl bracia GApl braci Ipl ∏ó˝ko n bed. w ∏ó˝ku
braçmi brother ma∏o quant a little, not much. za
budynek -nku mi building. w ma∏o too little
budynku miasto n town. w mieÊcie
ch´tnie av gladly, willingly. ch´tnie mieszkanie n apartment. w
go poznam. I'd be glad to meet mieszkaniu
him. mi∏o av nice. bardzo mi mi∏o it's
ch∏opak mp boy, boyfriend very nice for me (to meet you)
ciàgle av constantly. ciàgle pytaç mój, moja, moje poss aj of ja my,
keep asking mine
czasami av sometimes muzeum n museum. w muzeum
czyj, czyja, czyje poss aj of kto whose myÊleç myÊl´ myÊlisz impf think
czynny aj operable, working na pewno av phr surely, certainly, for
dom mi house, home. w domu sure
du˝o av or quant a lot. za du˝o too naprawd´ av really, genuinely
much. niedu˝o not much nareszcie av finally
dziewczyna f girl, girlfriend narzeczony mp decl as aj fiancé. f
fabryka f factory. w fabryce narzeczona fiancée
film mi film, movie. na filmie at a nied∏ugo av soon, before too long
movie niemo˝liwy aj impossible
gabinet mi personal office. w od dawna av phr for a long time
gabinecie pami´taç -am -asz impf remember. nie
go pron A of on him pami´tam I forget
gotowy (gotów), f gotowa aj ready, pana poss aj of pan your
prepared pani poss aj of pani your
hotel mi hotel. w hotelu park mi park. w parku
jako conj as, in the function of pewnie av probably
jà pron A of ona her po lewej stronie on the left-hand
je pron A of ono it side
jego poss aj o fon his. po prawej stronie on the right-
jej poss aj of ona her, hers hand side
jeszcze av still. jeszcze nie not yet poczta f post-office. na poczcie
ju˝ av already. ju˝ nie no longer pokój -koju mi room, peace. w
ka˝dy, ka˝da, ka˝de pron aj each, pokoju
every Polska f Poland. w Polsce
kino n movie theater. w kinie poznaç -am -aszz pf meet, get to know
kochaç kocham kochasz impf love Poznaƒ -ania mi Poznan. w Poznaniu
kolega mp colleague, work- or pozwoliç -l´ -lisz (pf) allow
school-mate. f kole˝anka praca f work, job. w pracy
koncert mi concert. na koncercie prawo n law
koÊció∏ -cio∏a mi church. w koÊciele


przedstawiç -wi´ -wisz pf present, uniwersytet mi university.

introduce. przedstawiç si´ na uniwersytecie
introduce oneself uwa˝aç -am -asz impf consider, think.
przedstawienie n performance. na jak uwa˝asz? what do you think?
przedstawieniu Warszawa f Warsaw. w Warszawie
przyjaciel mp (close) friend. f wàtpiç -pi´ -pisz impf doubt
przyjació∏ka widzieç -dz´ -dzisz impf see
przypuszaç -am -asz impf suppose, wi´c so, then, in that case
expect, imagine wra˝enie n impression. mam
reklama f advertisement wra˝enie, ˝e I have the impression
restauracja f restaurant. w restauracji that
sàdziç -dz´ -dzisz judge, think wreszcie av finally, at last
siedzieç -dz´ -dzisz impf sit, be sitting wyjÊcie n exit, going out, leaving.
siostra f sister gotowy do wyjÊcia ready to leave
skàdÊ av from somewhere zadowolony aj satisfied, happy,
sklep mi store. w sklepie content
spaç Êpi´, Êpisz impf sleep zaj´ty aj busy, occupied
staç stoj´, stoisz impf stand zawsze av always
stàd av from here zm´czony aj tired
sympatyczny aj nice, sympathetic znaç -am -asz impf know, be familiar
szko∏a f school. w szkole with (a person or thing)
teatr mi theater. w teatrze znajomy mp decl like aj acquaintance.
teraz av now f znajoma
trzeci, trzecia, trzecie num aj third zresztà av for all that, for that matter
trzy num three zwykle av usually
twój, twoja, twoje poss pron of ty ˝yç ˝yj´ ˝yjesz impf live, be alive
your, yours
ubieraç si´ -am -asz impf get dressed s∏owniczek
uczyç si´ cz´ -czysz impf
study, learn
ulica f street. na ulicy on the street

Malbork, w Malborku

Malbork. A castle about 35 kilometers south east of Gdaƒsk, a medieval seat

of the Knights of the Teutonic Order.



A. Nie narzekam

- Czy twój brat (twoja siostra) Does your brother (your sister) work?
pracuje? Yes, he (she) works as a waiter (waitress)
- Tak, pracuje jako kelner (kelnerka) in a restaurant.
w restauracji. Does he (she) make good money?
- Czy on (ona) dobrze zarabia?
Fairly good. <Not bad.> He (She)
- DoÊç dobrze <Nieêle>. On (ona)
doesn't complain.
nie narzeka.

zarabiaç -am -asz earn, narzekaç -am -asz complain

make money. dobrze zarabiaç nieêle av not bad
make good money

B. On jest chory

- Gdzie jest Jarek (Kasia) dzisiaj? Where is Jarek (Kasia) today?

