3.

Lekcja trzecia

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. ACCUSATIVE CASE OF SINGULAR PRONOUNS. LOCATIVE PHRASES.

trzy three. trzeci, trzecia, trzecie third Baran ram, Aries

Konwersacje: 3.A. Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa? Waiting for someone to get ready to go out. 3.B. W szkole, na uniwersytecie. Working at a school. Studying at a university. 3.C. Interesujàca/nudna praca. Discussing kinds of work. 3.D. Nie pami´tam. Asking for an introduction. 3.E. Bardzo mi mi∏o. A social introduction.

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3.A. Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa? A husband and wife get ready to go out. Mà˝: Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa? Czekam na ciebie ju˝ doÊç d∏ugo. ˚ona: Nie, nie jestem jeszcze gotowa. <Jeszcze si´ ubieram.> Mà˝: Wi´c kiedy wreszcie b´dziesz gotowa? ˚ona: Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowa, jeÊli mnie ciàgle b´dziesz pytaç. Lepiej czekaj na mnie na dworze. Mà˝: Dobrze, b´d´ tam czekaç. Are you finally ready? I've been waiting for you a fairly long time already. No, I'm not ready yet. <I'm still getting dressed.> So when will you be ready at last? I'm never going to be ready if you're going to keep asking me. Better wait for me outside. Fine, I'll wait there.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA For active knowledge and dictation practice: B´d´ tam czekaç. Kiedy wreszcie b´dziesz gotowy (gotowa)? Czekaj na mnie na dworze. Czekam na ciebie ju˝ doÊç d∏ugo. Czy jesteÊ nareszcie gotowy (gotowa)? Nie jestem jeszcze gotowy (gotowa). Nied∏ugo b´d´ gotowy (gotowa). Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowy (gotowa).

Pytania 1. Gdzie odbywa si´ ta rozmowa? 2. O co pyta mà˝? Jak d∏ugo on czeka? 3. Czy ˝ona jest gotowa do wyjÊcia? Dlaczego? 4. Kiedy ona b´dzie gotowa? 5. Gdzie mà˝ ma czekaç? 6. Czy ty d∏ugo si´ ubierasz? Czy jesteÊ punktualny (punktualna)? 7. Czy lubisz czekaç, kiedy ktoÊ si´ ubiera? Using mówiç wie -wisz say, odpowiadaç –am -asz answer, pytaç –am -asz ask, retell the conversation. Uwagi ciàgle av continuously, constantly. ciàgle pytaç keep asking czekaç -am -asz na +A wait for. czekaj! wait! (informal) d∏ugo av for a long time do wyjÊcia for leaving, to leave, to go jeszcze av still, jeszcze nie not yet ju˝ av already, ju˝ nie no longer, ma czekaç is supposed to wait mà˝ mp husband na dworze outside nareszcie av finally nied∏ugo av before long, in a bit odbywaç si´ -a us 3p. take place pytaç -am -asz ask o+A ask about. b´dziesz pytaç you are going to ask. ubieraç si´ -am si´ -asz si´ get dressed. Contrast with rozbieraç si´ get undressed. wi´c so, then, in that case wreszcie av finally, at last ˝ona f wife

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Kto mówi, kobieta czy zupa? A ready-made soup (zupa) is talking, saying that ‘her’ (since zupa is feminine) competitors are left in the dust (w proszku). The juxtaposition of the lower and upper billboard, with the reclining girl (advertising a supermarket), surely intentional, causes one to do a double take.

Beer this evening, yogurt tomorrow morning. Another intentional billboard juxtaposition, and suggested hangover recipe.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA 3.A. GRAMATYKA REVIEW OF PLACES WHERE c OCCURS. The letter c is associated with the spelling of four different sounds. a. Other than for the combinations cz, ch, and ci, the letter c, without any mark above it, expresses the Polish "ts" sound: co what, taca tray, noc night. The Polish letter c never has the sound of "k". b. The combination cz expresses the 'hard' "ch" sound similar to ch in English chalk: czas time, oczy eyes, wstecz backwards. c. The combination ch expresses the Polish rough "h" sound: chyba perhaps, ucho ear, dach roof . d. The letter ç (kreska c) represents the 'soft' "ch" sound similar to ch in English cheat, but with the tip of the tongue pressed farther forward. The letter ç occurs only before consonants and at word-end: çma moth, laç to pour. Otherwise, one spells ci-; see point e. e. Before i, the letter c, like ç, represents the soft Polish "ch" sound: cicho "çicho" quiet, leci "leçi" it flies, ciasto "çasto" dough, cake, zaj´cia "zaj´ça" classes. Summary: spelling sound examples c "ts" co cz "hard ch" czas ch Polish "h" chyba ç "soft ch" laç, çma ci"" ciasto, cicho PRACTICE WITH ç, dê, ƒ, Ê, ê BEFORE i (spellings ci, dzi, ni, si, zi). Before the letter i, the sounds ç, dê, ƒ, Ê, ê are written without the "kreska"; pronunciation remains the same. This principle also holds in reverse; i.e., the combinations ci, dzi, ni, si, zi are always to be interpreted as "çi", "dêi", "ƒi", "Êi", "êi". Practice: ci "çi" to you cicho "çi-cho" quiet , koÊci "ko-Êçi" bones dziwny "dêi-wny" strange, chodzi "cho-dêi" walks ani "a-ƒi" neither, nisko "ƒi-sko" low, pani "pa-ƒi" Ms. sito "Êi-to" sieve, nosi "no-Êi" he carries zima "êi-ma" winter, wozi "wo-êi" he transports. PRONOUNCING THE PREPOSITION w in. The preposition w is pronounced as if part of the following word, without any pause. Before voiced consonants, it is pronounced "v": w banku "VBAN-ku". Before voiceless consonants, it is pronounced "f": w kinie "FKI-nie". The combination w+w is pronounced as a double "vv": w Warszawie "vvar-SZAwie"; the combination w+f is pronounced as a double "ff": w fabryce "FFAbryce". These different pronunciations of w will occur automatically as long as one remembers to pronounce the w together with the following word.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (SINGULAR). Personal pronouns have associated possessive forms which, if adjectival take gender-number-case endings. base pronoun: ja I ty you (sg., informal) on he, it ona she, it ono it reflexive: pan you, sir pani you, madam kto who possessive pronoun: mój, moja, moje my, mine twój, twoja, twoje your, yours jego his, its jej her, hers, its jego its swój, swoja, swoje one's own pana your, yours, sir's-formal m. pani your, yours, madam's-formal f. czyj, czyja, czyje whose

Plural pronouns, for passive learning until Lesson 8: my we nasz, nasza, nasze our, ours wy you-pl. wasz, wasza, wasze your, yours oni they-masc.pers., one they- ich their, theirs non-masc.pers. NOTES ON POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS a. Note the vowel-change in mój moja moje and twój twoja twoje: mój zeszyt my notebook "MUJ" moja ksià˝ka my book "MO-ja" moje mieszkanie my apartment "MO-je" . The vowel ó here appears when there is no ending; o appears when an ending is added. This change appears in various places in Polish grammar. See also, for example, pokój room, w pokoju in the room; stó∏ table, sto∏y tables. b. The words jego his, its, jej her, pana yours (m. formal), pani yours (f. formal) function as possessive adjectives but do not take endings: Czy to jest jego magnetofon? Is that his tape recorder? Jej sàsiadka jest doÊç mi∏a. Her neighbor is rather nice. Pana (pani) nazwisko? Your (last) name, sir (madam)? c. The 3rd-person possessives jego his, its, jej her, pana yours (m. formal), pani yours (f. formal) are usually replaced by swój, swoja, swoje in the predicate of a sentence: To jest jego zeszyt. That is his notebook. (jego zeszyt is not in the predicate, but is rather the subject of a to jest sentence). Czy on ma swój zeszyt? Does he have his notebook? (jego zeszyt is in the predicate, the direct object after the verb ma). This rule becomes more important after the introduction of the Accusative case (next lesson).

