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ASSIGNMENTS

IN

ENGLISH PLUS
Core

12
TEACHERS' HANDBOOK

FULL MARKS PVT. LTD.


(A Unit of Saraswati Group)
New Delhi-110002

CONTENTS

SECTION A: READING

3-13

SECTION B: ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS

14-40

SECTION C: TEXTBOOKS

41-70

SECTION D: LONG READING TEXT/NOVEL

71-73

Full Marks Assignment-1

74-80

Full Marks Assignment-2

80-86

Full Marks Assignment-3

87-94

Full Marks Assignment-4

94-100

Note: Please note this Teachers Handbook contains the Solutions/ Hints for the
Assignments/ Worksheets/ Full Marks Assignments given in the book
Assignments in English Plus (Core) 12, published by Full Marks Pvt.
Ltd.

SOLUTIONS/ HINTS
SECTION A : READING

WORKSHEET1
1.A. 1. R.K. Pachauri, an environmental expert, is known for his efforts to spread awareness
about global warming and its effects on earths ecosystems and various species. He is
the Chairman of IPCC and has won Nobel Prize for Peace in 2007.
2. Planet Earth is warming up steadily because of human activities. Emission of gases
like carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels leads to heat being trapped by the atmosphere.
This heat will cause heat waves, droughts, floods, glaciers melting rapidly, serious
water stresses and extinction of many species.
3.

(i) Our low-lying areas could get submerged. Sea-level rise is a threat to Sunderbans.
(ii) There may be heavy downpours frequently and more intensely.
(iii) Rapid melting of glaciers may affect flow of water in the rivers in the northern
parts of India.

4. Global warming can be reversed by bringing down the emissions of gases to below zero
and finding ways to absorb existing carbon dioxide. It requires a political will and
public awareness.
5. Some countries do so because they sell fossil fuels.
B. (a) conspiracy (b) vested interests
2.A. Title: Self-Medication
Notes:
1.

2.

3.

Introduction
(a) Self-med.part of normal living
(b) advance in diag tech.last 100 yrs.
(c) medicl expert rqd. for diag. & treat. of disease acc. to symptoms/cause
Advancement in Medi Sc.
(a) deve. of drug therapy
(b) impvt. in pub. health orgs & nutril standards
Counter Trends
(a) Advertising by pharmal companies
(i) lures the patients for overuse of drugs
(ii) induces faith in chronic patients
(iii) encourages self-medin in minor illnesses like cough/cold, etc.
e.g. many preptn like laxatives, tonic, painkillers found in quantity in households
(b) Emergence of sedentary society
(i) faulty life style
(ii) lack of exercise, over eating, insuff t sleep etc.
(iii) stress, unhappy relaps etc.

4.

Dangers of Self-medin
(a) prepn contain unsuitable ingre
(b) taker becomes dependent
(c) taker consumes medi. in excess
(d) prepns may cause poisong
(e) real cause of illness gets suppressed or untreated

B. Summary: Self-medication is part of normal living. Medicinal experts are required for
diagnosis and treatment of disease according to symptoms and cause. The development
of drug therapy and improvement in public health organisations and nutritional standards
have helped progress in medicinal science. Excessive advertising by pharmaceutical
companies and emergence of the sedantary society are two counter trends. Self-medication
is dangerous as the preparation may be toxic or contain unsuitable ingredients, the user
becomes dependent and consumes medicine in excess. Self-diagnosis is worse than selfmedication.

WORKSHEET2
1.A. 1. Air is essential for our life. We have to breathe in over 10,000 litres of air in a day to
keep alive.
2. Most of us spend ninety per cent of our time indoorsin homes or offices. The air we
breathe indoors may also be polluted and cause ill health. So we should pay attention
to the quality of air we breathe indoors.
3. The important sources of indoor air pollution are:
(i) Tobacco smoke
(iv) Moulds, bacteria
(vii) Toxic chemicals

(ii) Animal dusts

(iii) Air conditioners

(v) House dust mites

(vi) Cooking and heating

(viii) Asbestos

4. ETS stands for Environmental Tobacco Smoke or passive smoking. It causes all the
harms of tobacco smoking to non-smokers for example, the children of smoking
parents suffer from respiratory problems. There is an increased risk of lung cancer
among women exposed to passive smoking.
5. We must first identify the allergen and then prevent exposure to them. Use of vacuum
cleaners, exposure to sun, washing linen in warm water and cleaning coolers,
air-conditioners etc. are some of the important steps to minimise allergies.
B. (a) contaminate (b) unequivocally (c) humidifiers
2.A. Title: Advantages of Work
Or
Worka Source of Happiness
Notes:
1.

Work: source of unhappiness


1.1 irksome work
1.2 excess of wk: painful

2.

Work: source of happiness


2.1 wk less painful than idleness
2.2 delights of work:

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
4

2.2.1 relief of tedium to deep delight


2.2.2 nature of wk
2.2.3 ability of worker
3.

Advantages of work
3.1 fills leisure intelligently
3.1.1 saves from troublesome ex. of choice
3.1.2 prevents boredom
3.1.3 uninteresting work as boring as no work
3.2 holidays more delicious
3.3 gives chances of success
3.3.1 success measured in terms of money
3.4 opportunities for ambition
3.4.1 dull wkbearable if it builds reputation
3.5 continuity of purposecomes through wk.

B. Summary: Much work which is irksome or excess of work is painful. But work
is less painful than idleness. The delights of work varying from relief of tedium to
deep delight depend on nature of work and ability of worker. Work in itself
may not be interesting but it offers many advantages such as filling leisure
intelligently, preventing boredom and saving from the troublesome exercise of
choice. Work makes holidays more delicious, provides chances of success and
opportunities for ambition. Continuity of purpose, essential for happiness, comes
through work.

WORKSHEET3
1.A. 1. Stress is a reaction of the body to any demands or changes in its internal and
external environment. Factors such as imbalance between demands and resources
change in temperature, pollutants, humidity and working conditions lead to
stress.
2. No, stress has a different meaning depending on the stage of life. For a child a rebuke
or loss of a toy causes stress. An adolescent may feel tense after failing in the
examination. For an adult loss of job or a dear one causes stress.
3.

(i) Change in the attitude and behaviour


(ii) muscle tension
(iii) palpitation, high blood pressure, indigestion and hyperacidity
(iv) depression, lethargy, weakness for work.

4.

(i) heart diseases


(ii) neurological depression
(iii) ulcers

5.

(iv) hypertension
(v) insomnia
(vi) injuries due to accidents

(i) Self-inner controlfaith in oneself, usefulness of job and in super power.


(ii) Use of stress modifiers or stress busters

B. (a) wreck (b) injuries due to accidents, lethargy (c) threshold

TEACHERS HANDBOOK

2.A. Title: Headache


Notes:

HEADACHE
DEFN
Orig. nerves

pain
signals

Pain base of skull

behind eyes

TYPES OF HEADACHE

TENSION H. ACHE

MIGRAINE H. ACHE

SYMPTOMS

band of pain
head, neck, shoulder

pain head one side


nausea, irritability

CAUSES

drivg
typg
sitg

certain foods
smokg
Gen.

DURATION

short

8-24 hrs.
possible hangover

GENERAL CAUSES

Harmonal

Envtl. Stress

Imbalances

Poor posture in sitting/


sleeping

RELIEF

Spinal

Short Term

misalignment

Long Term

ice
pack

dark
glasses

Visit doc.

fluid
intake

pain
killers

B. Abstraction/Summary: Headache originates in the nerves and pain signals are sent to
the brain. There are different kinds of headache. Tension headache is usually felt like a
band in the head radiating to the nape of the neck and shoulders. It may be due to long
hours of sitting at a desk, typing or driving. It is usually short. Migraine headache is
characterized by pain on one side of the head and other symptoms like nausea,
irritability etc. Causes could be varied ranging from hormonal imbalance to stress. Short
term relief can be acquired through painkillers, ice-packs, fluid intake and use of dark
glasses. However, a doctor should be consulted.

WORKSHEET4
1.A. 1. Dioxin, an organochlorine, belonging to the family of Persistent Organic Pollutants
(POPs) is produced. It causes cancer.
2. Converting garbage into energy to produce 25 megawatts of power and swallow 1,000
tonnes of garbage everyday. Incineration simply changes risky waste from solid form
to air, water and ash.
3.
(i) Hydrochloric acid attacks respiratory system, skin and eyes and results in
coughing, vomiting and nausea.

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
6

(ii) Polyethylene produces volatile carinogens like formal-dehyde and acetaldehyde


which cause cancer.
(iii) Breathing styrene from polystyrene can cause leukaemia.
(iv) Polyurethane is linked with asthma.
(v) Dioxin disrupts hormones, causes birth defects and reproductive problems.
4.
(i) Exorbitantly expensive to operate.
(ii) release of dioxin is highest from incinerators.
5. Nearly 80% of Indian garbage is recyclable or compostable.
B. (a) garbage (b) gobble (c) conventional.
2.A. Title: Machines and Civilization
Notes:
1. Third great defect of our civiliz.
(i) lack of knowl.
(a) to use mach. (b) to manage mach.
2. Mach. more like rulers/masters
(i) sh. be kept at rt. temp. (ii) sh. be fed/kept properly
(a) or ref to work/blow up
3. More time & energy avail.
(a) used up to make better mach. (b) time & energy sh. be used to bec. better civilised
4. Mach. as aids to civiliz.
(i) exploring universe (ii) making civiliz. everlasting
(iii) Civiliz. is
(a) making beaut. things (b) living rightly (c) maint. justice equally
B. Summary: The great defect in present civilization is that it does not make proper use of
knowledge given by science. Machines were made by man to serve him as servants but
they are now becoming masters and man has become dependent upon them. The time
and energy saved by machines can be used to make our civilization great and everlasting.
We can explore the universe and remove the causes of quarrels between nations.
Machines can help in eradicating poverty.

WORKSHEET5
1.A. 1. The only way to contain SARS till now is by quarantining the affected person. By
keeping the SARS infected person away from others, the disease is prevented from
spreading.
2. The SARS virus has evaded all attempts to identify it. The incubation period of virus
being 10 days, passengers are requested to report if they develop symptoms within 12
days of arrival. Screening of all passengers is impossible because of the large number
and time consuming diagnostic tests.
3. The major cause of SARS infection is through close contact. It is transmitted by
inhaling cough droplets, or through an object contaminated with body fluids from an
infected person. It may be transmitted through air as well, because the coronavirus
can survive in the environment for upto 24 hours.
4. Good infection control can contain the outbreak of SARS. Simple precautions such as
using masks, gloves, gowns and goggles, in order to avoid direct physical contact with
the SARS infected person, can be quite effective.

TEACHERS HANDBOOK

5. At present, there is no cure available for SARS virus. The use of combination of antiviral treatments and antibiotics have met with only partial success. A drug with antiviral properties developed from the green mussel is found effective against many
respiratory viruses and is being tested against coronavirus now. The development of
proper drug and its test on cell cultures may take time.
B. (a) surveillance (b) mutate (c) virulent
2.A. Notes:
1. Second Chance Edn.
(a) Motives:
(i) Serious: love for lrg.,
(ii) Ordinary:
1. Promotions 2. Better job/marriage
2. Scope of Dis. Edn.
(a) No replacemt of formal Edn.
(b) Parameters wideng
(i) lesson packets (ii) interactionsp.c.p.responses: 2-way process
(iii) audio/video tapes: electronic media
3. Diff. in Attitudes
(a) Formal Edn.oblg parents/appeasg trs. (b) Dis. Edn.disciplind & motivatd
4. Society & Dist. Edn.
(a) social purposesafety valve
(b) jobs & degrees
(i) formal ednmore unempd (ii) dist. edn.more empld
5. Quality of Edn. & Institutes
(a) check diln. of stands (b) no commn
B. Title: Role & Scope of Distance Education
Summary: Distance education is second chance education. The serious minded have
love for learning while promotion in jobs or better prospects in job/marriage market
drives the ordinary pursuers. It is not a replacement of formal education. Its parameters
are widening. From sending lesson packets it has come to audio and video tapes.
Responses and interactions in personal contact programmes make it a two-way process.
Disciplined and motivated students earn, learn and serve society. Commercialisation and
dilution of standards should be effectively checked.

WORKSHEET6
1.A. 1. Allergy is a disease. Allergy is caused by hypersensitivity to certain substances (antigens
or allergens). Allergies are triggered off by what one breathes, eats or touches.
2. Antibodies combine with specific foreign materials to neutralise them. Antibodies are
defensive in nature against bacteria and viruses.
3. Allergy may be inherited from parents. If both the parents are allergic, the children
will become allergic in the ratio of 3 : 1. In case only one parent comes from an
allergic family, the chances for allergy in the children will be reduced to 2 : 1.
4. The two common allergies of the respiratory system are hayfever and asthma.
5. Digestive system allergies are triggered off by drugs and foods.
B. (a) neutralise (b) symptoms (c) sensitivity

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
8

2.A. Notes:
1. Physical Envt.
(a) conducive to focus thought
(i) identify distractg factors (ii) no concentratn in envt. full of distractn
(b) Focusattn. & retn. powers at optm. levels
(i) soft musicblocks outside noise
(ii) study tableaway from windowvisual distractn.
2. Fixing Goals & Targets
(a) Estg. goals for selfno genl targets
(b) focused systemthoughts & goals in line
(c) schedules of study/recn.
(i) mixg subjs.like/dislike (ii) retg enjle subjs to last pn
3. Timing
(a) 40 mts at a stretch
(b) short break:
(i) bld. concentratn (ii) refresh mind
(c) longer relaxationundesired effects
4. Concentration
(a) disciplining the mind:
(i) practice (ii) patience
(b) +ve thkg.no disheartening
B. Title: Enhancing Concentration
Summary: For enhancing concentration, the physical environment should be
conducive to focus thought. One should first identify the distracting factors as there can be
no concentration in an environment full of distraction. For focussing thought attention and
retention powers must work at optimum levels. Soft music blocks outside noise. Study table
away from window checks visual distraction. Fixing goals helps to achieve focused system.
Schedule of study and recreation also helps. Have a short break after concentrating for 40
minutes. Concentration disciplines the mind through practice and patience. Have positive
thoughts and avoid being disheartened.

WORKSHEET7
1.A. 1. Modern woman is a self-directed and dignity conscious person who is rational in
approach and careful in handling.
2. Womens empowerment and participation is necessary for finding durable solution to
societys most threatening social, economic and political problems.
3. The two benefits from education of girls are:
1. narrowing down the prevailing inequality.
2. accelerating the process of economic and political change in the status of women.
4. The factors which have affected the education of girls adversely are:
1. prevailing cultural norms of gender behaviour and the perceived domestic and
reproductive roles of women.
2. negative attitudes towards sending girls to schools, restrictions on mobility
specially after puberty, early marriage, poverty and illiteracy of parents.

TEACHERS HANDBOOK

5. Women empowerment can help the community by providing sustainable development.


B. (a) domain (b) luxury (c) inculcate
2.A. Title: Innovation for Growth
Notes:
1. India lagg behind in innovatn: reasons
(a) lack of thinkers/innovators
(b) too late to realize/acknowledge their achvt.
2. Position of India
(a) Storehouse of intl capital
(i) NASA (ii) Microsoft (iii) IBM
(b) Knowge not used properly
(i) identifyg & promotg talent
(ii) prdg proper opportunities, atmosphere & technology
3. Innovation & Role of Industry
(a) Innovatnlifeline to exist in business
(b) thrust on R & D
(c) R & Dneglected sphere:
(i) minimum expenditure (ii) long term gains
4. Human Contribution Factor
(a) Indiaabundant natural resources
(b) combg resources with techgy & innovatnbetter economy
(c) human zeal & contributn
(d) Indiainfn. rich countryknowge testedput to use
(e) goals achd through creativity & innovatn
B. Summary: India is lagging behind in innovation not because there is a lack of thinkers
or innovators but because they are too late to realize and acknowledge their achievement.
India is a storehouse of intellectual capital but knowledge is not used properly. Talent
should be identified and promoted by providing proper opportunities and atmosphere.
Innovation is lifeline of industry. Research and development must get proper thrust.
Minimum expenditure here will get long term gains. Human zeal has contributed to
combining resources with technology and innovation. Information-rich India should
ensure that knowledge is tested and put to use for achieving goals.

WORKSHEET8
1.A. 1. Scientists have discovered how womens minds work while shopping. Different types of
brain-waves are generated to prompt buying or rejecting the item. The scientists have
identified these signals.
2. The research will help the manufacturers to create products, shops and advertisements
and subconsciously stimulate similar brainwave patterns. Thus, they will encourage
people to buy their products without realising.
3. This approach has been criticised on ethical grounds as it is a sinister method which
seeks to brainwash the shoppers.
4. Heightened pleasure produces blood flows to the left prefrontal cortex and to
the visual cortex. This activates the buy zones and women are likely to buy
that article.

10

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
10

5. The reject zones are linked to the flight or fight reaction. There is a rapid surge of
blood to the right prefrontal cortex. It is an area linked with negative reactions.
6. Academicians and manufacturers have reacted favourably to the scientific study. They
are quite impressed as the research will help manufacturers save spending money in
marketing something that is unlikely to attract customers.
B. (a) generated (b) stimulate (c) sceptical
2.A. Notes:
1. Goldindispensable in the past
(a) ornl. value
(b) hedge against inflatn
(c) banksgold reserves
(d) Indianssentimental value
(e) easy liquidity
2. Changg Worth of Gold
(a) decline in gold prices
(b) IMF & Foreign central banksgold, a dead investt.
(c) Devg countries mobg resources other than gold
3. Solutions for Indian Investors
(a) Investt. in comms mutual fund
(b) safe and high returns
4. Change in Govt. Policy
(a) hgr. forn exchange reserves
(b) stable currency
(c) gold importweakeng currency
B. Title: GoldA Dead Investment
Summary: Gold has been indispensable in the past. Apart from ornamental value it has
been used as hedge against inflation. Banks kept gold reserves. Gold has a sentimental
value. Moreover, gold has easy liquidity. Of late there has been decline in gold prices and
it is considered a dead investment. Developing countries are mobilising other resources.
The Indian investors can have safe and high returns by investing in commodities mutual
fund. The government has to change its policy by maintaining stable currency, higher
foreign exchange reserves and curbing gold import which weakens currency.

WORKSHEET9
1.A. 1. India is likely to cross the one-billion mark in terms of population. It would then
become the second nation in the world having a billion-plus population.
2. The two likely drawbacks are:
1. It is a drain on the nations limited resources.
2. It spells ecological disaster.
3. Indias urban population is likely to rise to 326 million in 2005, from the current 286
million. It is expected to further increase to 419 millions in about 15 years from now.
The number of urban dwellers will outnumber the rural population in 21st century.
4. Increasing population will have an adverse effect on environment. Water pollution and
air pollution are likely to increase.

11 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

11

5. Feeding the ever-increasing millions will become the most critical problem as available
land is limited and demand for food grains is likely to increase by 1.8 per cent
annually. For example, the requirement of foodgrains is expected to go up to 284
million metric tonnes by 2020 from the 180 million metric tonnes for 2000.
B. (a) drain (b) megapolis (c) syndrome.
2.A. Notes:
1. Mineral waterdefn.
2. Classification of Mineral Waters
(a) LMW500 mgs TDS/litre
(b) MMW500 to 1500 mg TDS/litre
(c) HMWover 1500 mg TDS/litre
3. Position in India
processed H2O as mineral H2O
4. Importance of minerals in H2O
(a) adjuncts to good health
(b) contribute to well being
(c) help body to absorb minerals in sols.
5. Taste
(a) HMWstrong pronounced taste
(b) LMWsubtle in flavour
(c) WMWno taste
6. Wateressential for human body
(a) biochemical processes
(b) thirst not accurate indicator
(c) 3.5 litres/day
(d) for intense activity: more H2O + mineral + energy source
(e) keep body well hydrated & active
(f) if no mineral H2Osimple, plain water.
B. Title: Mineral Water
Summary: Mineral water is defined as water that is bottled at the source without any
treatment. Mineral waters are classified as lightly, moderately or highly mineralised water
as per varying quantity of total dissolved salts per litre varying from 500 mg to 1500 mg and
above. In India processed water is sold as mineral water. The minerals in water are adjuncts
to good health and contribute to its well being by helping the body to absorb minerals. Highly
mineralised water has strong pronounced taste, lightly mineralised is subtle in flavour. Plain
water has no taste. Water is essential for human body to maintain biochemical process. One
must drink 3.5 litres of water per day to stay healthy, hydrated and active.

