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## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 1

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES
Q1 (coul)

k (cnstnt)

Formula 1-1

F=k x Q1 x Q2/d2

CHAPTER 1
Formula 1-2

I=Q/T

=D16/E16

Q (coul)

CHAPTER 2

d (mils)

Formula 2-1

A = d2

CHAPTER 2
Formula 2-2

R = l/A

=D22*E22/F22

(CM-/ft)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-1

I = V/R

=D25/E25

V (volts)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-2

V=IxR

=D28*E28

I (amps)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-3

R = V/I

=D31/E31

V (volts)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-4

## To find work in foot pounds

Work (ft lbs)=Force x Distance

=D34*E34

F (lbs)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-5

## To find power in watts

Power = Energy / Time

=D37/E37

E (joules)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-6

## To find energy in watthours

Energy (Watthours)= Power x Time

=D40*E40

P (watts)

CHAPTER 3
Formula 3-7

P=VxI

=D43*E43

V (volts)

CHAPTER 3

## Excel formula in column H is:

I (amps)

Formula 3-8

P = I2x R

=D13*E13*F13/G13^2

Q2 (coul)
2

d (mtr)
3

1.5

T (sec)
5

=D19^2

=D46^2*E46

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

2.5

16
l (feet)

10.4

A (CM)
250

39.75

65.41

R (ohms)
10

10

100

10000

10

10

200

600

10

I (amps)
0.05

0.5

R (ohms)
2
I (amps)
10
D (feet)
100
T (sec)
100
T (hours)

R (ohms)
0.05

200

0.5

A
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## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

CHAPTER 3

Formula 3-9

P = V2/R

CHAPTER 4

RT = R1+R2+Rn

RT = VT / IT

V1 = IR1 x R1

Formula 4-3
CHAPTER 4

Formula 4-4

VX = RX/RT x VT

CHAPTER 4

Formula 4-5

VT = V1 + V2 +Vn

=SUM(D64:F64)

CHAPTER 4

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 4-6

PT = P1 + P2 + Pn

=SUM(D67:F67)

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-1

IT = I1 + I2 + I3 +In

=SUM(D70:F70)

CHAPTER 5

Formula 5-2

## GT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 +1/Rn

=1/D73+1/E73+1/F73

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-3

RT=1/(1/R1+1/R2+1/R3...1/Rn)

=1/(1/D76+1/E76+1/F76)

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-4

GT = G1 + G2 + G3

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-5

RT = R1 x R2/R1 + R2

=D82*E82/(D82+E82)

Formula 4-1
CHAPTER 4
Formula 4-2
CHAPTER 4

## Excel formula in column H is:

AND THEIR VALUES
V (volts)

R (ohms)

=D49^2/E49

10
R1 (ohms)
10
VT (volts)

R3 (ohms)

10

70
IR1 (amps)

10

30

35

100,000

200

R1 (ohms)

0.002
RX (ohms)

=D61/E61*F61

0.5

IT (amps)

=D55/E55

=SUM(D79:F79)

200
R2 (ohms)

=SUM(D52:F52)

=D58*E58

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

RT (ohms)

4700
V1 (volts)

V2 (volts)
20

PR1 (watts)

PR2 (watts)

I2 (amps)

R1 (ohms)

R2 (ohms)

G1 (S)

R1 (ohms)
3900

5.5

47

0.097

20000

5346.53

0.1

0.4

R3 (ohms)

R3 (ohms)

27000
G2 (S)

0.1

400

33

10000

60

I3 (amps)

R2 (ohms)

R1 (ohms)

10

160

1.5

22

13.51

PR3 (watts)

200

50
V3 (volts)

30

40
I1 (amps)

VT (volts)

17400

G3 (S)
0.2

R2 (ohms)
6800

2478.50

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
83
84
85

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-6

Ru = Rk x Re/Rk -Re

=D85*E85/(D85-E85)

AND THEIR VALUES
Rk (ohms)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

Re (ohms)
10

15

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118
119
120
121

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

CHAPTER 5

Formula 5-7

IX = RT/RX x IT

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-8

I1 = R2/R1 + R2 x IT

=E91/(D91+E91)*F91

CHAPTER 5

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 5-9

I2 = R1/R1 + R2 x IT

CHAPTER 6

R1/R2 = R3/R4

Formula 6-1
CHAPTER 6

Formula 6-2

CHAPTER 7

## To find efficiency of power transfer

Efficiency (%) = Pout/Pin x 100

## To find I load using Thevenin's Th.

IL = VTH / RTH + RL

## To find V load using Thevenin's Th.

VL = RL/RL + RTH x VTH

Formula 7-5

## To find I load using Norton's Th.

IL = RN/RN + RL x IN

CHAPTER 8

Formula 8-1

## RA= (R1xR2) + (R2xR3) + (R3xR1)/R1

=((D118*E118)+(E118*F118)+(F118*D118))/D118

CHAPTER 8

## Excel formul in column H is:

Formula 8-2

RB = (R1xR2)+(R2xR3)+(R3xR1)/R2

=((D121*E121)+(E121*F121)+(F121*D121))/E121

Formula 7-1
CHAPTER 7
Formula 7-2
CHAPTER 7
Formula 7-3
CHAPTER 7
Formula 7-4
CHAPTER 7

## Excel formula in column H is:

=D88/E88*F88

=D94/(D94+E94)*F94

AND THEIR VALUES
RT (ohms)

RX (ohms)

550
R1 (ohms)

R1 (ohms)

R1 (ohms)

R1 (ohms)
10
Pout (watts)

0.0055

0.003025

IT (amps)
0.05

0.02619

IT (amps)
0.05
R3 (ohms)

0.02381
R4 (ohms)

30

## 60 Ans. here is 600=600

R3 (ohms)

20

30

60

Pin (watts)

8.84
13
VTH (volts)

26.6
12
RTH (ohms)

50
RL (ohms)

RN (ohms)

R1 (ohms)

R1 (ohms)

4.7
R2 (ohms)

3.3

100

4.7

0.01

RL (ohms)
25
RTH (ohms)

1
VTH (v)

25
RL (ohms)

25
R2 (ohms)

3.3

25
RN (ohms)

25

33.23

25
RL (ohms)

25

=D115/(E115+F115)*G115

IT (amps)

20
R2 (ohms)

=E100*F100/D100

=D112/(E112+F112)*G112

11000
R2 (ohms)

10

=D109/(E109+F109)

11000
R2 (ohms)

10000

=(D106-E106)/F106

1000
R2 (ohms)

10000

D97*G97=E97*F97

=D103/E103*100

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

50

25

0.5

IN (amps)
75

R3 (ohms)
5.6

18.28

R3 (ohms)
5.6

12.83

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3
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5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

122
123 CHAPTER 8
124 Formula 8-3

FORMULAS

## Excel formula in column H is:

RC = (R1xR2)+(R2xR3)+(R3xR1)/R3

=((D124*E124)+(E124*F124)+(F124*D124))/F124

AND THEIR VALUES
R1 (ohms)

R2 (ohms)
3.3

4.7

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

R3 (ohms)
5.6

10.77

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128
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138
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140
141
142
143
144
145
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148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

