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THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA

CONSTITUTIONS AND LEGAL SYSTEM OF EAST AFRICA COURSE


OUTLINE
PART ONE THE STATE AND THE CONSTITUION
THE THEORY OF STATE AND LAW
The Theory of State and Law
Introduction:
1. Philosophy and the Law.
2. The Importance of the subject of State ands Law in East Africa.
3. Theoretical orientation of Course.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Bourgeois theory
Arusha declaration and the search of socio-Economic and
Historical Basis of the Law.
Mongozo and the Radicalization of Legal Theory.

Section one The State in the Pre-Capitalist Society


ONE: The origins of the State The Family, private property and the
Gentile Society.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The origins of man in the Dialectics of Nature


The Role of labour in the Evolution of man
Production relations in the Primitive Communist Society
Production, surplus and property the Rise of Classes
The Development of Different Family and Marriage systems and the
Relation between the Sexes Mother right and Father.

(a) Group Marriage


(b) Pairing Marriage
(c) Monogamy
6. The Gentile Constitution.
TWO: The Slave State and Constitution
1. The Basic Contradictions of the Gentile Society
2. The Dissolution of Gentile Society.
(a) Adopted People
(b) The need to expend and peoples invaded Elimination
1

(c) The need to expand and People invaded incorporation


(d) The need to expand and peoples invaded slavery
3. The Slave and constitution:(a) Features of Gentile Constitution
(b) The slave as a man without RIGHTS
(c) The Basic contradictions of the Slave Society.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

The Slaves
Slavery and Neighboring Gentile peoples
Internal Trade and slavery
Foreign Trade and Slavery

THREE: The Feudal State and Constitution its rise and consolidation.
I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
II

The rise of the Feudal State


The Feudal Countryside Agriculture and the Land question.
Trade and the Rise of the Contradiction: Town country
International Commerce.
The rise of industrial Capital.
The Contradiction of the Feudal state

1. Lord and Serf.


2. Feudal Aristocracy and the Rising Bourgeois class.
(a) Artisans
(b) Usurers and Bankers
(c) Industrial capitalists.
4. The Feudal Aristocracy and the church
III

IV

The Early Feudal State and the church and the Theocratic
constitution.
(Gods kingdom on Earth)
The Absolute Monarchy and its constitution
Selection Two The Bourgeois State.

THE EMERGENCE OF CAPITALISM


1. Merchant capital and Primitive Accumulation
2. Contradictions within the Feudal State.
3. Philosophical, Theoretical and Ideological struggle against the
Feudal/state: The struggle between two lines.
(a) The ideological struggle in Theology
(b) The struggle against Religion (Materialist Line)
(c) Revolutionary content of Mechanical Materialism and of the
(d) Evolutionism of the 18th century in Europe.
(a) The ideological struggle in Theology
(b) The struggle against Religion (Materialist Line)
(c) Revolutionary content of Mechanical Materialism and of the
Evolutionism of the 18th Century in Europe.
Basic constitution Principle of the Bourgeois state
Introduction on the contradictions of Bourgeois society.
1. To impose the common will of the Bourgeois
(a) The Bourgeois Conception of the State and constitution
(b) THE unity of power of the state the concept of sovereignty
(c) Bourgeoisie rights the Issue of Private property.
2. To resolve contradiction between themselves and between the
bourgeoisie and the people (Workers, peasant and Asperitybourgeoisie)
(a) The RULE OF Law Equality before the Law and bourgeois
Legality
(b) Human Rights
(c) The Division of Tasks Separation of Powers between the
legislature, executive and Judiciary to the Reserve internal
contradictions and Impose the common will.
(d) The executive
(e) The Legislature
(f) The judiciary
Section three Imperialism the bourgeois constitution and the
Emergence socialist states.
1. Political and Economic Rights
2. Political and Economic Duties.
3

3. The Part and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat and organs of the
state.
4. Mass organizations
5. Democratic centralism.
6. Socialist construction and its constitutional implication.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

The Economy in Hands of the State and social units of


production.
Central planning and Economic Harmonization
Worker participation.

7. Proletarian Internationalism and Local Administration


(i)
(ii)

Equality of all Nationalities


Rights of National Minorities

Contradictions of colonialism and the National Patriotic struggle


Section four constitutional systems of Neo-colonies
Attempts and Bourgeois Democracy
Introduction Basic Principles of Bourgeois Democracy.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Example of Attempts at Bourgeois Democracy


Why Bourgeois Democracy cannot work Imperialism and
super-power rivalry.
Bourgeois Legal Principles in question.

(a) The multy-Party system.


(b) Human Rights
(c) Equality before the law.
(d) Separation of Powers and effective Power of the Executive
(e) Independence of the Judiciary.
(F) The Independence of the Legislature.
The one-party Neo- Colonial Constitution
1. The character of the one-Part Neo-colonial State.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

One Party
Power of the Executive
The Judiciary and National Policy
The Legislature and the one-Party system
The Bureaucracy (Civil Service)
4

6. Principles of the Bourgeois Democracy Retained in Form


(a) Sovereignty of the State
(b) Equality before the Law.
(c) Human rights
7. Principals Modified.
(a) Separation of Power
(i) Executive Reinforced
(iii) Legislature as a Rubber stamp.
(iv)
Judiciary, and the Part and the Executive.

8. Examples:(a) Zambia
(b) Guinea
(c) Congo
The Military Dictatorships in the Neo-colonies and the constitution.
Introduction- The Causes
(i)
(ii)

The History of Military Dictatorships in the Neo-colonies.


The Violation of Bourgeois Legality.

The Constitution
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dissolution of Democratic Legislative Institutions


2. The mass organizations
The Modification of the EXECUITIVE
The Judiciary.
(a) Dissolution and Replacement with Military Tribunals
(b) The questions of Martial Law
(c) The Judiciary and Military Tribunals
(d) The Solder and the Law.