WORKSHEET10
1.A. 1. The authors father emigrated because everything around him was full of the presence
of his wife, who had died and it continually reopened his wounds.
2. The author did not feel the absence of his mother after her death because he was very
well brought up by his father, who was both father and mother for him.

12

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
12

3. The author's father wanted to go back to his old village because he wanted to see the
old folks again and visit his wifes grave.
4. The author had come back to the land of his birth because he had promised his father
that he would go on his own.
5. The authors father had described over and over again what they would see at every
milestone, after leaving the nearest town. The author was sure that he would
recognise it as familiar territory. Hence he thought that he would not need a map for
the last part of his journey.
6. The author could not locate his old village because he could not see any valley, farms,
cottages and church spire as told by his father but only a lake, which was not marked
on the map. Moreover, the village had been submerged in the lake.
B. (a) nightmare (b) submerge (c) speedometer.
2.A. Notes:
1. Ess. of mor.
(a) compassionreal mor.
(b) meaning of mor. depends on good and bad concept
(c) inflicting no harm or injury to others
2. Basically mor. means
(a) abi. to understand
(b) abi. to sympathise
(c) feeling of kindness and sorrow for others
3. Killers of mor.
(a) taunting or insulting others through words or actions
(b) selfishness
(c) verbal or acts of torture contradict mor.
4. Soc. mor.
(a) essen. to stop degeneration of values
(b) otherwise sufferings and chaos.
5. degeneration in soc. mor.
(a) lack of sympathy and kindness b/w fellow-beings
(b) comp. getting eroded in the mechanical lifestyle
(c) todays man busy in personal gains
(d) no more humanity left.
Abbreviations used:
Ess. essence
essen. essential
soc. social
abi. ability
B. Title: Essence of Real Morality

mor. morality
b/w between

Summary: Compassion is the essence of real morality. The meaning of morality


depends on good and bad concepts and, inflicting no harm or injury to others. Basically,
morality means ability to understand, sympathise and feelings of kindness and sorrow for
others. Taunts, insult, selfishness and acts of torture are killers of morality. Social
morality is essential to stop degeneration of values. Today man has become selfish and
has forgotten humanity in mechanical lifestyle.

13 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

13

SECTION B : ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS


WORKSHEET1
1.

PROPERTY FOR SALE


For sale the first floor of a newly constructed house in Greater Kailash comprising
two bed rooms, one large drawing-cum-dining room, a large kitchen and bathrooms
with latest amenities. Prices negotiable. Please contact Ranjit/Rekha, 751 GK between
10 am to 5 pm on Sunday or ring 5467329.

2.

PROPERTY
For immediate sale, the rear portion of a bungalow, 115, Rajpur Road, Delhi. Two bedrooms, attached baths, drawing-cum-dining. Price around 20 lakh but negotiable. Contact
Rohit, 115 Rajpur Road or ring 23295665.

3.

SITUATIONS WANTED
A computer engineer well versed in hardware and software techniques seeks a part time
job in or around Delhi in the evening hours. Presently working in a MNC at NOIDA.
Salary negotiable. Contact Munish Mehta, 37-B, Kirti Nagar, New Delhi or Phone 26423457.

4.

Subscribe to SPORTSLINE for a year


a fortnightly sports & features magazine
and get a
PRESTIGE ALARM CLOCK
FREE
READ & SAVE
H Annual subscription (105 issues) Rs. 1050.
H Special inaugural discount Rs. 210.
H Despatch a demand draft of Rs. 840
and get Sportsline for a year
Hurry
offer closes 31 August 200X

WORKSHEET2
1.

LOST AND FOUND


Lost my brown VIP leather briefcase while travelling from Punjabi Bagh to Maharani
Bagh in greenline bus on Friday between 10 a.m. and 11 am. It contains my identity
card and some valuable documents. Please contact Rahul/Rashmi of 215-C, Punjabi
Bagh, New Delhi, or ring 25425368.

2.

FOR SALE
Available for sale a brand new Santro car and other household goods such as fridge,
television, air-conditioner, micro-wave processor etc. The owner is leaving for Canada
soon. Prices negotiable. Contact Sunil/Simi, 243-B Kalkaji, New Delhi or ring 24629876.

14

3.

APPEAL
A promising young lad with kidney beyond repair and the other damaged in a car
accident is on dialysis in Apollo Hospital. Donors are invited to offer one of their
kidneys to save this sole bread earner of a family of five. Please contact immediately
Medical Superintendent, Apollo Hospital, New Delhi.

4.

YOGA CENTRE
The creative centre for complete Health has started a Yoga Centre at 15/25 Tilak
Nagar, New Delhi. The centre will be open from 10th April, 200X. It will function
between 9.00 a.m. 6.00 p.m. and is open to all children between 5-18 years. For
registration and further details, contact Aman at 9811196543.

WORKSHEET3
1.

ABN SR. SEC. SCHOOL, JODHPUR


NOTICE
CAREER GUIDANCE
We are pleased to inform that Miss Renu Nigam, the eminent counsellor, CARING,
has kindly consented to give a talk on the various career options available to the
students of the humanities stream.
Date
: 30th July, 200X
Time
: 11 a.m.
Venue : School Auditorium
Classes : XI and XII
For queries, kindly contact the undersigned
25 July, 200X

Amita
Head Girl
2.

DAV PUBLIC SCHOOL KAROL BAGH, NEW DELHI


17 October, 200X

NOTICE

ZONAL VOLLEYBALL FINAL


It is a rare honour that our school is playing against CPM School, Meerut in a Zonal
Volleyball Final tomorrow
Date : 18 Oct., 200X
Time : 3 p.m. sharp
Venue : Our School Ground
All the students are cordially invited to watch the tournament and cheer up the school team.
A. Ganesh
Director, Physical Education

WORKSHEET4
1.

SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE


NATIONAL SCHOOL, BARODA
4 March, 200X

NOTICE
PROPOSED CALENDAR 2007-2008

The School Development Committee proposes to develop calendar of activities for the

15 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

15

next year. All suggestions on following topics may be directed to the undersigned by
the 9th March:
Excursions
Trekking Venues
Inter-house Competitions
Inter-School Contests
Debates
Quiz
Science Exhibitions
Welfare Activities
School Fete
Blood Donation Camp
Afforestation Campaign
Manav/Manasi
Students Representative
SDC
2.

S.R. PUBLIC SCHOOL, AGRA


7 August 200X

NOTICE

DONATE BLOOD: SAVE LIFE


The Red Cross Society of India is organising a one-day blood-donation camp as per
details given below:
Date
: 15 Aug., 200X
Time
: 9.30 a.m. - 4 p.m.
Venue
: Activities Room
Age Limit : Above 16 years
All the members of the staff and the students are requested to come forward and donate
blood generously for the noble cause.
Arun Sen
Secretary
School Red Cross Committee

WORKSHEET5
1.

16

DAYANAND MODEL SCHOOL, AJMER


NOTICE
25 July 200X
OPPORTUNITY FOR BUDDING ARTISTS
Students are invited to participate in the Inter School Poster Making Competition to
be held on 9 August, 200X in the school ground from 10 a.m. to 1.00 p.m.
Junior Category (Classes IV to VII)
Topic : Save Water
Senior Category (Classes IX to XII)
Topic : Eco-friendly Diwali
For details contact:
Priya
Secretary, Cultural Society

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
16

2.

AB PUBLIC SCHOOL, PATIALA


NOTICE

1 Feb., 200X

INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR


The Eleventh International Book
Venue :
Dates
:
Timings :

Fair is being organised as per details given below:


Pragati Maidan, Delhi
7 Feb. to 14 Feb., 200X
2 p.m. to 10 p.m. (week days)
9 a.m. to 10 p.m. (Sundays)
Those interested in books may give their names to the undersigned by 3 Feb., 200X.
Gian Singh
Librarian

WORKSHEET6
1.

ABT SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, XYZ CITY


NOTICE
1 August, 200X
Career Counselling Session
A career counselling session with Ms. Usha Grewal, noted counsellor will be held in
our school.
Date
: 10 August 200X
Time
: 11 a.m.
Venue : School Auditorium
Classes : XI and XII
Please be seated by 8.45 a.m. and do not carry eatables and bags inside the auditorium.
For further details contact:
Rahul Khanna
(Head Boy)

2.

Queen Victoria Senior Secondary School, Nagpur


NOTICE

17 July, 200X

INAUGURATION OF LITERARY ASSOCIATION


The School Literary Association will be inaugurated by noted educationist. Prof. B.
Rajan on 19 July at 11.30 a.m. in the school auditorium. He will also deliver a talk on
How to improve spoken English. It will be followed by an interactive session.
All members are requested to attend.
ABC
Secretary

WORKSHEET7
1.

ABT SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, HYDERABAD


NOTICE
25 October, 200X
School Magazine
The School Magazine REFLECTIONS will be brought out in the last week of
January. Students interested in contributing articles, poems, riddles, tit-bits, cartoons,

17 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

17

sketches, etc., may send them to the undersigned lasted by 15th November. Contribution
should be typed or neatly written on one side of paper.
XYZ
Editor
School Magazine
2.

ZENITH PUBLIC SCHOOL


NOTICE
BRITANNIA QUIZ CONTEST
15 Nov. 200X
The preliminary round of Britannia Quiz Contest for North Zone will be held at our
school on 25 Nov, 200X. All the students who desire to participate in it may submit
their names to the undersigned by the 20th Nov.
Amrita
Head Girl

WORKSHEET8
1.

STOP CHILD EXPLOITATION


SAY NO TO
CRACKERS

SAY NO TO
CHILD LABOUR

DONT BURN THEIR FUTURE IN SMOKE


THEY NEED YOUR LOVE & CARE
COME: JOIN HANDS
Participate in large numbers in the rally organised against the exploitation of children
Date : 14 November 200X
Time : 9 a.m. to 11 a.m.
Venue : XYZ school to neighbouring areas.

LETS CELEBRATE CRACKER-FREE DIWALI


Issued by:
President, Eco Club
XYZ School, Ashok Vihar, Delhi.
2.

SAY NO TO PLASTICS
Non-Biodegradable
Dumping Pollutes Environment
Burning

Air Pollution

Toxic Elements Lung Cancer

DISCARD PLASTIC BAGSINSTEAD USE


Paper Bags Jute Bags Cloth Bags

18

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
18

PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT


STAY HEALTHY
Issued by:
Secretary
Environment Club
ABC School, Vayu Vihar, Delhi.

WORKSHEET9
1.

BLINDNESS
H A great handicap
H Hinders Development
H Makes one dependent on others
H Checks Potential
H Object of pity & Sympathy
HELP THE BLIND
GIVE THEM LIGHT
not money or petty jobs
DONATE EYES

LIVE AFTER DEATH


CONTACT: Eye Bank of Your City
Secretary
EYE BANK, CIVIL HOSPITAL, MADURAI
2.

Dramatic Club
SALWAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, GURGAON
proudly presents

THE NEVER-NEVER NEST


a hilarious comedy
by
CEDRIC MOUNT
for the benefit of Spastic Society of India
on SATURDAY, 28th OCTOBER 200X
Entry: Donor Tickets of Rs. 100 each
COME, ENJOY & HELP A NOBLE CAUSE
Cultural Secretary
Dramatic Club
SPSG

WORKSHEET10
1.

AN ATTRACTIVE & COLOURFUL

DIW
ALI MELA
WA
organised by
ST. MARY PUBLIC SCHOOL, MEERUT
in aid of flood-affected people

19 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

19

on
WEDNESDAY, 25th OCTOBER 200X
from
9 am to 5 pm
at
SCHOOL CAMPUS
Remember its:

A Day of Fun and Frolics


H Merry go-rounds
H Gymnastics
H Electronic Games

H Snack Stalls
H Gun Contests
H Fancy Dress

Entry by Tickets
Come one : Come all
Help a noble cause
PLANT TREES
&

2.

LIVE LONGER

Trees bring rain


Trees check soil erosion
Trees provide shade & greenery
JOIN
TREE PLANTATION CAMPAIGN
ON
SUNDAY, 8 OCTOBER 200X
at 9.00 am
SARVODAYA SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, JAIPUR
Trees are our friends
Trees release oxygen
Trees suck carbon

WORKSHEET11
1.

LIONS CLUB AND LEO CLUB, CHENNAI


will conjointly organise

DIWALI MELA

at
NEHRU STADIUM
from
3 to 6 October, 200X
6 p.m. onwards each day
Entry Fee :
Adults : Rs. 20/Kids : Rs. 5/K
K

ATTRACTIONS
FUN GAMES FOR KIDS
K TAMBOLA
MERRY GO-ROUNDS
K EATABLES FOR ALL TASTES
ATTRACTIVE PRIZES

R. Murlitharan
President Leo Club,
Temple Town

20

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
20

EXCELLENT COACHING CENTRE

2.

D-24, Boat Club Road, New Delhi

announces
Commencement of 15th batch for
IIT & CPMT aspirants
Special Features
Expert guidance by specialists
Scientifically prepared study material
Periodic tests and assessments
Reasonable fees
OUR TEN STUDENTS TOP IN
IIT/CPMT/GNAT
Limited Seats
Contact: Dr. A.N. Jha, Director Phone: 22343256

WORKSHEET12
1.

The Principal, Staff and Students


of

Wonderland Public School


cordially invite you to the

ANNUAL DAY CELEBRATION


at
Hawk Auditorium
on
5th April 200X
at
6.00 p.m.
Mr. S.P. Tailang, noted Environmentalist has kindly consented to be the Guest of Honour.
RSVP
Principal, Wonderland Public School
Phone: 2342034
Mobile: 9891002034
2.

Kindly be seated by 5.45 p.m.


Mobile phones and cameras are not allowed

please.

The Principal, Staff and Students


of
M.J. INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, DELHI
cordially invite you to their

ANNUAL DAY FUNCTION


at
The School Auditorium
on
15 November, 200X
at 5 p.m.

21 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

21

The Honble Chief Minister of Delhi has kindly consented


to be the Chief Guest.
RSVP
Ph.: 26165423, 26193467
Please occupy your seats by 4.45 p.m.
Valid for two only

WORKSHEET13
1.

Value Education Club


Vivekananda Sr. Sec. School
Roop Nagar, New Delhi
27 August, 200X
Mr K.B. Vaid
18 Defence Colony
New Delhi
Sir
Subject: Invitation to deliver a talk
The Value Education Club of our school will feel obliged if you could kindly spare some time
to speak on The Importance of Devotion, Dedication and Discipline on any Friday afternoon.
Kindly intimate the date and time convenient to you.
With regards
Yours faithfully
Rohit Khanna
Secretary

2.

C-38 Hope Apartments


Gurgaon14
15 July, 200X
Dear Dipti
You will be glad to know that I have secured admission in I.I.F.T. and in the course I
was mad to go in for. It is an occasion for celebrations and merry making. I want to
share a few happy moments of my life in the company of my old friends at a dinner at
the Vimpy's South City Gurgaon, at 8.30 p.m. on 25th July.
Please do come. I hope you won't disappoint me.
Yours sincerely
Aditi

WORKSHEET14
1.

25, Rani Jhansi Road


New Delhi
5 March, 200X
The Secretary
Lions Club, Karnal

22

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
22

Sir
Sub: Acceptance of invitation
Thanks for your
your concern for
experiences with
I hereby confirm

invitation for a seminar on Fundamental Rights of Children, and


the children. I would like to utilise this opportunity to share my
other like minded enthusiasts and experts.
my participation in the seminar.

Yours sincerely
Akshya/Aakiriti
2.

158MIG Flats
Dilshad Garden, New Delhi
7 March, 200X
The Secretary
Youth Club, Vivek Vihar
New Delhi
Sir
Sub: Inability to accept invitation
I whole heartedly express my thanks to you and your club for inviting me to act as a
judge in the inter-school group song competition on Monday, 13 March 200X.
I regret my inability to accept the invitation because of a prior engagement.
I wish the function all success.
Please do keep in touch.
Yours sincerely
Rahul/Neha

WORKSHEET15
1.

ABC School
New Delhi
7 March 200X
The Professor Incharge
NCERT
New Delhi
Madam
Sub: Education for All
I would like to thank you for inviting our school for the proposed seminar on
Education for All being organised by your Institute.
Kindly send me a copy of the working paper prepared for the seminar so that I can
prepare myself properly and make a meaningful contribution in the deliberations at
the seminar.
Looking forward to an early response.
Yours sincerely
Sachin/Shama

23 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

23

2.

138MIG Flats
Moti Bagh, New Delhi
7 March 200X
The President
The Lions Club, Vasant Vihar
New Delhi
Sir
Sub: Inability to accept invitation
I whole-heartedly express my thanks to you and your club for inviting me to act as
one of the judges for the Childrens Day fancy dress competition on Monday, March
15, 200X.
I regret my inability to accept the invitation because of a prior engagement. I wish the
function all success.
Please do keep in touch.
Yours sincerely
Mohan/Molly

WORKSHEET16
1.

OUR SCHOOL LIBRARY


Our school library is housed in a separate block. It has a big hall and four rooms. Books
are kept in almirahs in the hall. These almirahs have glass fronts. The assistant
librarian and restorer sit at the counter. The librarian sits in another room. It has
reference books, computer and photostat machine. Newspaper and magazines are kept in
the reading room. Students and teachers go there when they are free. The library has
fans and it is well ventilated. It lacks airconditioning and facility of internet. The display
board showing the covers of new arrivals should be placed in the porch. With these
improvements our library would become the pride of the town.

2.

THE PARK IN OUR LOCALITY


Our locality is quite lucky in having a central park, adjacent to the community centre.
Parks are called the lungs of a city. Our park fulfils all the functions of a green space in
the jungle of concrete. It is spread in four acres with a road skirting its boundary wall.
There are shady trees along the boundary wall. Grassy lawns, beds of flowers and
fountains sprinkling water add to its beauty and charm. The park caters to the needs of
citizens of all age groups. There is arrangement for yoga classes in the morning. Men
and women, boys and girls take active part in these. Some like to stroll on the paved
paths while children enjoy rolling on the grass. During hot summer, we enjoy boating in
the lake of the park. It provides welcome relief from the heat of the blazing sun.

WORKSHEET17
1.

24

A PLACE OF INTEREST
The Taj at Agra is a place of historical interest. I visited the Taj recently. The visit is still
vivid in my memory as the Taj has left a deep imprint on my mind and heart. The Taj stands
on the bank of the Yamuna at Agra. The main entrance to the Taj provides a panoramic
glimpse of the celebrated building. It is built on a high pedestal with four minarets at the
four corners and a huge dome on the top. The Taj is a double storey building. It was got
constructed by Emperor Shahjehan in the memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal and
ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
24

called Taj Mahal. The tall trees along the canal amidst the grassy lawns add to the splendour
of the building which casts its shadow on the bright clear water. The Taj contains the graves
of the royal couple. The marble walls of this building have engravings and are embedded
with precious stones. It is indeed a wondera dream in marble.
2.

COMPUTER WING INAUGURATED


The computer wing of Rajeev Gandhi Memorial Senior Secondary School, Allahabad was
inaugurated yesterday by Mrs Sonia Gandhi. It is a wonderful addition to school and was
possible with the generous grants offered by Rajeev Gandhi Foundation. The addition of
computer wing to the school is a step towards complete and perfect education. The
Chairperson, Mrs Gandhi exhorted the students to learn computer science, electronics
and basic ideas of science. She advised them to realise the importance of computer in the
modern age and to offer encouraging results in the modern scientific age. The use of
advanced technology, computers and robots will lead India to the path of glory in the new
millennium. The Students Council, which had organised this function, assured the
donors that proper use will be made of their generous gift.