CHAPTER 8

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 8-4

R1 = RB x RC/RA + RB + RC

=E127*F127/(D127+E127+F127)

CHAPTER 8

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 8-5

R2 = RC x RA/RA + RB + RC

=F130*D130/(D130+E130+F130)

CHAPTER 8

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 8-6

R3 = RA x RB/RA + RB + RC

=D133*E133/(D133+E133+F133)

CHAPTER 9

Formula 9-1

## Force = Pole 1 Strng. x Pole 2 Strng./d2

=D136*E136/F136^2

CHAPTER 9
Formula 9-2

mmf = NI

## Excel formula in column H is:

=D139*E139

N (# of trns) I (amps)
100

CHAPTER 9
Formula 9-3

H = AT/meter

=D142*E142/F142

A (amps)

CHAPTER 9

## To find induced voltage per turn

Vind = # of lines of flux cut/per unit time

flux (Wb)

## To find induced voltage in coil

Vind = N (# of turns) x flux/time

Formula 9-5
CHAPTER 10

CHAPTER 11
Formula 11-1

## To find time of one period in ac

T (sec) = 1/f (Hz)

=1/D153

f (Hz)

CHAPTER 11
Formula 11-2

## To find frequency from time of 1 per.

f (Hz) = 1/T (sec)

=1/D156

T (time in sec)
0.0001

CHAPTER 11
Formula 11-3

## To find effective value from peak

Effective value (rms) = 0.707 x pk. val.

=D159*E159

Formula 9-4
CHAPTER 9

RA (ohms)

RB (ohms)

18.28
RA (ohms)

RB (ohms)

RA (ohms)

10.77

5.60

d (meters)
2

0.05

800

500

T (turns)
meters
100

0.1

5000

time( sec)
2

## N (# of turns) flux (Wb)

=D148*E148/F148

4.70

RC (ohms)

P2 Strength

10.77

12.83

3.30

RC (ohms)

RB (ohms)

P1 Strength

10.77

12.83

18.28

=D145/E145

RC (ohms)

12.83

18.28

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

100

time( sec)
3

1000

0.707

300

0.001

V pk. (volts)
100

10000

70.7

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
161 CHAPTER 11
162 Formula 11-4

10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

FORMULAS
To find avg. value (1/2 cycle) from pk.
Avg. value (1/2 cycle) = 0.637 x pk. val.

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

Excel formula in column H is:
=D162*E162

AND THEIR VALUES
V pk. (volts)
0.637
100

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

63.7

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7
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9
10
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165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

## To find instant. V of sine wave

v inst = Vp x sin of angle value

CHAPTER 11
Formula 11-6

=D168/E168*100

tw (sec)

CHAPTER 11

Baseln value

Formula 11-7

## Vavg = Baseln val. + (duty cycle x p-p amp.)

=D171+(E171*F171)

CHAPTER 12

CHAPTER 13

## To find V induced in a coil

Vind = N (# of trns) x d /dt

Formula 13-1
CHAPTER 13

Formula 13-2

VL = L x di/dt

CHAPTER 13

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 13-3

L = VL / di/dt

=D182/(E182/F182)

CHAPTER 13

Formula 13-4

## To find L from physical parameters.

L=12.57 x 10-7x r x N2 x A / l

CHAPTER 13

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 13-5

L = 12.57 x 10-7 x N2 x A / l

=0.000001257*D188^2*E188/F188

CHAPTER 13

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 13-6

LT = L1 + L2 . . . +Ln

= SUM(D191:F191)

CHAPTER 13

Formula 13-7

## 1/LT = 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3+1/Ln

=1/D194+1/E194+1/F194

CHAPTER 13

Formula 13-8

## LT = 1 / 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3+1/Ln

=1/(1/D197+1/E197+1/F197)

CHAPTER 11
Formula 11-5

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

V pk. (volts)

=D165*F165

sin

angle

141

30

20
duty cycle

pk-pk volts

500
L (H)

di (amps)

di (amps)

r
1
N (# trns)

1000

50

2.5

dt (secs)
12

N (# trns)

=0.000001257*D185*E185^2*F185/G185

2.5

dt (secs)
5

dt (secs)
2

10
VL (volts)

20

0.1

d(Wb)

N (# trns)

=D179*E179/F179

70.5

T (sec)
4

=D176*E176/F176

0.5

A (sq mtrs)

2000

0.001

l (mtrs)
0.01

0.5028

2000
L1 (H)

0.001
L2 (H)

10
L1 (H)

L2 (H)

L1 (H)

2.5

17.5

10

0.4

10

2.5

L3 (H)
5

L2 (H)
10

0.5028

L3 (H)
5

10

0.01

L3 (H)
5

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

199 CHAPTER 13
200 Formula 13-9

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS
To find LT of 2 parallel L's

## Excel formula in column H is:

LT = L1 x L2 / L1 + L2

=D200*E200/(D200+E200)

AND THEIR VALUES
L2 (H)

L1 (H)
10

10

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES
L (H)

CHAPTER 13

Formula 13-10

## Energy = 0.5 LI2

=D203*E203*F203^2

CHAPTER 13
Formula 13-11

=D206/E206

L (H)

CHAPTER 13

## Excel formula in column H is:

Vs (volts)

Formula 13-12

i = Vs/R x (1 - -Rt/L)

=D209/E209*((1-2.71828^ (E209*F209/G209)))

CHAPTER 13

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 13-13

i = Vs/R x ( -Rt/L)

=D212/E212*((2.71828^-(E212*F212/G212)))

CHAPTER 14

Formula 14-1

XL = 2fL

CHAPTER 14

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 14-2

L= XL/2f

=D218/(E218*F218)

CHAPTER 14

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 14-3

f = XL/2L

=D221/(E221*F221)

CHAPTER 14

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 14-4

1/XLT=1/XL1+1/XL2+1/XL3

=1/(D224)+1/(E224)+1/(F224)

CHAPTER 14

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 14-5

XLT=1/(1/XL1+1/XL2+)

=1/(1/D227+1/E227)

CHAPTER 14

Formula 14-6

## XLT = XL1 x XL2/XL1 + XL2

=D230*E230/(D230+E230)

CHAPTER 14

To find Q in an RL ac circuit
Q = XL/R

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 14-7
CHAPTER 15

Pythagorean Theorem

Formula 15-1

c2 = a2 + b2

=D236^2+E236^2

I (amps)

0.5

20

12
R (ohms)

10

Vs (volts)

t (sec)

R (ohms)

f (Hz)

XL1 (ohms)

XL2 (ohms)
4000

5000

1884

1500000

0.000212

0.00003

21231423

XL3 (ohms)
6000

0.000917

2500

XL2 (ohms)

5000
XL (ohms)

XL2 (ohms)

5000
XL1 (ohms)

0.000137

L (H)
6.28

2000

0.05

f (Hz)
6.28

XL1 (ohms)

0.001

L (H)

4000

10
L (H)

0.000068

60

2000
XL (ohms)

L (H)
0.001

t (sec)

2200

6.28
XL (ohms)

0.83

10000

=D233/E233

250

R (ohms)
10

=D215*E215*F215

5000

2500

R (ohms)