5. No Equality before the Law


6. Violation of Human Rights.
Section Five State Structure and Organization.
1. Juridical Principles of Bourgeois constitutional Law
1. Constitution and the Law
2. The State
5

3. Citizen/Nationality
4. Sovereignty
5. Separation of Powers (Division of Labour)
6. The Executive
7. The Legislature
8. The Judiciary.
9. The Rule of law
10.
Human (Civil Rights)
11.
Equality before the Law
12.
Democratic (Political) Freedoms
13.
Bourgeois theory of civil disobedience and the
polestars concept of Revolution
2.State Structure and organization.
2. The Government (a) The Head of State
(b) The Prime Minister
Ministers and cabinet:-

Ministerial Responsibility
Cabinent(Collective)Responbility
The Prime Minister Responsibility and Coordinator.
Organization of centre State structure
Government and opposition

3. The civil Service (Bureaucracy)


(a) Nature/character
(b) Functions
(c) Recuirtment
(d) Internal Regulations/control
(e) Trade unionism and c.s. (staff Association)
(f) Political Activities
(g) Secuirty of office
(h) Legal Rights
(i) Powers
(j) The civil service and the state.
4. Local Government i)Organs: (a) Village
(b) Country
(c)
District
(d)
Region/province
(ii)

Minorities

(iii) Functions: - (a) Power


6

(b) Finance
(c) Relation with the Centre

6.State Enterprises (a) History of the Role of the State in Economy


(b) Organs
(c ) Powers
(d) The relation between the state and Private
sectors

7. Defence and secuitry Faorces:(i) Division

(a) Police
(b) Intelligence
Armed Forces (Defence Forces)

ii) Organization
iii) Organization
(iii) Funiction
(iv)
Internal control
(v)
Relation with the state
(vi)
Relations with Population
8. Judicial system (The courts)
(a) Structure
(b) Independence
(c) Judicial Immunity
(d) Contempt of court
(e) Prosecutions and Pardons
(f) Special Tribunals/Local Inquries.
9. Judicial Reviwe (a) Natural Justice
(i)
Scope
(ii)
The Right to a Hearing
(b) Decisions of Fact and Law
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Jurisdiction
Abuse of discretion
Error of law on the Face of Record.

(c) Discretionary Powers


(i)
(ii)

Failure to exercise a discretion


Abuse of discretion

(d) Delegated Legislation

(e) Remedies
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Choice of Remedies
Ouster clauses
Discretion
Locus standing
Void or violable

10.

The Legislature (a) Role and structure


(b) Government and the Legislature
Business
(d)Party of organization
(e)Officers of the Legislature
(f) Parliamentary Institution
(g)The Legislative Process
(h) Acts of Parliament or Decrees
(i) Subordinate Legislation
(j) Subordinate Legislation
(k) Legislastive Privileges Rights
Immunities:(i) Individual
(ii) Collective
(I)
Legislature and the Judiciary.

11.

Propaganda (The Mass Media)


(a) Television
(b) Press
(c) Secrets and Censorship
(d) Motives.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Constitutional Texts and Documents

1. Asian in African Legal Consultative committee constitutions


of as in countries N.M. Tripathi Bomba 1961 [Law KPN A
832]
8

2. Dodd Walter P., Modern Constitutions a collection of the


Fundamental Laws of the most important countries of the
world university of Chicago press Chicago 1912 [KD 6398]
3. Triska Jan F; Constitutions of the Communist Part States
hoover Institution Stanford Univ. 1968 [Law KT] 815]
4. Wolf Philips; Constitutions of Modern states Praeger N.Y.
1968 [Law K W 8615].
5. Davis Helen C.; Constitutions Electoral Law treaties of State
in the NEAR AND Middle East 2nd rev. ed: Duke Univ. Press
Durham N.C 1953 [K D261 1593]
6. Egyptian Society of International Law constitutions of New
African states a critical survey, cairo 1962 [Law JQ 1871 A3
14]
7. Reasle Amos J.; Constitutions of Nations Revised 3rd ed M.
Nijhoff the Hague [1963]
8. Peasle Amos J.; International Governmental Organizations
Constitutional Documents Re. 2nd ed M. Mijhoff the Hague
1961.
9. Lamb. R.D. The Constitutions of the Australia States,
University of Queensland Press 1962.
10.
Columbia University, Legal Drafting Research Fund
Constitutions of the United States, National and States,
ocean Dobbs Ferry. N.Y. 1962.
11.

Common Law

1. Buckland W.W. Law McNair R.B. Cambridge Univ. Press 1952 [Law
RSD 8924 1952]
2. Goodhard A. L., The Spirit of the English Law Magness Press
Bloomington 1966 [Law K. H7162
3. Hague A.r.; The origins of the common Law, Indiana Univ, Press
Bloomignton 1966 [Law K H7162]
4. Holmes oliver W.; The common Law, Little Brown & Co. 48th
Printing 195 [K 525]
5. Paul Manatle (B); The Heart of Blackstone; or Principles of the
common Law, The Abingdon Press New York 1915 [KP 3 24]
6. Plucknett, Theodore, A concise History of the common Law 9th ed
Landon Butterworth 1956 [K P7332 1956]
7. Pollock; Sir Frederick ; The Heart of Blackstone; or Principles of
the common Law, South Hackensack N. J. Rothman Reprints 1974
[Law K P 7769]
8. Polick, Sir F.; The Genus of the common Law AMS 1967 [Law AMS
1967 (Law K P7766].
9. Pound, Roscoe, The Sprit or the common Law, Barsnall James
Roston 1921 [K P870]

10.
Radia Max; Handbook of Angle America History West
Publishing co. st. Paul Minn. 193 (KR 192]
11.
Schwartz Lennard (Ed); The code Napolean and the common
law, N.Y. Univ. Press 1954 [KR 192].
12.
O Sullivah, Richard; The Inheritance of the common law,
Stevens London [1950 CKO859]
13.
Keeton G.W.; The Norman Conquest and the common law,
Barnes & Noble N.Y 1966 [Law k. M6615]
14.
Milson S.F. C.; Historical Foundations of the common Law,
Butterworhts London 1969 [Law K M6615]
15.
Van Canegem, R. ; The Birth of the English common Law,
Cambride, Univ. Press 1973 [Law KD 608 OV2]
16.
Van Caenegem, R.; The Royal Writs in England from the
Congest of Glanvill, Studies in the early history of the common Law
B Q uaritch London 1969 [K PER S. L.
17.
Street, T.A.; The Foundations of Legal Liability; a
presentation of theory and development of the common Law E.
Thompson N.Y. 1906 [Law K S9158]
18.
Setalvad, M.C; The common Law in India, Stevens, London
1960 [KPN 2 495]
19.
Mustafa Zaki: The common Law in the Sudan: an Account
on the Justice equity and good conscience provision Glarendon
Press oxford, 1971 (Law KHD K989]
20.
Daniels, W.C.; (Ed) The common Law in West Africa
Butterworths London 1964 [KRG D126]
III.