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA d. Questions using czyj czyja czyje often use the following construction, where the question-word czyj czyja czyje is separated by to jest from the word it agrees with: Czyj to jest o∏ówek? Whose pencil is that? Czyja to jest ksià˝ka? Whose book is that? Czyje to jest dziecko? Whose child is that? d. Possessive pronouns may occupy the position of predicate adjective, in which case their translation in English changes to 'mine', 'yours', 'his', 'hers': Ta ksià˝ka jest moja. That book is mine. Czy ten o∏ówek jest twój? Is that pencil yours? To dziecko jest nasze. That child is ours. THE WORDS ju˝ AND jeszcze. The four concepts 'still', 'already', 'no longer', and 'yet' are expressed in Polish by the two words ju˝ and jeszcze, used with or without nie: jeszcze still, yet ju˝ nie no longer ju˝ already jeszcze nie not yet In effect, the negative counterpart of jeszcze is ju˝ nie; the negative counterpart of ju˝ is jeszcze nie. Czy ju˝ tam pracujesz? Are you working there yet (already)? Nie, jeszcze tam nie pracuj´. No, I'm not working there yet. Czy jeszcze tam pracujesz? Are you still working there? Nie, ju˝ tam nie pracuj´. No, I'm not working there any longer. Czy twój dziadek jeszcze ˝yje? Is your grandfather still alive? Nie, on ju˝ nie ˝yje. No, he's no longer alive. The word jeszcze is often used to expressed 'else', as in Czy jeszcze coÊ? Is there anything else? (Do you want anything else?) In this sense, it is used to express 'more' of some food or drink item: Prosz´ jeszcze jedno piwo. One more beer, please. THE USE OF b´d´ b´dziesz TO EXPRESS FUTURE-TENSE. The future tense forms of byç, b´d´ I will, am going to be b´dziesz you will, are going to be b´dzie he, she, it will, is going to be can be used in combination with an infinitive to express future repetitive or drawn-out action: B´d´ wiedzieç jutro. I will know tomorrow. . Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowa, jeÊli b´dziesz mnie ciàgle pytaç. I will never be ready if you are going to be constantly asking me. In practice, forms of b´d´ are more often used in combination with 3rdperson past-tense forms (see Lesson 5). The b´d´ construction cannot be used with verbs marked in the glossary as Perfective (pf) for example, not with poznaç -am -asz meet, get to know pf.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA åWICZENIA 3.A SINGULAR POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: czyj, mój, twój, jego, jej, pani, pana. a. Czyj to jest zeszyt? Whose notebook is that? b. Mój. Mine mieszkanie, samochód, radio, ksià˝ka, o∏ówek, kreda, pióro. 3.1. zeszyt: 3.1. a. Gdzie jest twoje biuro? Where is your office? b. Ono jest tutaj. It is here. This exercise uses nouns from the section on Locative phrases; but in the Nominative case. hotel, pokój, gabinet, szko∏a, uniwersytet, bank, mieszkanie, dom, fabryka. 3.2. biuro: 3.2. a. Czy to jest twój dom? Is that your house? b. Czy ten dom jest twój? Is that house yours? c. Nie, on nie jest mój. No, it's not mine. d∏ugopis, pralka, krzes∏o, samochód, lampa, zeszyt, ksià˝ka, radio. 3.3. dom: 3.3. 3.4. on, znajomy: Czy to jest jego znajomy? Is that his acquaintance?

pani, kolega; pan, narzeczona; ona, znajoma; ty, kole˝anka; pan, sàsiad. 3.4. 3.5. pan: a. Czy pan jest ju˝ gotowy? Are you ready yet? b. Nie, jeszcze nie jestem gotowy. No, I'm not ready yet.

pani, on, ona, twój kolega, twoja kole˝anka, ty. 3.5.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA THE WORDS ju˝ AND jeszcze. Answer the 2nd-person cues with a 1st-person response. 3.6. mieç: a. Czy jeszcze coÊ masz? Do you still have something? b. Nie, ju˝ nic nie mam. No, I don't have anything any more. robiç, pami´taç, mówiç, rozumieç, wiedzieç, jeÊç, chcieç. 3.6. USE of b´d´ TO EXPRESS FUTURE TENSE 3.7. pracowaç: a. Czy teraz pracujesz? Are you working now? b. Nie, ale nied∏ugo b´d´ pracowaç. No, but I will be working before long. studiowaç prawo-law, mieszkaç w Poznaniu, byç gotowy (-a), mówiç po polsku, rozumieç coÊ, mieç coÊ, ubieraç si´. 3.7.

Your day, your water. Cindy Crawford selling bottled water to Poland.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA Uniwersytet we Wroc∏awiu. Main buildings of Wroc∏aw Univeristy.

3.B. W szkole, na uniwersytecie Two friends meet on the street and catch up on family news. Jarek: Gdzie mieszka teraz twoja <m∏odsza/starsza> siostra? Jadzia: Irena mieszka teraz w Poznaniu. Pracuje jako nauczycielka w szkole. Jarek: Czy jest zadowolona? Jadzia: Tak, jest bardzo zadowolona <, mimo ˝e niedu˝o zarabia>. Jarek: A twój brat, gdzie on teraz jest? Jadzia: Adam jest teraz we Wroc∏awiu. Studiuje prawo na uniwersytecie. Jarek: Czy on te˝ jest zadowolony? Jadzia: Nie, on mówi, ˝e jest ciàgle zm´czony, bo za du˝o pracuje. <Zresztà on zawsze tak mówi.> Where is your <younger/older> sister Irena living now? Irena's living now in Poznaƒ. She works as a teacher in a school. Is she satisfied? Yes, she's very satisfied, <even though she doesn't make very much>. And your brother, where is he now? Adam is now in Wroc∏aw. He's studying law at the university. And is he happy too? No, he says that he's always tired, because he works too much. <But he always talks that way>.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA For passive knowledge and dictation practice: Brat studiuje prawo na uniwersytecie. Gdzie mieszka teraz twoja siostra? Gdzie studiuje twój brat? Moja siostra pracuje w szkole. On mówi, ˝e jest ciàgle zm´czony. On mówi, ˝e za du˝o pracuje. On studiuje prawo we Wroc∏awiu. Ona pracuje jako nauczycielka. Ona mieszka w Poznaniu. Ona mówi, ˝e jest zadowolona.