3140
a

50

62.8

10

200

b
10

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

CHAPTER 15

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 15-2

VT = VR2 + VL2

=SQRT(D239^2+E239^2)

CHAPTER 15

Z = R2 + XL2

Formula 15-3
CHAPTER 15

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 15-4

IT = R2 + IL2

=SQRT(D245^2+E245^2)

CHAPTER 15

Formula 15-5

## To find Z in a parallel RL circuit

Z = R x XL / R2 + XL2

CHAPTER 15
Formula 15-6

G = 1/R

=D251/E251

CHAPTER 15

BL = 1/XL

Formula 15-7

=D254/E254

1005

0.000995

CHAPTER 15
Formula 15-8

Y = 1/Z

=D257/E257

Z (ohms)
835

0.001198

CHAPTER 15

YT = G2 + BL2

## To find magnitude of phase angle

(magnitude) = tan-1 R / XL

M = k L1 x L2

Formula 16-1
CHAPTER 16

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 16-2

LT = L1 + L2 + 2M

=D269+E269+2*F269

CHAPTER 16

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 16-3

LT = L1 + L2 - 2M

=D272+E272-2*F272

Formula 15-9
CHAPTER 15
Formula 15-10
CHAPTER 16

VR (volts)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

VL (volts)
10

5
IR (amps)

8.66

10.00

IL (amps)
3

5.83

50

30

25.72

R (ohms)
1500

0.000667

XL (ohms)

R (ohms)

=D248*E248/SQRT(D248^2+E248^2)

14.14

XL (ohms)

R (ohms)

=SQRT(D242^2+E242^2)

10

One

XL (ohms)

BL (S)

G (S)

=SQRT(D260^2+E260^2)

0.000667

1500

1005
L1 (H)

=D266*SQRT(E266*F266)

0.001198

XL (ohms)

R (ohms)

=DEGREES(ATAN(D263/E263))

0.000995

1
L1 (H)

L2 (H)
3

L2 (H)
8

L1 (H)

24

M (H)
8

L2 (H)
8

56.178

M (H)
8

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

CHAPTER 16

Formula 16-4

LT = L1 + L2 2M

=D275+E2752*F275

CHAPTER 16

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 16-5

LT = 1/1/L1 + M + 1/L2 + M

=1/((1/(D278+F278)+1/(E278+F278)))

CHAPTER 16

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 16-6

LT = 1/1/L1 - M + 1/L2 - M

=1/((1/(D281-F281)+1/(E281-F281)))

CHAPTER 16

k = M/ L1 x L2

VP/VS = NP/NS

NP/NS = VP/VS

NP/NS = IS/IP

VP/VS = IS/IP

Formula 16-12

(NS/NP)2 = ZS/ZP

CHAPTER 16

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 16-13

ZP = ZS(NP/NS)2

=D302*(E302/F302)^2

CHAPTER 16

NP/NS = ZP/ZS

## To find transformer efficiency

Efficiency % = Pout/Pin x 100

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 16-7
CHAPTER 16
Formula 16-8
CHAPTER 16
Formula 16-9
CHAPTER 16
Formula 16-10
CHAPTER 16
Formula 16-11
CHAPTER 16

Formula 16-14
CHAPTER 16
Formula 16-15

AND THEIR VALUES
L1 (H)

L2 (H)

L1 (H)

10
L2 (H)

L1 (H)

8
L2 (H)
8
L2 (H)
8
VS (volts)

20
NP (trns)

NP (trns)

VP (volts)

VS (volts)

14

0.1

IP (amps)
0.5

ZS (ohms)
4

0.1

ZP(ohms)
8

128

NS (trns)

2000
ZP (ohms)

IP (amps)

IS (amps)

NP (trns)

14
VS(volts)

0.5

1
ZS (ohms)

0.5

IS (amps)

NP (trns)

or =(D299/E299)^2=F299/G299

5
NS (trns)

VP (volts)

or =D296*G296=E296*F296

280
NS (trns)

or = D293*G293 = E293*F293

NS(trns)

280

20

10

NP (trns)

NS (trns)

or = D290*G290=E290*F290

30

M (H)

8
VP (volts)

(aid)
(opp)

M (H)

8
L1 (H)

5
M (H)

or = D287*G287=E287*F287

=D308/E308*100

M (H)

10

=F284/SQRT(D284*E284)

=SQRT(D305/E305)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

8000

ZS (ohms)

1000

10

10

86

100

86

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES

CHAPTER 17
Formula 17-1

C = Q/V

=D311/E311

Q (coul)

V (volts)

CHAPTER 17
Formula 17-2

Q=CxV

=D314*E314

CHAPTER 17
Formula 17-3

V = Q/C

=D317/E317

Q (coul)

CHAPTER 17

Formula 17-4

=0.5*D320*E320^2

CHAPTER 17

Formula 17-5

k = o/ v

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-6

C = 8.85 x A/1012s

=8.85*D326/(10^12*E326)

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-7

C = 8.85 x k x A/1012 x s

=8.85*D329*E329/(10^12*F329)

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-8

C = 2.25*k*A/107 x s x (n-1)

=2.25*D332*E332/10^7*F332*(G332-1)

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-9

CT = C1 x C2 / C1 + C2

=D335*E335/(D335+E335)

CHAPTER 17

Formula 17-10

CT = C/N

=D338/G338

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-11

CT = 1/1/C1+1/C2+1/C3...+1/Cn

=1/(1/D341+1/E341+1/F341)

CHAPTER 17

Formula 17-12

VX = VS x CT/CX

=D344*E344/F344

10

10

250

0.15625

0.001

8.85E-011

V (volts)
5
10
V (volts)

0.000005

o (abs)

v (vac)

=D323/E323

6
A (sq mtrs)

s (mtrs)

0.01
k (number)

3

k (number)

0.01
A (sq in.)

100
C1 (F)

0.001
n(# plates)

s (in.)
2

2.655E-010

0.005

0.009

C2 (F)
3

C1 (F)

6
C2 (F)

10
C1 (F)

C3 (F)
10

C2 (F)
10

VS (volts)

n(# plates)
10

3.33

C3 (F)
5

CT (uF)
60

10

2.5

15

30

CX (F)
7.5

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-13

CT = C1 + C2 + C3+Cn

C1 (F)

C2 (F)

C3 (F)

=D347+E347+F347+G347

CHAPTER 17
Formula 17-14

1 TC (T) = R x C

=D350*E350

R (ohms)
1000
0.000001

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

VS (volts)

Formula 17-15

vR = VS x ( -t/T)

=D353*((E353^-(F353/G353)))

CHAPTER 17

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 17-16

vC = VS x (1 - -t/T)

=D356*(((1-(E356^-(F356/G356)))))

CHAPTER 18

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 18-1

iC = C x dv/dt

=(D359*10^-12)*E359/(F359*10^-6)

CHAPTER 18

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 18-2

XC = 1/2x f x C

=1/(D362*E362*F362)

CHAPTER 18

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 18-3

f = 1/2 x C x XC

=1/(D365*E365*F365)

CHAPTER 18

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 18-4

C = 1/2 x f x XC

=1/(D368*E368*F368)

CHAPTER 18

Formula 18-5

## XCT = 1/1/XC1 + 1/XC2 + 1/XC31/XCn

=1/(1/D371+1/E371+1/F371)

