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Unsymmetrical bending and shear centre

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Transcript
1. Strength of Materials (EME-302) Unsymmetrical Bending Introduction: Every section is not
symmetrical about both the centroidal axes. Some sections are symmetrical only about one axis, whereas
many sections as angle sections are not symmetrical about both the centroidal axes. In theory of simple
bending, the section of the beam is symmetrical about the plane of bending. The simple flexural formula
derived in theory of simple bending is not applicable when the section is not symmetrical about the plane
of bending. In such sections, the principal axes and principal moments of inertia and the product of inertia
are determined. Stresses developed in such sections of a beam are dependent on these parameters. If the
load line on a beam does not coincide with one of the principal axes of the section, the bending takes
place in a plane different from the plane of principal axes. This type of bending is known as
unsymmetrical bending. The two reasons of unsymmetrical bending are as follows: 1. The section is
symmetrical about two axes like I-section, rectangular section, circular section but the load-line is
inclined to both the principal axes. 2. The section itself is unsymmetrical like angle section or a channel
section (with vertical -web) and load-line along vertical any centroidal axes. Figure 18.1(a) shows a beam
with I-section with load-line coinciding with YY principal axis. I-section has two axes of symmetry and
both these axes are the principal axes. Section is symmetrical about YY plane, i.e., the plane of bending.
This type of bending is known as symmetrical bending. Figure 18.1(b) shows a cantilever with
rectangular section, which has two axes of symmetry which are principal axes but the load-line is inclined
at an angle with the YY axis. This is the first type of unsymmetrical bending. Then, Fig. 18.1(c) shows a
cantilever with angle-section which does not have any axis of symmetry but the load-line is coinciding
with the YY axis. This is the second type of unsymmetrical bending. Figure 18.1(d) shows a channel
section subjected to a vertical load passing through its centroid G. This member has been subjected to
bending and twisting under the applied vertical load W. Now, the question arises; is it possible to apply
the vertical load W in such a way that the channel member will bend without twisting and, if so, where
the load W should be applied? Yatin Kumar Singh Page 1
2. Strength of Materials (EME-302) Unsymmetrical Bending Figure 18.1 (a) Symmetrical bending, (b)
unsymmetrical bending symmetrical section but oblique load, (c) unsymmetrical bending (unsymmetrical
section) and (d) unsymmetrical bending(section not symmetrical about bending plane) (e) Channel
section(not symmetrical about yy axis, (f) Bending without twisting Shear force in the flanges and web of
the channel section is F1, F2 and F1, respectively, as shown in Fig. 18.1(e). Forces F1 constitute a couple
F1 h about centroid G. This couple is responsible for twisting of the member. Now, if the vertical load
W or the shear force in the section is shifted from G, such that W e = F1 h, then the twisting couple is
eliminated. So, it can be concluded that if the vertical load W, or vertical shear F is moved to the left in
the channel section through a distance e, such that, F1 h = We = Fe, the member will bend without
twisting as shown in Fig.18.1(f). Principal Axes: Figure 18.2 shows a beam section which is symmetrical
about the plane of bending YY, a requirement of the theory of simple bending or symmetrical bending.
G is the centroid of the section. XX and YY are the two perpendicular axes passing through the centroid.
Say, the bending moment on the section (in the plane YY of the beam) is M, about the axis XX. Consider
a small element of area dA with (x, y) co-ordinates. Figure 18.2 Plane of bending yy Stress on the
element, = (18.1) Force on the element , = Bending moment
about YY axis, = Total moment, 1 = (18.2) If no
bending take place about YY axis, then M1 = 0 or = 0 or =

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