Pytania 1. Gdzie mieszka siostra? Czy ona pracuje? Co ona robi? 2. Gdzie jest brat? Czy on te˝ jest w Warszawie? Co on robi? 3. Czy siostra jest zadowolona? 4. A brat? Czy on te˝ jest zadowolony? Dlaczego? 5. Czy za du˝o pracujesz? Czy jesteÊ ciàgle zm´czony (zm´czona)? 6. Czy masz brata czy siostr´? Gdzie on(a) jest? Co robi? Czy jest zadowolony (zadowolona)? Using mówiç say, odpowiadaç answer, pytaç ask, retell the conversation. Write T/F statements to the dialogue. Uwagi ciàgle av constantly, continually du˝o a lot. niedu˝o not much. za du˝o too much Jadzia diminutive or affectionate form of Jadwiga jako as, in the function or capacity of Jarek diminutive or affectionate form of Jaros∏aw m∏odszy comp aj younger. najm∏odszy youngest Poznaƒ Poznan. w Poznaniu in Poznan starszy comp aj older. najstarszy oldest Wroc∏aw Wroc∏aw. we Wroc∏awiu zadowolony aj satisfied. Used where English would probably use 'happy'. zarabiaç -am -asz earn, "make" zresztà for all that, for that matter, in any case, as far as that goes.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA GRAMATYKA 3.B. REPORTING VERBS (CONTINUED FROM LESSON 2). The main Polish reporting verbs (verbs used to report on speech, thought, events, and states of affairs) are mówiç -wi´ -wisz speak, talk, say, ˝e… myÊleç -Êl´ -Êlisz think, ˝e… odpowiadaç -am -asz answer, ˝e… pami´taç -am -asz remember, ˝e… (or: nie pami´taç, czy…) sàdziç -dz´ -dzisz judge, think, consider, ˝e uwa˝aç -am -asz think, consider, ˝e… wàtpiç -pi´ -pisz doubt, ˝e… wiedzieç wiem wiesz know (information) +˝e (or: nie wiedzieç, czy…) mieç mam, masz wra˝enie have the impression, ˝e… NOTES ON REPORTING VERBS: a. The verb znaç -am -asz 'know' is not a reporting verb. It may not be followed by either ˝e that or czy whether, but only by direct objects: Dobrze go znam. I know him well. Czy znasz jà? Do you know her? b. Reporting verbs used to convey declarative information or indirect speech must be followed by a conjunction, usually ˝e that, preced by a comma The conjunction ˝e is never omitted (as the conjunction 'that' may be in English): Wiem, ˝e on tam pracuje. I know (that) he works there. Ona mówi, ˝e b´dzie spóêniona. She says (that) she will be late. Wàtpi´, ˝e on b´dzie w domu. I doubt whether he'll be at home. Verbs introducing yes-no information whose factual status is in doubt take the conjunction czy: Nie wiem, czy b´d´ gotowa. I don't know whether I'll be ready. Ona pyta, czy jestem gotowy. She's asking whether I'm ready. The word wàtpiç 'doubt' can also take czy, but ˝e is considered better. c. The verbs uwa˝aç consider, be of the opinion, and myÊleç think are used in statements expressing opinions like Uwa˝am, ˝e on za du˝o pracuje. I consider (think) that he works too much. MyÊl´, ˝e on b´dzie teraz w domu. I think he'll be at home now. d. The adjectives pewien (or pewny), f. pewna sure, certain is often used in a reporting function in combination with the verb byç: Jestem pewien (pewny), ˝e skàdÊ panià znam. I'm certain I know you from somewhere. On nie jest pewien (pewny), czy on mnie pami´ta. He's not sure whether he remembers me.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA This use is similar to the use of ciekaw(y), f. ciekawa in the sense 'curious', 'wonder' which, because of its meaning, occurs with the conjunction czy, used with yes-no information: Jestem ciekaw(y), czy ona b´dzie ju˝ w domu. I wonder whether she will already be at home. WORDS FOR 'FRIEND'. Polish distinguishes words for 'close friend', 'acquaintance', and 'work- or school-mate'. 1. The word for 'work- or schoolmate' is kolega (pl koledzy) f. kole˝anka (pl kole˝anki) colleague. The word kolega is masculine in gender: mój kolega my colleague. 2. The word for 'acquaintance' is znajomy (pl znajomi) f. znajoma (pl znajome). These words are adjectives in form but function as nouns. 3. The words przyjaciel (pl. przyjaciele) przyjació∏ka f. (pl przyjació∏ki) friend are reserved for especially close friends. 4. English 'boyfriend' and 'girlfriend' are usually rendered in Polish by ch∏opak and dziewczyna, respectively. The words narzeczony and narzeczona, literally 'fiancé(e)', are sometimes used in the sense 'steady boyfriend or girlfriend', especially narzeczony by young women.

Koledzy i kole˝anki m. and f. colleagues

Koledzy Marka Poêniaka Colleagues of Marek Pozniak.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA åWICZENIA 3.B. 3.8. Retell each line of Conversation 3.B., using reporting verbs mówiç, pytaç, odpowiadaç. 3.9. moja zadowolona siostra: a. MyÊl´, ˝e moja siostra jest zadowolona. I think that my sister is satisfied. b. Nie wiem, czy moja siostra jest zadowolona. I don't know whether my sister is satisfied. c. Wàtpi´, ˝e moja siostra jest zadowolona. I doubt that my sister is satisfied. to zepsute radio, ten zm´czony pan, ten interesujàcy film, twój nowy samochód, to interesujàce muzeum, moja zaj´ta-busy kole˝anka, mój spóêniony kolega. 3.9. TOO LITTLE, TOO MUCH. Use either za du˝o or za ma∏o with the following verbs, according to the model. 3.10. pracowaç: a. On za du˝o pracuje. He works too much. b. On mówi, ˝e za du˝o pracuje. He says he works too much. wiedzieç, rozumieç, robiç, mieç, chcieç, studiowaç, pami´taç, uczyç si´, mówiç. 3.10. PERSONAL ADJECTIVES. 3.11. spóêniony: a. Zawsze jestem spóêniony (-a). I'm always late. b. Nigdy nie jestem spóêniony (-a). I'm never late. chory sick, gotowy, pewien (pewny), zadowolony, zm´czony, zaj´ty busy. 3.11.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA biblioteka library

Czy praca w bibliotece mo˝e byç interesujàca? Can work in a library be interesting? Naprawd´? Really? 3.C. Interesujàca praca Can work in a library really be interesting? Pani A: Rozumiem, ˝e pan pracuje na uniwersytecie. Pan B: Tak, to prawda, pracuj´ tam w bibliotece. Pani A: Czy to jest interesujàca praca? Pan B: OczywiÊcie. Ka˝da praca jest interesujàca. <or: Nie, jest raczej nudna.> I understand that you work at the university. Yes, that's right, I work there in the library. Is it an interesting job? Of course. Every job is interesting. <No, it's rather boring.>

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA For active knowledge and dictation practice: Czy pani pracuje na uniwersytecie? Czy to jest interesujàca praca? Ka˝da praca jest interesujàca. Pracuj´ tam w bibliotece. Rozumiem, ˝e pan pracuje na uniwersytecie. Ta praca jest raczej nudna. To prawda.