WORKSHEET18
1.

OPENING A SAVING BANK ACCOUNT


These days people prefer to keep money in a bank. It is safe as well as profitable. The process
of opening a saving bank account is quite simple. Go to a bank and obtain the prescribed
printed form for opening an account. These days photographs are essential. Paste two passport
size photographs on the space provided for this purpose. Fill in the other particulars on the
form and appended card. You have to put your signature at certain places. The signatures
on the card are termed specimen signatures and referred to for comparison everytime you
withdraw money from the bank. You need an account holder of the bank to introduce you.
Then you go to the deposit counter and deposit the money mentioning New Account. Then
you will be issued a pass-book and cheque book. You can deposit money in your account
now or withdraw it by filling a withdrawal form or cheque.

2. Try yourself.

WORKSHEET19
1.

SCIENCE EXHIBITION
(A report by Rama)
Kolkata: 25 November
The previous day i.e. 24th November, I, along with my classmates, visited the science
exhibition, organised jointly by the city schools at Central School, Kolkata. As many as
twenty five schools participated. The Science Exhibition was inaugurated by the State
Minister for Education. There were about 150 exhibits on display. Some models were
operated by electricity. Some of them exhibited Indias progress in the field of
communications and missiles technology. The bio-diesel prototypes attracted a lot of
visitors. Students tried to answer their queries as best as they could. All the visitors felt
impressed by the intelligence, organization and dedication of the budding scientists.

2.

VISIT TO THE LOCAL MUSEUM


(A report by Ram/Rohini)
Pune: 15 November
Sun Public School, Pune, organised a visit to the local museum on Childrens Day. The
State Museum was housed in a big building. It has collections from all parts of the

25 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

25

country. The antique articles are well arranged. They represent every branch of science,
art and culture. We saw specimens of rocks, ores, and finished metals. Old paintings,
dresses and war- weapons belonging to different periods were on display. These throw
light on the history, art and culture of that era. A special feature of the museum was the
Shivaji section. The dresses, ornaments and weapon of the celebrated Maratha warrior
impressed everyone. Books, magazines, newspapers and pictures dealing with Shivajis
life and contribution to Hindu Nation revised the struggles he faced and the ultimate
glory he achieved. In short, the visit was entertaining as well as rewarding.

WORKSHEET20
1.

INTER-HOUSE DRAMA COMPETITION


(A report by Sunil/Sunita)
Allahabad: 25 October
During the cultural week an Inter-House Drama Competition for the students of the four
houses of our school was organised. Each house tried to present the best possible plays
dealing with current socio-political-economic questions. The titles of the playsPost Graduate,
The New Horizon, The Hungry Babe and Whirlpoolgive a glimpse of the concern of the
students and teachers about the prevailing situations and the future of the nation. The
themes deal with burning problems like unemployment, opportunities in careers, hunger and
famine and the vortex of problems in life. They began with mans helplessness against the
forces of nature and the prevailing circumstances, but ended on an optimistic note.
Shonit of Tagore house was adjudged the best actor.

2.

WORLD HERITAGE DAY


(A report by Ram/Rama)
Agra: 19 April
Like the previous years, Sun Public School, Agra celebrated the World Heritage Day yesterday
i.e. the 18th April. Inter-house Poster-making, Placard and Banner-writing contests were
orgainsed. A film show depicting our famous monuments, history and culture of the
bygone era was screened. Our Principal exhorted us to try our level best to preserve our
monuments because they are our heritage. He pointed out that some of these relics of
the past were crumbling to ruins. It devolved on the younger generation, the students to
take a timely step and check any further deterioration in our cultural heritage. Those
who deface, disfigure or spoil the ancient artefacts must be brought to book.

WORKSHEET21
1.

WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY


(A report by Bharat/Bharati)
Lucknow: 6th June
Sun Public School took a leading step in celebrating the World Environment Day on 5th
June this year. On this hot summer morning children belonging to at least 20 local schools
participated in an On-the-spot Painting Competition. The theme of the paintings were:
Dangers to Environment; Ozone hole and Global Warming; Preserving Environmental
Purity and Measures to check Environmental Pollution. An exhibition of these paintings
sensitised the visitors about the need to preserve environment. This was followed by a seminar
on world environment day in which more than 25 students participated in the discussion.
The participants presented in written papers suggesting ways and means to control pollution.
All agreed that our environment is under pollution through various agents like water, soil,

26

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
26

air and noise and we are on the brink of extinction. Even population explosion is causing a
great threat to our environment. Our every nook and corner is being polluted by different
objects and they have posted a big challenge to our survival. During the discussion it was
resolved that we should plant trees and saplings on all the open spaces. Our vehicles too
use noise resistant horns and play them by using C.N.G. Social organisations should
participate to educate the masses on the harms of pollution. Exhibitions and seminars need
to be organised for the public so that we get rid of deadly pollution.
2.

MUSICAL EXTRAVAGANZA
(A report by Aseem)
Delhi: 18 May
The Amnesty Public School organised a musical night for the parents and general public
of Lucknow. Well known celebrities and singers graced the occasion. The evening was a
huge sellout due to the intensive marketing done by the staff and students of the school.
The presence of singers such as Sunidhi Chauhan and Kumar Sanu also drew the audience.
The tickets were highly priced but they were all sold out. Most of the parents who came for
the show also contributed generously by buying all the eatables prepared by the students.
The huge amount of money was generated to help the victims of Aids being taken care of
by the orphanage CARING HOME. The entire community seemed to come together to help
the noble cause. The people who came for the show really appreciated the song, music and
dance blended together. The evening ended on a positive note when the Guest of Honour,
Shri B.L. Srivastava applauded the effort of the school in mobilising resources to help a
charitable cause.

WORKSHEET22
1.

LIFE AFTER TRAUMATIC TSUNAMI


(Rajan/Ranjita, Special Correspondent, The Times of India)
Nellore: 10 Dec
Chaos, death, destruction and horror are the common expressions one finds while
visiting the Tsunami hit coastal areas. Gathering the remains after the devastating
calamity, people are trying hard to come to terms with their lives, although their hearts
are full of grief at losing their loved ones. The fisherman of those coastal areas have lost
almost everything to the gigantic waves. Most of them are languishing in temporary
shelters erected by NGOs and government agencies, waiting for their turn to get some
relief and help to begin their lives anew. Miseries and sorrows are writ large on their
faces. Some of them who were in the mid sea returned safely, only to find their families
snatched by the deadly waves. They are hoping against hope to be reunited as the dead
bodies of the lost ones have not been traced so far.
NGO like Times Group, Saksham, Hope, Siemens Foundation have adopted coastal villages
for their rehabilitation and counselling. Disaster Management teams are working round
the clock to clear off the debris and prevent the break out of epidemics. Fresh drinking water,
food and clothes are being distributed. Every effort is being made to restart life.

2.

BRIGHTEN THE EVENING OF THEIR LIVES


(Nandan/Nalini, member Disha, an NGO)
Kolkata: 25 September
Unfortunate are those who are rendered homeless in the evening of their lives. Sometimes
even their ultimate shelter becomes helpless to provide them solace in their old age. A
visit to Sandhya an old age home, revealed this bitter truth. This home for the aged is

27 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

27

mired in financial crisis. Lack of funds and infrastructure have proved a great hindrance
in meeting even the basic necessities of the inmates, whose number has swelled to 200,
i.e. double the capacity of home.
The efforts of our organisation Disha to mobilize funds and awaken the conscience of the
society have proved quite successful. We took the initiative to arrange an outing for these
senior citizens to give them respite from dull and monotonous. The visit of students of Springfield school brought cheer and inspiration to the aged to enjoy life. With the flow of cash in
the form of contributions, hobby classes were started. These experienced senior citizens
shared their skills like painting, stitching, sewing etc. with local residents. Their active
involvement in routine life has made them feel confident and worthy.

WORKSHEET23
1.

NUTRITIOUS FOOD AND SNACKS COMPETITION


(Archana/Anjum, reporter The Young India)
Delhi: 5 October
To promote healthy eating habits among school children, Vaibav Public School, Hastinapur
organised a Nutritious Food and Snacks Competition on Oct. 5, 2005 in the school premises.
The competition was open to both the students as well as their parents. The famous
nutrition consultant, Dr. Shikha Sharma, was the Chief Guest. A diet questionnaire was
first distributed among the contestants to set various dietary goals. A variety of mouthwatering, easy-to-make, sandwiches, soups, low fat beverages and salads etc. were
aesthetically displayed with complementing cutlery and serviette. The spread was a real
feast for the eyes and a gourmets delight. Bobby Sareen of Class IX won the first prize
for a tasty sprout preparation which was low in fat and high in fibre content. Dr. Sharma,
finally, stressed on the need for healthy eating habits by strongly condemning the growing
craze for fast food and cola drinks among the teenagers. The competition was enjoyed by
one and all.

2.

RAY OF HOPE FOR THE UNFORTUNATES


(Nandan/Nalini, member Disha, an NGO)
Delhi: 2nd May
Orphans are not born orphans, but made orphans by circumstances, untimely death of
parents or quirks of fate. Unfortunate are those who are rendered homeless and deprived
of parental affection and care in their tender age. The orphanages, they take shelter in,
sometimes fail to provide even basic amenities to the hapless, helpless and hopeless
unfortunates. A visit to Aishraya an orphanage for children revealed the pathetic state
of existence of the inmates. The reason behind this was financial crisis. The sudden
demise of two of its patrons resulted in cash crunch. The situation took a turn for the
worse with the arrival of about 50 more destitute.
Our NGO, Disha, organised a campaign to mobile funds and awaken the conscience of the
society. Charity shows, fete and balls for the elite class helped us collect money. People
felt shocked on watching the street plays depicting the plight of orphans. We submitted a
proposal to the management to let us help them in running the orphanage.
Now all the inmates have joined the local school. A training centre has been opened. It
provides training in some craft to make the children independent. The visits of local
leaders have made the inmates feel that they are not neglected by society.

28

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
28

WORKSHEET24
1.

WORKSHOP ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT


(Ravi/Rani, student reporter)
Noida: 30 January
Keeping in view the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, APS School, Noida, in association
with the Indian Red Cross Society organised a talk on Disaster Management. Around 100
teachers and 250 students from various educational institutions participated in the
workshop. Mr. Harihar Narayan, the society secretary was the main speaker. He cited
statistics from World Disaster Report and identified areas, more vulnerable to earthquake
in the states. He also explained the precautionary measures to be taken by the public
and the government in case of emergency. The session included a multimedia presentation
on the aftermath in the disaster struck areas of Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan. Mrs.
Subha Rao, Secretary Seva, an NGO was the other resource person. She focussed on the
capacity assessment highlighted the problems of rehabilitation and relief work. A mock
evacuation drill was also conducted by the volunteers from the NCC team of the school.
The workshop was really enlightening for one and all.

2.

RELIEF MEASURES UNDERTAKEN


(Mithun/Mallika, reporter The Delhi Times)
Delhi: Oct. 15
In view of the immense loss of life and property caused by the devastating earthquake in
northern India and Pakistan on 8th Oct. 200X, the RWA, Vikas Colony, held an emergency
meeting to discuss various relief measures for the victims. Mr. Chopra, the convener, briefed
the members about the situation. The action committee then drew up a plan to expedite
the relief work. It was decided to transport and distribute relief-care packages as well as
blankets, medicines and tents for the survivors. Each relief care package containing rations
of dry food, milk powder and water cans etc. was meant to serve a family for two days. Mr.
Makhani, the President RWA, urged the volunteers to prepare 1000 such packages. An
eleven-member team was appointed to coordinate and transport relief supplies to the strategic
places. Collection points were finally fixed for the residents to deposit their material and
food items. The funds collected were to be forwarded to the Prime Ministers Relief Fund.

WORKSHEET25
1. 175CJanakpuri
New Delhi
20 June 200X
The Director
The Centre for Creativity and Development
Mall Road
Delhi
Sir
Sub: Information regarding 8-week Summer Course
My younger sister has just passed the All India Secondary School Examination of CBSE. She
is a brilliant student and has secured 85% marks in X. She does not want to opt for the
traditional prestigious courses in science viz. medicine or engineering. She is enamoured
of the information technology, but I feel that she is a bit timid and lacks self-confidence.
She certainly needs some skilled guidance and training in personality development,

29 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

29

leadership and interaction. She consulted her language teacher on the subject and he
advised her to join your centre for this purpose.
Kindly supply me the following information regarding the 8-week summer course in
leadership.
(a) the number of students in each group.
(b) whether separate coaching classes are held for girls.
(c) fee for the whole course.
(d) whether fee is accepted in two/three instalments.
Yours faithfully
Rakesh Gupta
2. 251, Navy Nagar
Colaba, Mumbai
17 March 200X
Dear Priyanka
Received your affectionate letter and was glad to note that you are going to complete X
standard. I felt elated when you sought my advice whether to opt for science or
commerce group in XI standard.
In my opinion, you should not join the rat race of choosing the science stream. I know that
you are a practical person, who is intelligent as well as diligent. I would therefore suggest
that you should opt for commerce group. There are some other reasons behind this choice.
(i) Your father is a successful businessman. As a student of commerce you may learn
business/management in practice. Secondly, he may set up a small unit for you and invest
in it. You can manage and expand it with your knowledge of commerce and English.
(ii) In case you want to seek employment, your commerce degree may help you get a
good job in some multinational firm.
(iii) You may appear in a competitive examination for bank recruitment etc.
I do hope you will consider all these points before arriving at any decision.
With love
Yours sincerely
Piyush

WORKSHEET26
1.

30

PLANWEL COMPANY
Tarapore Towers, MG Road, Bengaluru
Ref. No. 20/PC/35
19 April, 200X
The Manager
Apex Information Centre
3, Anna Nagar, Nambaccum
Chennai
Sir
Sub: Offer of a premises on rent
Reference your advertisement in The Hindu dated 18 April regarding availability of a
suitable accommodation in the central market for your office. In this connection we
desire to inform you that we have a suitable office located in the vicinity of the central
market. The accommodation (with roads on two sides) comprises a big hall 25' 40' with
two adjoining rooms 12' 15' each and an inter-connected pantry and toilet. This is an
ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
30

ideal location for all kinds of business establishments. There are three nationalised banks
on the opposite road. The terms and conditions for rent are as under:
(i) A refundable security of rupees two lakh.(iv) Sanitation at your disposal.
(ii) Rent of ` 10,000 pm payable in advance. (v) Rental lease will lapse after eleven
months.
(iii) Electricity and water charges extra.
In case the above-mentioned terms are acceptable, please contact the undersigned within a
week.
Yours faithfully,
Vishnu Wasan
Office Manager
2. 27, Lawrence Road
Kolkata
19 September, 200X
Dear Albert
I am looking forward to your visit to the City of Joy i.e. Kolkata. The city is connected to
the Railway Station by means of a famous bridge known as HOWRAH BRIDGE after the
station. Since your train from Delhi arrives at 4.30 p.m., I shall reach platform no. 5 at
4.25 p.m. and wait near the Brooke Bond Tea Stall. Your coach M-5 will be just near that
stall. In order to help you identify me I am sending my photograph in the get up I shall
be putting on. I have chosen this multicoloured dresswhite coat, grey trousers, red
shirt and a bowlers hat with a pink ribbon to help you recognise me at once.
In case your train should arrive before time or if I am held up in traffic jam, please call
me on my mobile phone number 9136875543.
I do hope you will experience no difficulty.
Hoping to see you soon.
Yours sincerely
Sukomal Sen

WORKSHEET27
1. 23 Rifle Lane
Jhansi
30 January, 20XX
The Editor
The Bhopal Times
Bhopal
Sir
Subject: Child-marriages
Yesterday we went to the Laxmi Narayan temple to worship the deities on Basant Panchmi
Day. What horrified my sensibility was a queue of young girlshardly sixteen years in
age and dressed in bridal clothes, waiting to be married off to their respective bridegrooms
arrayed in the opposite row. I was shocked beyond belief that this evil practice of early
marriage still continued in spite of legal ban. The presence of many bigwigs of society
accorded these group marriages prestige in society. It seems that the law regarding girls
marriage is not at all being implemented properly. People conveniently forget that the
main cause of pregnancy related deaths is motherhood in the teens.

31 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

31

I hope the government agencies will enforce the law strictly and save the lives of many
innocent women and babies.
Yours faithfully
Savita Sen
2. 25 Indira Colony
Rohtak
17 June, 20XX
The Editor
The Rohtak Times
Rohtak
Sir
Subject: Problems of residents of Indira Colony
The residents of Indira Colony are victims of twin problems. The frequent load shedding
and power cuts for long periods have made lives miserable during these hot days of June.
Secondly, the commercialisation of residential space in this colony has attracted workshops
and small scale industries resulting in pollution and noise and causing annoyance and
disturbance to the peaceful lives of the citizens.
As a resident of the colony, I plead to you to bring our problems to the notice of the
concerned authorities and persuade/motivate them to take immediate remedial action.
Yours faithfully
Anjana Malik

WORKSHEET28
1. 15/1129 Rajiv Nagar
Ananthpur
Andhra Pradesh
20 March, 20XX
The Editor
The Indian Express
Hyderabad-24
Sir
Sub: Load of Heavy Bags on Primary School Kids
Through the columns of your prestigious newspaper I want to draw the attention of the
government about the undesirability of primary school students carrying heavy bags to
their school.
Sometimes these bags seem heavier than the kids and cause severe strain on the young
shoulders. It becomes odd for them to get into the school bus. Cant we reduce the
content of school bags? Why not keep the books and exercise books at schools in their
desks. Let games and electronic media do the rest. An improvement in techniques of
education is essential in the new millennium.
It is time the educationists realised the plight of these kids and evolved ways to lessen
their burden.
Yours faithfully
Bharat Reddy
2. The Editor
The Times of India
New Delhi

32

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
32

5 April, 20XX
Sir
Sub: SecurityA Major Concern
I wish to draw your attention to the crimes which are being perpetuated on a daily basis
against the common citizens of this country. Newspaper headlines everyday are splashed
with details of crimes ranging from petty chain snatching incidents to daring burglaries
and gory blood chilling murders. No city, street or home is safe and the people live in
constant fear of life and property. What is our society coming to?
It is indeed a matter of great shame that the police has become ineffective and cannot
check the rise of unprecedented crime graph. It is even more shocking that the judiciary
seems to have lost its voice and criminals are acquitted of charges ranging from
kidnapping to rape and murder.
It is high time that we rise with a heightened sense of urgency to tackle this serious issue.
Stringent laws need to be put into place and enforced religiously. The policing needs to
undergo a rapid transformation by involving the community at large. Resident Welfare
Organisations, MLAs, NGOs and other support systems must work in tandem to address
these security concerns. Self-defence training should be provided to all students as a part of
the school curriculum. People need to be vigilant at all times and report any suspicious
activity noticed in their surroundings to the local authorities. The police force needs to be
trained and empowered to develop a more positive image in the eyes of the common person.
Yours truly
Ranjit

WORKSHEET29
1. 54, Kamraj Street
Chennai
3 March, 200X
The Editor
The New Indian Express
Chennai
Sub: Chain-snatching incidents
Sir
May I use the columns of your esteemed daily to draw the attention of the concerned
authorities towards the increasing incidents of chain-snatching in the city. Our organization
has lodged several complaints with the police, but no action seems to have been initiated
so far as no tangible results can be perceived.
It seems that some anti-social elements have adopted this method to make a fast buck.
Crowded market places, railway platforms, bus shelters and lonely or deserted roads are
usually the scenes of these crimes.
It is suggested that the police as well as general public must take some strong steps and
precautions to check these incidents and nab the culprits. Girls and ladies should not
flaunt their ornaments or display them brazenly to tempt the chain-snatchers. More
policemen with facility of wireless and mobile phones should be posted at sensitive
points. Concerted efforts should be undertaken.
It is hoped that the authorities will take prompt action.
Yours faithfully
Karthik

33 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

33

2. 23, Cubbon Road


Bengaluru560 001
7 March, 200X
The Editor
The Deccan Herald
Bengaluru
Sub: Daylight robberies and burglaries
Sir
Through the columns of your esteemed daily I want to draw the attention of the
authorities towards an urgent law and order problem namely the increase in daylight
robberies and burglaries.
During the last fortnight twenty cases have been reported in the papers. These incidents
have occurred in various parts of the city and no area seems immune from the criminals.
However, one thing stands out common which suggests a method in their madness. It
is the victims who are targetted by them. A rough and ready analysis of the cases cited
above shows that most of them were either aged couples living alone or widows/widowers
having no members of family with them. Almost all these homes had trusted male servants/
maid servants. It clearly points out the nexus between the criminals and the household
helps.
Keeping in view the above, it is suggested that the police should augment day-time beat
vigils and undertake a summary check of the antecedents of the households servants. It
will be advisable to households not to engage domestic helps without proper verification
of their conduct from the police. The Citizens Welfare Associations should evolve local
supervision schedules.
I am confident that all these steps will help to curb the menace of daylight robberies and
burglaries and the citizens will lead peaceful and carefree life.
Yours faithfully
Navin/Namitha

WORKSHEET30
1. 23 Raman Villa
Race Course Road
Bhopal
August 11, 200X
The Personnel Manager
Pioneers (Pvt.) Ltd. Co.
Hyderabad
Sir
Sub: Application for the post of an Accountant
In response to your advertisement in The Times of India dated 1 August 200X, I wish to
be considered for the position mentioned above. I feel my qualifications and experience
are good enough to enable me to discharge my duties. I attach herewith attested copies of
my certificates and my biodata. If given a chance, I may assure you, sir, that I shall spare
no pains in the discharge of my duty honestly and devotedly. I will certainly win the
confidence of my superiors.