Constitutional History

1. Allen, Stephen Raley: The evolution of governments and laws,


Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton 1919 [JF 31-5.
2. Friendrich, Carl Joachim ; constitutional government and
Democracy, Theory and practice in Europe and America &
Con.N.Y. 1950 [Law K F925]
3. Mcllwain, Charles Howard; Constitutionalism Ancient and Modern,
Great Seal Books, N.Y. Rev. ed. 1961 [K JF31 M]

10

4. Mclwain, C.R.; Constitutionalism and the changing World collected


Papers, Cambridge Univ. Press, London 1969.
5. Rose Grahan H; Questions and Answers on Constitutional Law and
Legal History, Sweet & Maxwell, London 8th ed 1964 [Law
1962/1964]
IV.
Bourgeois Theory of State and Law
1. Andrews, William George; constitution and constitutionalism,
edited, van Norstrand, Princeton. 1961 [Law K. A. S. 69]
2. Clarke, Henri Walter; cases and Statutes on constitutional and
Administrative Law Sweet & Maxwell, Londi, 1973 [Law KD 393 A7
C55]
3. Cockain, Duncan; constitutional and Administrative Law Nutshell,
Sweet & Maxwell London 1966. [Law K CT52].
4. Harris, David, study Guide to constitutional Law, Street &
Nicholson, London 1967 [Law Kd 3930 H314]
5. Hartley, T.G. Criffith, Government and Law Weiderfeld & Nichoson,
London 1975 (Law KD 3985] [H37]
6. Marshall, Geoffrey; Constitutional Theory Administrative law 4th
ed. Sweet & N. London 1973 [Law KD 3930 A7P47]
7. Phillips, O.H. Leading cases in constitutional and Administrative
Law 4th ed. Sweet & B. London 1973 [Law KD 3930 AYP47].
8. Suba Rao Koka, Some constitutional Problems. Univ. of Bombay
1970 [Law KPN 59409].
9. Wheare, K.C. ; Modern constitutions, OUP, London, 1965 [Law JF
51 W50]
10.
Yardley D.C. M. ; Introduction to British constitutional Law,
Butterworths, London 4th 1974.
11.
Zurcher, Arnordly L. ; Constitutions and constitutional
Trends since worls war II, with Special reference to the New
constitutions of Western Europe, N.Y. Univ. Press, n.y. 1951 (Law
JF72 2].
British Imperialist state and Law (constitutional and Legal Aspects of
British Imperialism).
11

1. Fawrett, James Edmund S. ; The British Commonwealth in


International Law, Stevens, London 193, {K JX 3096 28]
2. Gordon Walker, P.C.; The Commonwealth Secker & Warburg, 1962
1965 Reprol. [Law JN 248 G65]
3. Mehrotta, s.r. India and the commonwealth, 1886-1929 G. Allen &
Unwin, London 1965 [Law JI6248 W2]
4. Watts, R.L.; New Federations, Experiments in the commonwealth
clarendon Press, oxford 1960 [KW 5561]
5. Wiseman, H.V.; Britain and the commonwealth, London G. Allen &
Unwin 1965 [Law da 254]
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7. Hancock, William K.; Survey of commonwealth Affairs OUP,
London 1964 [Law DA 18 H26]
8. Jennings, Sir, William Ivor.; Constitutional Law of the
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9. Cown, Zelman,; The British Commonwealth of Nations in
Northwestern Univ. Press, 1965 [Law DA 18 063]
See also:
Holds worth, Sir William Seale, A History of English Law, London
Methuen, 19030-1966.
(a) Synopsis of the course
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

The courts court system in the


colonial period present court systems.
Laws to be applied written Law or
statutory Law:- Customary Law:
Out of court Settlement Negotiation,
Mediation and Adjudication.

(b) Study outline


1. The Court
The court System of Tanzania
A. History of the Courts
12

The Colonial background. The Court Ssytem of Tanganyika


in the period of German administration; The court System of
Tanganyika during British rule the Dual.
Role of administrators during the colonial period the
system of appeals and revision.

Court System after Independence.


After independence at the apex there was a Privy Coucil
which was the final appellate court in Tanzania and East
Africa in general. The following is the hierarchy of the court
during that period.
Privy council.
Eastern Africa
Court of Appeal
The High Court of
Tanzania
Resident
Magistrates Court

District Court

The Primary
Court
Administrative
Tribunals

B. Present Court System


At present our law has undergone various changes which
necessitated the modifications in the court system. There is
introduction of various division and tribunals in the court
system. This includes the addition of various divisions of the
High Court. There was also establishment of special courts
to deal with specific matter.

Tanganyika Law Reports, Vol. I (1921-1952) Revised) pp. v.


vi

13

The Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. C. 37)