Pytania 1. Gdzie pracuje Pan B? 2. Czy jego praca jest interesujàca? 3. Czy praca w bibliotece mo˝e byç interesujàca? Naprawd´? 4. Czy zgadzasz si´, ˝e ka˝da praca jest równie interesujàca? Jaka praca nie jest zbyt interesujàca? 5. Czy pracujesz? Czy to jest interesujàca praca? Using mówiç say, odpowiadaç answer, pytaç ask, retell the conversation. Uwagi biblioteka library. w bibliotece in the library. ka˝dy, ka˝da, ka˝de each, every mo˝e byç can be naprawd´ really nudny aj boring równie equally zgadzaç si´ -am -asz agree

GRAMATYKA 3.C. THE WORDS który, która, które which AND ka˝dy, ka˝da, ka˝de each, every. These two words are often used in tandem: Która winda jest czynna? Which elevator is good (operable)? Ka˝da winda jest czynna. Every elevator is good. The word ka˝dy (-a, -e) may also answer questions formed with jaki (-a, -ie): Jaka praca jest interesujàca? What sort of work is intersting? Ka˝da praca jest interesujàca. Every kind of work is interesting. THE WORD ˝aden, ˝adna, ˝adne no, none, not any. This word is more or less the negative of ka˝dy (-a, -e). It requires that the verb be negated: ˚adna praca nie jest interesujàca. No work is interesting. ˚aden film nie jest interesujàcy. No film is interesting. ˚adne dziecko nie jest grzeczne. No child is polite.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA SOME LOCATIVE-COMPATIBLE VERBS. The following common verbs of state or activity may be followed by a phrase of location (see further below): byç jestem jesteÊ jest be or b´d´ b´dziesz b´dzie will be czekaç -am -asz wait jeÊç jem jesz eat mieszkaç -am -asz live, reside pracowaç -cuj´ -cujesz work spaç Êpi´ Êpisz sleep studiowaç -iuj´ -iujesz study (as a course of study) uczyç si´ -cz´ -czysz study (in a concrete situation) ˝yç ˝yj´ ˝yjesz live Examples: On jest teraz w domu. He is at home now. Czy zwykle jesz w restauracji? Do you usually eat at a restaurant? Czekaj na mnie w parku Wait for me in the park. Mieszkamy i pracujemy w Warszawie. We live and work in Warsaw. Ucz´ si´ w bibliotece. I study in the library. One tends to say Studiuj´ na uniwersytecie. I study at the university. (more or less the equivalent of saying "I am a student there"), but Ucz´ si´ w bibliotece. I'm (momentarily) studying in the library. Some Locative-compatible verbs of body position are le˝eç -˝´ -˝ysz lie, be lying siedzieç -0dz´ -dzisz sit staç stoj´ stoisz stand wisieç -sz´ -sisz hang Examples: Ona teraz le˝y chora w ∏ó˝ku. She's lying sick now in bed. On siedzi teraz w gabinecie. He's sitting now in his of fice. W pokoju stoi du˝a lampa. A large lamp is standing in the room. SOME LOCATIVE PHRASES. The following phrases, expressing 'place where' after the prepositions w in, at and na on, at, should be learned for the time being next to the basic form of the noun. In the sense of at, the preposition na is used with attendance at events, like performances, films, concerts, meetings, and the like. Other nouns tend to take w. These forms exhibit the Locative case, more fully presented in other lessons. Nominative Locative: bank bank w banku in the bank biblioteka library w bibliotece in/at the library biuro of fice, bureau w biurze at/in the of fice budynek building w budynku in the building hotel hotel w hotelu in the hotel kino movie-house w kinie at the movie-house koÊció∏ church w koÊciele in church miasto town w mieÊcie in town

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA muzeum museum park park poczta post- of fice restauracja restaurant sklep store szko∏a school szpital hospital teatr theater ulica street uniwersytet university Home, Apartment, Rooms: biurko desk dom house, hom gabinet of fice (room) kuchnia kitchen ∏azienka bathroom ∏ó˝ko bed mieszkanie apartment pod∏oga floor pokój room stó∏ table sufit ceiling Êciana wall Events: film film, movie impreza get-together koncert concert przedstawienie performance prywatka (private) party przyj´cie reception, party wystawa exhibit zaj´cia class(es) w muzeum in the museum w parku in the park na poczcie at the post-office w restauracji in the restaurant w sklepie in the store w szkole in/at school w szpitalu in the hospital w teatrze in the theater na ulicy on the street na uniwersytecie at the university na biurku on the desk w domu at home w gabinecie in the of fice w kuchni in the kitchen w ∏azience in the bathroom w ∏ó˝ku in bed w mieszkaniu in the apartment na pod∏odze on the floor w pokoju in the room na stole on the table na suficie on the ceiling na Êcianie on the wall na filmie at the film, movie na imprezie at a get-together na koncercie at the concert na przedstawieniu at the performance na prywatce at the party na przyj´ciu at the reception na wystawie at the exhibit na zaj´ciach in class(es)

Countries, Polish Cities: Ameryka America w Ameryce in America Polska Poland w Polsce in Poland Gdaƒsk Gdansk w Gdaƒsku in Gdansk Kraków Krakow w Krakowie in Krakow Lublin Lublin w Lublinie in Lublin ¸ódê Lodz w ¸odzi In Lodz Poznaƒ Poznan w Poznaniu in Poznan Warszawa Warsaw w Warszawie in Warsaw Wroc∏aw Wroclaw we Wroc∏awiu One may often form the Locative case of new nouns based on analogy to forms already known, as long as one keeps feminine nouns separate from masculine and neuter nouns. For example, on the basis of ulica street, na

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA ulicy on the street, one can correctly guess tablica blackboard, na tablicy on the blackboard. FOR PASSIVE KNOWLEDGE: FORMING THE LOCATIVE CASE OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. Experience shows that the Locative case, illustrated in the words just above, is best learned on the example of actual forms rather than rules. However, here are the rules for those who are interested in learning them at this point. These rules depend on the distinction between so-called ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ consonants. Here is a chart of Polish Hard (H) and corresponding Soft (S) consonants (spelled as if before the ending -e): H S H S p pik c b big dz f fich sz w wist Êcim mit cid dzis∏ Êlz∏ êls siz zisn Ênin ni∏ lr rz-