34

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
34

Thanking you
Yours faithfully
Nipun
(Nipun)
Encl: Biodata
1. Name

BIODATA
: Nipun Verma

2. Fathers Name

: Mr Mohan Lal Verma

3. Address

: 23, Raman Villa, Race Course Road, Bhopal

4. Date of Birth

: 15 September 1970

5. Educational Qualifications :

(i) CBSE (10+2)


(ii) B.Com. (Hons)

1987

83%

1990

73%

(iii) CA

1994

(iv) ICWAI

1997

6. Experience

: TISCO Bhopal since Nov. 1997

7. Salary Expected

: Rs. 9000 pm + perks

8. Marital Status

: Unmarried

9. Languages known

: Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu

10. References

(i) Dr. V. Anand, H.O.D. Commerce, Holker University,


Indore
(ii) Mr R.K. Sareen, Financial Advisor GRASIM (India)
Bengaluru.

2. 158, Nirala Nagar


Lucknow
26 September, 200X
The Manager
ICICI Bank
Lucknow
Sir
Sub: Application for the post of Business Development Managers
With reference to your advertisement in The Pioneer, dated 24 September, 200X seeking
applications for the post of Business Development Managers for the credit car section, I
offer my candidature for the same. Please find enclosed my biodata/resume to enable you
to assess my suitability for the aforesaid post
Yours faithfully
Pritham/Priti
BIODATA/RESUME
Name
Fathers Name
Address for Correspondence
Contact No.
Age

35 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

:
:
:
:
:

Miss Priti Mudgil


Mr V.P. Mudgil
58, Nirala Nagar, Lucknow
09819600325
25 years

35

Educational Qualifications
Professional Qualifications
Work Experience

Marital Status
Other Achievements
Salary Expected
Reasons for change

(i)
(ii)
: (i)
(ii)
: (i)
(ii)

:
:
:
:

ISC from St. Marias School, Agra, 199880% marks


B.Com. (Hons.) 2001V.N. College, Lucknow
Short term course in Money and Banking - IBM
Short term Computer Course - APTECH
Development Executive HFDC, Lucknow6 months.
Working as Deputy Development Officer with
Canara Bank, Kanpur.

Unmarried
Proficient in spoken English and Customer Dealings
` 20,000 pm plus usual perks.
Stay at Lucknow

WORKSHEET31
1. Kamala
6/39 Harrison Road
Kolkata
17 March, 200X
The Principal
Rani Public School
Kolkata
Sir
Sub: Application for the post of an English Teacher
In response to your advertisement in The Statesman dated 15 March 200X, I wish to be
considered for the position mentioned above. I feel my qualifications and experience are
good enough to enable me to discharge my duties. I attach herewith my biodata and
attested copies of certificates. I am seeking a change as it will give me a chance to work
in a better academic atmosphere in your prestigious institution.
If given a chance, I may assure you sir, that I shall prove worthy of the confidence
reposed in me.
Thanking you
Yours faithfully
Kamala
Encl: Biodata & certificates
BIODATA
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

36

Name
:
Fathers Name
:
Address
:
Date of Birth
:
Educational Qualifications :
(i) CBSE (10 + 2)
(ii) B.A. (Hons)
(iii) B.Ed.

Kamala Pradhan
Mr Biswajit Pradhan
6/39 Harrison Road, Kolkata
5 May 1980
1997
2000
2001

85%
74%
69%
ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
36

6. Experience

: Rosemary School since July 200X

7. Salary Expected

: ` 6000 + perks

8. Marital Status

: Unmarried

9. Languages known

: English, Bengali, Hindi

10. References

: 1. Dr S. Mukherjee, HOD English Dept., Presidency


College Kolkata
2. Mrs Bhattacharya, Principal Rosemary School, Bali
(Howrah)

2. Saranya
217-B, Lajpat Nagar
Delhi
17 July, 200X
The Manager
New India Anodisers
A-10, Phase II, Mayur Vihar
New Delhi
Sir
Sub: Application for the post of an Accountant
This is in response to your advertisement for the post of an Accountant published in
The Times of India dated 16 July. I think I fulfil all the eligibility conditions laid down by
you. Hence I offer myself as one of the candidates. My biodata is enclosed for your kind
perusal.
Yours faithfully
Saranya
BIODATA
Name

Miss Saranya Sethi

Fathers Name

Mr R.P. Sethi

Address for Correspondence

217 B, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi

Contact No.

011-25731077

Age

25 years

Educational Qualifications

(i) S.S.C. from CBSE 199885% marks.


(ii) B.Com. (Hons.) 2001. LSR College (DU)

Professional Qualifications

Work Experience

(i) Diploma in Advanced Accountancy (IBCM)


(ii) Short Term Computer Course (APTECH)
(i) Accounts Clerk, Spencers: 11/2 years
(ii) Junior Accountant, BPL Sales. Noida2 years

Present Posting

Accountant, Harsha Fans, Noida

Marital Status

Unmarried

Salary Expected

` 15,000 plus usual perks

37 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

37

WORKSHEET32
1.

VALUE BASED EDUCATIONREMEDY TO DECREASE CRIME


(by Kamakshi/Kuber)
Respected Chairperson, Honourable Judges and Dear Audience
I am here to present my views that Value based education is the only remedy for
decreasing the crime rate amongst the educated folk.
The headlines of daily newspapers are filled with gory details of crimes committed by
educated gentlemen. We often hear of chain snatching, shop-lifting, stabbing, kidnapping
and robbery. Murder for money is the latest phenomenon indulged in by anti-social
elements. It is said that unemployment and poverty force the youth to adopt criminal
activities. But recent incidents have revealed that young boys belonging to good families
and respectable parents also indulge in criminal activities such as thefts, borrowings and
car-lifting. Devoid of parental care and control these youngsters crave for fun and
adventure. The foreign action films thrill their minds and lead them to emulate some of
the tricks of their favourite heroes. If we are keen enough to decrease the crime rate
amongst the educated youth, we must bring a radical change in our system of education.
We must inculcate in students the respect for values and good qualities such as honesty,
truthfulness, trust, kindness and self-sacrifice. Employment opportunities should always
be increased to channelise their energy.

2.

MINIMIZATION OF HUMAN WANTS IS THE ONLY WAY


TO CLEANSE SOCIETY FROM CORRUPTION
Respected Chairman and Friends,
Corruption is a canker that eats into the vitals of our society. It is the biggest killer and
crippler of modern society. Our daily newspapers are replete with scams and malpractices
which have become the hallmark of the present day social set-up. Although we have
progressed in the fields of science and technology there seems to be an awful decline in
humanity and humanitarian values. Corruption has ingrained itself deep in our society.
The social fabric is fast disintegrating. People are lured by wealth and do not bother how
it is earned. Means are no longer important. One must make a fast buckthat seems to
be the compelling motive behind every young person in quest of millions. The root of this
malaise lies in materialism and growing consumerism. In the past the slogan of life was
simple living and high thinking. Now the roles have reversed. It is high living and simple
thinking. Human beings have increased their desires. These uncontrolled desires have
changed into needs. Mushrooming of wants have compelled modern man to run after
money like a lunatic. We have forgotten that money is a means to happiness and not an
end in itself. A complete change of attitude is essential. I think that minimization of
human wants is the only way to cleanse society of all kinds of corruption.

WORKSHEET33
1.

NEWSPAPERS OUGHT TO CONTAIN MORE NEWS


AND FEWER ADVERTISEMENTS
Respected Chairperson, August Faculty and Dear Friends,
It is painful to see that journalists have lost all ethics and professionalism today. Like all
other professionals, the pressmen are also attracted by the lure of the lucre. They adopt
diverse techniques to increase the revenue of their paper. They try to sensationalise the

38

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
38

news to win more readers. However, even the newspaper having the largest circulation
is not self-dependent. It must have plenty of commercial advertisements to meet its
running costs. In fact it is these ads which provide the owners the requisite funds. Thus,
advertisements cannot be ruled out. They are a necessary evil and must stay.
The owners and editors of the newspapers must also realise their responsibility to the
nation. The press is the strongest pillar of democracy. It creates sensible public opinion
in favour of good policies and criticizes the wrong policies. The newspapers must
maintain a balance between news and advertisements. A common man buys a newspaper
for news. It would be better that the editors publish a classified advertisement supplement
twice or thrice a week and save the general reader from the proliferation of advertisements
while scanning the pages for views and news.
2.

THE PROBLEMS OF THE LEPERS


The Value Education Club of our school organised a visit to the Home for the Lepers in
our town. This home was situated far away from the town. We drove there with eatables,
fruits and clothes. We got an opportunity to interact with the lepers who revealed their
feelings and problems. We could learn to judge things from their perspective. Then we
understood their agony. They are considered worse than untouchables or outcastes. That
is why they are compelled to dwell far apart in a lonely nook. Being afflicted by a wasting
disease, they lose their fingers. Festering wounds on their palms, fingers and toes make
their appearance revolting and nauseating. They feel themselves a neglected lot.
Government and society should make suitable provisions for these unfortunate victims of
leprosy. They deserve sympathy and not hatred. Proper treatment can cure them and
make them respectable citizens.

WORKSHEET34
1.

CLEAN YOUR CITY CAMPAIGN


Cleanliness is next to godliness is an old adage. It is perhaps most relevant nowadays
when environmental pollution is increasing day by day. Prevention is better than cure.
Dirt and disease thrive together. Insanitary conditions of the streets not only give the
city a filthy and ugly look, they also breed many harmful disease causing bacteria. Our
first effort, therefore, is to keep our surroundings clean. People should separate their
household solid waste in two partsbiodegradable and non-biodegradable, instead of
heaping them together. Proper steps should be taken for garbage disposal. Incinerators
should be installed at proper places. The use of biogas and other eco-friendly materials
can help to keep the kitchen clean. The clean your city campaign launched by the
magazine Our Good Earth aims at making us conscious of cleanliness of our surroundings.
We can keep our environment clean by minimising the harmful gases spewn by the
automobiles by sharing the vehicles. The replacement of diesel driven buses by CNG
buses will help to reduce the suspended particulate matter in the air. The citizens must
become cleanliness conscious.

2.

BAN CHILD LABOUR


Children can be seen working in various jobs which are meant only for adults such as
house-building activities, factories, industries, shops and restaurants. Factories making
bangles, matches, crackers, carpets etc. usually employ child labour. The atmosphere in
these factories is not conducive to health. The working conditions are awful and
unhealthy. Children are forced to work there for long hours on low wages. This
exploitation of child-labour goes on despite several laws banning the employment of

39 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

39

children in hazardous industries. The real solution lies in proper implementation of the
ban on child labour. Empowered committees should inspect the factories without prior
notice and take stringent action against those industrialists who flout the law. Only then
child labour can be eliminated. The problems of deprived and exploited children should
also be brought to the notice of social workers, general public and parents to build
general awareness. An enlightened public can force the greedy factory owners to desist
from the profit motive of employing small children in factories.

WORKSHEET35
1.

HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


The Bugle, 23 October 200X

(by Pravin Chopra)

Environmental pollution is the most dangerous health hazard for the modern generation.
Progress in science and technology has resulted in advancement in the fields of industry,
transport, medicine and agriculture. Population explosion has increased the population of
cities. Urbanisation, industrialisation and rapid transport have resulted in pollution. Our
environment is being polluted by different means through air, water, noise and food.
Certain species face extermination and humanity is under a great threat.
The tall chimneys of factories emit out smoke and pollute the air. The smoke spewed by
trucks, buses and other vehicles spreads poisonous gases as well as suspended particulate
matter. Consequently city dwellers have become victims of incurable chest related
diseases. The noise of machines in factories, vehicles, loudspeakers, etc. has brought
deafness to millions. Even the water has become so polluted that fish do not find their
survival there. Inhaling fresh, pure air has become a thing of the past. Our soil which
produces grain, vegetables and fruits has also been polluted by the excessive use of
pesticides and chemical fertilizers. The soil pollution is contaminating the rivers along
with the rainfall.
2.

ROLE OF YOUTH IN COMBATING CORRUPTION


The Yugantar, 25 Nov. 200X

(by Mohit Sen)

Corruption is rampant in our social and political life. Like cancer it is eating into the
vitals of the society. Self-serving politicians and their agents and power brokers can stoop
to any extent to feather their own nest. Nobody is free from the needle of suspicion.
Corruption seems to rule the roost everywhere. In government offices, it percolates from
the top to the bottom. You pay the piper and call the tune or Money makes the mare
go are the unwritten tenets of our administrative-cum-political set up.
It seems that the older generation has given the go by to all that was good in India. It is
the youth and specially students who have to take cudgels against this demon of
corruption and crush it altogether. A beginning can be made in this direction by holding
anti-corruption drives. The ill-effects of corruption in public life should be publicised
through inter-school declamation and essay-writing contests. Students should take a
pledge to resist the temptation of using unfair means in examination. They can also go a
step further and persuade their friends, relatives and parents to curb this evil at all cost.
The dedicated efforts of honest youth are bound to succeed in the long run in demolishing
and vanquishing this social evil which has earned us a bad name.

40

ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
40

SECTION C : TEXTBOOKS
WORKSHEET1
I. 1. The poet was driving from her parents home to the Cochin airport. Her mother was
sitting beside her.
2. She noticed that her mother was dozing with her mouth open.
3. Her mothers face looked pale, faded and lifeless like a dead body.
4. (i) doze (ii) corpse (iii) realised.
II. 1. When the poet sees the pale and corpse-like face of her mother, her old familiar pain or the
ache returns. Perhaps she has entertained this fear since her childhood. Ageing is a natural
process. Time and ageing spare none. Time and ageing have not spared the poets mother
and may not spare her as well. With this ageing, separation and death become inevitable.
2. The poet is driving to the Cochin airport. When she looks outside, the young trees seem
to be walking past them. With the speed of the car they seem to be running fast or sprinting.
The poet presents a contrasther dozing old mother and the sprinting young trees.
3. The poet has brought in the image of merry children spilling out of their homes to present
a contrast. The merry children coming out of their homes in large numbers present an
image of happiness and spontaneous overflow of life. This image is in stark contrast to the
dozing old mother, whose ashen face looks lifeless and pale like a corpse. She is an image
of ageing, decay and passivity. The contrast of the two images enhances the poetic effect.

WORKSHEET2
I. 1. Her mother was lost somewhere else in thoughts. It pained her.
2. The poet withdrew her thoughts from her mother and looked outside.
3. The young trees growing outside went past as if they were sprinting. Happy children
were coming out of their houses.
4. (i) sprinting (ii) merry (iii) spilling.
II. 1. The poets mother is sixty-six year old. Her shrunken ashen face resembles a corpse.
She has lost her shine and strength of youth. Similarly, the late winters moon looks
hazy and obscure. It too lacks shine and strength. The comparison is quite natural and
appropriate. The simile used here is apt as well as effective.
2. The poets parting words of assurance and her smiles provide a stark contrast to the old
familiar ache or fear of the childhood. Her words and smiles are a deliberate attempt to
hide her real feelings. The parting words: See you soon, Amma give an assurance to the
old lady whose ashen face looks like a corpse. Similarly, her continuous smiles are an
attempt to overcome the ache and fear inside her heart.
3. The poet was driving from her parents home to the Cochin airport. The poets mother
had come to see her off. She was sitting beside her. She was dozing with her mouth
open. The words driving and doze provide a contrast between images of dynamic
activity and static passivity respectively.

WORKSHEET3
I. 1. These children are sitting in the school classroom in a slum which is far far away from
the winds or waves blowing strongly.

41

2. The faces of these children look pale. Their uncombed and unkempt hair look like
rootless wild plants.
3. The head of the tall girl is weighed down by the burdens of the world. She feels
depressed, ill and exhausted.
4. It means that the boy is exceptionally thin, weak and hungry.
II. 1. The colour of sour cream is off white. The poet has used this expression to suggest the
decaying aspect. The deterioration in the colour of the classroom walls symbolises the
pathetic condition of the lives of the scholarsthe children of this slum-school.
2. These pictures that decorate the walls hold a stark contrast with the world of these
underfed, poverty-stricken, slum children living in cramped dark holes, obstacles hamper
their physical and mental development and at best their growth is stunted. The pictures
on the wall suggest beauty, well-being, progress and prosperitya world of sunshine
and warmth of love.
3. The poet wants the people in authority to realise their responsibility towards the
children of the slums. All sort of social injustice and class inequalities be ended by
breaking the obstacles that confine the slum children to their ugly and filthy
surroundings. Let them study and learn to express themselves freely. Then they will
share the fruit of progress and prosperity and their lives will change for the better.

WORKSHEET4
I. 1. The colour of the classroom walls is sour cream or off white. This colour suggests the
decaying aspect and pathetic condition of the lives of the children in a slum-school.
2. The walls of the classroom have pictures of Shakespeare, buildings with domes, world
maps and beautiful valleys.
3. The poet hints at two worlds: the world of poverty, misery and malnutrition of the
slums where children are underfed, weak and have stunted growth. The other world is
of progress and prosperity peopled by the rich and the powerful. The pictures on the
wall suggesting happiness, richness, well being and beauty are in stark contrast to the
dim and dull slums.
4. (i) Open handed-map suggests the map of the world drawn at will by powerful
people/dictators like Hitler.
(ii) Awarding the world its world suggests how the conquerors and dictators award
and divide the world according to their whims. This world is the world of the rich
and important people.
II. 1. He uses the images of despair and disease to describe the miserable and pathetic lives of
the children living in slums. The faces of these children are pale and lifeless. They and
their hair are like rootless weeds. The burden of life makes them sit with their head
weighed down. The stunted growth is depicted by the paper-seeming boy and the stunted
unlucky heir of twisted bones. Their weak bodies recite their fathers gnarled disease.
2. The burden of poverty and disease crushes the bodies of these slum children but not their
souls. They still have dreams. Even their foggy future has not crushed all their hopes. They
dream of open seas, green fields and about the games that a squirrel plays in the tree room.
3. In this poem Stephen Spender deals with the theme of social injustice and class inequalities.
He presents the theme by talking of two different and incompatible worlds. The world of
the rich and the civilized has nothing to do with the world of narrow lanes and cramped
holes. The gap between these two worlds highlights social disparities and class inequalities.

