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First Amendment - U.S. Constitution

U.S. Constitutional Amendments (/amendments.html)

2nd Amendment (/amendment2/amendment.html) >>

First Amendment - U.S. Constitution


First Amendment - Religion and Expression
Amendment Text | Annotations
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to
petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

1st Amendment Annotations


Religion (annotation01.html#1)
An Overview (annotation01.html#2)
Scholarly Commentary (annotation01.html#3)
Court Tests Applied to Legislation Affecting Religion (annotation01.html#4)
Government Neutrality in Religious Disputes (annotation01.html#5)
Establishment of Religion (annotation02.html#1)
Financial Assistance to Church-Related Institutions (annotation02.html#2)
Governmental Encouragement of Religion in Public Schools: Released Time (annotation03.html#1)
Governmental Encouragement of Religion in Public Schools: Prayers and Bible Reading

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(annotation03.html#2)
Governmental Encouragement of Religion in Public Schools: Curriculum Restriction
(annotation03.html#3)
Access of Religious Groups to Public Property (annotation03.html#4)
Tax Exemptions of Religious Property (annotation04.html#1)
Exemption of Religious Organizations from Generally Applicable Laws (annotation04.html#2)
Sunday Closing Laws (annotation04.html#3)
Conscientious Objection (annotation04.html#4)
Regulation of Religious Solicitation (annotation04.html#5)
Religion in Governmental Observances (annotation04.html#6)
Religious Displays on Government Property (annotation04.html#7)
Miscellaneous (annotation04.html#8)
Free Exercise of Religion (annotation05.html#1)
The Belief-Conduct Distinction (annotation05.html#2)
The Mormon Cases (annotation05.html#3)
The Jehovah's Witnesses Cases (annotation05.html#4)

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Free Exercise Exemption from General Governmental Requirements (annotation05.html#5)


Religious Test Oaths (annotation05.html#6)
Religious Disqualification (annotation05.html#7)
Freedom of Expression--Speech and Press (annotation06.html#1)
Adoption and Common Law Background (annotation06.html#2)
Freedom of Expression: The Philosophical Basis (annotation07.html#1)
Freedom of Expression: Is There a Difference Between Speech and Press (annotation08.html#1)
The Doctrine of Prior Restraint (annotation09.html#1)
Injunctions and the Press in Fair Trial Cases (annotation09.html#2)
Obscenity and Prior Restraint (annotation09.html#3)
Subsequent Punishment: Clear and Present Danger and Other Tests (annotation10.html#1)
Clear and Present Danger (annotation10.html#2)
The Adoption of Clear and Present Danger (annotation10.html#3)
Contempt of Court and Clear and Present Danger (annotation10.html#4)
Clear and Present Danger Revised: Dennis (annotation10.html#5)
Balancing (annotation10.html#6)
The ''Absolutist'' View of the First Amendment, with a Note on ''Preferred Position'' (annotation10.html#7)
Of Other Tests and Standards: Vagueness, Overbreadth, Least Restrictive Means, and Others
(annotation10.html#8)
Is There a Present Test? (annotation10.html#9)
Freedom of Belief (annotation11.html#1)
Flag Salute Cases (annotation11.html#2)
Imposition of Consequences for Holding Certain Beliefs (annotation11.html#3)
Right of Association (annotation12.html#1)
Political Association (annotation12.html#2)
Conflict Between Organization and Members (annotation12.html#3)
Maintenance of National Security and the First Amendment (annotation13.html#1)
Punishment of Advocacy (annotation13.html#2)
Compelled Registration of Communist Party (annotation13.html#3)
Punishment for Membership in an Organization Which Engages in Proscribed Advocacy
(annotation13.html#4)
Disabilities Attaching to Membership in Proscribed Organizations (annotation13.html#5)
Employment Restrictions and Loyalty Oaths (annotation13.html#6)
Legislative Investigations and the First Amendment (annotation13.html#7)
Interference With War Effort (annotation13.html#8)
Suppression of Communist Propaganda in the Mails (annotation13.html#9)
Exclusion of Certain Aliens as a First Amendment Problem (annotation13.html#10)
Particular Government Regulations Which Restrict Expression (annotation14.html#1)
Government as Employer: Political and Other Outside Activities (annotation14.html#2)
Government as Employer: Free Expression Generally (annotation14.html#3)
Government as Educator (annotation14.html#4)
Government as Regulator of the Electoral Process: Elections (annotation15.html#1)
Government as Regulator of the Electoral Process: Lobbying (annotation15.html#2)
Government as Regulator of Labor Relations (annotation15.html#3)
Government as Investigator: Journalist's Privilege (annotation16.html#1)
Government and the Conduct of Trials (annotation16.html#2)
Government as Administrator of Prisons (annotation16.html#3)
Government and Power of the Purse (annotation16.html#4)
Governmental Regulation of Communications Industries (annotation17.html#1)
Commercial Speech (annotation17.html#2)
Taxation (annotation17.html#3)
Labor Relations (annotation17.html#4)
Antitrust Laws (annotation17.html#5)
Radio and Television (annotation17.html#6)
Governmentally Compelled Right of Reply to Newspapers (annotation17.html#7)
Regulation of Cable Television (annotation17.html#8)
Government Restraint of Content of Expression (annotation18.html#1)
Seditious Speech and Seditious Libel (annotation18.html#2)

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Fighting Words and Other Threats to the Peace (annotation18.html#3)


Group Libel, Hate Speech (annotation18.html#4)
Defamation (annotation18.html#5)
Invasion of Privacy (annotation19.html#1)
Emotional Distress Tort Actions (annotation19.html#2)
''Right of Publicity'' Tort Actions (annotation19.html#3)
Publication of Legally Confidential Information (annotation19.html#4)
Obscenity (annotation19.html#5)
Child Pornography (annotation19.html#6)
Nonobscene But Sexually Explicit and Indecent Expression (annotation19.html#7)
Speech Plus--The Constitutional Law of Leafleting, Picketing, and Demonstrating
(annotation20.html#1)
The Public Forum (annotation20.html#2)
Quasi-Public Places (annotation20.html#3)
Picketing and Boycotts by Labor Unions (annotation20.html#4)
Public Issue Picketing and Parading (annotation20.html#5)
Leafleting, Handbilling, and the Like (annotation20.html#6)
Sound Trucks, Noise (annotation20.html#7)
Door-to-Door Solicitation (annotation20.html#8)
The Problem of ''Symbolic Speech (annotation20.html#9)''
Rights of Assembly and Petition (annotation21.html#1)
Background and Development (annotation21.html#2)
The Cruikshank Case (annotation21.html#3)
The Hague Case (annotation21.html#4)

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