CHAPTER 18

Formula 18-6

## XCT = XC1 x XC2 / XC1 + XC2

=D374*E374/(D374+E374)

CHAPTER 18

Formula 18-7

XCT = XC1 / N

=D377/E377

CHAPTER 19

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 19-1

VT = VR2 + VC2

=SQRT(D380^2+E380^2)

15

10

50

VS (volts)

C (value)

2.71828

dv (volts)

f (Hz)

XC1 (ohms)

XC1 (ohms)

10000

18.39

(sec)

18000

10000

41.74

100

0.0001

0.000002

663.48

1000

318471

XC (ohms)
2000

XC2 (ohms)

1000

10000

XC (ohms)

5E-010
f (Hz)

6.28

(sec)

120

6.28

38

dt (sec)

100

6.28

0.001

t (sec)
2.71828

100

10

t (sec)

50

C4 (F)

3180

0.000000025

XC3 (ohms)

2000

3000

545.45

XC2 (ohms)

1000
XC1 (ohms)

2000

666.67

N (number)

1000
VR (volts)

200

50

70.71

VC (volts)
50

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES
XC (ohms)

Formula 19-2

Z = R2 + XC 2

CHAPTER 19

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 19-3

IT = IR2 + IC2

=SQRT(D386^2+E386^2)

CHAPTER 19

## To find Z in a parallel RC circuit

Z = R x XC / R2 + XC 2

Formula 19-4
CHAPTER 19
Formula 19-5

G = 1/R

=D392/E392

CHAPTER 19

BC = 1/XC or 2fC

YT = G2 + BC2

## Excel formula in column H is:

G (S)

BC (S)

=SQRT(D398^2+E398^2)

0.000667

0.001

## To find magnitude of phase angle

(magnitude) = tan-1 R / XC

## Excel formula in column H is:

R (ohms)

XC (ohms)

=DEGREES(ATAN(D401/E401))

1500

Z = R2 + Xnet2

## Excel formula in column H is:

R (ohms)

CHAPTER 19

Formula 19-6
CHAPTER 19
Formula 19-7
CHAPTER 19
Formula 19-8
CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-1

R (ohms)

=SQRT(D383^2+E383^2)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

50
IR (amps)

50

70.71

20

25

IC (amps)
15

XC (ohms)

R (ohms)

=D389*E389/SQRT(D389^2+E389^2)

2.4

R (ohms)
1500

0.000667

One

Xc (ohms)

=D395/E395

=SQRT(D404^2+E404^2)

995

0.001

0.0012

995

56.44

Xnet (ohms)
60

80

100

## (where Xnet = XL- XC if XL>XC

or Xnet = XC- XL if XC>XL)
CHAPTER 20

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 20-2

VT = VR2 + VXnet2

=SQRT(D409^2+E409^2)

VR (volts)

Vxnet(volts)
60

80

100.00

60

1.33

## (where Vxnet=VL- VC if VL>VC

or Vxnet=VC- VL if VC>VL)
CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-3

Tang of = Xnet/R

=D414/E414

Xnet (ohms)
80

R (ohms)

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

CHAPTER 20

FORMULAS
To find Tan knowing VXnet and VR

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 20-4

Tang of = VXnet / VR

=D417/E417

CHAPTER 20

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 20-5

IT = IR2 + IXnet2

=SQRT(D420^2+E420^2)

AND THEIR VALUES
VXnet (volts) VR (volts)
80
IR (amps)

60

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

1.33

IXnet (amps)
2

2.24

## (where Ixnet = IL- IC if IL>IC

or Ixnet = IC- IL if IC>IL)
CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-6

## To find p.f. knowing phase angle

Power factor (p.f.) = cos

## Excel formula in column H is:

=COS(D425*PI()/180)

(deg)

CHAPTER 20

## To find app. power knowing V and I

Apparent power (S) = Vrms x Irms

V (volts)

Formula 20-7

CHAPTER 20

Formula 20-8

=D432^2*E432

=D428*E428

45

0.707
I (amps)

141.5

I (amps)

141.5

100

100

R (ohms)
1

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-9

## To find true power knowing S and p.f.

P = Apparent power x power factor (p.f.)

=D435*E435

S (VA)

CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-10

## To find p.f. knowing P and S

p.f. = True power (P)/App. power (S)

=D438/E438

Ptrue (W)

CHAPTER 20

S = P2 + Q2

Ptrue (W)

## To convert Z polar to rect. data

R factor(Z cos )
j factor(Z sin )
45 (Z cos (jZ sin )

## Excel formulas in column H are:

=(D444*COS(E444*PI()/180))
=(D444*SIN(E444*PI()/180))

CHAPTER 20

Formula 20-13

## Real axis(VT x cos )

=(D450*COS(E450*PI()/180))

(Series circuit)

## Imag. axis(jVT x sin )

=(D450*SIN(E450*PI()/180))

Formula 20-11
CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-12
(Series circuit)

141.5

p.f. (numb.)
0.707

100

S (VA)
100

=SQRT(D441^2+E441^2)

141.5

0.707

Q (VAR)
100

100

141.42

30

38.97
22.5

(deg)

Z (ohms)
45

45 30 = 38.97 + j22.5
VT (volts)

(deg)
66

60

33
57.16

## (VT x cos (jVT x sin )

6645 = 33 + j57.16

CHAPTER 20

Formula 20-14

## Real axis(IT x cos )

=(D456*COS(E456*PI()/180))

(Parallel circuit)

## Imag. axis(jIT x sin )

=(D456*SIN(E456*PI()/180))

IT (amps)

(deg)
15

30

12.99
7.5

## (IT x cos (jIT x sin )

CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-15
(Parallel circuit)
CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-16
(Parallel circuit)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

15 = 12.99 + j7.5

BL = 1/2 x f x L

BC = 2 x f x C

## Excel formula in column H is:

=1/(D462*E462*F462)

=D466*E466*F466

f (Hz)
6.28

L (H)
60

f (Hz)
6.28

0.00265

0.000004

0.00151

60

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 20
Formula 20-17
(Parallel circuit)

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS
Y = G2 + jBnet2
(Note: tan of B/G)
(Note: of Y arctan B/G)

## Excel formulas in column H are:

AND THEIR VALUES
Bnet (S)

G (S)

=SQRT(D470^2+E470^2)
=E470/D470
=ATAN(H471)*180/pi()

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

0.002

0.00114

0.0023
0.57
29.7
Y = 0.0023 29.7S

CHAPTER 21

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 21-1

fr = 1/2 x L x C

=1/(D477*SQRT(E477*F477))

L (H)
6.28

C (Fd)
0.0002

4E-010

562983

CHAPTER 21

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 21-2

L = 0.02533/fr2 x C

=0.02533/(D481^2*E481)

fr (Hz)

C (Fd)

1000000 2.533E-010

0.0001

CHAPTER 21

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 21-3

C = 0.02533/fr2 x L

=0.02533/(D485^2*E485)

fr (Hz)

L (H)

1000000

0.0001

2.533E-010

CHAPTER 21

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 21-4

L = 25,330/fr2 x C

=25330/(D489^2*E489)

fr (MHz)

C (pF)
1

253.3

100

100

253.3

990000

20000

Where: L= H; C=pF;f=MHz
CHAPTER 21

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 21-5

C = 25,330/fr2 x L

=25330/(D493^2*E493)

fr (MHz)

L ( H)
1

Where: L= H; C=pF;f=MHz
CHAPTER 21
Formula 21-6

Information only!
No computations for this formula are required in text!