Tanganyika order in council 1920. Law of Tanganyika, 1928
Vol. 3 p. 6 H/out.
Courts ordinance, 1920. No 6 of 1920 cap. 3, Laws of
Tanganyika, 1928. H/out.
The Application of Laws ordinance, 1920, No 7. of 120,
The Application of Laws ordinance, 1922, No. 17 of 1922
cap. 2 Laws of Tanganyika, 1928.
Eastern Africa court of Appeal order in council Laws of
Tanganyika, 1928 Vol. 3 p. 39.
Eastern Africa (Appeal to the Privy Council) order in council,
1921, Laws of Tanganyika, 1928 Vol. 3 p. 46.
Appeals to the court to Appeal ordinance, 1922 No. II of
1922 Cap. 5 Laws of T. 1928.
Native courts Proclamation 1925 NO. 7 OF 1925, Laws of
Tanganyika, 1928, Vol. 3 86 H/out.
Native courts ordinance, 1929 No. of 1929. Cap. 73 Laws of
Tanganyika, 1947. H/out
Courts ordinance, 1930 No. 13 of 1930
Subordinate Courts ordinance, 1941 No. 15 of 1941, Cap. 3
Law of Tanganyika 1941.
Legal Courts ordinance, 1951, No. 51. Cap 2999 H/out.
Magistrates courts Act. 1963 No. 55 of 1963, Cap. 537 in
force on 1.7 1964 (as amended)
H/out Magistrates court Act 1984 No. 2 of 1984. Judicature
and Application of Laws ordinance, No. 57 of 1961. Cap.
453. H/out.
Easter Africa court of Appeal order in Councilk 1961.
Appellate Jurisdiction ordinance, 1961 No. 55 of 1961,
Cap.431.
14

Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa, Act 1962 (PACSO, No. 13


of 192) and Act 5 of 1964.
Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1979 No. 15 of 1979.
References.
Native Administration Memorandum NO. VI Supervision
and Jurisdiction of Native Courts, Dr es Salaam 1927.
Native Administration Memorandum No. 11: Native courts,
dated 15th January, 1930, Dar Es Salaam.
Report of the commission of Inquiry into the Demonstration
of justice in Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika Territory ifn
criminal Matters, May, 19333 (Bushe commission) CMD
4623,
African conference on Local courts and customary Law,
Record of Proceedings of the conference held in Dar Wes
Salaam, Tanganyika, 18th September, 1963.
J.S.R. Cole and W.N. Denison, the British commonwealth:
The Development of its Laws and Constitutions: Tanganyika,
Stevens & Sons, London, 1964.
R.I. Martin, Personal Freedom and the Law in Tanzania,
oxford University Press, Nairobi, 1974.
L.L Kato Legal Systems of East African Draft Essays, (Mimeo)
Dar Es Salaam, 1970/71.
G.F.A. Sawyerr (Ed) East African Law and Social Changed,
East African Publishing House, Nairobi, 1967.
*H.F. Morris and J.S. Read, Indirect Rule and the search for
Justice Essays in East African Legal History, Clarendon
Press, oxford, 1972.
*D.W. James and F.M. Kassam (ed.) Law and its
Administration in a one party state Selected speeches of
Telford Georges, ESLB, Nairobi, 1973.
W.B. Heary an Introduction to the Legal Systems in East
Africa, EALB. Nairobi, 1975.
15

*J.P. Moffat, Native Courts in Tanganyika: A History of the


Development of Native courts from German Times. (1952) 4
J.A.A. p. 17-25.
*E Constrain, Integration of Courts and Application of
Customary Law in Tanzania. E.A.L.J. (1965) Vol. 1 No.2 p.
108.
T.O. Beidelman, Intertribal Tensions in some Local
Government courts, in Tanganyika (1966) 10 J.A. L. 118,
cont. in (1967) II J.A.L. 84.
A.J. Loveridge, The Future of Native courts (1949) I J.
A.A..77
African Studies Branch, A Digest of Tanganyika Local Courts
ordinance 1951 (1952) 4. J.A.A. 22
J.P.W.B. Mc. Auslan The Problems of Representation in the
Primary courts (1966) 2 E.A.L.J. 197.
L.L. Kato, The Court of Appeal for East Africa: From a
colonial court to an International Court (1971) 7 E.A.A.L.
Sir John Gray, opinion of Assessors in criminal trials in East
Africa as to native custom (1958)2 J.A.L. S.
O.T. Hamlyn, The selection of Asseessors in cases of
Provocation, (1966) J. of the Denning Law Soc. Vol. 1 No.2 p.
110
J.S Warioba, The Role of Assessors in criminal Trials in
Tanganyika J. of the DENNING Law Soc. (1966) Vol. 1 No.3
p. 65.
R.W. Moisey the Role of Assessors in the courts of Tanzania
(1967) E.A.L.J. Vol. 3 No. 4 p. 348.
P.W.J. Odero, The Role and Status of Assessors in East
Africa Judicial System (1971) Vol. 3 of the Denning Law soc.
P. 189.
A.O. Obilade Jurisdiction in Customary Law Matters in
Nigeria: A critical examination (1973) 17 J.A. L. Vol. 1 No. 1
p.28
16

A.O. obilade Jurisdiction in Customary Law MaTTERS IN


Nigeria: Acritical examination (1969) 17 J.A. L. 2 7
*G. Mgpmgp Go,np. Constitution making in Tanzania: Some
THOUGHTS ON THE Union Between Tanganyika and
Zanzibar (Mimeo), 1982 H/out.

CASES
Poole v.R. (1960) E.A 645
*Land officer v. Motor Mart and Exchange (1956) 2 T.L.R.
(RO 265)
A. Rajabali Alidina, v. Fida Hussein Fazal (1924) I TLR (R) 600

Sebastian Luzibukya Kakilo v. Mwami Relix Lugakingila musikule (1953)


Dig. 21.
*Benjamin Chinjate Kassambara v. Rex (1940) 1 T.L.R. 249.
Bhag singh v. Rex 1 T.L.R.(R) 133
Sirus Nyegoto v. Native Authority, North Mara (1958 Dig. 142.
Burahim Alimas v. Masudi Alimsi (1958) Dig. 121
Clemence Ndweolanjana v. Rep. (1963) Dig. 258
Shiv. J. Kumar Sofat VR (1957) E.A. 469.
Murimi V. Rep. (1967) E.A. 542.
Pandya V.R. (1967) E.A. 336.
Rioba Nyanchancha v. Rep. 1973 L.R.T. b. 31.
Ratansi v. Khamis (1925) 1 TLR ( R) 435
Mohamed versi v. Sheikh Elttarth (1951) 1 TLR (T) 547.
Hasham v. Nasser El Harthi (1955)2 TLR (R) 220.