WORKSHEET5
I. 1. The name of the poem is Keeping Quiet. The poet is Pablo Neruda.

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2. The people of the world have been indulging in wars and bloodsheds on minor excuses.
If they keep quiet, they may not indulge in reasoning, disputes and quarrels. So let
them keep quiet and not speak in any language. This will ensure peace.
3. We should cease all activities for a second. Man has used his arms only to kill and
destroy others. Therefore, let them not move their arms so much as to harm others.
4. The face of the Earth refers to the various countries on the surface of the earth.
II. 1. Counting up to twelve takes very short time. Keeping still for this brief interval of time
gives us a momentary pause to introspect and review the course of action. It is
generally observed that most of the ills and troubles of the world are caused by our
rush or hurry. Violence is caused by anger. Keeping quiet and still will give us
necessary respite and ensure peace.
2. No, he doesnt advocate either total inactivity or death. He makes it quite clear that
stillness should not be confused with total inactivity or equated to it. Total inactivity
brings death. But Neruda has no truck with death. His stillness means halting of
harmful and hostile human activities.
3. Mans sadness is formed out of his own actions and thinking. It is quite ironical that
man who understands so much fails to understand himself and his action. Rash actions
prove harmful and disastrous. His rush and hurry causes trouble. Man is the creator of
all disasters. He is always threatening himself with death because of his thoughts and
actions. This is the tragedy of his life.

WORKSHEET6
I. 1. The name of the poem is Keeping Quiet. The poet is Pablo Neruda.
2. There will be peace all around if there is no rush or the sound of the running of
engines and machines.
3. It will be a very enticing and beautiful moment.
4. All of us will enjoy the unusualness and sudden strangeness of that moment.
II. 1. The poet wants to prove that there can be life under apparent stillness. The poet
invokes the earth as a living symbol to prove his point. The earth never attains total
inactivity. Nature remains at work even under apparent stillness. It keeps earth alive.
This idea is beautifully illustrated by the following lines:

as when everything seems dead


and later proves to be alive.
2. Stillness is essential for calm reflection and quiet introspection. We hear the voice of
conscience in moments of silence. The poet is convinced that most of human ills and
miseries are caused by mans hurry and rush to do things. The poet wishes that we
may withdraw from our undesirable actions and keep still for a moment.
3. People of the world speak in different languages. They indulge in unnecessary debates
and disputes. Most of these arguments lead to destructive wars. The poet urges people
to stop speaking in any language. They must speak through their hearts. So far men
have moved their arms only to harm others. The poet wants that they should not move
their arms so much. Let these arms rest for once. Let a feeling of mutual understanding
be created among human beings.

WORKSHEET7
I. 1. A thing of beauty is the source of constant joy. Its beauty goes on increasing. It will
never pass into nothingness.
2. A bower is a pleasant place in the shade under a tree. It protects persons/animals from
the hot rays of the sun.

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3. It provides us a sound sleep, full of sweet dreams, health and peaceful breathing.
4. (i) loveliness (ii) nothingness (iii) quiet.
II. 1. Everything of nature is a thing of beauty and a source of pleasure. Some of them are:
the sun, the moon, old and young trees, daffodil flowers, small streams with clear
water, mass of ferns and the blooming musk-roses. All of them are things of beauty.
They are constant sources of joy and pleasure.
2. Many things cause us suffering and pain. Malice and disappointment are the biggest
source of our suffering. Another one is the lack of noble qualities. Our unhealthy and
evil ways also give birth to so many troubles and sufferings. They dampen our spirits.
They act as a pall of sadness on our lives.
3. Keats is a lover of beauty. He employs his senses to discover beauty. The link of man with
nature is eternal. The things of beauty are like wreaths of beautiful flowers. We seem to
weave a flowery band everyday. It keeps us attached to the beauties of this earth.

WORKSHEET8
I. 1. We are weaving a flowery wreath to bind us to the beauties of the earth.
2. We possess the evil qualities of malice and disappointment. We suffer from the lack of
noble qualities and unhealthy and evil ways.
3. It means in spite of all the evils mentioned above.
4. (i) spite (ii) despondence (iii) gloomy.
II. 1. There are many things that bring us troubles and sufferings. They dampen our spirits.
However, some shape of beauty brings love and happiness in our lives in spite of such
unpleasant things. A thing of beauty removes the pall of sadness and sufferings. It
makes us love life.
2. The mighty dead were very powerful and dominating persons during their own times.
Their achievements made them mighty and great. Their noble works dazzle our eyes.
We imagine that such mighty dead forefathers will attain more grandeur on the
doomsday. Hence grandeur is associated with the mighty dead.
3. We feel happy by coming into contact with things of beauty. They make a lasting
impression on us. Keats makes it clear at the outset. A thing of beauty is a joy forever.
It is a constant source of joy. Its beauty never declines or diminishes. Its loveliness
goes on increasing every moment. Its value remains undiminished. It never passes into
nothingness. It removes the pall of sadness that covers our dark spirits.

WORKSHEET9
I. 1.
2.
3.
4.
II. 1.

The poem is Aunt Jennifers Tigers. The poet is Adrienne Rich.


They are jumping across a screen or a wall. They look like shining yellow topaz.
They live in green forests. They are fearless. They dont fear the men under the tree.
(i) prance (ii) denizens (iii) chivalric.
Like all beasts of prey, the tigers are the denizens of forest. They live far away from
human settlements. They are called chivalric. This indicates the majestic and
honourable position that they occupy in the world of animals. So the use of the words
denizens and chivalric adds to our understanding of the tigers attitudes.
2. Aunt Jennifer is weaving tigers on the panel. Her hands are moving about her wool.
She is finding the needle quite hard to pull. The weight of years of her married life is
lying heavy on her hand. This makes the pulling of the neddle so hard.
3. It suggests the weight of the harsh and difficult experience of Aunt Jennifers married
life. The image is quite suggestive. The wedding band is symbolic. It represents the
unbreakable bond of marriage between the husband and the wife.

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WORKSHEET10
I. 1.
2.
3.
4.
II. 1.

Aunt Jennifers fingers were fluttering through her wool.


She was finding even the ivory needle hard to pull.
The weight of Uncles wedding band was lying heavily on her hand.
(i) fluttering (ii) massive (iii) band.
In the third stanza, the poet refers to Aunt Jennifers terrified hands. The old unhappy
memories are still fresh in her mind. She had passed through many testing and horrible
times during her married life. These ordeals crushed and suppressed her. Their effect is
still visible. So she is still ringed with those ordeals that dominated her life.
2. The poem addresses the experience of marriage in the midst of constriction. The word
ringed is significant. It suggests that the vicious grip or her unhappy married life is
still holding her tightly. The word ringed has been used in two ways. First is the
conventional use. Here ring is a symbol of the sacred bond of marriage. The other is
the figurative use of ringed. It means encircled or surrounded.
3. The tigers are prancing. They pace in sleek chivalric certainty. They do not fear the
men beneath the tree. Thus they are symbols of strength, fierceness and beauty. Aunt
Jennifer, on the other hand, is weak and terrified. Her hands are finding it difficult to
pull through her wool. The massive weight of the wedding band sits heavily on her
hand. Her terrified hands are still ringed by the ordeal that crushed her during her
married life. The contrast heightens the intensity.

WORKSHEET11
1. That day Franz was expected to be prepared with participles because M. Hamel had said
that he would question them on participles. Franz did not know anything about participles.
2. Usually, when school began, there was a great bustle, which could be heard out in the
street. But it was all very still that day. Everything was as quiet as Sunday morning.
There was no opening or closing of desks. His classmates were already in their places. The
teachers great ruler instead of rapping on the table, was under M. Hamels arm.
3. For the last two years all the bad news had come from the bulletin-board. An order had
come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The
Germans had put up this notice on the bulletin-board.
4. M. Hamel had put on his best dresshis beautiful green coat, his frilled shirt and the
little black silk cap, all embroidered. The whole school seemed so strange and solemn.
On the back benches that were always empty, the elderly village people were sitting
quietly like the kids.
5. Franz came to know that it was the last lesson in French that M. Hamel would give them.
From the next day they will be taught only German. Then he felt sorry for not learning
his lessons properly. His books, which seemed a nuisance and a burden earlier were now
old friends. His feelings about M. Hamel also changed. He forgot all about his ruler and
how cranky he was.

WORKSHEET12
1. Mother tongue helps a person to express his feelings and thoughts most lucidly and
intimately. Conquerors try to subdue and control the people of the enslaved territory by
enforcing many measures such as use of force to crush dissent and imposing their own
language on them.
From time immemorial the victorious nations have imposed their own language on the
conquered people and taken away their own language from them. The Romans conquered
many parts of Europe and replaced the local languages by their own languageLatin.

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Later on Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and French developed from Latin. The Muslim
invaders imposed Arabic and Persian in the countries of Asia overpowered by them. In
many Arab countries the local religion and language have disappeared. In India, a new
language Urdu developed from the mixture of Persian and Hindi.
2. The linguistic minority in any state is easily marked and faces the same discrimination as
the religious, social or ethnic minorities. There is, however, a pronounced difference in the
treatment meted out and the level of acceptance displayed by the majority community in
that region/city. Some cities like Delhi, Mumbai are cosmopolitan in outlook.
The linguistic minority tries to preserve its identity through an intimate contact, interaction
and preservation of their language in social get togethers, family functions and festivals of
their own region. Adherence to social customs and traditions in family gatherings/group
meetings of women also promote the unity between members of the linguistic minority.
In short, they create a mini-Punjab in Bengaluru, mini-Chennai in Mumbai, mini-Bengaluru
in Delhi and mini-Surat in Kolkata.

WORKSHEET13
1. M. Hamel told the students and villagers that henceforth only German would be taught in
the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Those who called themselves Frenchmen would
neither be able to speak nor write it. He praised French as the most beautiful, the clearest
and most logical language in the world. He said that for the enslaved people, their
language was the key to their prison. Then the people realised how precious their
language was to them. This shows peoples love for their own culture, traditions and
country. Pride in ones language reflects pride in motherland.
2. This comment of Franz shows a Frenchmans typical reaction to the imposition of learning
German, the language of the conquerors. Being deprived of the learning of mother tongue
would mean cutting off all bonds with the motherland. Teaching the pigeons to sing in
German indicates how far the Germans would go in their attempts of linguistic chauvinism.
3. Franz was afraid of being scolded that day especially because M. Hamel, the teacher, had
said that he would question them on participles. Franz frankly admits that he was totally
ignorant about the topic. His exact words are: I did not know the first word about them.
Secondly, he had started for school very late that morning.
4. There was a bulletin-board near the town-hall. When Franz passed by it, he noticed a
crowd there. He did not stop to look at it. He wondered what could be the matter then. For
the last two years they had received all the bad news from the bulletin-boardthe lost
battle, conscription and the orders of the commanding officer.
5. Usually, when the school began, there was a great bustle. The noise could be heard out in
the school. Students opened and closed their desks. They repeated the lessons together
very loudly. They kept their hands over their ears to understand better. The teacher
would go on rapping the table with his great iron ruler.

WORKSHEET14
1. War is a great threat to mankind. Fear, anxiety, tension and hatred are some of the
offsprings of war. No individual is in favour of this brutal act. Innocent people lose their
life because of the vested interests of some of the corrupt politicians. Moreover, war is not
the solution to any problem. It only increases the hiatus between two nations. The desire
to overpower the other disseminates hatred and the feelings of enmity. The aftermaths of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki are evident before us. It should also be remembered that each
nation is trying its level best to become a nuclear power. A nuclear bomb has the power to
devastate nations. Thousands of people will lose their lives. There will not be any survivor.

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If someone is left alive, he/she will be crippled. There is no doubt that war has put the
human existence at stake. We have heard seers say that one should shed ones ego. The
nations should also feel equally important. No nation is self-sufficient. Peace enhances
creativity and productivity. The concept of a global village should be followed by all
countries. Thus war does not benefit any individual.
2. Language is always considered a medium of communication. Man is a gregarious animal. He
has to interact with the fellow human beings. Therefore a set of complex symbols is designed
to serve this purpose. We must ruminate over the past before discussing the status of a
language. There are innumerable man made problems. At the dawn of civilization there was
no discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, language and nationality. But in this
century these problems exist. Nature does not segregate nations. Scientific advancement,
material prosperity, lofty aspirations, materialistic attitude, a desire to rule the world and
vested interests are some of the causes of human sufferings. The concepts of all languages
are similar. They have nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions.
As no religion is insignificant in the same way no language is inferior. The characteristics
and nature of all languages are similar. The only difference is in symbols and pronunciation.
The purpose and objective of all languages are synonymous. There is a dire need to understand
that there should be only one religion i.e. humanity and there should be only one language
i.e. the language of love. A language must not become the cause of rift among masses. It
should bring people together instead of spreading hatred. One should not despise others
because of their language. It is against human dignity and grace.

WORKSHEET15
1. Saheb is looking for gold in the garbage dumps. He is in the neighbourhood of the author.
Saheb has come from Bangladesh. He came with his mother in 1971. His house was set amidst
the green fields of Dhaka. Storms swept away their fields and homes. So they left it.
2. One explanation offered by the author is that it is a tradition to stay barefoot. It is not lack
of money. She wonders if this is only an excuse to explain away a perpetual state of
poverty. She also remembers the story of a poor body who prayed to the goddess for a pair
of shoes.
3. No, Saheb is not happy working at the tea-stall. He is no longer his own master. His face
has lost the carefree look. The steel canister seems heavier than the plastic bag he would
carry so lightly over his shoulder. The bag was his. The canister belongs to the man who
owns the tea-shop.
4. The city of Firozabad is famous for its bangles. Every other family in Firozabad is engaged in
making bangles. It is the centre of Indias glass-blowing industry. Families have spent
generations working around furnaces, welding glass, making bangles for the women in the land.
5. Boys and girls with their fathers and mothers sit in dark hutments, next to lines of flames of
flickering oil lamps. They weld pieces of coloured glass into circles of bangles. Their eyes are
more adjusted to the dark than to the light outside. They often end up losing eyesight before
they become adults. Even the dust from polishing the glass of bangles is injurious to eyes.
Many workers have become blind. The furnaces have very high temperature.

WORKSHEET16
1. Mukesh is the son of a poor bangle-maker of Firozabad. Most of the young men of
Firozabad have no initiative or ability to dream, but Mukesh is an exception. He has the
capacity to take courage and break from the traditional family occupation. He has strong
will power also. He does not want to be a pawn in the hands of the middlemen or
moneylenders. He insists on being his own master by becoming a motor mechanic.

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He can realise his dream by joining a garage and learn the job of repairing cars and driving
them. He will have to overcome many hurdles before he succeeds. Then comes transport
problem. Money is the first one. He will have to earn some money himself. The garage is a
long way from his home. He will have to cover it twice everyday anyhowby walking on foot.
Patience, hardwork, firm will and the determination to learn will help him realise his
dream.
2. The glass bangles industry has many health hazards. It usually employs small children. It
is illegal to employ very young children in hazardous industries, but certain forces like
middlemen, moneylenders, police and politicians combine to entrap the poor workers.
Let us first consider the places where bangle makers work. It is a cottage industry. They
work in the glass furnaces with high temperatures. The dingy cells are without air and
light. Boys and girls work hard during day next to lines of flames of flickering oil lamps.
They weld pieces of coloured glass into circles of bangles. Their eyes are more adjusted to
the dark than to the light outside. That is why they often end up losing their eyesight
before they become adults.
Glass blowing, welding and soldering pieces of glass are all health hazards. Even the dust
from polishing the glass of bangles adversely affects the eyes and even adults go blind.
Thus the surroundings, prevailing conditions and the types of job involvedall prove risky
to the health of the workers.

WORKSHEET17
1. Mukeshs grandmother thinks that a God-given lineage can never be broken. Her son and
grandsons are born in the caste of bangle makers. They have seen nothing but bangles.
Mukeshs father has taught them what he knowsthe art of making bangles. Mukesh
wants to be a motor mechanic. He will go to a garage and learn, though the garage is far
away from his home.
2. People migrate from villages to cities in search of livelihood. Their fields fail to provide them
means of survival. Cities provide employment, jobs or other means of getting food. The problem
in case of the poor is to feed the hungry members. Survival is of primary importance.
3. The promises made to the poor are rarely kept. The author asks Saheb half-joking, if he
will come to school she starts. Saheb agrees to do so. A few days later he asks if the school
is ready. The writer feels embarrassed at having made a promise that was not meant.
Promises like hers abound in every corner of their bleak world.
4. Certain forces conspire to keep the workers in bangle industry of Firozabad in poverty.
These include the moneylenders, the middlemen, the policemen, the keepers of law, the
bureaucrats and the politicians. Together they impose a heavy burden on the child.
5. Saheb was a young boy of school-going age. He was looking for gold in the garbage dumps
of the big city. He had left his home in Dhaka, Bangladesh and came to the big city in
search of living. He has nothing else to do but pick rags.

WORKSHEET18
1. Child labour should be eliminated because the children employed at tender age as domestic
servants, dish-washers at road-side dhabas and in hazardous industries making glass bangles,
biris, crackers etc. lose the charm of the spring of their life. Their childhood is stolen. Burdened
by the responsibility of work, they become adults too soon. Most of them are undernourished,
ill-fed, uneducated, and poor. They have a stunted growth.
Child labour can be eliminated only through concerted efforts on the part of government
agencies, NGOs (Non-Government Organizations), co-operative societies and political leaders.
Mere passing of law will not help. Laws should be enacted faithfully. The children thrown
out of work should be rehabilitated and given proper food, clothes, education and pocket

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money. Their feelings, thoughts and emotions should be respected. Let them enjoy
sunshine and fresh air.
2. Poor rag-pickers like Saheb spend the early years of their lives looking for gold in garbage
dumps. The parents of these street children have no fixed income. They wage war against
poverty and hunger. They have no dreams except finding the means of survival. Garbage
to them is gold. It is the source of their daily bread and provides a roof over their heads.
He ends up as a servant at a tea-stall and loses his freedom.
Mukesh, the son of a poor bangle-maker of Firozabad, has a dream of becoming a motor
mechanic. He also wants to learn to drive a car. He thinks of joining a garage to fulfil his
dream. He knows that the garage is far away, yet he has decided to walk. He realises the
reality and is willing to overcome the obstacles. His daring to rise and decision to get free
from the trap laid by vicious moneylenders and middlemen arouses a sense of hope.
Deprived of education, proper food and upbringing, these children are forced into labour
early in life.

WORKSHEET19
1. It is a well known saying that poverty is the root cause of all evils. Corruption, loot, begging
and incidents of theft are the offspring of abject poverty. The destitute lead a pitiable and
miserable life. They do not get sufficient food. Lack of funds constrain them to take recourse
to illegal activities. Slum dwellers always feel themselves dejected. They recognise only those
beings who help them and feed them. Political leaders take undue advantages of their poverty.
They are misused to win elections. Humanity, mankind, honesty, trust and love become
significant when an individual succeeds in satisfying his hunger. Hungry people need only
food. There is a dearth of people who are capable of converting obstacles into opportunities.
These poor people are exploited ruthlessly by industrialists, politicians and other middlemen.
They scrounge for gold in the garbage dumps to earn their livelihood. The hiatus between
the rich and the poor can never be bridged. It is increasing day by day. The poor are becoming
poorer and the rich richer. There is no human being who would like to work for their welfare.
Their plight is pitiable and horrible. The residential areas of these people are packed with
filth. They become habitual of foul smell. Poverty is a vicious circle. It never comes to an
end. The unemployed youth are heading towards destruction. They do not remember anything
except the help they receive from the opportunistic people who feed them to materialise their
vested interests.
2. Initiation is the law of nature. Success depends on the actions taken by an individual. One
has to take actions without wasting time. Dreams give us directions. But it should not be
forgotten that a man cannot become influential by only dreaming . One who does not utilise
time fails to do anything significant in life. Actions shape the destiny of the beings. Contemplation
destroys happiness. Aimless thinking aggravates woes and worries. It leads to nowhere.
Such thinkers never get pleasure in this world of mortals. Those who believe in taking
actions attain their long cherished goals with an astonishing ease. They never feel confused
or perplexed. They never become a victim of depression. All the human beings are to perform
their duties on the earth. Contemplation leads to idleness. Life is a judicious blend of
contemplation and action. Contemplation transformed into action is of utmost importance. Action
without contemplation may be disastrous. Contemplation without action is a sin. One should
not waste time in thinking only. We should always remember that life is short and time is
swift. Procrastination is the thief of time. One should not forget that theres a time for
everything.