CHAPTER 21

BW = f2 - f1

Formula 21-7

## (Where f2= higher f 0.707 pt

and f1 = lower f 0.707 pt)

=D500 - E500

f2 (Hz)
1010000

f1 (Hz)

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

504 CHAPTER 21
505 Formula 21-8

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS
To find BW knowing fr and Q

## Excel formula in column H is:

BW = fr/Q

=D505/E505

AND THEIR VALUES
fr (Hz)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

Q (number)
5000

25

200

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

CHAPTER 21

Formula 21-9

Q = fr/BW

=D508/E508

CHAPTER 21

fc = 1/2 x R x C

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 21-10

AND THEIR VALUES
fr (Hz)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

BW (Hz)
5000

=1/(D511*E511*F511)

200
R (ohms)

6.28

1000

25
0.0000001

1592.36

CHAPTER 21
Formula 21-11

fc = 1/2 x (L/R)

## Excel formula in column H is:

=1/(D515*(E515/F515))

L (H)

R (ohms)

6.28

0.1

1000

1592.36

CHAPTER 22

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 22-1

Max # of electrons = 2 x n2

=2*D519^2

CHAPTER 23

## To find I in circ. w/series diode and R

I = (VS - VD) / R

P = I x VD

P = Iz x Vz

## To find regulation transition point

Vs = VzT x (R1 + RL) / RL

## To find output V w/source <trans. pt.

VL = Vs x RL / (RL + R1)

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 23-5
CHAPTER 23

To find V to be dropped by VR

Formula 23-6

VR = Vs - VD

=D537-E537

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-1

## Vdc = 0.45 x Vrms

=0.45*D540

Formula 23-1
CHAPTER 23
Formula 23-2
CHAPTER 23
Formula 23-3
CHAPTER 23
Formula 23-4
CHAPTER 23

n
3
VS (volts)

18
VD (volts)

=(D522-E522)/F522

10

0.01
Iz (amps)

=D528*E528

150

0.062

0.7

0.007

5.1

0.255

Vz (volts)

0.05

R1 (ohms)

VzT

=D531*(E531+F531)/F531

R (ohms)

VD

I (amps)

=D525*E525

0.7

9.1
Vs (volts)

100
RL (ohms)

=D534*E534/(E534+F534)

9
Vs (volts)

750

RL (ohms)
750

10.31

R1 (ohms)
100

7.94

VD (volts)
12

1.5

10.5

Vrms (volts)
70.7

31.8

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

542 CHAPTER 24
543 Formula 24-2

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS
To find Vdc out of unfilt. H.W. rect.

## Vdc = 0.318 x VPK

=0.318*D543

AND THEIR VALUES

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

VPK (volts)
100

31.8

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 24

FORMULAS

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

Vrms (V)

Formula 24-3

## To find PIV of unfilt. H.W. rect.

PIV (H.W.) = 1.414 x Vrms

CHAPTER 24
Formula 24-4

## To find ripple freq. H.W. rect.

Ripple freq. = ac input frequency

=1*D549

ac input f

CHAPTER 24

V (1/2 sec.)

Formula 24-5

=0.9*D552

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-6

=0.45*D555

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-7

=0.637*D558

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-8

=0.318*D561

CHAPTER 24

## To find PIV of unfilt. F.W. rect.

PIV (F.W.) = 1.414 x Vrms full secondary

Formula 24-9
CHAPTER 24
Formula 24-10

## To find ripple freq. F.W. rect.

Ripple freq. = 2 x ac input frequency

=2*D567

ac input f

CHAPTER 24

Vrms input

Formula 24-11

=0.9*D570

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-12

=0.637*D573

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-13

## To find PIV of unfilt. bridge rect.

PIV (Bridge) = 1.414 x Vrms input

CHAPTER 24
Formula 24-14

## To find ripple freq. (bridge rect.)

Ripple frequency (bridge) = 2 x ac in f

=2*D579

=1.414*D546

200

282.8

60

60

100

90

V (full sec.)
200

90

141.4

90.1

282.8

89.9

V (Full sec.)

=1.414*D564

200

282.8

60

120

12.6

11.34

17.8

11.34

200

282.8

60

120

Vpk input

Vrms input

=1.414*D576
ac input f

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

580
581 CHAPTER 24
582 Formula 24-15

FORMULAS
To find power supply out % ripple
% Ripple = ac(ripple p-p)/dc out x 100

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

Excel formula in column H is:
=D582/E582*100

AND THEIR VALUES
ac ripple p-p

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

dc out
1

48

2.08

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 24

FORMULAS

## To find power supply % regulation

% Reg. = (VNL- VFL)/ VFL x 100%

## To find power diss. by IC regulator

PREG = IB x VIN + IL x (VIN -VOUT )

## To find efficiency of IC regulator

= Pout / (Pout + Preg) x 100%

## To find regulated dc output voltage

Vout = Vref x (1+R2 / R1 )

Formula 24-20

## To find D factor for "buck" reg.

D = Ton / (Ton + Toff)

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-21

Vout = Vin x D

=D600*E600

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-22

=D603/(1-E603)

CHAPTER 24

Formula 24-23

## Vout = -Vin x D/(1-D)

=-D606*E606/(1-E606)

CHAPTER 25

IE = IC + IB

dc = IC/IB

IC = dc x IB

IB = IC / dc

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 24-16
CHAPTER 24
Formula 24-17
CHAPTER 24
Formula 24-18
CHAPTER 24
Formula 24-19
CHAPTER 24

Formula 25-1
CHAPTER 25
Formula 25-2
CHAPTER 25
Formula 25-3
CHAPTER 25
Formula 25-4

AND THEIR VALUES
VNL(volts)

=(D585-E585)/E585*100

VFL(volts)

12.2
IB (amps)

=(D588*E588)+F588*(E588-G588)

11.8
VIN (V)

Pout (W)

24

Vref (V)

1.446
R2 (ohms)

1.25
Ton (msec)

=D597/(D597+E597)

240

Vin (volts)

1.46

60.88
R1 (ohms)
240

2.5

0.5

0.5

12

0.5

48.00

0.5

-24

0.001

18.001

D value

Vin (volts)

D value
24

Vin (volts)

D value
24

IC (mA)

IB (mA)
18

IC (mA)

IB (mA)
1.2

dc

=D615*E615

15

50

24

=D612/E612

VOUT (V)

Toff (msec)
50

=D609+E609

0.15

Preg (W)
2.25

=D594*(1+E594/F594)

3.39
IL (amps)

0.0044

=D591/(D591+E591)*100

=D618/E618

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

0.024

50

IB (mA)
50

IC (mA)

0.024

1.2

50

0.024

dc
1.2

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 25
Formula 25-5
CHAPTER 25
Formula 25-6
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-1
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-2
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-3
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-4
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-5
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-6
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-7
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-8
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-9
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-10