17

Sembetwa Ndatuya v Maria Kisukari. 1975 L.R.T. n. 65


*Re Hermann Milde (1937) 1 T.L.R. 129.
Andreas s/o Mathia v.R. (1954) 21 E.A.C.A 285.
Ernest s/o Ndesangio v. R. (1980) TLR 332.
*Kitenge binti Hamisi v. All bin Said (1937) 1 T.L.R. p.401
Fatuma d/o Kai v. District commissioner, Bukoba (1957) Dig. 94.
Salehe Arepi v. Mohamed Khan (1969) H.C.D. n 273.
Felalon (father) v. Kalinga (1970) HCD n. 259.
Mrisho s/o Pazi v. Tatu d/o Juma (1968) H.CD. n. 119.
Songora v Khalfan (1972) H.CD. n. 73.
Chacha Gikaro v. Marwa Marono (1968) H.C.D.n. 3
Bicoli v Matemba (1971) H.C. D. n. 42.
Endoshi v. Lema (1971) H.C. D. N. 416
Daniel v Kanyok (1971) H.C.D. n. 325.
*Ali Zanda v Mohamed Ngago (1973) L.R.T. n, 16.
Jan Mohamed v Registrar of Buildings (1972) H.C.D.
Rep. v. Gabriel Met (19760 L.R.T. N. II
Mackreyo Kingo s/o Nakala v. R. (1968) H.C.D. n. 105.
Ubwa Mbegu v. R. (1969) H.C.D n. 312.
Dominico Simon v. R. (1972) R.C. D. n. 152.
Andrea s/o Kimbuli v Rep. (1968) H.C.D n. 312
(Hassan V. Rep. (1970) H.C.D n. n. 146.
Jamal Manji v. R (1970) H.C.D n. 338.

18

Mbolye Mhurula v. Sanya Mbolye (1974) L.R.T. n. 48


Rioba Nyachancha v. Rep. (1973) LRT. N. 31.
Mwendwa Mtinangi v. Juma Mahumbi High Court (Singida) civil Appeal
NO. 25 of 1984 (unreported)
Dotto d/o Malamla v. Lukelesha Lyaku (1981) TLR 29.
Ally Kaguru v. Halima TANGA High court, DSM (PC) Civil Appeal No. 45
of 1983 (unreported)
Mariam Ally Ponda v. Kherry Kissinger Hassan High Court, Dodoma (PC)
Matrimonial Appeal No. 1 of 1983 (unreported)
Anastazia Kabetwa v. John Yowela (1982) LRT no. 103.
Esrom W. Gunzar v. Daudi Kamanga 1974 LRT n. 37
Francis v. Arobogasti (1971) HCD n. 160
Seleman Ramadhani v Ally Juma, High court Singida, Civil Appeal No. 27
of 1984 (Unreported).
Bonto Nusura Mchopa v. Chambali Ahmad High Court, Mtwara, (PC)
Civil Appeal No. 26 of 1986.
Susana Shija v. Paulinus Kazulunga High Court Mwanza, Civil Appeal
No. 4 of 1984 (unreported) Rep. v. Akutenda Mwaipopo, (1980) TLR 152.
Rep. v. Juma Masaga 1974 LRT n. 17.
( c) The Court system in Zanzibar past and present
R.N. Ben Lobulu, The Rule of Law in Zanzibar, (1973) Vol. 5 D.U.L.J. p.
74.
H.F. Morris some recent changes in the Judicial systems of East Africa
(1973) Vol.5
Zanzibar order in council 1906.
Zanzibar courts Decree, 1923 No. 8 of 1908.
Courts Decree 1923 No. 20 of 1923 (cap 3 Laws of Zanzibar (Mimeo)
1978 H/out.
Presidential Decree 1923 No. 1. of 1964 (The Existing Laws Decree)
19

Confiscation of immovable Property decreen 1964


Presidential Decree No. 13 of 1965 (The Existing Laws Decree).
Confiscation of Immovable Property decree, 1964
Presidential Decree No. 13 of 1966 (Land Distribution Drecree)
High Court Decree 1964, No. 11 of 1972.
Supreme council Decree 1970
The Constitution of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar 1972.
The constitution of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, 1984.
Magistrates court Act 1985, Act. No. 6 of 1985.
High Court Act, 1985, No 2 of 1985, Kadhis courts Act, 1985 No. 3. of
1985.

C.Appointment Tenure and Disciplinary Control over Judicial officers.


Judicial Service Act, 1962 cap 508, H/out
Judicial Service (Special Commission) General, Termination of Service
and Disciplinary) Regulations, 1965 G.N.
Civil Service, (General, Termination of Service and Disciplinary)
Regulations 1965 GN No. 175 of 1965.
Civil service Regulations, 1970 GN. No 288 of 1970.
Security of Employment Act. 1964, Cap 574
Severance Allowance act 1962, Cap 487
Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania
N.S. Mnzavas, The Administration of Justice in Tanzania (mimeo) 1981.
H.out.
R.h. Kisanga The Challenges of the Professional and the Academic in
Tanzania, (mimeo) 1983 H/out

20

II The Laws to be Applied


Source of this Law and Previsions for its application. Written Law or
Statutory Law Principal and subsidiary Legislation. Applied Indian Acts
and applied United Kingdom Legislation.
Received English Law Common Law, Equity and Statues of General
application.
-

Customary Law
Islamic Law.

A. Written Law or Statutory Law


I.

Colonial Period

Colonial Laws Validity Act, 1865 (28 & 29 Vict. C. 68) Foreign
Jurisdiction Act, 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. C. 37)
Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. C. 37)
Tanganyika order in council 1920 H/Out
The Application of Laws ordinances of 1920 and 1922 Indian Acts
(Application) ordinance cap. 2 Laws of t. 1974.
II.

Position after Independence

The constitution of Tanganyika 1961. SA. 1 No. 2274 of 1961.


