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# Phase changes

3.2.3

Describe the physical differences between the solid, liquid and gaseous
phases in terms of molecular structure and particle motion.

3.2.4

## Atoms and molecules exert an attractive force on each other; however

electric repulsion between outer electrons maintains a minimum separation
distance.
All molecules possess a certain amount of kinetic energy (movement) which
is proportional to the observed temperature (in Kelvin) of the molecules
In the solid state, molecular thermal energies (and hence E k) are relatively
small compared to intermolecular binding energies, so that the molecules are
held close to positions in a lattice (though they vibrate about these positions).
This structure leads to macroscopic solid properties (e.g. thermal expansion,
electrical resistance, colour changes).
Similar discussions apply to liquids and gases and their properties.
At extremely high temperatures (~108 K) the atoms themselves may be
ionized, producing a plasma state of ions and electrons. Most matter on earth
is in the form of solid, liquid or gas, but most matter in the universe is in the
plasma state (e.g. in stars).
All molecules in a gas do not move with the same speed (MaxwellBoltzmann speed distributions Giancoli Fig. 13-16); speed is dependent
upon temperature, mass, etc.
Speed distribution curves illustrate the probability that a molecule will have a
velocity (and hence Ek) within a given range for two (or more) separate
temperatures; can be related to activation energy (E A).
All probability curves have the same total area under the curve (must equal
100%); the peak is the most likely velocity, however since the curves are
slightly asymmetrical, the average velocity (rms) is slightly higher (to the
right).

behaviour.

## As the temperature of a solid increases, the Ek approaches and surpasses the

Esep; the molecules abandon their fixed positions and the solid begins to melt
(phase transition). The average molecular thermal energy becomes
comparable to the intermolecular binding energies, so that molecules can
move from their positions and matter changes from solid to liquid.
Similar discussions apply to liquids and gases

3.2.5

## Explain in terms of molecular behaviour why temperature does not change

during a phase change.
The temperature of a sample of water versus time; heat is added at a uniform
rate and the pressure is held constant at 1 atm.

E
C

B
A

3.2.6

At low temperature and high pressure (A) the molecules are close together
and attractive forces are not negligible compared with low kinetic energy; the
substance can exist only as a solid.
If the pressure stays constant and heat is added, the temperature rises to B, at
which point more heat is added but the temperature does not rise; this
additional energy is used to change state (temperature remains constant until
all the solid has melted).
Further heat increases temperature (C) until point D, where the next phase
change occurs (vaporization). Again, temperature remains constant until
vaporization is complete. Additional heat now increases the temperature of
the gas (E).
The temperature at which a phase change occurs usually depends on
additional variables, such as pressure.
Phase diagrams demonstrate the macroscopic relationship between pressure,
temperature and phase changes (compare B and B1, D and D1).

## Distinguish between evaporation and boiling.

The molecules of a fluid move about with a distribution of speeds. The most
energetic (fastest) molecules may escape if during random motion they find
themselves at the surface of the liquid.
Unlike boiling, where molecules from anywhere within the volume can
escape, only surface molecules can evaporate.
The average speed of the remaining molecules is reduced, resulting in a
lower temperature.
The rate of evaporation increases with greater surface area and higher
molecular temperature.
If the substance is in an enclosed area, the molecules which escape collect
over the liquid; the resulting vapor pressure increases until equilibrium is
reached

3.2.7

## Define specific latent heat.

The energy absorbed or liberated in a phase change is called the latent heat.
The latent heat of fusion (Lf) is the heat required to melt a mass of material;
the latent heat of vaporization (Lv) is the heat required to evaporate a unit
mass
Q = mLf or Q = mLv
At atmospheric pressure, Lf (ice) is 333 kJ kg-1 and Lv (water) is 2255 kg kg-1.

3.2.8

## Method of mixtures (heat of fusion): a quantity of ice at 0 C is placed in a

calorimeter containing water at a few degrees above room temperature. The
temperature of the water is measured at regular intervals of time until the
temperature reaches a minimum value.
Electrical method (heat of vaporization): water is heated in a double
container with an electric heater. Steam can leave the inner container
through a small hole and collects in the outside container where it condenses
into water. This water can be allowed to drip into a beaker which can then be
weighted in order to determine the mass of the water that has been boiled
away. (VIt = mLV)

## Solve problems involving specific latent heats.

1. How much heat is required to melt 5 kg of ice at 0 C?
2. Heat is provided at a constant rate of 833 J s-1 to 1 kg of copper at the melting
temperature. If it takes 4 minutes to completely melt the copper, find the
latent heat of fusion of copper
3. An ice cube (25 g) at -10 C is dropped in 300 g of water at 20 C. What is
the final temperature of the water? (Given cwater = 4186 J kg-1 K-1; cice = 2218
J kg-1 K-1; Lf (ice) = 334 kJ/kg)
4. A 0.6 kg pitcher of tea at 50 C is cooled with 0.4 kg of ice cubes at 0 C.
What is the equilibrium condition if no heat is lost to the surroundings?