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS
To find Alpha of transistor
= IC / IE

ac = IC / IB

AV = Vout / Vin

AI = Iout / Iin

AP = AV x AI

## To find base V with V divider bias

VB VTH = Vcc x R2 / (R1 + R2)

## To find emitter curr. with V div. bias

IE = (VB - VBE) / RE

## To find collector-emitter voltage

VCE = VCC - IE x (RC + RE)

re' = 25 mV / IE

## To find input impedance

ZIN = R1|| R2|| (Beta +1) x re'

ZOUT = RC

AV = -RC / re'

## Excel formula in column H is:

AND THEIR VALUES
IC (mA)

IE (mA)

=D621/E621

9.8
IC (mA)

=D624/E624
Vout (Vpp)

Iout (Ipp)
10
AV

50

0.05

24

0.5

20

20

480

AI

=D633*E633

24
VCC (volts)

=D636*F636/(E636+F636)

R1 (ohms)
12

VB (volts)

VBE (volts)

VCC (volts)

2000

1.71

RE (ohms)

0.7

1000
RC (k )

IE (mA)
12

R2 (ohms)

12000

1.714

=D642-(E642*(F642+G642))

1.014

0.001014
RE (k )

3.9

7.03

IE (mA)

(mV)

=D645/E645

=-D654/E654

0.04

Iin (Ipp)

=D630/E630

=D651

0.98

Vin (Vpp)
1.2

=(D639-E639)/F639

10
IB (mA)

=D627/E627

=1/(1/D648+1/E648+(1/(F648+1)))*G648

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

25
R1 (ohms)
12000

1.014
R2 (ohms)
2000

24.65
re' (ohms)

Beta
100

24.65

2351.13

RC (ohms)
3000
RC (ohms)
3900

3000
re' (ohms)
24.65

-158.22

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

655
656 CHAPTER 26
657 Formula 26-11
658

FORMULAS
Approximation of current gain
(R1||R2)/(R1||R2)+( +1)re'

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

Excel formula in column H is:
=D657*(E657*F657/(E657+F657))/
((E657*F657/(E657+F657))+(D657+1)*G657

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES
R1 (ohms)

100

12000

R2 (ohms)
2000

re' (ohms)
24.65

40.78

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-12
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-13
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-14
CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-15

CHAPTER 26
Formula 26-16
where:

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS
Approximation of input impedance
ZIN = R1|| R2|| (Beta +1) x (re'+RE1))

ZOUT = RC

## Approximation of voltage gain

AV -RC / (re' + RE1 )

## Approximation of current gain

(R1||R2)/(R1||R2)+( +1)x(re'+RE1)

## Approx. gain of multistage amplifier

AV = AV1 x AV2 x AV3

## Excel formula in column H is:

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES
R1 (ohms)

=1/(1/E661+1/F661+(1/((D661+1)*(G661))))

100

R2 (ohms)

12000

2000

(re' +RE1)
1024.65

1686.35

RC (ohms)

=D664

3900
RC (ohms)

=-D667/(E667+F667)

3900
re' (ohms)

3900

24.65
R1 (ohms)

=D670*(E670*F670/(E670+F670))/
((E670*F670/(E670+F670))+(D670+1)*(G670))

100

AV1
10

1000
R2 (ohms)

12000

AV2

=D674*E674*F674

RE1 (ohms)

2000

AV3

-3.81
(re' +RE1)
1024.65

1.63

---

50

50

25000

## AV1 = Zin1/(Zin1 + Zs)

AV2 is the gain of first amplifier
AV3 = Zin2/(Zin2 + Zout1)
AV4 is gain of 2nd amp

CHAPTER 26

Formula 26-17

## ZIN = R1||R2|| ((x (re' +RE))

=1/(1/D681+1/E681+(1/((F681+1)*G681)))

CHAPTER 26

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 26-18

ZOUT = RE || re'

=1/(1/D684+1/E684)

CHAPTER 26

## To approx. v. gain of CC amplifier

AV = RE/(re' + RE)

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 26-19

R1 (ohms)
12000
RE (ohms)
500
RE (ohms)

=D687/(E687+F687)

1000

R2 (ohms)
2000

re' + RE

100

1024

1686.33

re' (ohms)
24.65
re' (ohms)
24.65

23.49
RE (ohms)
1000

0.98

Note: AV 1
CHAPTER 26

Ai -

Formula 26-20
CHAPTER 26

=-D691

100
RE (ohms)

-100
re' (ohms)

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

FORMULAS

Formula 26-21

ZIN = RE || re'

=D694*E694/(D694+E694)

CHAPTER 26

Formula 26-22

ZOUT = RC

=D697

CHAPTER 26

AV = RC / re'

Formula 26-24

Ai -1

CHAPTER 26

Formula 26-25

VCE = VCC

=D706

CHAPTER 26

Formula 26-26

## IC(sat) = VCC/(RC + RE)

=D709/(E709+F709)

CHAPTER 27

## To find drain curr JFETs & MOSFETs

ID=IDSS(1-(VGS/VGS(off) ))2

Formula 26-23
CHAPTER 26

Formula 27-1

AND THEIR VALUES
1000

24.65

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)
24.06

RC (ohms)
3900
RC (ohms)

=D700/E700

3900
re' (ohms)

3900

24.65

158.22

AI

=D703

-1

-1

12

12

VCC (volts)

VCC (volts)

RC (ohms)
12

RE (ohms)

3900

1000

0.00245

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-2
CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-3

gm = ID / VGS

VGS = VGG

=D716/E716

ID (amps)

VGS(V)

0.002

0.000667

VGG (volts)

=D719

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-4

## To find JFET drain to source V

VDS = VDD - ID x RD

## Excel formula in column H is:

VDD (volts)

=D723-(E723*F723)

ID (amps)
12

0.005

RD (ohms)
1000

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-5

## To find JFET gate to source V

VGS = - ID x RS
(Note: Using self bias)

=-D727*E727

ID (amps)
0.004

RS (ohms)
1000

-4

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-6

FORMULAS
To find JFET drain to source V
VDS = VDD - ID x RD - ID x RS

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

Excel formula in column H is:

AND THEIR VALUES
ID (amps)
RD (ohms)
RS (ohms)

VDD (volts)

=D731-(E731*F731)-(E731*G731)

18

0.01

1000

390

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

4.1

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-7

## To find JFET gate voltage

VG = VDD x R2 / (R1 + R2)

## Excel formula in column H is:

VDD (volts)

=D735*F735/(E735+F735)

R1 (ohms)
12

R2 (ohms)

100000

33000

2.98

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-8

## To find JFET gate to source V

VGS = VG - ID x RS

## Excel formula in column H is:

VG (volts)

=D739-(E739*F739)

ID (amps)

2.98

RS (ohms)

0.0085

470

-1.02

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-9

## To find E-MOSFET drain curr.

ID = k x (VGS - VT)2
(NOTE: Shockley's equation, shown here for information only!)