The constitution of Tanganyika 1962. Cap 499
The Interim constitution of Tanzania 1965 Act No. 43 of 1965.
The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania 1977.
The judicature an Application of Laws ordinance 1961 Cap. 453
Indian Acts (Application) ordinance, cap. 2
Principal and subsidiary Legislation.
Regulations Rules, order, Bylaws, Notice, Proclamations the role of the
Gazette.
B. Customary Law.
21

Judicature and Application of Laws ordinance cap. 455


Magistrates courts Act, 1963. cap 537.
Local Customary Law (Declaration) No. 4 order 1963,
G.N. 436 of 1963.
Customary Law (Limitation of Proceedings) Rules 1963
G.N. 311 of 1964.
Judicature Acts of Kenya and Uganda
The Interpretation and General Clauses ordinance 1928 (as amended)
Cap. 1.
Interpretation of Laws and General clauses Act, 1972.
*Municipal Board of Mombasa v. Kala (1955) 22. E.A.C.A 318
*Kanji v Tanga Township council (1940) I.T.L.R. (R )
References:
General.
A.N. Allott Essays in African Law
A.N. Allott New Essays in African Law
A.N. Allott (ed) The Future of Law in Africa : Butterworths London 1960.
**W.L. Twinning the Places of customary Law in the Nations Legal
Systems of East Africa Uni. Of Chicago Law school, 1964.
*T.O. Elias The Nature of African Customary Law, Manchester Univ.
Press, 1966.
African conference on Local courts and customary Law, Recird if
Proceedings of the conference held in Dr Es Salaam, 1963.
Delimitation, Ascertainment and Exclusion.
R.E. Robinson. The Administration of Africa Customary Law (1949) 1
J.A.A. 158.

22

C.M.N. White, Africa customary Law; The Problem of concept an


Definition (1965) 9 J.A.L. 86.
A.ST. J.J. Hannigan, Native custom, its similarity of English conventional
customary and its mode of Prof. (1958) 2 J. A. L. 101.
Arthur Philips, The future of customary law in Africa, (1955) 7 J.A.A.
151.
The Editor Customary African Legal Systems (1965) 9 J.A.L. 82.
J.S.S. Rowlands; Notes on native law and custom in Kenya (1962) J.A.L.
192.
G.F.A. Sawyerr. The High court of Uganda and customary Law (1967)
Vol. 3 E.A. L.F. p. 27.
R.W. James, Judicial Developments in customary, Law Journal of the
Denning Law see (1967) Vol. 2. No. 1 p. 41.
J.Y. Obol- OCHOLA The Application of customary Law in Uganda
Judicial Ambivalence, Indifference and Sabatage (1970) Vol. 3 EALR.
175.
F.A Ajavi The Interaction of the English Law with Customary Law in
Western Nigerenia (1960) 4 JA.A. L. 40, 98.
c.m. g. Hismowth, The Botswana customary Law Act 1969 (1972) 16
J.A.L.4.
*E. Cotran, The place and future of customary Law in Africa in East
Africa Law Today, British, Institute of International and Comparative
Law, commonwealth Law series NO. 5 London, 1966.
Recording and codification
E. Contran, Report on customary criminal offences in Kenya,
Government Pronter Nairobi 1963.
T.O. Elias, British colonial Law, Stevens, London, R. E. S. Tanner, The
codification of Customary Law in Tanzania Vol.2 No. 2. 2 E.A. L. British
colonial Law, Stevens, London, R.E. S.
Tanner, The codification of Customary Law in Tanzania Vol. 2 No. 2, 2 E.
A. L. J. 105.

23

Cases
Abdullah Misai v. Mussasasu Tandu and Muna Simba (1969) Di.167

Daniel Semaguruka v. Mabunde (1954) Dig. 54.


Longurari Makara v Sungara (1956) Dig. 76
Eliagenda Mreyeli v. Mtengie (1955) Dig. 75
Meta Tabera v. Isakwe Rongane (1967) H.C. Dn. 119
Kapusyu s/o Mwaipinga v. Mwakyusa (1969) H.CD. N. 88
*Idd Juda Omari v. Abdallah (1969) H/osut.
Masero mwita v. Rioba Masero (1969) H.CD. n. 199.
Abdallah Salim v. Ramadhani Shemdoe (1968) H.CD. n. 129
*Ndewawiosia d/o Neamtzo v. Imanuel s/o Malasi (1968) H.CD. n, 127.
*R.v. Amkevo (1917)7 E.A. P.R. 14.
Fazalan Bibi v. Tehran Bibi (1919-21) E.A. P.L.R 200
*Gwao bin Kilimo v. Kisunda bin Ifuti (1938) i. TLR. 403
R.V. Fabiano Kinena (1941) 8 E.A.C.A 96.
Gabriel Vallery v Virungi Balilema. High court of Tanzania at Bukoba,
(PC) Civil Appeal No. 49 of 1988.
Mwambope Mwaitenda v Lazaro Mwakanjuki (1976) L.R.T. n.60
Chkila Mwaja v Balala Masaka (1981) TLR. 180
R.V. Galikuwa (1951) 19 L.A.C.A. 175.
Mwaura v. Kihwili (1967) 212
Nyangunda v. Gatoto (1967) E.A. 212
Athman v. Rep. (1967) E.A. 212

24

*Kilimani v Gikanga (1962) E.A. 735.


Mwagiru v Mumbi (1967) E.A. 361
R. Kamata (1967) E.A. 361
Re South Rhodesia (1919) 211
A-G for Nyasaland v Jackson (1957) R. & N. 3443.
*Amodu Tijani v Southern Nigeria (Secretary) (1921) A.C. 399
Eleko v Nigerian Government (1931) A.C. 622.
The commissioner General of Income Tax v.R. Joshi 1973 L.R.T. n. 26.
Alai v Uganda (1967) E.A 596
Case v Ruguru (1970) E.A. 55
Arobagast Fundi v. Masudi zaid (1980) T. L. R. 125.
*Frank M. Marealle v Paul Kyauka Njau (1882) TLR 32.
Julius Petero v cosmas Raphael High Cort of Tanzania at Bukona
(PC) Civil Appeal No. 81 of 1983) (Unreported)
*Mohamed Stambuli v Selemani (1968) H.CD. n, 75
Alfred s/o Jacob v. Rep. (1970) HCD. N 307
Jumanne s/o Ramadhani & Anor, v. Rep. (1970) HCD. N. 75
Kijiji cha Ujamaa Msale v. Hamis Athumani Shemweta, High Court of
Tanzania at Mwanza, Civil Appeal No. 26. of 1988.
*Scolastica Benedict v Martin Benedict court of Appeal of Tanzania at
Mwanza, Civil Appeal No 26. of 1988.
*Scolastica Benedict v. Martin Benedict, Court of Appeal of Tanzania at
mwa (PC) Appeal NO. 26 of 1988.
George Kumwenda v Fides Nyirenda (1981) TLR 211
Manugwa Lutalamila v Fides Nyirenda (1982) TLR 98.
25