zd êdzi-

cz

˝

j

RULES FOR FORMING THE LOCATIVE CASE: 1. Masculine and neuter nouns. (a) If the stem ends in a a hard consonant, the consonant is softened, and the ending is -e: zeszyt, L zeszycie notebook. (b) If the stem ends in a soft consonant, or in k, g, ch, the ending is -u: hotel, L hotelu hotel, mieszkanie, L mieszkaniu apartment, r´cznik, L r´czniku towel, pude∏ko, L pude∏ku box. Irregular: dom, L domu house, pan, L panu Sir, syn, L synu son. The adjective ending is -ym (-im): dobrym good, drogim expensive, dear, moim my. 2. Feminine nouns. (a) If the stem ends in a hard consonant, including in k, g, ch, the consonant is softened, and the ending is -e: kobieta, L kobiecie woman, ksià˝ka, L ksià˝ce book. (b) If the stem ends in a soft consonant, the ending is --y (-i): ulica, L ulicy street, rzecz, L rzeczy thing, restauracja, L restauracji restaurant. The adjective ending is -ej: nowej new, drogiej expensive, dear, mojej my. 3. The Locative plural of all nouns, without exception, is -ach: zeszytach notebooks, mieszkaniach apartments, zaj´ciach classes. The adjective ending is -ych (-ich): nowych new, drogich expensive, dear, moich my. NOTES: a. Before the ending -'e (e plus preceding softening), nouns containing ia or io/ió before t, d, s, z, may change ia to ie and io/ió to ie (sàsiad, L sàsiedzie neighbor, miasto, L mieÊcie town, koÊció∏, L koÊciele church). b. The possible change of root à and ó to ´ and o in masculine nouns before all endings holds here too: mà˝, L m´˝u husband, stó∏, L stole table. Mobile (dropping) e occurs before endings in many masculine noun stems, especially before k: budynek, L budynku building.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA åWICZENIA 3.C. THE WORDS który, ka˝dy, ˝aden. 3.12. dobra pralka: a. Która pralka jest dobra? Which washing machine is good? b. Ka˝da pralka jest dobra. Every wachine machine is good. c. ˚adna pralka nie jest dobra. No washing machine is good. wymagajàcy lektor, interesujàca ksià˝ka, zm´czony student, zepsute radio. 3.12. LOCATIVE PHRASES 3.13. bank: a. Czy on jeszcze pracuje w banku? Does he still work at the bank? b. Nie, on ju˝ nie pracuje w banku. No, he doesn't work at the bank any longer. restauracja, hotel, uniwersytet, szko∏a, biblioteka, muzeum, poczta, biuro. 3.13. a. Czy on jeszcze mieszka w Polsce? Does he still live in Poland? b. Nie, on ju˝ nie mieszka w Polsce. No, he doesn't live in Poland any more. Ameryka, Kraków, Warszawa, Lublin, Poznaƒ, ¸ódê. 3.14. Polska: 3.14. a. Czy jeszcze pracujesz w biurze? Do you still work in an office? b. Nie, ju˝ nie pracuj´ w biurze. No, I don't work in an office any more. pan, mieszkaç w domu; pani, studiowaç na uniwersytecie; ona, uczyç si´ w bibliotece; on, pracowaç w szkole; ty, byç zadowolony; pan, mówiç po w∏osku; pani, coÊ jeÊç; on, coÊ robiç; ona, coÊ chcieç. 3.15. ty, pracowaç w biurze: In the last three items, in b replace coÊ something with nic nothing. 3.15.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA 3.16. dom: Ona pewnie jest teraz w domu. She's probably at home now. mieszkanie, hotel, restauracja, praca, gabinet, pokój, biuro, poczta. 3.16. 3.17. Polska: Czy by∏eÊ (by∏aÊ) kiedyÊ w Polsce? Have you ever been to Poland? Uses 2nd pers. sg. past tense of byç (see Lesson5). Ameryka, Poznaƒ, Kraków, Wroc∏aw, Gdaƒsk, Lublin, ¸ódê. 3.17. 3.18. dom, praca: a. Czy ona jest w domu, czy w pracy? Is she at home or at work? b. Ona b´dzie albo w domu, albo w pracy. She'll be either at home or at work. bank, biblioteka; hotel, restauracja; kino, koncert; szko∏a, uniwersytet; muzeum, park; Poznaƒ, Warszawa; Ameryka, Polska; miasto, koÊció∏. 3.18.

More Signs Talking to Each Other

Bàdê legalny. Be legal! ˚aden cz∏owiek nie jest nielegalny. No man is illegal. The first sign, on the left, is addressed to unregistered aliens, encouraging them to register. The sign on the right responds to it philosophically.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA Jak ma na imi´ twoje piwo? What's your beer's first name? (outdoor advertisement for Lech Beer)

Piwo jedno ma imi´ beer has but one name. niejedno razem more than one at a time. piwo bezalkoholowe non-alcoholic beer. Since outdoor advertising of alcoholic beer is presently prohibited in Poland, the advertising of nonalcoholic beer with the same brand name has proliferated. The slogan alludes to the book by Pierre la Mure, translated into Polish as Mi∏oÊç niejedno ma imi´, literally, Love has more than one name. 3.D. Nie pami´tam One person asks another about his (her) friend. Jurek: Jak ma na imi´ twój kolega (twoja kole˝anka)? Julia: Który (która)? Jurek: Ten (ta) po prawej <po lewej>. Julia: Leon (Lena). Dlaczego pytasz? Jurek: On (ona) jest doÊç sympatyczny (sympatyczna). Skàd go (jà) znasz? Julia: Nie pami´tam, ale znam go (jà) od dawna. Chcesz go (jà) poznaç? Jurek: Tak, bardzo ch´tnie go (jà) poznam. What's your friend's name? Which one?? The one on the right (on the left). Jan (Janina). Why do you ask? He (she) is rather nice. Where do you know him (her) from? I don't remember, but I've known him (her) for a long time. Do you want to meet him (her)? Yes, I'll meet him (her) very gladly.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA For active knowledge and dictation practice: Bardzo ch´tnie go poznam. Chcesz jà poznaç? Jak ma na imi´ twój kolega? Nie pami´tam. Skàd go znasz? Skàd jà znasz? Ta po prawej stronie. Ten po lewej stronie. Twoja kole˝anka jest doÊç sympatyczna. Znam go od dawna. Znam jà od dawna.

Pytania 1. Jak kolega (kole˝anka) ma na imi´? 2. Skàd Julia go (jà) zna? 3. Czy Jurek chce go (jà) poznaç? 4. Jak twój kolega (twoja kole˝anka) obok ma na imi´? 5. Czy znasz go (jà) od dawna? Skàd go (jà) znasz? Jak d∏ugo go (jà) znasz? 6. Jak ma na imi´ najlepszy twój przyjaciel (najlepsza twoja przyjació∏ka)?

Using mówiç say, odpowiadaç answer, pytaç ask, retell the conversation. Uwagi ch´tnie av gladly, willingly. This word is often used to express 'I'd be glad to', as in ch´tnie go poznam. I'll gladly meet him. go him, jà her. The Accusative (direct object) forms of on, ona. See below in this section. Jurek diminutive or affectionate form of Jerzy kolega (m.) kole˝anka (f.) colleague, work-mate, class-mate nie pami´tam I don't remember. The negation of 'remember' is often used in Polish to express what English often expresses with 'I forget', or 'I can't remember'. obok av alongside od dawna av phr for a long time, since a long time ago po lewej (stronie) on the left (-hand side) po prawej (stronie) on the right (-hand side) poznaç -am -asz pf meet skàd literally means 'where from'. It also has an idiomatic use in the sense 'why no', 'not at all'. sympatyczny aj nice, sympathetic. znaç -am -asz know, be familiar with (a person, place, thing). i.e., not in the sense 'know information', which is expressed with wiedzieç wiem, wiesz.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA GRAMATYKA 3.D. ACCUSATIVE CASE FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS (SINGULAR). When a pronoun is placed in the direct-object position after a verb (the position designating the person or thing receiving the action of the verb), it will appear in its Accusative case form. The following common verbs take objects in the Accusative case: czekaç -am -asz na wait for pami´taç -am -asz remember jeÊç jem jesz eat rozumieç -em -esz understand lubiç -bi´ -bisz like widzieç -dz´ -dzisz see mieç mam masz have znaç -am -asz know (someone) Accusative case forms of pronouns are roughly analogous to the Objective forms of English pronouns: I-me, he-him, she-her, who-whom (but you-you). The subject forms of the pronouns are in the Nominative case. The Accusative forms of the singular personal pronouns are as follows: Nom. Acc. + prep. Nom. Acc. ja mnie mnie nikt nikogo ty ci´ ciebie ciebie nic nic on go jego niego ona jà nià ono je nie pan pana pana pani panià panià kto kogo kogo co co co

The forms ciebie and jego are emphatic or contrastive: Ciebie lubi´, ale jego nie lubi´. You I like, but him I don't like. The forms in the third row above occur after prepositions; see Czekam na ciebie. I'm waiting for you. On czeka na nià. He's waiting for her. Nouns and adjectives have Accusative forms as well, introduced in the following lesson. In normal unemphatic speech, Accusative pronouns often go in front of the verb, avoiding final position, but they do not usually go in absolute initial position; see On jà lubi. He likes her. Lubi´ ci´. I like you. Czy pami´tasz mnie? Do you remember me? Skàd go znasz? Where do you know him from? Dobrze pana pami´tam. I remember you-m.formal well. THE TWO VERBS 'KNOW'. The verb wiedzieç wiem, wiesz means 'know information'. It is usually followed by the conjunction ˝e 'that' or by a questioning adverb used as a conjunction: Wiem, ˝e rozumiesz po francusku. I know that you understand French. Nie wiem, kiedy b´d´ gotowy. I don't know when I'll be ready. The verb znaç znam, znasz signifies familiarity with some person or thing. It is followed by direct objects in the Accusative case.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA Dobrze go znam. I know him well. Kogo tu znasz? Whom do you know here?