CHAPTER 27
Formula 27-10
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-1
(open loop)
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-2
(open loop)
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-3
(open loop)
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-4

PFET = VDS x ID

## To find op-amp output V

Vout = - AVOL x Vin

VDS (volts)

=D747*E747

ID (amps)

0.12

50000

0.0002

-10

## (Note: Inverting input)

To find op-amp output V
Vout = AVOL x Vin

Vin (volts)

AVOL

=D754*E754

50000

0.0002

10

## (Note: Non-inverting input)

To find op-amp output V
Vout = AVOL x (V1 - V2)

## Excel formula in column H is:

=D758*(E758-F758)

V1 (volts)

AVOL
50000

V2 (volts)

0.002

0.0015

25

## (Note: Differential amp circuit config.)

To find inv. op-amp V gain
AV = Vout / Vin

Vout (volts)

=D762/E762

Vin (volts)

-15

CHAPTER 28

0.156

Vin (volts)

AVOL

=-D750*E750

1.3

Rf (ohms)

Ri (ohms)

-7.5

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
Formula 28-5

FORMULAS
AV = -Rf / Ri

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

=-(D766/E766)

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES
27000

1800

-15

CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-6
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-7

## To find non-inv. op-amp V gain

AV = (Rf / Ri) + 1

## To find V gain of V div. non-inv. amp.

AV=[(R2/R1)+1] x [R4/(R4 + R3)]

## Excel formula in column H is:

=(D770/E770)+1

=(E773/D773+1)*((G773/(G773+F773)))

Rf (ohms)
13000
R1 (ohms)
10000

Ri (ohms)
1000
R2 (ohms)
50000

14
R3 (ohms)
20000

R4 (ohms)
10000

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-8

CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-9

FORMULAS

## To find V out of subtractor circuit

Vout=Vin+x((R2/R1)+1)x(R4/(R4+R3))+

## Excel formula in column H is:

Vin- x (-R2/R1)

G776*(-F776/E776)

## To find V out of subtractor circuit

Vout = Vin+ - Vin-

AND THEIR VALUES
Vin+ (volts)

R1 (ohms)

=D776*(F776/E776+1)*(E778/(E778+D778))+

## Excel formula in column H is:

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

R2 (ohms)

10000
R4 (ohms)

5000

5000

R3 (ohms)

Vin+ (volts)

Vin- (volts)

10000

Vin- (volts)

=D781-E781

-5

-7

R1=R2=R3=R4)
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-10

CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-11

## To find V out of summing amplifier

Vout=Vin1 x (-Rf/R1)+Vin2 x (-Rf/R2)

## To find V out of summing amplifier

Vout=Vin1 x (-Rf/R1)+Vin2 x (-Rf/R2) +

Formula 28-12

Rf&R1&R2
2

Vin1 (volts)
5
R2 (ohms)

R3 (ohms)

## To find V out of summing amplifier

Vout = (1+R2/R1) x [Vin1xR4/(R3+R4)] +

## Excel formula in column H is:

R1 (ohms)

=(1+E795/D795)*(D797*(G795/(F795+G795))+

## Vin2 x R3/(R3 + R4)]

E797*F795/(F795+G795))

10000
20000
Vin1 (volts)
Vin2 (volts)

10000

## To find V out. change for integ. circ.

Vout-Vin / (R x C)] x t

## Excel formula in column H is:

=D800/(E800*F800)*G800

- V in

CHAPTER 28

## To find V out. for differentiator circ.

Vout = (-R x C) x (Vint)

R (ohms)

## To find V output of instrum. amp.

Vout = (1 + 2 x R/RG) x (V2 - V1)

## To find upper thresh. pt. of Sch. trig.

UTP = Vmax x [R1/(R1 + R2)]

## Excel formula in column H is:

CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-15
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-16

Vin3 (volts)

(-F792/E792)
(Note: 3-input inverting amp with R1 and R3 of equal value)

CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-13

=(D803*E803)*(F803/G803)

=(1+2*D806/E806)*(F806-G806)

=D809*(E809/(E809+F809))

10000
Vmax (volts)
12

-2.5

1000
R3 (ohms)

R4 (ohms)

10000

C (F)
R (ohms)
1000

20000

5.5

t (sec)
0.01

Vin (V)
0.01

RG (ohms)

R (ohms)

5000

Rf (ohms)

2.5

C (F)

-1000

-5

R1 (ohms)
5

5000
R2 (ohms)

-3

1.5

Formula 28-14

Vin2 (volts)

10000

Vin2 (volts)

D790*(-F792/G790)+(E790)*(-F792/D792)+(F790)*

Vin3 x (-Rf/R3)

CHAPTER 28

Vin1 (volts)

=D786*(-E786/E786)+F786*(-E786/E786)
(Note: For inverting amplifier with all R's equal value)

10000

-1.5

-5

0.5

7.5

t (sec)
0.5

V2 (volts)

5000
R1 (ohms)

V1 (volts)
2

R2 (ohms)
100000

1.09

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-17
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-18

FORMULAS

Formula 28-19

Vmin (volts)

R1 (ohms)

## To find output V of IC audio amplifier

Vout = Vin x [R1B / (R1A+R1B-jXC1)]

## Excel formula in column H is:

Vin (volts)

=(D815*E815)/SQRT((F815+E815)^2+(G815)^2)*

0.1
2000
RSPK (ohms) jXC2 (ohms)

=D812*(E812/(E812+F812))

(20*D817)/SQRT(D817^2+E817^2)
(Note: R1A and R1B = input signal potentiometer)
CHAPTER 28

AND THEIR VALUES

## To find lower thresh. pt. of Sch. trig.

LTP = Vmin x [R1/(R1 + R2)]

x 20 x [RSPK) / (RSPK-jXC2 )]

## To find Vout of OTA diff. amplifier

Vout = (V1 - V2) x k x IBIAS x RL

## Excel formula in column H is:

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

-12

10000
R1B (ohms)

8
V1 (volts)

=(D820-E820)*F820*(G820*D822)

R2 (ohms)
100000
R1A (ohms)
8000

-1.09
jXC1 (ohms)
723.4

0.397

0.7234
V2 (volts)

0.2

IBIAS (amps)

0.15

20

0.000486

4.86

RL(ohms)
10000
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-20

UTP = IBIAS x R1

## Excel formula in column H is:

IBIAS (amps)

=D825*E825

R1 (ohms)

0.000486

10000

4.86

where:
IBIAS = VBIAS - V - - 0.7/RBIAS
To find LTP V for Sch. trig. comp.
LTP = -IBIAS x R1

Formula 28-21
CHAPTER 28

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 28-22

fc = 1/(2 x R x C)

=1/(D833*E833*F833)

CHAPTER 28

Formula 28-23

## Vout = Vin x [-jXC/(R-jXC)] x (1+R2/R1)

=D836*E836/SQRT(F836^2+E836^2)*

CHAPTER 28

IBIAS (amps)

=D830*E830

(1+G836/D838)

R1 (ohms)

-0.000486
2

10000
R (ohms)

6.28
Vin (volts)

1000
- j XC

-4.86
0.000001
R (ohms)

10000

10000

159.24
R2 (ohms)
10000

1.414

R1 (ohms)
10000

CHAPTER 28

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 28-24

fc = 1/(2 x R x C)

=1/(D841*E841*F841)

CHAPTER 28

Formula 28-25

## Vout = Vin x [R/(R - jXC)] x (1+R2/R1)

=D844*(E844/SQRT(E844^2+F844^2))
*(1+G844/D846))

R (ohms)
6.28

Vin (volts)

R (ohms)
1

R1 (ohms)

10000

10000

2.2E-009

7238
R2 (ohms)

- j XC
10000

10000

1.414

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

AND THEIR VALUES
10000

CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-26

## To find center f of bandpass filter

fo=1/2 x[R1xR2/(R1+R2)]xR3xC1xC2)

## Excel formula in column H is:

R1 (ohms)

=1/(6.28*SQRT(D849*E849/(D849+E849)*

1000

F849*G849*D851))

R2 (ohms)

R3 (ohms)

1000

20000 0.00000001

7345

4.7E-009
CHAPTER 28

BW = fo/Q

fc1 = fo - BW/2

fc2 = fo + BW/2

## To find center f of bandstop filter

fo = 1/(2 x R1 x R2 x C1 x C2 )

## To find digit. dec. value for ADC circ.

DATA = Vin1 x (255/5 V) dec. rep.