Julitha Mwaisunga v Rajati Zeinia Mohamed, High Court of Tanzania at


Mbeya (PC) civil Appeal No. 38 of 1987.
Rep/ v. Akutenda Mwaipopo (1980) T. L.R. 152
Abdallah Said v. Mwanamkuu Yusufu (1980) T.L.R. 152
Susana Shija v. Paulinus Kazulunga, High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza,
Civil Appeal NO. 4. of 1984.
Zaki Mustafa, Opting out of the common Law, Recent developments in
the Legal System of the Sudan (1973)17 J.A.L. 133.
Natate Akolawun Personal Lawin the Dudan Trends and Developments.
S.F. Moore Civil Cases and Social contexts, Kilimanjaro and its Judicial
Past (1974) Vol. No. E.A. L.R. 189.
*E. Cotran, The unification of Laws in East Africa (1974) A.N. Allott,
Unification of Laws in African, (1968) of A.J. L. 51 87.
C. Islamic Law.
Judicature and Application of Laws ordinance (T) Cap. 453 Magistrates
Courts Act 1963, Cap 537 (T)
Magistrates courts Act 1963, Cap. 537 (T)
Magistrates Courts Act 1984 No. 2 of 1984.
Mohamedan Estates (Benevolent Payments) ordinance Cap. 19
Marriage, Divorce and Succession (Non-Christian Asiaties
Ordnance 1923, No. 12 of 1923, cap 112 now called the succession (NonChristian Asiatices) ordinance, cap. 112.
Restatements of Islamic Law, G.N. 22 of 1967.
Islamic Law (Restatement) Act, 1964 No. 56 of 1964
The Law (Restatement) Act, 1971 no. 5 of 1971 (t).
The constitution of Kenya s. 179

26

Kadhis courts Act 1967, No.14 14 of 1967 (K)


Wagf commissioner Act, caps. 109 (K)
Registaration of Mohamedan Marriages and Divorce ordinance cap. 115.
Mohammedans Divorce and Succession ordinance cap. 156 (K)
Law of succession Act, 1972, No. 14 of 19972 (K)

Mohammedans Divorce and succession ordinance cap. 156 (K)


Marriage and Divorce of Mohamedans Act Cap. 213 (U)
Cases:
Abdul Wahid v Nabab Bint Hassanilim (1933) I.TL.R. 570
Enzi d/o Mohamed v Said Laursai (1946) Dig. 29
*Matei Kijuu v. omari Saleh (1946) Dig. 206
Ramadhani d/o Bakari v. Kichunda mwenda 1973 LRT n. 33
Zena Binti Renami v. Ahmed Rehani 1976 LRT n. 42.
Re Zainab Abdul Sultan Nathoo (1959) E.A. 917
Khatijabhai v Kaderdina (1953) 2 T.L. 162
Sharems (Ahmed Bin Estate. Re (1959) E.A, 766
Maktari v Maktari (1966) E.A. 35
Massod bin Sid v Ghalum (1947) 14 E.A. C.A 32.
Fatuma Bint Mohamed v. Mohamed Bin Salum (1952) A.C.I.
Alawi v Alawi (1955) 22 E.A.C.A. 105.
Maleksultan v Sherali Jemaji (1955) 22 E.A.C.A. 142
Mohamed v Bhimji (1956) 23 E.A.C.A 369
El Busaidi v el Busaidi (1962) E.A. 248

27

*Hussein Mbwan v Amiri Chongwe (1962) Dig. 232


Pazi v Mohamed (1968) E.A. IIII
*Ayoob v Ayoob (1967) E.A. 416
Mariambhai Rajabli v John curt is (1968) H.C.D. n. 120
*In Re Kusundwa (1965) E.A. 247
Abdallah Shamte v Mussa (1972) H.C.D n.9
*In the matter of the Estate of the Late Salum Omari Mkeremi (1973)
LRT. N. 80
*Shariafa d/o Siadi v. Rajabu s/o Said (1973) L.R.T. n. 89
*Tatu Abdallah v. Waziri Mussa (1975( L.R.T. n. 7
D. Received English Law
1. The Substance of the common Law.
Tanganyika order in council 1920.
(Land Law of Property and Convevancing) ordinance, 1923, No. 2. of
1923, Cap. 114 H/out.
Judicature and Application of Laws ordinace cap. 453.
A.N. Alott Essays in African Law. Butterworths, London, 1960
*A.N. Allot New Essays in Africa Law, Butterworths Londo, 1970.
W.E.C. Daniels, the common Law in West African, Butterworths London,
1964.
A.E.W. Park sources of Nigerian Law, African Universities Press, Lagos,
1963.
*J.R.S. Cole and W.N. Denison. The British commonwealth: The
Development of its Laws and constitutions: Tanganyika.
*H.F. Morris and J.S. Read, Indirect Rule and the Search for Justice,
Clarendon Press, OXFORD, 1972.
28

H.F. Morris and J.S. Read, The British commonwealth: The Development
of its Laws and constitutions: No. 13 Uganda Stevens and Sons, London
1966.
Sir Kenneth Robwerts Wray the adaptation of imported Law in African
(1960) 34 J.A.L. 66.
N.A. Ollonnu, The Influence of English Law in West Africa (1961) 5 J.A.L.
21.
*R.B. Seidman, Reception in English Colonial Africa Revisted (1969) Vol.
2 No. 1 A. L.R. p. 47
*J.S. Read when is a wife not a wife? Journal of the Denning Law Sec.
(1964) p. 46.
Cases:
*Hasham Hamir Juma v. R. i.t.l.r. 195
R.V. Higgins 102 E.R. 269
R.V. Gangji and Nasser (1949) 7 Z. L.R. 32.
R.V Manley (1933) I.K. B. 529
Sham v. D. pp (1962) E.A. 220
*Kimno Arap Kipturji v. R (1934) I.E.A.C.A. 188.
Yanasani Egalu & 3 ors. v Rex (1942) 9 E.A.C. A. 65
R.V. Singh 14 E.A. C. A. III
R.V. Zulu (1961) R. & N. 645
*Mawji v. Queen (1957) All E.R. 385.
*Mphumeya v. R. (1956) R & N. 24.
Neva v. R. (1961) R & N. 538
*Abdallah Nathoo v Hirji (1957) E.A. 207.
ii. Doctrines of Equity

29

Judicature and Application of Laws ordinace, Cap. 453.