WORKSHEET20
1. William O. Douglas had just learnt swimming. One day, an eighteen year old big bruiser
picked him up and tossed him into the nine feet deep end of the Y.M.C.A. pool. He hit the

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2.

3.

4.

5.

water surface in a sitting position. He swallowed water and went at once to the bottom. He
nearly died in this misadventure.
Douglas was frightened when he was thrown into the pool. However, he was not frightened
out of his wits. While sinking down he made a plan. He would make a big jump when his
feet hit the bottom. He would come to the surface like a cork, lie flat on it, and paddle to
the edge of the pool.
This experience revived his aversion to water. He shook and cried when he lay on his bed.
He couldnt eat that night. For many days, there was a haunting fear in his heart. The
slightest exertion upset him, making him wobbly in the knees and sick to his stomach. He
never went back to the pool. He feared water and avoided it whenever he could.
His fear of water ruined his fishing trips. It deprived him of the joy of canoeing, boating,
and swimming. Douglas used every way he knew to overcome this fear he had developed
since childhood. Even as an adult, it held him firmly in its grip. He determined to get an
instructor and learn swimming to get over this fear of water.
The instructor built a swimmer out of Douglas piece by piece. For three months he held him
high on a rope attached to his belt. He went back and forth across the pool. Panic seized the
author everytime. The instructor taught Douglas to put his face under water and exhale and
to raise his nose and inhale. Then Douglas had to kick with his legs for many weeks till these
relaxed. After seven months the instructor told him to swim the length of the pool.

WORKSHEET21
1. I must have been about eight or nine year old. It was the night of Diwali. All the houses were
shining bright with the rows of candles, oil lamps and electric bulbs. Children were bursting
crackers. Suddenly a cracker went up and hit the thatched roof of a poor gardener. Soon the
hut was in flames. His only son, a tiny infant had severe burns before he could be rescued. I
began to tremble with fear as the police questioned the boys exploding crackers. From then
on I had a fear of crackers, fire and police. My parents and I had to work very hard to remove
this blemish. It was adversely affecting my personality. By learning the safeguards against
fire and safe handling of crackers, I gradually overcame my fear. However, I still panicked at
the sight of a policeman in uniform. The fear of police remained now. My uncle came to my
rescue. He got me dressed as a police inspector in one of his plays. I commanded many
policemen and scolded them for misbehaving with the common people. I learnt that policemen
were also humans and not demons. Police protected and helped us to maintain law and order.
Thank God, I have overcome all my fears now.
2. In his autobiography Long Walk to Freedom, Nelson Mandela tells the extraordinary story
of his life. He brings vividly to life the escalating political warfare in the fifties between the
African National Congress and the government, culminating in his dramatic escapades as an
underground leader and the notorious Rivonia Trial of 1964, at which he was sentenced to life
imprisonment. He recounts the surprisingly eventful twenty-seven years in prison and the
complex, delicate negotiations that led both to his freedom and to the beginning of the end
of apartheid. Mandela also struggled against the exploitation of labour and on the segregation
of the universities. He persevered to achieve his mission and to liberate the oppressed and
the oppressor. In 1990, he was freed from prison. The apartheid laws were relaxed.
Mandela became the champion for human rights and racial equality. He also became the
first non-white president of the Republic of South Africa.

WORKSHEET22
1. Douglas still felt terror-stricken when he was alone in the pool. The remnants of the old
terror would return, but he would rebuke it and go for another length of the pool. He was
still not satisfied. So he went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire, dived off a dock at

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2.

3.

4.

5.

Triggs Island and swam two miles across the lake. He had his residual doubts. So he went
to Meade Glacier, dived into Warm Lake and swam across to the other shore and back.
Thus he made sure that he had conquered the old terror.
Douglas gives a detailed account of his feelings and efforts to save himself from getting
drowned. He uses literary devices to make the description graphic and vivid. For example,
Those nine feet were more like ninety, My lungs were ready to burst. I came up slowly,
I opened my eyes and saw nothing but water..... I grew panicky..... I was suffocating. I
tried to yell, but no sound came out!
When Douglas grew up, he took the help of an instructor to learn swimming. His training
went on from October to April. For three months he was taken across the pool with the
help of a rope. As he went under, terror filled him and his legs froze. The instructor taught
him to exhale under water and inhale through raised nose. He made him kick his legs to
make them relax. Then he asked him to swim. He continued swimming from April to July.
Still all terror had not left. He swam two miles across Lake Wentworth and the whole
length to the shore and back of Warm Lake. Then he overcame his fear of water.
The experience of terror was a handicap Douglas suffered from during his childhood. His
conquering of it shows his determination, will power and development of his personality.
He drew a larger meaning from this experience. In death there is peace. There is terror
only in the fear of death. He had experienced both the sensation of dying and the terror
that fear of it can produce. So the will to live somehow grew in intensity. He felt released
free to walk the mountain paths, climb the peaks and brush aside fear.
Douglas was ten or eleven year old when he decided to learn swimming. He could swim in
the Yakima River or the Y.M.C.A. pool at Yakima. The Yakima River was dangerous.
Many persons had drowned in it. So he chose the Y.M.C.A. pool. It was considered safe.

WORKSHEET23
1. The dictum implies that one cant attain phenomenal success without making sincere efforts.
There is no substitute to hard work. There is no short cut to success. All successful persons
have emphasised the importance of hard work in life. Nobody achieved greatness overnight.
The secret of their success was hard and systematic work. Destiny never obliges the
shirkers. God helps those who help themselves. Rome was not built in a day. Man must
comprehend the significance of doing hard labour. One must burn the midnight oil to
succeed in this world of intense competition. Never forget that rest is rust and work is
worship. A person who toils and work hard gets applause and recognition everywhere. Hard
work is the only key to success. Those who work hard flourish and those who are passive
ruin their earthly existence. They lose their identity. Industrious people reach at their
long cherished destinations. They lead their fellow human beings with politeness and
humility.
2. It is rightly said that failure plays an important role in a mans life. Failure in one field
becomes the cause of exploring success in other fields. It is a sure key to many a riddle.
Failures make us familiar with our weaknesses and flaws. They become the stepping
stones and inspire us to fight against odd circumstances. Man should learn from his
mistakes and strive hard to reach at his destination. Most of the successful peoples failed
at any step but could get their target because failures guided them and encouraged them
to try harder. One should never give up ones target. Our duty is to do our karma. The
result is in the hands of the Almighty. It is certain that failure inspires us to work with
more strength and vigour. One should never get depressed and dejected. All leaders,
fighters, businessmen, bureaucrats firmly say that failures are the pillars to success.

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WORKSHEET24
1. The peddler had been thinking of his rattraps when suddenly he was struck by the idea
that the whole world was nothing but a big rattrap. It existed only to set baits for people.
It offered riches and joys, shelter and food, heat and clothing in the same manner as the
rattrap offered cheese and pork. As soon as someone let himself be tempted to touch the
bait, it closed in on him, and then everything came to an end.
2. His own life was sad and monotonous. He walked laboriously from place to place. The
world had never been kind to him. So, during his gloomy ploddings, this idea became his
favourite pastime. He was amused how people let themselves be caught in the dangerous
snare and how others were still circling around the bait.
3. The crofter served him porridge for supper and tobacco for his pipe. He also played a game
of cards with him till bed time. This hospitality was unexpected as people usually made
sour faces when the peddler asked for shelter.
4. The crofters circumstances and temperament made him so talkative and friendly with the
peddler. Since he had no wife or child, he was happy to get someone to talk to in his
loneliness. Secondly, he was quite generous with his confidence.
5. The crofter had told the peddler that by supplying his cows milk to the creamery, he had
received thirty kronor in payment. The peddler seemed to doubt it. So, in order to assure
his guest of the truth he showed the thirty kronor to the peddler.

WORKSHEET25
1. The peddler wins our sympathy for his way of life and how the world treats him. It is an
admitted fact that the underdog always runs away with sympathy, so does the peddler with
the rattraps. He begs the material like wire for his rattraps. His business not being specially
profitable, he resorts to begging and petty thievery to keep body and soul together.
His life is sad and monotonous. He plods along the road lost in his own meditation. The
world has never been very kind to him and he feels happy in calling it a rattrap. Whenever
he asks shelter for the night, he meets sour faces. He is an unwelcome, unwanted and
undesirable figure. The blacksmiths at forge glance at him only casually and indifferently.
The master blacksmith nods a haughty consent without honouring him with a single word.
The old and lonely crofter finds him an enjoyable company. The ironmaster mistakes him
for an old regimental comrade. Only Edla Willmansson behaves with him in a kind,
friendly manner. Her nice treatment arouses the tramps goodness. He redeems himself
by returning the stolen money and wins our admiration. Thus we see that the sympathy is
not only well earned but well justified as well.
2. There are at least three characters in the story who suffer from loneliness and express the
need to bond with others. They represent three strata of the human society as well. The
peddler with the rattraps, the old crofter and the ironmaster all suffer from loneliness. The
peddler is called a tramp, a vagabond and stranger at various points of the story. He moves
wearily from one place to the other. He is lost in his own thoughts. He seeks shelter for
night and people look at him with sour faces. Even the blacksmiths look haughtily at him
and nod consent. The old crofter suffers from loneliness as he has neither wife nor child
with him. The cow which supports him is no company. Hence he feels happy when he gets
the peddler to talk to in his loneliness.
The Ironmaster is also lonely in his manor-house. His wife Elizabeth has died and his sons
are abroad. There is no one at home except his oldest daughter and himself. His requests to
Captain Von Stahle to accompany him show his need for human bonding. He admits frankly
that they didnt have any company for Christmas. The stranger turns down the request not
because he is against bonding with others but because he fears being caught with stolen money.

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WORKSHEET26
1. No, the peddler did not respect the confidence reposed in him by the crofter. At the first
opportunity that he got, he smashed the window pane, took out the money and hung the
leather pouch back in its place. Then he went away.
2. The peddler realised that he must not walk on the public highway with the stolen money
in his pocket. He went into the woods. He kept walking without coming to the end of the
wood. Then he realised that he had fallen in the rattrap. He had let himself befooled by a
bait and had been caught.
3. The ironmaster walked closely up to the peddler. In the uncertain reflection from the
furnace, he mistook the man as his old regimental comrade, Captain Von Stahle. He
addressed the stranger as Nils Olof, spoke very kindly and invited him home.
4. The peddler knew that the ironmaster had mistaken him for his old regimental comrade.
Secondly, he had the stolen moneythirty kronoron him. Going to the ironmasters
residence would be like entering the lions den. So he declined the invitation.
5. Miss Edla Willmansson looked at the peddler quite compassionately. She noticed that the
man was afraid. She assured him that he would be allowed to leave just as freely as he
came. She requested him to stay with them over Christmas Eve. Her friendly manner
made the peddler feel confidence in her and accept her invitation.

WORKSHEET27
1. Yes, I know how the kindness of a Bishop transformed a hard-hearted beastly convict into
a man again with faith in God and human values. The story is presented in the form of a
famous play The Bishops Candlesticks.
The Bishop provides food and shelter at midnight to a runaway convict who threatens him
with a knife. Long years of imprisonment and harsh treatment in the prisonship has
transformed the man into beast and he is devoid of all human feelings now. The convict
runs away with the Bishops silver candlesticks, but is caught by the police.
In order to save the convict from further punishment and torture, the Bishop tells the police
officer that the fellow is his friend and he had himself given him the candlesticks. This kind act of
the Bishop melts the hard heart of the convict. He sobs and weeps. He promises to be a man again.
2. The story entertains us by providing glimpses into human nature and how people react to
various situations. The actions of the peddler after stealing thirty kronor are quite
amusing. The reactions of the blacksmiths to the tramps request for shelter show how
casual and indifferent human beings can be.
The U-turn in the ironmasters attitude towards the stranger reveal how selfish and ignorant
human beings can be. Mistaking the vagabond for his old regimental comrade, whom he thinks
he has run across unexpectedly, he asks the stranger to accompany him home and spend
Christmas with them. When the stranger refuses to go with him, the Ironmaster sends his
daughter. With her better persuasive power she makes him follow her.
The ironmaster is annoyed on seeing the stranger in broad daylight. But instead of realising
his own mistake, he puts the blame on the man. He talks of handing him over to the Sheriff.
The metaphor of the world being a rattrap saves the situation for the tramp, but the ironmaster
wants to turn him out. His daughters comments are quite entertaining and philosophical.
She wants the tramp to enjoy a day of peace. Secondly, she does not want to chase away a
person whom they had invited home and had promised Christmas cheer.

WORKSHEET28
1. As Edla lifted the peddlers hat, he jumped up abruptly and seemed to be quite frightened.
Even her kind looks, disclosure of her name and purpose of visit failed to calm him. From
his fear, she thought that either he had stolen something or he had escaped from jail.

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2. Next morning, the stranger was cleaned and well-dressed. The valet had bathed him, cut
his hair and shaved him. He was led to the dining room for breakfast. The ironmaster saw
him in broad daylight. It was impossible to mistake him for an old acquaintance now. The
ironmaster realized his mistake and threatened to call the Sheriff.
3. The peddler explained that he had not tried to pretend as his acquaintance. He was not at
fault. All along he had maintained that he was a poor trader. He had pleaded and begged to
be allowed to stay in the forge. No harm had been done by his stay. He was willing to put
on his rags again and go away.
4. Edla did not think it proper on their part to chase away a human being whom they had
asked to come to their house and had promised him Christmas cheer. She understood the
reality of the peddlers life and wanted him to enjoy a day of peace with them. Hence she
still entertained the peddler even after knowing the truth about him.
5. As soon as Edla opened the package of the gift, the contents came into view. She found a
small rattrap with three wrinkled ten kronor notes and a letter addressed to her. The
peddler wanted to be nice in return as she had been so nice to him all day long. He did not
want her to be embarrassed at the Christmas season by a thief.

WORKSHEET29
1. The theme of the story is that most human beings are prone to fall into the trap of
material benefit. However, every human being has an essential goodness that can be
awakened through understanding and love. A human being has the tendency to redeem
himself from dishonest ways.
The theme is developed with the help of the metaphor of the rattrap. The peddler of
rattraps calls the world a big rattrap. The material benefits like riches and joys, shelter
and food, heat and clothing are temptations that allure a person to fall into the rattrap of
the world exactly as the bait of cheese and pork attract a rat to fall into the rattrap. Once
someone takes the bait, the world closes in on him and then everything is lost.
The peddler is tempted by the thirty kronors of the old crofter. He steals the money. Now
he is afraid of being caught and moves through the woods. It is the kind, sympathetic,
loving and generous treatment given by Edla Willmansson that helps him get himself free
from the rattrap of the world.
2. Having robbed his generous host, the peddler felt quite pleased with his smartness. He did
not feel any qualms of conscience that he had abused the confidence reposed in him by the
crofter. The selfish wretch thought only of his own safety. He realised the danger of being
caught by the police with the stolen thirty kronor on his person. Hence, he decided to
discontinue walking on the public highway and turn off the road, into the woods.
During the first few hours the woods caused him no difficulty. Later on, it became worse
as it was a big and confusing forest. The paths twisted back and forth. He kept on walking
but did not come to the end of the wood. He realised that he had only been walking around
in the same part of the forest. The forest closed in upon him like an impenetrate prison
from which he could never escape.
The reaction of the peddler highlights the predicament of human nature. Temptations lead
to evil. The fruits of evil seem pleasant at first, but they deprive man of his goodness and
push him into the maze of the world which holds a vice-like grip on him.

WORKSHEET30
1. Every human being has to earn his bread and butter. Means vary from person to person, but
one has to face many obstacles and odd situations in life. These means can be fair or foul,

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honest or dishonest. Unfortunately, the modern man hankers after money and has become
commercial-minded. People are not afraid of the Almighty. They wish to accumulate riches
by hook or by crook. They have no respect for humanity and moral values. The social norms
and time-tested principles bemoan somewhere in a corner. The mortals of this computer age
focus only on pecuniary gains. They are desirous of becoming rich overnight. And it is sure
that no one can make easy money without resorting to corruption. One should always
remember that those who are honest get respect in society and feel themselves satisfied. They
dont have to feel guilty. But those who are corrupt hide themselves behind the veils when
caught. A person should always be honest and sincere. The factory workers, farmers, teachers
and poor artisans live an honest life and are appreciated everywhere. Freud rightly proclaimed
in his letter to Wilhelm Fliess that Being entirely honest with oneself is a good exercise. A
few honest men are better than numerous bad ones.
2.
The crown and glory of life is character
When wealth is lost, nothing is lost;
When health is lost, something is lost;
When character is lost, everything is lost.
Channing said that the great hope of society is individual character. Character plays a
pivotal role in the life of a human being. It is as significant for a man as a crown for a king.
It is the glory of a mans life. Character reflects the traits and personality of a person. A
man of character retains moral strength and faces the music of life bravely. A man is
judged by his character. A person who has good character is respected and honoured in
society. It is often said that our lot depends on our character. One rises in life in
proportion to the strength of ones character. Character gives self-satisfaction to a person.
He can lead a happy and contended life. He accumulates wealth in heaven instead of
building treasures on the earth. It is only character that distinguishes man from beasts.
Goethe remarked that Talent is nurtured in solitude; character is formed in the stormy
billows of the world.
Not in the clamor of the crowded street,
Not in the shouts and plaudits of the throng,
But is ourselves, are triumph and defeat.

WORKSHEET31
1. (a) (ii) a politician (iii) a delegate (iv) a landlord.
(b) (ii) physically strong
2. He had come all the way from Champaran district in the foothills of Himalayas to
Lucknow to speak to Gandhi. Shukla accompanied Gandhi everywhere. Shukla followed
him to the ashram near Ahmedabad. For weeks he never left Gandhis side till Gandhi
asked him to meet at Calcutta.
3. Shukla led Gandhi to Rajendra Prasads house. The servants knew Shukla as a poor
yeoman. Gandhi was also clad in a simple dhoti. He was the companion of a peasant.
Hence the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant.
4. Gandhis first meeting with Shukla was at Lucknow. Then he went to Cawnpore and other
parts of India. He returned to his ashram near Ahmedabad. Later he went to Calcutta,
Patna and Muzaffarpur before arriving at Champaran.
5. The peasants paid the British landlords indigo as rent. Now Germany had developed
synthetic indigo. So the British landlords wanted money as compensation for being
released from the 15 per cent arrangement. The prices of natural Indigo would go down
due to the synthetic Indigo.

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WORKSHEET32
1. For the poor of India means of survival are far more important than freedom or legal
justice. I dont think the poor of India are free from fear after Independence.The foreign
rulers have been replaced by corrupt politicians and self-serving bureaucracy. Powerbrokers and moneylenders have a field day. The situation has improved in cities and towns
for the poor but the poor in the remote villages still fear the big farmers and moneylenders.
The police and revenue officials are still objects of terror for them.
The poor, landless workers have to still work hard to make both ends meet. Peasants and
tenant-farmers have to borrow money from rich moneylenders on exorbitant rates of interest,
which usually they fail to repay due to failure of monsoon or bad crops. Cases of small farmers
committing suicide are quite common. If this is not due to fear, what is the reason behind it?
2. A good leader has a mass appeal. He rises from the masses, thinks for them and works for
them. He is sincere in his approach. He is a man of principles, truth, honesty, patriotism,
morality, spirit of service and sacrifice are the hallmarks of a good leader. He never mixes
politics with religion or sect. He believes in working for the welfare of the nation and does
not think in the narrow terms of class, caste or region. Corruption and nepotism are two
evils that surround a leader in power. The life of a good leader is an open book. There is
no difference between his words and actions. Such good leaders are very rare. What we
find today are practical politicians, who think of achieving their end without bothering
about the purity of means. The law of expediency gets the better of morality.