åWICZENIA 3.D. ACCUSATIVE CASE OF SINGULAR PRONOUNS. Unless instructed otherwise, omit 1st and 2nd person subject pronouns; do not omit 3rd person subject pronouns, including pan and pani. 3.19. on: Dobrze go znam. I know him well. ona, ty, pan, pani. 3.19. 3.20. ja, ty: Pami´tam ci´. I remember you on, ona; ona, on; ja, pani; on, pan; ona, ja. You may use the verbs lubiç or rozumieç instead of pami´taç. 3.20. 3.21. on, pani: On skàdÊ panià zna. He knows you (fem. formal) from somewhere. ona, pan; ja, ty; on, ja; on, ona; ja, on. 3.21. 3.22. on, pani: ona, pan; ja, ty; a. On panià lubi. He likes you (fem. formal). b. Czy pani go lubi? Do you (fem. formal) like him? on, ona. 3.22. 3.23. ty: on, ona, pani, pan. Czekam na ciebie. I'm waiting for you.

3.23. 3.24. on, ona, park: On b´dzie czekaç na nià w parku. He'll be waiting for her in the park. ona, on, teatr; ja, pan, pokój; on, pani, muzeum; ja, ty, poczta; ty, ja, koÊció∏. 3.24.

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3.E. Bardzo mi mi∏o A social introduction. The man in the picture is probably not going to get one. A: Pan(i) pozwoli, ˝e si´ przedstawi´. Jan Âliwiƒski (Joanna Âliwiƒska). B: Bardzo mi mi∏o. Dariusz Trzmiel (Danuta Trzmiel). A: Mam wra˝enie, ˝e skàdÊ pana (panià) znam. B: To chyba niemo˝liwe, nie jestem stàd. A: A skàd pan (pani) jest? B: To moja tajemnica. Allow me to introduce myself. Jan Sliwinski (Joanna Sliwinska). Nice to meet you. Dariusz Trzmiel (Danuta Trzmiel) I have the impression that I know you from somewhere. That's probably impossible, I'm not from here. And where are you from? That's my secret.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA For active knowledge and dictation practice: Bardzo mi mi∏o. Mam wra˝enie, ˝e panià (pana) znam. Nie jestem stàd. Pan(i) pozwoli, ˝e si´ przedstawi´. Skàd pan(i) jest? SkàdÊ panià (pana) znam. To chyba niemo˝liwe. To moja tajemnica.

Pytania 1. Jak ta kobieta si´ nazywa? A ten m´˝czyna? 2. Czy on jà zna? Czy ona go zna? 3. Skàd on mo˝e jà znaç, skoro ona nie jest stàd? 4. Dlaczego ona nie chce powiedzieç, skàd ona jest? 5. Czy wiesz, skàd jest twój kolega (twoja kole˝anka) obok? 6. A czy ty jesteÊ stàd? Skàd jesteÊ, jeÊli nie jesteÊ stàd?

Uwagi bardzo mi mi∏o literally, 'it's very nice for me' Danuta Trzmiel (trzmiel bumblebee). Women's last names ending in a consonant do not take special gender endings. Joanna Âliwiƒska. Last names ending in -ski are treated as adjectives and take gender endings in the same way as any adjective. mi to, for me. The short Dative case form of ja I (see Lesson 7). pan (pani) pozwoli. literally, 'you will allow'. pana, panià. The Accusative (direct object) forms of pan, pani. pozwoliç -l´ -lisz pf allow, permit przedstawiç -wi´ -wisz pf present, introduce. przedstawiç si´ introduce oneself skàd av from where. skàdÊ from somewhere skoro conj since stàd av from here. ...˝e si´ przedstawi´ that I introduce myself. wra˝enie n impression. mam wra˝enie, ˝e… I have the impression that…

GRAMATYKA 3.E. ciàgle constantly czasami sometimes cz´sto often du˝o a lot ma∏o not much SOME USEFUL ADVERBS: na pewno surely naprawd´ really pewnie probably prawie almost rzadko rarely teraz now za du˝o too much za ma∏o too little zawsze always zwykle usually

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA Adverbs modify the meaning of adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs: modifying an adjective: Jestem ciàgle zm´czony. I'm constantly tired. modifying a verb: On du˝o rozumie. He understands a lot. modifying another adverb: Ona jest prawie zawsze zaj´ta. She is almost always busy. COMPOSING TRUE/FALSE STATEMENTS. A good test of one's comprehension of a dialogue is to make up sentences which may be verified or disconfirmed, so-called True/False sentences or, in Polish, tak/nie sentences. Of course, in many instances, a statement purporting to be factual will best be qualified as mo˝e 'maybe', chyba tak 'probably so', chyba nie 'probably not', nie wiem 'I don't know', nie wiemy 'we don't know,' or in some other way. Here is an example of a set of True/False statements, based on Dialogue A of this lesson. You can determine the answers on your own. Mà˝: Czy nareszcie jesteÊ gotowa? Czekam na ciebie ju˝ doÊç d∏ugo. ˚ona: Nie, nie jestem jeszcze gotowa. Jeszcze si´ ubieram. Mà˝: A kiedy wreszcie b´dziesz gotowa? ˚ona: Nigdy nie b´d´ gotowa, jeÊli mnie ciàgle b´dziesz pytaç. T/F Statements. Answer them. If the answer is nie, then explain why. 1. Mà˝ jest gotowy. 6. ˚ona b´dzie nied∏ugo gotowa. 2. Mà˝ nied∏ugo czeka. 7. Mà˝ b´dzie czekaç w pokoju. 3. ˚ona jest gotowa. 8. Mà˝ i ˝ona spó˝niajà si´-are late. 4. Mà˝ jest cierpliwy-patient. 9. ˚ona si´ Êpieszy. 5. ˚ona robi makija˝-makeup. 10. ˚ona nigdy nie b´dzie gotowa. SOME PROFESSIONS. The second word given is the female variant, if available. adwokat, f. adwokatka lawyer in˝ynier engineer aktor, f. aktorka actor (f. actress) kelner, f. kelnerka waiter architekt architect lekarz, f. lekarka doctor dentysta, f. dentystka dentist piel´gniarka f nurse dziennikarz, f. dziennikarka journalist profesor professor ekspedient, ekspedientka salesperson sekretarka f secretary farmaceuta, f. farmaceutka pharmacist nauczyciel, f. nauczycielka teacher fryzjer, f. fryzjerka barber, hairdresser urz´dnik, f. urz´dniczka clerk The conjunction jako as can be used with professions in the phrase pracowaç jako work as, in the capacity of: Mój brat pracuje jako adwokat. My brother works as an lawyer. Moja siostra pracuje jako farmaceutka. My sister works as a pharmacist. A verb often applied to professions is zarabiaç -am -asz earn, make money': Mój brat dobrze zarabia jako kelner. My brother makes good money as a waiter. Ten adwokat du˝o (ma∏o) zarabia. That lawyer makes a lot (not much).