Judicature Acts of Kenya and Uganda
Registered Land Act 1963 Cap 3000 (Kenya) s. 163
Supreme court of Jurcature Act 1873 (36 and 37 Vict. C. 66)
Supreme court of Judicature Act, 1875 58.
Causes
*East African Estates Ltd. V. Khalfan (1932) 14 K.L.R. 76
*Saleh bint Hadi Saleh v. Sharif Eljofri (1950) 24 K.L.R. 17 Patel v.
Thankore (1965) E.A. 629.
iii.

Statutes of General Application

A.N. Allott, Essays in African Law.


A. N. Allot, New Essays in African
Law.
Cases
Nagji v Abdullah (1936-517 6 U.L.R. 43.
Bannet v. Garvie (1918) E.A. L.R. 48
Bux v. Dalal (1912) 4 E.A.L. R. 99.
Jamat v. Godinho (1936-51) 6 U.L.R. 99.
Andrson v. E.A.H.C (1949) I.T.L.R. (R ) 541
*Pira v. Mawji (1930 1 T.L.R. (R)541
*Jos Hansen Soeh A. M. B. H. v. Jetha Ltd (1959) E.A. 563.
Parry v. Garson (1963) E.A. 91
*Aggarwal v. Phillon (1969) H.C.D. n. 165.
A.G. of Zanzibar v Kamal (1934) ITLR (R ) 495
Cornelious v. Martinangilia (1934) ITLR (R ) 495.

30

Bachoo v Zanzibar Clove Growers Association (1957) E.A 193


Michael Kamau v. Gregory Gecharu (1953) 2 E.A.C. 13.
Express Transport CO. B.A.T. (Tanzania) (1968) E.A. 443.
In the matter of Antonio Natalic chie (1969) H.C.C n. 142
Thaker Signh v. Kaur (1935) 17 K.L.R. 1
Gulam Mohamed v. Ettel (1918) 2 U.L.R. 290
iv.

Out of court Dispute Settlement in Tanzania Negotiation,


mediation, Adjudication.

A. Informal Method of Dispute Settlement


Drumming the scandal among the Tiv. (Paul Bohannan, Justice and
Judgement among the the Tiv. OUP, London 1957 p. 142. H/out
Kadums Case H/OUT
The case of Mrs. Elisha (brief report by F.L. DUBOW) H/out
Other References.
H. Gluckaman Politics, Law Ritual in Tribal Society Admine Publishing
Co. Chicago 1962 (Reprinted 1968) Chap. 5.
M. Gluckman The Judical Process among the Burotse of Northern
Rhodesia 2nd Ed. Manshester, 1967.
R.E.S. Tanner Law Enforcement by communal Action in Sukuma land
Tanganyika Territory (1955)7 J.A.A. 159.
T.O. Beidelman, Kaguru Justice and the convept of Legal finaction,
(1961) 5 J.A.A L. 4.
J. Van Velsen Procedural Informality Reconciliation and False
Comparisons, in M. Gluckaman (Ed.) Ideas and Procedures in African
customary Law, O.U.P. London, 1969.
J.H.M. Beattie, Informal Judicial Activity in Bunyoro (1957) 9. J.A.A.199.
b. State Institutions.

31

1. Arbitrators Arbitration Tribunals and conciliation Boards


Arbitration Tribunal Regulations 1969, G.N. 192/69
The Law of Marriage Act. 1971 No. 5 of 1971
Abritration ordinance, cap 15.
Reference General
G. Feifer, Justice in Moscow, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1964.
S. Kucherowv. The Organs of Soviet Adminstration of Justice:
Berman and Spindlar, Soviet Comrades courts (1963)38 Wash L. Rev.
842.
A. Cruz. It took only 3 years, the Destruction of A Law Firm (1964) 50
A.B. A. J. 63.
Jesse Berman, The Cuban popular Tribunals (1969) colum. L.Re. 13317.
J.A. Cohen The Criminal Process in the PEOPLES Republic or Chiv- An
Introduction, (1965 66) 79 Harv. L.R. 469
Shao- Chuan Leng, Post constitutional Development OF People Justice
in China (1965-66) 6 and 7 J. of Int1 comm. Of Jurists, 203.
S. Lubman, Mao and Mediation: Politics and Disputes Resolution
communist chine (1967) 55 Calif. L. Rev. 1284.
Arbitration cases
Mamdani v. Suchlae (1971) N.C.D. n. 10
Motokav v. Auto Garage and Ors. (1970) H.C.D.N. 133
Shah v. The Moshi Universal stores Ltd (1971) H.C.D. n. 118
Kassam Ahmed v. Mohamed Dewshi and Sons Ltd. 1973 L.R.T. n. 40
2. Administrative Tribunals
Security of Employment Act 1964. Cap 574.
Customary Leaseholds (Enfranchisements) Act 1960 Act No. 47 of 1968.

32

Rent Restriction Act 1984, Act No. 17 of 1984.


Acquisition of Buildings Act No. 33 of 1973.
Permanent Labour Tribunal Act, 1967, Act No. 41 of 1967 by Act No. 3
1990.
Cases:
Shipping Line Limited v. Rep. 1976 LRT. N. 61
Fatuma Saidi v A. S. Pardan (1976) LRT n. 59
Mtenga v. Univ. of Dar es Salaam (1921) H.C.D.n. 247.
Mohan v. Univ. of Dar ES Salaam (1981) TLR.

Prepared by
Prof. G. Mgongo Fimbo and Hamid Nassoro

HN/ka:

33