WORKSHEET33
1. Gandhis politics was intermingled with the day-to-day problems of the millions of Indians.
He opposed unjust laws. He was ready to court arrest for breaking such laws and going to
jail. The famous Dandi March to break the salt law is another instance. The resistance
and disobedience was peaceful and a fight for truth and justice. This was linked directly to
his ideas of Satyagraha and non-violence.
2. For Gandhi the amount of the refund was less important than the fact that the landlords
had been forced to return part of the money, and with it, part of their prestige too. So he
agreed to settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers.
3. The peasants were saved from spending time and money on court cases. After some years
the British planters gave up control of their estates. These now reverted to the peasants.
Indigo sharecropping disappeared.
4. The Champaran episode began as an attempt to ease the sufferings of large number of
poor peasants. He got spontaneous support of thousands of people. Gandhi admits that
what he had done was a very ordinary thing. He declared that the British could not order
him about in his own country. Hence he considered the Champaran episode as a turning
point in his life.
5. Gandhi asked the lawyers what they would do if he was sentenced to prison. They said that
they had come to advise him. If he went to jail, they would go home. Then Gandhi asked
them about the injustice to the sharecroppers. The lawyers held consultations. They came
to the conclusion that it would be shameful desertion if they went home. So they told
Gandhi that they were ready to follow him into jail.

WORKSHEET34
1.

56

Breathes there the man with soul so dead,


who never to himself hath said,
this is my own native land!
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Patriotism implies love for ones nation. A patriot is ready to sacrifice his comfort for the
service of his nation. It was for his countrys sake that Sardar Bhagat Singh kissed the
gallows. It was for the love for their land that Shivaji, Rana Pratap and Guru Govind Singh
suffered untold hardships. True patriots respect other nations and religions but dont allow
anyone to insult their nation. A great philosopher said, It is not gold that makes a nation
great. It is the sacrifice and martyrdom of patriots that raises a nation to the heights of
glory. India is a land where patriots are in abundance. It got its freedom only because of
the efforts of its patriots. Patriotism is a religion and an ideal. It is an ideology that guides
the people of a nation. It is a feeling and a bond that unites the people of various sects,
beliefs and backgrounds together. A patriot must not be narrow minded. He should
develop an international progressive outlook. It would be pertinent to quote the words of
Seneca here No one loves his country for its size or eminence, but because it is his own.
2. Corruption has engulfed all the educated, skilled and semi-skilled workers. Corruption means
dishonesty and illegal behavior especially of the people in authority. A person resorts to
corruption because of his poverty, lack of moral strength and other psychological and financial
problems. Moreover, the path of righteousness is full of thorns. Some of the youngsters are
misguided by the friends to multiply their benefits within a short span of time. One should
always remember that corruption starts from the top. If the head of the family is corrupt, the
other members will also imitate his actions. Our politicians and bureaucrats are corrupt and
unscrupulous. They dont have any moral authority. Such corrupt politicians and bureaucrats
should be punished and the honest persons should be rewarded if we intend to create a congenial
atmosphere in our country. The system of justice is outdated and obsolete. It is said that justice
delayed is justice denied. People do not get justice in the court of law. If corruption is not
checked, the poor will be exploited without any inhibition.

WORKSHEET35
1. Sophie and Jansie would soon pass out of their school. Only a few months were left. Jansie
knew very well that both of the them were earmarked for biscuit factory. Sophie had wild
dreams about her career. Jansie was a realist. She knew that they did not pay well for
shop work and Sophies father would not allow her to work there.
2. Sophie wanted to open a boutique. It would be the most amazing shop that city had ever
seen. Alternatively, she would become an actress and have the boutique as a side business.
She also thought of being a fashion designer. Jansie had her feet firmly planted to the
ground. She wanted Sophie to be sensible and drop all her utopian plans. All of them
required much money and experience.
3. Sophie knew her father well. He would be angry if he knew of her meeting with the young
Irish footballer, Danny Casey. She didnt tell him. When Geoff told his father about it, he
became angry. He turned his head to look at her with disdain. Sophie wriggled where she
was sitting at the table.
4. No, Geoff doesnt believe what Sophie says about her meeting with Danny Casey. First, he
looks round in disbelief and says, It cant be true. Again he says, I dont believe it.
Sophie then narrates how Danny Casey came and stood beside her. Geoff asks her, What
does he look like? So, he doesnt seem to be convinced that Sophie met Danny Casey.
5. No, Sophies father does not believe her story. When Geoff tells him that Sophie met Danny
Casey, his father looked at Sophie with disdain. He ignores her totally. He thinks that it is
yet another wild story. He begins to talk about Tom Finny, another great football player.

WORKSHEET36
1. Teenagers have boundless enthusiasm and ambitions. They have sweet dreams and go on
fantasising. It is natural for them to do so. Every youth is a dreamer. Every great scientist or

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writer has a dream. Without something to aspire for one cant strive to achieve that goal.
Dreams lead to the golden gate of success. Some teenagers float in the world of fantasy. They
have unreal dreams. It is just like a child asking for the moon. Their feet are in the mud and
they dream of the stars in the sky. Such fantasising results in disappointment and disillusionment.
A dreamer who fails to realise his dream is labelled a failure. Those who realise their dreams
become heroes and achievers in their spheres. I think it is better to have dreams even if we
fail to realise them. Who would have dreams if the teenagers dontwill these grey headed,
grey bearded persons have dreams? Let the teenagers indulge in their natural activity and
dream of a golden future. They will strive to translate them into reality.
2. Sophie is a young school girl. She dreams of big and beautiful things. Some of these are
beyond her reach or her means. Her ambitions have no relation with the harsh realities of
life. She thinks of having a boutique. She wants to have the most amazing shop this city
has ever seen. Then she entertains the idea of being an actress Theres real money in
that. Actresses do not work full time. So she would run the boutique as a side business. If
need be, she can be a fashion designer. She doesnt realise that her family is not rich enough
and her dreams cant be fulfilled.
Sophie develops a romantic fascination for Danny Casey. He is a young Irish football player
and the hero of her dreams. She indulges in hero worship. She tells a story that she met
Casey. Her father calls it another of her wild stories. Even Geoff does not believe her. He
tries to caution her. Casey is a celebrity. Many girls run after him.
Sophie is an incurable dreamer. She has seen Casey only once, but all the time she thinks
of him. She sits alone and waits for his arrival. She becomes sad and despondent when
Casey does not come. She suffers because of her dreams. These dreams and disappointments
are all the creations of her mind.

WORKSHEET37
1. Geoff was always the first to share her secrets. So she told him about meeting Danny
Casey. She also told him about her plan to meet him next week. She suspected areas of his
life about which she knew nothing. She longed to know them. She wished that someday he
might take her with him. She saw herself riding there behind Geoff.
2. Jansie was nosey. She took interest in knowing things about others. She would spread
the news in the whole neighbourhood. So Sophie didnt want Jansie to know about her
story with Danny. It may also be mutual rivalry and one-upmanship on her part. Sophie
was startled to learn that Geoff had told Jansie about her story with Danny.
3. No, Sophie did not really meet Danny Casey. She was very fascinated by the young Irish
footballer. She imagined his coming. She sat in the park, waiting for Casey and knowing
that he would not come. She felt sad. Sadness was a hard burden to carry. She was always
lost in a dreamy world where she imagined Casey meeting her.
4. Sophie and Jansie are poles apart in tastes and temperament. Sophie has fantastic dreams
and floats in a fairy land. She is an incurable escapist who wont come out of her dreams.
Jansie is down to eartha realist. Sophie wants to do something sophisticated. Jansie
knows that these things require a lot of money which their families do not possess. Jansie
also knows that they were earmaked for the biscuit factory. She even advises Sophie to be
sensible and practical. Sophie considers Jansie nosey and does not want to confide in her.
5. Sophie belongs to a lower middle class family. She is an escapist and has wild dreams. She
dreams of things she cant have in real life. Jansie tells her that boutique needs a lot of
money. Sophie knows that the family doesnt have money. Even little Derek understands
her unrealistic nature.
Geoffs occupation reflects their socio-economic background. He is an apprentice mechanic.
His jacket is shapeless. Her father lacks sophistication. He sits in his vest at the table. He

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grunts and tosses one of little Dereks shoes from his chair on to the sofa. There is stove
in the same room where dirty washing is piled in a corner. Sophies father goes to pub on
his bicycle. All these indicators confirm their lower middle class family background.

WORKSHEET38
1. People harbor fierce and uncontrollable desires. The search for a better life is one of the
most basic desires of human beings. But they substantially deviate from the path of
righteousness when they feel that their unquenchable desires can never be fulfilled. They
found themselves in the depths of depression. The mortals should use their wisdom to set
realistic goals. Imagination is thrice away from reality. Undoubtedly, the human race is
governed by its imagination. But it is also a harsh reality of life that He who has
imagination without learning has wings but no feet. One should not forget that there is a
difference between real life and reel life. The happenings of dreams cannot take place in
this physical world. Those who ignore the present situation while setting their goals
repent later. Man has to identify his latent talent and potential to materialise his goals.
One should have thorough knowledge of ones interests and outlook.
2. Man is a social animal. He has to interact with the fellow human beings to give vent to his
emotional grievances and sentimental grudges. He needs a person, a friend to confide in his
secrets. This dog eat dog world has numerous people who seem to be trustworthy. But they
are pretenders, hypocrites and opportunists. A person who leads a lonely life never feels happy
and contented. His life becomes a hell. Expression of thoughts lightens the human soul. It is
a matter of fact that there is dearth of true friends. People do not believe in one another.
Material prosperity and unhealthy competition have eroded trust. Our forefathers worked
together, lived together and earned their livelihood together. In the modern world lack of trust
has created nuclear families. The concept of joint family was based on the principles of trust,
honesty and brotherhood. These virtues have no significance in the present age. Trust gives
us strength and courage to overcome the obstacles coming in the life. It is said that a friend in
need is a friend indeed. We must have someone with us whom we can tell our secrets and reveal
the truth. There should be a person who could objectively listen to our candid confessions.

WORKSHEET39
1. The Maharaja of Pratibandapuram was called the Tiger King. At the time of his birth the
astrologers declared that the prince would have to die one day. The ten-day-old prince
asked the astrologers to reveal the manner of his death. The wise men were baffled at this
miracle. The chief astrologer said that his death would come from the tiger. The young
prince growled and uttered terrifying words: Let tigers beware! He decided to kill one
hundred tigers. He thus got the name Tiger King.
2. Crown prince Jung Jung Bahadur grew taller and stronger day-by-day. He was brought up
by an English nanny and tutored in English by an Englishman. He got the control of his
state when he came of age at twenty. He decided to kill tigers. For him it was an act of
self-defence, as the astrologer had predicted his death by a tiger
3. Within ten years the Maharaja was able to kill seventy tigers. Thirty tigers still remained
to be shot down by his gun. The Maharaja decided to get married. The Dewan found the
right girl from a state which possessed a large number of tigers. The Maharaja killed five
or six tigers each time he visited his father-in-law. Thus he was able to find the required
number of tigers to kill. He shot ninety-nine tigers.
4. Maharajas anxiety reached the highest level of excitement when only one tiger remained
to be killed. He thought of the hundredth tiger during the day and dreamt of it at night.
But it became impossible to locate tigers anywhere. The Maharaja was sunk in gloom.

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Then came a happy news. In his own state sheep began to disappear frequently from a
hillside village. Surely, a tiger was at work. The Maharaja set out on the hunt at once. But
the tiger was not easily found. The Maharaja continued camping in the forest and waiting
for the tiger.

WORKSHEET40
1. On surface level, The Tiger King seems to be a simple story about a royal prince, his
growth and exploits as a king. The prophecies at his birth about the manner of his death
make the story interesting by introducing the element of surprise and suspense.
On a deeper level, the story is a satire on the conceit of those in power. It is usually seen that
those in power have too much pride in themselves and what they do. Two such specimens in
the story are the Tiger King and the British officer. The author employs dramatic irony and
humour to show their faults and weaknesses. The words of these characters carry an extra
meaning. They do not know what is going to happen. The Tiger King resolves to hunt a hundred
tigers to disprove the prediction of the astrologer. In his stubbornness, he falls prey to a wooden
tiger. The high-ranking British officer is equally vain. He is more interested in photograph
with carcass than hunting itself. The Tiger King offers to organise any other hunt except
tiger-hunt. It may be a boar-hunt, mouse-hunt or a mosquito-hunt. He has to lose three lakh
of rupees for his refusal. The ego of the British officer is satisfied when his wife is pleased.
2. For centuries innocent animals have been subjected to the wilfulness of human beings.
Man has been killing animals for sport, meat or organs of body. The author does not make
any direct comment about it in the story. Man advances strange logic to defend even his
unlawful and cruel acts. The Maharaja quotes an old saying, You may kill even a cow in
self-defence. Hence he finds no objection to kill tigers in self-defence. It reveals not only
the callousness of human beings towards wildlife but their disregard for maintaining
ecological balance. The extinction of tiger species in Pratibandapuram state and the state
ruled by the Maharajas father-in-law amply illustrates the result of mans cruelty towards
wild animals. An old tiger has to be brought from the Peoples Park in Madras to satisfy
the kings whim to kill one hundred tigers.

WORKSHEET41
1. The Dewan got an old tiger brought from the Peoples Park in Madras. It was taken to the
forest where the Maharaja was hunting. The Maharaja took careful aim at the beast. The
tiger fell down in a crumpled heap. The Maharaja was extremely happy that he had killed
the hundredth tiger.
The hunters found that the tiger was not dead. It had only fainted on hearing the sound of
the bullet. One of them shot at it and killed it. The dead tiger was taken in procession
through the town and buried there. A tomb was erected over it.
The prophecy was not disproved as the king met his death with the infection caused by the
sliver of a wooden tiger. The astrologer was already dead. He could not be punished or rewarded.
2. The Maharaja of Pratibandapuram is the hero of this story. He may be identified as His
Highness Jamedar-General, Khiledar-Major, Sata Vyaghra Samhari, Maharajadhiraja Visva
Bhuvana Samrat, Sir Jilani Jung Jung Bahadur, M.A.D., A.C.T.C., or C.R.C.K. This name
is often shortened to the Tiger King.
3. The astrologers said the child born under that particular star would one day have to meet
its death. At that very moment a great miracle took place. An astonishing phrase emerged
from the lips of the ten-day-old Jilani Jung Jung Bahadur, O wise prophets! Everyone
stood motionless with astonishment and stupidity.
4. The infant said that all those who are born will one day have to die. So he did not need
their predictions to know that. He further said that there would be some sense in it if they
could tell him the manner of that death.

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WORKSHEET42
1. A minion is an unimportant person in an organization who has to obey orders. The Maharaja
has many minions or servants. Most of them fear the Maharaja and obey his orders faithfully.
They dare not disobey him or contradict him. The Maharajas displeasure means loss of job
or even loss of life. Only a few of them are truly sincere towards him. One such person is the
chief astrologer. He is willing to burn his books of astrology, cut off his tuft and crop his hair
short if his prediction proves untrue. The others try to keep the Maharaja in good humour.
Even the Dewan is no exception. Many officers lose their jobs when the Maharajas fury and
obstinacy mount higher. The kings bullet misses the hundredth tiger. It faints from the shock
and falls as a crumpled heap. The hunters realise the truth, but they decide not to reveal it
to the king. They fear that they might lose their jobs.
In todays political order, subordinates serve their superior bosses as deaf and dumb
creatures who see only what their masters want them to see. Their self-interests and fear
of elimination make them faithful servants.
2. In our times, big game-hunting has been banned by law as so many species of wildlife have
been declared endangered species. Sanctuaries, national parks and games reserves have
been established to preserve wildlife from extinction and maintain ecological balance in
nature. Even then sporadic cases of game-hunting are reported in papers now and then. It
is generally noticed that the erstwhile rulerskings or nawabs or the rich and powerful
persons or famous film stars indulge in game-hunting. The cases against M.A.K. Pataudi
and Salman Khan are still pending in courts. Poachers and smugglers too destroy wildlife
for skin, meat or for various organs of body and escape scot-free.

WORKSHEET43
1. Dr Sadao Hoki was an eminent Japanese surgeon and scientist. He had spent eight
valuable years of his youth in America to learn all that could be learnt of surgery and
medicine there. He was perfecting a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean.
Dr Sadaos house was built on rocks well above a narrow beach that was outlined with bent
pines. It was on a spot of the Japanese coast.
2. Dr Sadao knew that they would be arrested if they sheltered a white man in their house. The
wounded man was a prisoner of war who had escaped with a bullet on his back. Since Japan
was at war with America, harbouring an enemy meant being a traitor to Japan. Dr Sadao
could be arrested if anyone complained against him and accused him of harbouring an enemy.
3. The gardener and the cook were frightened that their master was going to heal the wound
of a white manan enemy. They felt that after being cured he will take revenge on the
Japanese. Yumi, the maid, was also frightened. She refused to wash the white man. Hana
rebuked the maid who had refused to wash a wounded helpless man. Then she dipped a
small clean towel into the steaming hot water and washed the white mans face. She kept
on washing him until his upper body was quite clean. But she dared not turn him over.
4. Dr Sadao and his wife, Hana, had told the servants that they only wanted to bring the man
to his senses so that they could turn him over as a prisoner. They knew that the best
possible course under the circumstances was to put him back into the sea. However, Dr
Sadao was against handing over a wounded man to the police. He decided to carry him into
his house. He operated upon him and extracted the bullet from his body. He kept the
white man in his house. He and his wife looked after him and fed him till he was strong
enough to walk on his legs.

WORKSHEET44
1. Dr Sadao Hoki faces a dilemma when he finds the body of an unconscious wounded white
man lying on the lonely coast with dangerous rocks near his house. As they saw his face,
they found that he was a white man with long yellow hair and a rough yellow beard.

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Being an expert surgeon, Dr Sadao saw that the man had a gun-wound on the right side of
his lower back. He at once packed the wound with sea moss to stanch the fearful bleeding.
Since Japan was at war with America, the white man was an enemy. If they sheltered a
white man in their house they would be arrested and if they turned him over as a
prisoner, he would certainly die. Hana still insisted on putting him back into the sea. The
man was a prisoner of war. He had escaped and that was why he was wounded in the back.
Hana asked if they were able to put him back into the sea. Sadao then said that if the man
was whole he could turn the man over to the police without difficulty. He cared nothing for
the man. He was their enemy. All Americans were their enemy. But since he was
wounded Hana understood his dilemma and realised that in the conflict between his
sense of national loyalty and his duty as a doctor, it was the latter which proved dominant.
Since Sadao too could not throw him back to the sea, the only course left for them was to
carry him to their house. Sadao enquired about the reaction of the servants.
Hana said that they would tell the servants that they intended to give the man to the police.
She told Sadao that they must do so. They had to think of the children and the doctors position.
It would endanger all of them if they did not give that man over as a prisoner of war.
Sadao agreed and promised that he would not think of doing anything else.
2. Dr Sadao and his wife, Hana, together lifted the wounded man and carried him to an
empty bedroom. The man was very dirty. Sadao suggested that he had better be washed.
He offered to do so if she would fetch water. Hana was against it. She suggested that the
maid, Yumi, could wash the man. They would have to tell the servants. Dr Sadao
examined the man again and remarked that the man would die unless he was operated
upon at once. He left the room to bring his surgical instruments.
The servants did not approve of their masters decision to heal the wound of a white man. Even
Yumi refused to wash the white man. There was so fierce a look of resistance upon Yumis
round dull face that Hana felt unreasonably afraid. Then she said with dignity that they only
wanted to bring him to his senses so that they would turn him over as a prisoner. However,
Yumi refused to have anything to do with him. Hana asked Yumi gently to return to her work.
The open defiance from the domestic staff hurt Hanas feelings. She had told the servants
to do what their master commanded them. She was convinced of her own superiority.
She now became sympathetic to her husband and helped him in his efforts to heal the
wounded man. Though the sight of the white man was repulsive to her, she washed his
face and his upper body. She prepared herself to give him the anaesthetic according to
her husbands instructions. She had never seen an operation. She choked and her face
turned pale like sulphur. She felt like vomiting and left for a while. She returned after
retching and administered anaesthetic to the man. Thus she co-operated with her husband
fully to save the wounded man.