3. LEKCJA TRZECIA åWICZENIA 3.E. 3.25. Think of a short sentence to go with each of the adverbs. ciàgle: Jestem ciàgle zm´czony (-a), I'm constantly tired. czasami, cz´sto, du˝o, ma∏o, na pewno, naprawd´, pewnie, prawie, rzadko, za du˝o. za ma∏o, zawsze, zwykle. 3.26. Using'surely', 'constantly', 'always' with Locative phrases. praca: On jest zawsze w pracy. He's always at work. Substitute ciàgle, na pewno, zwykle, for zawsze in differentLocative sentences. biblioteka, biuro, gabinet, koÊció∏, park, szko∏a, ∏ó˝ko. 3.27. Give a question that the statement might answer: Nie, nie jestem jeszcze gotowa. Czy ju˝ jesteÊ gotowa? 1. Jeszcze si´ ubieram. 2. Ju˝ nied∏ugo b´d´ gotowa. 3. Czekaj na mnie na dworze. 4. Moja siostra mieszka teraz w Poznaniu. 5. Siostra pracuje jako nauczycielka w szkole. 6. Mój brat jest teraz we Wroc∏awiu. 7. Brat studiuje na uniwersytecie. 8. Brat mówi, ˝e jest ciàgle zm´czony, bo za du˝o pracuje. 9. Brat jest zawsze zm´czony, bo za du˝o pracuje. 10. Pracuj´ w bibliotece na uniwersytecie. 11. Praca w bibliotece jest zawsze interesujàca. 12. Mój kolega ma na imi´ Jan. 13. Znam jà od dawna. 14. Nie jestem stàd. 3.28. Sentence pairs based on the conversations. Translate. 1. Where is your sister living now? She's living in Warsaw. 2. Does your sister work? Yes, he works as a teacher in a school. 3. Is your sister satisfied? Yes, she's very satisfied. 4. Where is your brother now? My brother is in Krakow. 5. What does your brother do? He's studies at the university. 6. Is he satisfied? No, he says he works too much. 7. Is he satisfied? No, he's never satisfied. 7. He says he's always tired. He always talks that way.

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8. If I remember rightly, you work in the library. Yes, that's right. 9. Is that a good job? I don't know whether it's good. 10. The work is always interesting. Can work in a library really be interesting? 11. Is that job interesting? Every job can be interesting. 12. What's you friend's name? Jadwiga. 13. Where do you know him/her from? I don't remember, but I know him/her for a long time. 3.29. Fill in the blanks: 1. Chcesz --- poznaç? him (her) 2. Czy ju˝ jesteÊ ---? ready (f.) 3. Czy on --- jest zadowolony? also 4. Czy praca w szkole --interesujàca? can be 5. --- pytasz? why 6. --- si´ ubieram. still 7. --- praca jest interesujàca. every 8. Kiedy b´dziesz --- gotowa? finally 9. Mój brat jest --- w Krakowie. now 10. On mówi, ˝e --- jest zm´czony. constantly 11. Ona mówi, ˝e --- pracuje. too much

14. Your colleague is rather nice. Do you want to meet him/her? 15. Do you want to meet him (her)? Yes, very gladly. 16. Are you ready yet? No, I'm not ready yet. 17. I'm still dressing. Well then when will you be ready? 18. When will you finally be ready? I'll never be ready. 19. You speak Polish quite well. I speak French even better. 20. It seems to me I know you from somewhere. That's impossible. I'm not from here.

12. Nie jestem --- gotowy. yet 13. Nie jestem ---. from here 14. Ona jest --- sympatyczna. rather 15. On nie jest --- zadowolony. too 16. Pan (pani) pozwoli, ---. that I introduce myself 17. On pracuje jako nauczyciel ---. in school 18. --- go znasz? From where 19. Ona nie jest --- zadowolona. too 20. Tak, to ---. right 21. To chyba ---. impossible 22. ---, ˝e pana (panià) znam. It seems to me

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23. Znam jà ---. for a long time 24. Czy on b´dzie ---? at home 25. Czy to jest --- magnetofon? his 26. --- to jest magnetofon? Whose 27. --- to jest dziecko? Whose 28. Jej sàsiadka jest --- mi∏a. rather 29. --- tu znasz? Whom 30. Lubi´ ---. you 31. Nie, on --- ˝yje. no longer

32. On nie jest ---, czy mnie pami´ta. certain 33. Ona mówi, ˝e b´dzie ---. late 34. Pami´tam ---. you (male, formal) 35. Ta ksià˝ka jest ---. mine 36. ---, ˝e on za du˝o pracuje. I consider 37. ---, czy on b´dzie w domu. I doubt 38. ---, ˝e on tam pracuje. I know 39. SkàdÊ --- pami´tam. you (female, formal) 40. Ona b´dzie teraz w ---. the office brakujàce wyrazy

Gdaƒsk, w Gdaƒsku

1000 Years of Gdaƒsk. Postage stamp commemorating the millenial anniversary of the city of Gdaƒsk.

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VOCABULARY TO LESSON 3 Ameryka f America. w Ameryce bank mi bank. w banku biblioteka f library. w bibliotece biuro n office. w biurze brat mp Npl bracia GApl braci Ipl braçmi brother budynek -nku mi building. w budynku ch´tnie av gladly, willingly. ch´tnie go poznam. I'd be glad to meet him. ch∏opak mp boy, boyfriend ciàgle av constantly. ciàgle pytaç keep asking czasami av sometimes czyj, czyja, czyje poss aj of kto whose czynny aj operable, working dom mi house, home. w domu du˝o av or quant a lot. za du˝o too much. niedu˝o not much dziewczyna f girl, girlfriend fabryka f factory. w fabryce film mi film, movie. na filmie at a movie gabinet mi personal office. w gabinecie go pron A of on him gotowy (gotów), f gotowa aj ready, prepared hotel mi hotel. w hotelu jako conj as, in the function of jà pron A of ona her je pron A of ono it jego poss aj o fon his. jej poss aj of ona her, hers jeszcze av still. jeszcze nie not yet ju˝ av already. ju˝ nie no longer ka˝dy, ka˝da, ka˝de pron aj each, every kino n movie theater. w kinie kochaç kocham kochasz impf love kolega mp colleague, work- or school-mate. f kole˝anka koncert mi concert. na koncercie koÊció∏ -cio∏a mi church. w koÊciele Kraków -kowa mi Krakow. w Krakowie le˝eç -˝´ -˝ysz lie, be lying lubiç -bi´ -bisz impf like ∏ó˝ko n bed. w ∏ó˝ku ma∏o quant a little, not much. za ma∏o too little miasto n town. w mieÊcie mieszkanie n apartment. w mieszkaniu mi∏o av nice. bardzo mi mi∏o it's very nice for me (to meet you) mój, moja, moje poss aj of ja my, mine muzeum n museum. w muzeum myÊleç myÊl´ myÊlisz impf think na pewno av phr surely, certainly, for sure naprawd´ av really, genuinely nareszcie av finally narzeczony mp decl as aj fiancé. f narzeczona fiancée nied∏ugo av soon, before too long niemo˝liwy aj impossible od dawna av phr for a long time pami´taç -am -asz impf remember. nie pami´tam I forget pana poss aj of pan your pani poss aj of pani your park mi park. w parku pewnie av probably po lewej stronie on the left-hand side po prawej stronie on the righthand side poczta f post-office. na poczcie pokój -koju mi room, peace. w pokoju Polska f Poland. w Polsce poznaç -am -aszz pf meet, get to know Poznaƒ -ania mi Poznan. w Poznaniu pozwoliç -l´ -lisz (pf) allow praca f work, job. w pracy prawo n law