- On (Ona) jest chory (chora). Jest w He (She) is sick. He's (She's) at home.
domu. Le˝y w ∏ó˝ku. He's (she's) lying in bed.
- Ojej! Co mu (jej) jest? Oh dear. What is the matter with him
- Po prostu bardzo êle si´ czuje. (her)?
He (she) simply feels very bad. Probably
Chyba ma katar <kaca>.
he has a cold <a hangover>.

dzisiaj av today dobrze (êle) si´ czuç feel good (bad)

chory aj sick kac m hangover. mam kaca I have a
co mu (jej) jest? phr what is it to him hangover
her)? i.e., what is wrong with him katar mi head cold. mam katar I
(her)? have a cold
czuç si´ czuj´ si´, czujesz si´ feel.

C. W hotelu

- Dobry wieczór. Czy sà wolne Good evening. Are there free rooms in
pokoje w hotelu? the hotel?
- Tak, jest jeszcze jeden pokój Yes, there is still one single-person
jednoosobowy. room.
- Dobrze, bior´ go. Ile p∏ac´? Good, I'll take it. How much do I pay?
- Pi´çdziesiàt euro za jednà noc. Fifty euro for one night. May I have
Prosz´ o paszport. your passsport, please?

braç bior´, bierzesz impf take prosz´ o paszport may I have your
pi´çdziesiàt fifty passport, please
ile how much. ile p∏ac´? how much
do I owe?


Przygody biura podró˝˘ "Zefir"

Rozdzia∏ trzeci: Pan Or∏owski marzy
Pan Or∏owski jest w pracy. Siedzi w gabinecie. Ma dzisiaj du˝o pracy.
Musi pisaç i odpowiadaç na listy. Musi te˝ przygotowaç bilans. Musi
pracowaç szybko i bezb∏´dnie. Pan Kowalczyk, jego szef, jest bardzo
wymagajàcy. Wszystko musi byç na dzisiaj gotowe.
Zamiast odpowiadaç na listy, Pan Or∏owski woli komponowaç poetyckie
reklamy dla firmy. Oto jego najnowsza próba:
Z “Zefirem” w´druj za pan brat,
Obje˝d˝aj z nami ca∏y Êwiat!
Jest bardzo zadowolony z siebie.
Pan Or∏owski siedzi przy biurku. Trzyma o∏ówek, ale ju˝ nic nie pisze.
Patrzy w okno, ale nic nie widzi. Marzy... Nagle widzi, ˝e jest na prerii.
Âwieci s∏oƒce... Êpiewajà ptaki... preria jest zielona i spokojna... Pan Or∏owski
jedzie... jedzie... jedzie... Preria jest szeroka i spokojna, ale nagle widzi, ˝e
nie jest sam. Inny jeêdziec jedzie w jego kierunku. Ma strzelb´ i celuje w
pana Or∏owskiego. Jaki straszny ha∏as! W drzwiach stoi pan Kowalczyk.
Patrzy na pana Or∏owskiego, nie uÊmiecha si´.

bezb∏´dnie av flawlessly reklama f advertisement

bilans mi balance siedzieç –dz´ -dzisz sit
ca∏y Êwiat the whole world s∏oƒce n sun
celowaç –luj´ -lujesz w+A aim at spokojny aj peaceful
drzwi pl form door. w drzwiach straszny aj terrible
dzisiaj av today. na dzisiaj for strzelba f hunting rifle
today szeroki aj wide
ha∏as mi noise, racket Êwieciç –c´ -cisz shine
inny aj another trzymaç –am –asz hold
jechaç jad´, jedziesz ride uÊmiechaç si´ –am -asz smile
jeêdziec –êdêca mp rider w drzwiach in the doorway
kierunek –nku mi direction w´drowaç –ruj´ -rujesz wander.
komponowaç -nuj´ -nujesz impf w´druj 'wander!' (the command
compose form fo the verb)
list mi letter. listy letters widzieç widz´, widzisz see
marzyç –rz´ -rzysz daydream woleç -l´ -lisz prefer
musieç musz´, musisz +infin must z nami with us
nagle av suddenly za pan brat phr like brothers
obje˝d˝aç –am –asz travel around z "Zefirem" with Zephyr
oto part here is zadowolony z siebie satisfied
patrzyç –rz´ -rzysz na+A look at with oneself
pisaç pisz´ piszesz write zamiast prep +infin instead of
preria f prairie zielony aj green
próba f attempt, tryout
przy prep+L Iat, near Rozdzia∏ trzeci
przygotowaç –tuj´ -tujesz prepare
ptak ma bird