Formula 28-31
CHAPTER 28

Formula 28-32

## Vout = (-VREF/R14) x [D 7 /2)+(D6/4)+D5/8)

=(-D869/E869)*((F869/2)+(G869/4)+(D871/8)

+(D4/16)+(D3/32)+(D2/64)+(D1/128)+

+(E871/16)+(F871/32)+(G871/64)+(D873/128)

(D0/256)] x (- R1)

+(E873/256))*(-F873)

Formula 28-27
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-28
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-29
CHAPTER 28
Formula 28-30
CHAPTER 28

fo (Hz)

=D854/E854

Q
7345

fo (Hz)

=D857-(E857/2)

3.16
BW (Hz)

7345
fo (Hz)

=D860+(E860/2)

2324

R1 (ohms)

2324
R2 (ohms)

1000

## Excel formula in column H is:

fr = 1/2 x LC

=1/(D876*SQRT(E876*F876))

CHAPTER 29

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 29-2

fr = 1/2 x LtC

=1/(D879*SQRT(E879*F879))

CHAPTER 29

## Excel formula in column H is:

0.00000001 0.00000001

3561

VREF (volts)

102
R14 (ohms)

10
D5

D4

0.00004
Lt (H)

2
6.28

5.390625

R1 (ohms)

L (H)
6.28

0
D2

0
D0

D6
1

D3

L1A (H)

D7

10000

Formula 29-1

20000

D1

## To find fr of LC tank circuit

8507

Vin1 (volts)

=D866*(255/5)

CHAPTER 29

6183

BW (Hz)
7345

=1/(6.28*SQRT(D863*E863*F863*G863))

2324

0.00004
L1B (H)

10000
1E-010

2517737

1E-010

2517737

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
882
883
884
885
886
887
888

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

Formula 29-3

Lt = L1A + L1B

=D882+E882

CHAPTER 29

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 29-4

fr = 1/2 x L1CT

=1/(D885*SQRT(E885*F885))

CHAPTER 29

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 29-5

CT = C1 x C2/(C1 + C2)

=D888*E888/(D888+E888)

0.000000001

0.00002
2

0.00002

0.00004

L (H)
6.28

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

0.0001

3.33E-010

872606

5E-010

0.000000000333

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES

CHAPTER 29

Formula 29-6

## CT = 1/(1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3)

=1/(1/D891+1/E891+1/F891)

0.000000001

CHAPTER 29

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 29-7

fr = 1/2 x R x C x 6

=1/((D894*E894*F894*SQRT(6)))

0.0000001
R (ohms)

6.28

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

0.0000001

0.000000000980

3300

0.00000001

1970

CHAPTER 29

## Excel formula in column H is:

Formula 29-8

fr = 1/2 x R x C

=1/(D898*E898*F898)

CHAPTER 29

## Estimated timing for monostable MV

ton = 0.69 x RC x C

## Est. timing for 555 type mono. MV

tw = 1.1 x RC x C

Formula 29-10
CHAPTER 29
Formula 29-11

t = 0.7 x R x C

=0.7*D907*E907

RC1 (ohms)

CHAPTER 29

## Operating freq. of an astable MV

f = 1/1.38 x RC x C

## Excel formula in column H is:

RC (ohms)

Formula 29-9
CHAPTER 29

Formula 29-12

=0.69*D901*E901

=1.1*D904*E904

=1/(1.38*D910*E910)

R (ohms)
6.28

RC (ohms)

100000

0.0000001

15.92

100000
RC (ohms)

0.0000001

0.0069

1000000

0.00001

11

CC1 (Fd)

10000 0.00000001

0.00007

47000 0.00000001

1542

CHAPTER 29
Formula 29-13

## Operating freq. of an IC astable MV

f = 1/0.69 x C x (RA + 2 x RB)

CHAPTER 30

CHAPTER 31

VR = VS - VD

Formula 31-1
CHAPTER 31
Formula 31-2

## To find R value for given LED curr.

R = VR / ID
(Note: Knowing that VR = VS-VD)

RA (ohms)

## Excel formula in column H is:

=1/(0.69*D914*(E914+2*F914))

0.000000001

## Excel formula in column H is:

VS (volts)

=D919-E919
Excel formula in column H is:
=D922/E922

10000

RB (ohms)
47000

13935

VD (volts)
12

VR (volts)

1.5

10.5

ID (amps)
7.5

0.015

500

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #

925 CHAPTER 31
926 Formula 31-3

FORMULAS
To find R value for given LED curr.
R = (VS - VD) / ID

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

Excel formula in column H is:
=(D926-E926)/F926

AND THEIR VALUES
VD (volts)
ID (amps)

VS (volts)
9

1.5

0.015

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

500

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941

## CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER FORMULAS AND SAMPLE EXCEL EQUIVALENT SPREADSHEET FORMULAS

NOTE: Some of the most-used, more-complex and useful formulas and Excel equivalents are highlighted in yellow.
The chapters' text-style formulas in Column B are shown in Excel formula format in Column C.
These same formulas are used as operative formulas in Column H, where the formula-computed answers are shown.
DIRECTIONS: Replace sample parameter values shown in columns D through E, F, or G with the values for your problem, and your answer appears in Column H.

CHAPTER # &
FORMULA #
CHAPTER 31
Formula 31-4

FORMULAS
To find I in photodiode circuit
I = R x PRCVD

## EXCEL EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

AND THEIR VALUES
PRCVD

R (ohms)
=D929*E929

From Use of Formulas
(Use Approp. Units)

100000 (unknown)

## (Note: Knowing device spectral response

and amount of received optical power)
CHAPTER 31
Formula 31-5

IC = CTR x ID

ID (amps)

CTR

=D934*E934

0.01

0.01

333

-20

CHAPTER 31
Formula 31-6
CHAPTER 31
Formula 31-7

## Power gain/loss in fiber optic cable

A = 10 log10 (Pout / Pin)

## Find output power of fiber optic cbl.

Pout = Pin x ( 10A/10 )

## Excel formula in column H is:

Pout (W)

=10*LOG(D938/E938,10)

=D941*(10^-20/10)

Pin (W)
3.33

Pin (W)
333

3.33E-019