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przedstawiç -wi´ -wisz pf present, introduce. przedstawiç si´ introduce oneself przedstawienie n performance. na przedstawieniu przyjaciel mp (close) friend. f przyjació∏ka przypuszaç -am -asz impf suppose, expect, imagine reklama f advertisement restauracja f restaurant. w restauracji sàdziç -dz´ -dzisz judge, think siedzieç -dz´ -dzisz impf sit, be sitting siostra f sister skàdÊ av from somewhere sklep mi store. w sklepie spaç Êpi´, Êpisz impf sleep staç stoj´, stoisz impf stand stàd av from here sympatyczny aj nice, sympathetic szko∏a f school. w szkole teatr mi theater. w teatrze teraz av now trzeci, trzecia, trzecie num aj third trzy num three twój, twoja, twoje poss pron of ty your, yours ubieraç si´ -am -asz impf get dressed uczyç si´ cz´ -czysz impf study, learn ulica f street. na ulicy on the street

uniwersytet mi university. na uniwersytecie uwa˝aç -am -asz impf consider, think. jak uwa˝asz? what do you think? Warszawa f Warsaw. w Warszawie wàtpiç -pi´ -pisz impf doubt widzieç -dz´ -dzisz impf see wi´c so, then, in that case wra˝enie n impression. mam wra˝enie, ˝e I have the impression that wreszcie av finally, at last wyjÊcie n exit, going out, leaving. gotowy do wyjÊcia ready to leave zadowolony aj satisfied, happy, content zaj´ty aj busy, occupied zawsze av always zm´czony aj tired znaç -am -asz impf know, be familiar with (a person or thing) znajomy mp decl like aj acquaintance. f znajoma zresztà av for all that, for that matter zwykle av usually ˝yç ˝yj´ ˝yjesz impf live, be alive s∏owniczek

Malbork, w Malborku

Malbork. A castle about 35 kilometers south east of Gdaƒsk, a medieval seat of the Knights of the Teutonic Order.

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA SUPPLEMENTARY CONVERSATIONS A. Nie narzekam - Czy twój brat (twoja siostra) pracuje? - Tak, pracuje jako kelner (kelnerka) w restauracji. - Czy on (ona) dobrze zarabia? - DoÊç dobrze <Nieêle>. On (ona) nie narzeka. zarabiaç -am -asz earn, make money. dobrze zarabiaç make good money Does your brother (your sister) work? Yes, he (she) works as a waiter (waitress) in a restaurant. Does he (she) make good money? Fairly good. <Not bad.> He (She) doesn't complain. narzekaç -am -asz complain nieêle av not bad

B. On jest chory - Gdzie jest Jarek (Kasia) dzisiaj? - On (Ona) jest chory (chora). Jest w domu. Le˝y w ∏ó˝ku. - Ojej! Co mu (jej) jest? - Po prostu bardzo êle si´ czuje. Chyba ma katar <kaca>. dzisiaj av today chory aj sick co mu (jej) jest? phr what is it to him her)? i.e., what is wrong with him (her)? czuç si´ czuj´ si´, czujesz si´ feel. Where is Jarek (Kasia) today? He (She) is sick. He's (She's) at home. He's (she's) lying in bed. Oh dear. What is the matter with him (her)? He (she) simply feels very bad. Probably he has a cold <a hangover>. dobrze (êle) si´ czuç feel good (bad) kac m hangover. mam kaca I have a hangover katar mi head cold. mam katar I have a cold

C. W hotelu - Dobry wieczór. Czy sà wolne pokoje w hotelu? - Tak, jest jeszcze jeden pokój jednoosobowy. - Dobrze, bior´ go. Ile p∏ac´? - Pi´çdziesiàt euro za jednà noc. Prosz´ o paszport. braç bior´, bierzesz impf take pi´çdziesiàt fifty Good evening. Are there free rooms in the hotel? Yes, there is still one single-person room. Good, I'll take it. How much do I pay? Fifty euro for one night. May I have your passsport, please? prosz´ o paszport may I have your passport, please ile how much. ile p∏ac´? how much do I owe?

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3. LEKCJA TRZECIA Przygody biura podró˝˘ "Zefir" Rozdzia∏ trzeci: Pan Or∏owski marzy Pan Or∏owski jest w pracy. Siedzi w gabinecie. Ma dzisiaj du˝o pracy. Musi pisaç i odpowiadaç na listy. Musi te˝ przygotowaç bilans. Musi pracowaç szybko i bezb∏´dnie. Pan Kowalczyk, jego szef, jest bardzo wymagajàcy. Wszystko musi byç na dzisiaj gotowe. Zamiast odpowiadaç na listy, Pan Or∏owski woli komponowaç poetyckie reklamy dla firmy. Oto jego najnowsza próba: Z “Zefirem” w´druj za pan brat, Obje˝d˝aj z nami ca∏y Êwiat! Jest bardzo zadowolony z siebie. Pan Or∏owski siedzi przy biurku. Trzyma o∏ówek, ale ju˝ nic nie pisze. Patrzy w okno, ale nic nie widzi. Marzy... Nagle widzi, ˝e jest na prerii. Âwieci s∏oƒce... Êpiewajà ptaki... preria jest zielona i spokojna... Pan Or∏owski jedzie... jedzie... jedzie... Preria jest szeroka i spokojna, ale nagle widzi, ˝e nie jest sam. Inny jeêdziec jedzie w jego kierunku. Ma strzelb´ i celuje w pana Or∏owskiego. Jaki straszny ha∏as! W drzwiach stoi pan Kowalczyk. Patrzy na pana Or∏owskiego, nie uÊmiecha si´. bezb∏´dnie av flawlessly bilans mi balance ca∏y Êwiat the whole world celowaç –luj´ -lujesz w+A aim at drzwi pl form door. w drzwiach dzisiaj av today. na dzisiaj for today ha∏as mi noise, racket inny aj another jechaç jad´, jedziesz ride jeêdziec –êdêca mp rider kierunek –nku mi direction komponowaç -nuj´ -nujesz impf compose list mi letter. listy letters marzyç –rz´ -rzysz daydream musieç musz´, musisz +infin must nagle av suddenly obje˝d˝aç –am –asz travel around oto part here is patrzyç –rz´ -rzysz na+A look at pisaç pisz´ piszesz write preria f prairie próba f attempt, tryout przy prep+L Iat, near przygotowaç –tuj´ -tujesz prepare ptak ma bird reklama f advertisement siedzieç –dz´ -dzisz sit s∏oƒce n sun spokojny aj peaceful straszny aj terrible strzelba f hunting rifle szeroki aj wide Êwieciç –c´ -cisz shine trzymaç –am –asz hold uÊmiechaç si´ –am -asz smile w drzwiach in the doorway w´drowaç –ruj´ -rujesz wander. w´druj 'wander!' (the command form fo the verb) widzieç widz´, widzisz see woleç -l´ -lisz prefer z nami with us za pan brat phr like brothers z "Zefirem" with Zephyr zadowolony z siebie satisfied with oneself zamiast prep +infin instead of zielony aj green Rozdzia∏ trzeci

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