WORKSHEET45
1. In the afternoon, a messenger came there in official uniform. He told Dr Sadao that he had
to come to the palace at once as the old General was in pain again.
Hana, thought that the officer had come to arrest Dr Sadao. Dr Sadao told the General
about the white man he had operated upon. Since Dr Sadao was indispensable to the
General, he promised that Dr Sadao would not be arrested.
2. Dr Sadao told Tom, the white man, that he was quite well then. He offered to put his boat
on the shore that night. It would have food and extra clothing in it. Tom might be able to
row to the little island which was not far from the coast and could live there till he saw a
Korean fishing boat pass by.

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Dr Sadao gave the man Japanese clothes and covered his blond head with a black cloth. In
short, Dr Sadao helped the man to escape from Japan.
3. Sadaos father was a visionary. He knew that the islands near the sea coast were the
stepping stones to the future for Japan. No one could limit their future as it depended on
what they made it. His sons education was his chief concern. He sent his son to America
at the age of twenty-two to learn all that could be learned of surgery and medicine. He
loved the Japanese race, customs and manners.
4. Sadao was an eminent surgeon and a scientist. He was perfecting a discovery which would
render wounds entirely clean. Secondly, the old General was being treated medically for a
condition for which he might need an operation. Due to these two reasons Sadao was being
kept in Japan and not sent abroad with the troops.

WORKSHEET46
1. On the third day after the operation, the young man asked Dr Sadao what he was going to
do with him and if he was going to hand him over. Dr Sadao said that he did not know
himself what he would do with the man. He ought to hand him over to the police as he
was a prisoner of war.
The young man saw that Dr Sadao and his wife Hana were different from other Japanese.
They spoke English well, looked after him and served him food. Seven days after the
operation of the man, Dr Sadao was called to the palace to see the General. Hana thought
that the police had come to arrest Dr Sadao. Dr Sadao confided in the General and he
(General) promised to send his personal assassins to kill the man and remove his body.
Dr Sadao waited for three nights. Nothing happened. Then he made a plan to let the
prisoner escape. He told Tom, the young American, about it. The young man stared at him
and asked if he had to leave. It seemed he was reluctant to leave. Dr Sadao told him that
he should understand everything clearly. It was not hidden that he was there and this
situation was full of risk for himself as well as for the doctor. Thus it is quite clear that the
reluctance of the soldier was caused by the single motive of self-preservation. He knew
from the treatment he had received from the couple that they would save him.
2. During his meeting with the General, Dr Sadao told him about the man he had operated
on successfully. He explained that he cared nothing for the man. The General appreciated
his skill and efficiency and promised that he would not be arrested.
The General thought it quite unfortunate that the man had been washed up to Dr Sadaos
doorstep and thought it best if he could be quietly killed. He promised to send his private
assassins to do so and remove his dead body. He suggested that Dr Sadao should leave the
outer partition of the white mans room to the garden open at night.
It is evident that the General had no human consideration in this matter. For him an
enemy was an enemy and must be wiped out. He wanted the man to be eliminated silently
to save the doctor from being arrested. It was neither lack of national loyalty nor
dereliction of duty that guided and inspired his decision. It was simply his sense of selfabsorption. He wanted to keep Dr Sadao safe only for his own sake. He had no faith in the
other Germany trained doctors. He might have to be operated upon anytime when he had
another attack and he had full faith in the skill and loyalty of Dr Sadao only.
This fact is further corroborated by the Generals remarks to Dr Sadao, one week after the
emergency operation upon the General. Dr Sadao informed him that the man had escaped.
The General asked whether he had not promised Sadao that he would kill the man for him.
Dr Sadao replied that he had done nothing. The General admitted that he had forgotten his
promise as he had been suffering a great deal and he thought of nothing but himself. He
revealed the whole truth. He admitted that it was careless of him to have forgotten his promise.
But added that it was not lack of patriotism or dereliction of duty on his part.

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WORKSHEET47
1. Sadao married Hana when they returned to Japan after finishing their work at medical
school. Sadaos father saw her. The marriage was then arranged in the old Japanese way.
They had been married years enough to have two children. Their married life was quite
happy. They still loved each other.
2. The man lay motionless with his face in the sand. As they turned the mans head, they saw that
he was a white man with long yellow hair. His young face had a rough yellow beard. He was
unconscious. From his battered cap they learnt that he was a sailor from an American warship.
3. Sadaos head told him to put the man back into the sea as he was an American soldieran
enemy of Japan. His trained hands seemed, of their own will, to be doing what they could
to stanch the fearful bleeding. He packed the wound with the sea-moss that strewed the
beach. The bleeding was stopped for the moment.
4. The white man was wounded. He needed immediate medical care. Dr Sadao could do so.
But if they sheltered a white man in their house, they would be arrested. On the other
hand, if they turned him over as a prisoner, he would certainly die.

WORKSHEET48
1. It is the consciousness of the demands of ones calling that make a sensitive soul respond
to the call of his duty as a professional doctor to attend to the wounded human being
regardless of his being an enemy.
In the story The Enemy Dr Sadao Hoki finds a prisoner of war washed ashore and in a dying
state thrown to his doorstep. As a patriot, it is his duty to hand him over to the police. If he
does not want to be entangled, the next best thing is to put him back to the sea.
However, the surgeon in him instinctively inspires him to operate upon the dying man and
save him from the jaws of death. First, he packs the wound with sea-moss to stanch the fearful
bleeding. Then he brings him home with the help of his wife. In spite of stiff opposition and
open defiance of the servants, he operates upon the man and harbours him till he is able to
leave. He knows fully well the risk of sheltering a white mana prisoner of warin his house.
But his sentimentality for the suffering and wounded person help him rise above narrow
national prejudices and extend his help and services even to an enemy.
2. Yes, I think the doctors final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the
circumstances. Initially, the doctor as well as his wife thought that the best as well as
kindest thing would be to put him back into the sea. But neither of them moved. Neither
was able to put him back into the sea.
Sadao explained that if the man was whole he could turn him over to the police without
difficulty, but since he was wounded, the doctor could not throw him back to the sea. He
could not kill the man whom he had saved from the jaws of death.
The General promised to send his private assassins to kill the man and remove his dead
body. Sadao waited for three nights for their arrival, but they never came as the General
being preoccupied with his own suffering, forgot everything else.
Meanwhile the fear of Hana, the doctors wife, that he would be arrested on the charge of
harbouring an enemy kept on mounting. Dr Sadao made up his mind to get rid of the man
as it was not only inconvenient but also dangerous for them to have him there any longer.
He, therefore, quietly devised the plan of letting the prisoner escape by using his own
boat and Japanese clothes.
As soon as the enemy left, the servants returned and life became normal once again. Dr
Sadao informed the General that the man had escaped. The General admitted that he
had forgotten his promise as he thought of nothing but himself as he was suffering a great

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deal. He confessed that it was careless of him but it was not his lack of patriotism or
dereliction of duty. In short, the doctors strategy to let the prisoner escape was the best
possible solution to the problem under the prevailing circumstances.

WORKSHEET49
1. Jo is the shortened form of Joanne. She is the four year old daughter of Jack and Clare.
For the last two years, her father, Jack, has been telling her bed-time stories. Since these
stories are woven around the same basic tale and have the same characters and turn of
events, Jo takes so many things for granted and takes active interest in the story-telling
session. The protagonist (main character) is always named Roger. It may be Roger Fish,
Roger Squirrel, Roger Chipmunk or Roger Skunk. The other characters are the huge,
wise, old owl and the thin small wizard. Other creatures of the forestsmall animalsalso
take part in playing with Roger and liking/disliking him.
2. Jack told the story of Roger Skunkan animal which emitted a foul smell and how the
wizard changed his smell to that of roses at his request. The other little creatures, who
earlier hated Roger Skunk, now gathered around him because he smelled so good. They
played various games of children till dark and then went to their homes happily.
3. Little Jo had been accustomed to the happy ending of the stories of Roger, where the
wizard was helpful to him in fulfilling his wish.
Jo could not accept that mothers stubbornness-hitting the well wisher of her son, Roger Skunk.
Jo insisted that her father should tell her the same story again the next day with changed
ending. The wizard should hit that unreasonable mummy on the head and leave Roger Skunk
emitting the pleasant smell of roses. In the beautiful world of a childs imagination, fairies
and wizards are more real than reality itself. She could not digest the harsh realities of life.
She did not like the unfeeling mother who hit the benefactor of her son.
4. Jack would tell his four year old daughter Joanne (or Jo) a story out of his head in the
evenings and for Saturday naps. This custom had begun when she was two and now it was
nearly two year old.

WORKSHEET50
1. The story raises a moral issueshould parents always decide what the children should do
or let the children do what they like to do. There is an evident contrast between an adults
perspective on life and the world view of a little child.
Jack, the father, defends the behaviour of Roger Skunks mother who forced the old wizard
to restore the natural but offensive smell to Roger Skunk. He sums up the issue in one
sentence: She knew what was right. As to why the little skunk agreed to her mothers
proposal, Jack says that the little skunk loved his mummy more than he loved all the
other little animals. Jack cites an instance. When Roger Skunk was in bed, Mummy
Skunk came up, hugged him and said he smelled like her little baby Skunk again and she
loved him very much.
Little Jo, the spokesperson of children, does not agree with her fathers view. She feels
that the Skunks mother should not have robbed the pleasure of her little son and deprived
him of the pleasant smell of the roses. She insisted that the wizard hit that mummy on the
head and did not change that little skunk back. She calls the little skunks mother a
stupid mommy. She realised that her father was defending his own mother to her, or
something odd.
Jo stuck to her viewpoint. She insisted that her father should tell her the story the next day
in a different manner. It was the wizard that took the magic wand and hit that mommy.

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2. Jack ends the story in a way that seems unusual to Jo. In her dream world, the wizard is
a miracle worker. She cant digest the statement that the little skunks mother hit the
wizard right on his head with her umbrella and he agreed to do what she desired. Roger
Skunk did not smell of roses any more. He smelled very bad again.
Jo did not want the story to end this way. She had in mind, the pleasure of all the little
animals. She says, But daddy, then he said about the other little animals run away! Her
father admits it. He agrees that Roger Skunk told his mother, But Mommy, all the other
animals run away! The mother does not bother about them. She says bluntly, I dont
care. You smelled the way a little skunk should have.
Jo cant digest the ending that the mother hit the wizard right over the head and he made
Roger Skunk smell very bad again. She suggested to her father to end the story in another
mannerThe wizard hit her on the head and did not change that little skunk back. She
wanted that stupid mummy to be punished and insisted repeatedly on the changed ending
next night till her father agreed to consider it, saying, Well, well see.

WORKSHEET51
1. A small creature named Roger had some problem. He would go to the wise owl who told
him to go to the wizard. The wizard performed a magic spell. It solved Rogers problem. He
demanded more pennies than Roger had. Then he directed Roger to the place where extra
money could be found. Roger felt happy and played many games with other creatures. He
then went home. His daddy arrived from Boston. They had supper. The story wound up
with the description of the items of their supper.
2. Jo was growing up. She never fell asleep in naps any more. Her brother, Bobby, who was two,
and already asleep with his bottle. But Jo would not take her nap like an infant. The bumps her
feet made under the covers were halfway down the bed. Her fat face deep in the pillow shone
in the sunlight. The custom seemed futile and especially fatiguing on Saturdays.
3. Jo suggested skunk for the story that day. It was a new animal for her. They must be talking
about it at nursery school. A skunk or a pole-cat is a small black and white North American
animal. It can produce a strong unpleasant smell to defend itself when it is attacked.
4. Jo squeezed her eyes shut and smiled to be thinking that she was thinking. She opened
her blue eyes and said firmly, Skunk. Having a fresh hero momentarily stirred Jack to
creative enthusiasm. He started telling the story of Roger Skunk that smelled so bad that
none of the other little woodland creatures would play with him.

WORKSHEET52
1. Jack has the typical parental attitude. He is of the opinion that the parents know what is best
for their children. He asserts the parental authority time and again to quieten Jo and stifle
her objections and amendments to the story of the foul smelling Skunk related by him.
He defends the attitude of Roger Skunks mother. She does not approve of the unnatural,
unskunk like smell that Roger has. She calls the sweet smell of the roses an awful smell.
Earlier the little skunk smelled the way a little skunk should. She wants the natural
characteristicthe foul smellrestored. He says that she knew what was right. Secondly,
the little skunk loved his mommy more than he loved all the other animals. That is why,
he took his mommy to the wizard. She hit the wizard and forced him to change the smell
of roses to his earlier bad odour. He insisted on this ending to emphasise the concern of
the parents for children and their role in bringing them up on proper lines.
2. Jack feels that he has been caught in an ugly middle position physically, emotionally as
well as mentally. The woodwork, a cage of mouldings and rails and skirting boards all
around them was half old tan and half new ivory.

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He was conscious of his duties as a father and as a husband. Little Bobby was already
asleep. His efforts to make Jo fall asleep proved quite fatiguing. She kept on interrupting
him, asking for clarifications, pointing errors and suggesting alternatives.
Jack did not like that women should take anything for granted. He liked them to be
apprehensive. So he extended the story, though he was in a haste to go down stairs and
help his pregnant wife in her hard work of painting the woodwork. The result of the
extension to the story proved unfruitful and unpleasant for Jo, Jack and Clare. Jo wanted
him to change the ending of the story. Clare complained that he had told a long story. Jack
felt utter weariness and did not want to speak with his wife or work with her or touch her.
He was really caught in an ugly middle position.

WORKSHEET53
1. Mr Lamb is an old man with a tin leg. His real leg was blown off years ago during the war.
He lives all alone in his house. There is a garden near the house. It has ripe crab apples
looking orange and golden in colour.
Mr Lamb is sitting in his garden when Derry climbs over the garden wall to get into his
garden. Though the gate is open, the boy does not use it.
2. At first Derry does not like being near people. Mr Lamb offers him a new way of thinking. All
this brings a change in Derrys attitude towards Mr Lamb. He promises to come back after
informing his mother. He asks Mr Lamb about his life and friends and recognises his loneliness
and disappointment. He keeps his promise and returns only to find Mr Lamb lying on the ground.
3. Mr Lamb issues this instruction to Derry, a boy of fourteen, who climbs over the garden
wall and enters the garden. He asks him twice to mind the apples which have been blown
down by the wind from the trees and strewn in the grass. He could put his foot on some
apple, fall down and hurt himself.
4. Mr Lambs attitude to the small boy is quite gentle, protective and accommodating. Like
an elder in the family offering advice and instructions to the younger members, Mr Lamb
advises the young boy to mind the apples lest he should trip and not to feel afraid.

WORKSHEET54
1. Both Derry and Mr Lamb suffer from physical impairment. Derry has one side of his face
disfigured and burnt by acid. The old man has a tin leg because his real leg got blown off
during the war. Apart from these physical disabilities, Derry finds signs of loneliness and
disappointment in Mr Lambs life. The old man tries to overcome these feelings but the
sense of alienation felt by him is more painful than the pain caused by physical disability.
Derry tries to avoid meeting people because they consider his face frightful and ugly.
They avoid him as they are afraid of him. His parents seem worried about him and talk
about him and his future.
Mr Lamb provides him a new approach to things. He tells him to see, hear, feel and think
about things around him. He should not hate others. Hatred is worse than acid because it
burns the inside. He has all the God-given limbs. He must take a firm decision and work
towards it. He will succeed. He should not be afraid of people and they will not be afraid of
him. All these factors draw Derry towards Mr Lamb.
2. It is in the middle section of the first scene of the play that Mr Lamb displays signs of
loneliness and disappointment. He says that when it is a bit cooler, he will get the ladder
and a stick, and pull down those crab apples. He makes jelly. Derry could help him. Then
he says he is interested in anybody or anything that God made. It may be a person,
flower, fruit, grass, weeds or rubbish. There are plenty of things to look at. Some of
them are his crab apples or the weeds or a spider climbing up a silken ladder or his tall
sun-flowers. He also likes to talk and have a company. He has a hive of bees. He hears

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them singing. He sits in the sun and reads books. He likes the light and the darkness.
He hears the wind coming through open windows. There arent any curtains at the
windows as they either shut things out or shut things in.

WORKSHEET55
1. James Roderick Evans was a jail bird. The prison officers called him Evans the Break as
he had escaped from prison three times. At present he was in a solitary cell in Oxford
Prison. He was quite a pleasant sort of chapan amusing person who was good at
imitations. He was not at all violent. He suffered from the disease of involuntarily stealing
things. This was disease with which he was born.
2. The solitary cell of Evans was turned into examination room by placing two small tables and
two chairs in it. Reverend Stuart McLeery, a parson from St. Mary Mags was to work as
invigilator. The cell was to be kept locked from outside and a prison officer would observe Evans
from a peep-hole after every minute or so. All potential weapons such as knife, scissors, nailfile and razor had been taken away. Even the contents of the suitcase of the invigilator were
thoroughly searched. The paper knife was taken away by a prison officer. The Governor himself
was to listen-in the conversation in the cell during the examination. The cell was in the DWing which had two heavy gatesouter and inner. Both were locked securely. Mr Jackson,
the prison officer, was in constant contact with the Governor on the phone.
3. The request was to create an examination centre in the prison for one candidate named James
Roderick Evans. He had started night classes in O-Level German last September. He was the
only one in the class and said that he was keen to get some sort of academic qualification.
The Secretary agreed to give him a chance and promised to send all the forms and stuff.
4. Evans was called Evans the Break by the prison officers. He had escaped from prison
three times already. He would have done so from Oxford Prison as well if there had not
been unrest in the maximum security establishments up north.

WORKSHEET56
1. It is Evans who has the last laugh. The play makes a fun of the routine procedure followed
by prison authorities and police. It depicts how the criminals are one step ahead of the jail
authorities.
All precautions have been made by the Governor of Oxford Prison to see that the O-Level
German examination, held in prison for the prisoner Evans, does not provide him means to
escape. The examination passes off peacefully. Mr Stephens, a prison officer, sees off McLeery,
the invigilator and on returning to the cell finds injured McLeery sprawling in Evans chair.
It is easy for Evans impersonating as McLeery to leave the prison along with police officer.
He claims to have spotted Evans driving off along Elsfield Way but loses track at the
Headington roundabout. He grogs off near the Examination offices. Then he disappears.
He is located in the Golden Lion in Chipping Norton by the Governor of Oxford Prison.
Instead of bringing Evans securely back to prison, the Governor lets him come in a prison
van guarded by a prison officer. It is just what Evans had planned. The driver and the
prison officer are his friends and Evans escapes from prison once again.
In fact, Evans has made elaborate arrangements. He joins the night classes in September.
The German teacher is one of his friends. He has his friends in the Examination Board as
well. He waits patiently till June. Two of his friends bind and gag Reverend Stuart McLeery
in his Broad Street flat. One of them personates him. He is dressed up as a minister. He
has two collars and two black fronts on his person. Evans fiddles about under the blanket
with the black front and the stud at the back of the collar. His friends also arrange a car
where he can change his make up as well as clothes. He successfully deceives the police as
well as the prison authorities.

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2. On his return to the cell of Evans, Stephens saw a man sprawling back in Evans chair. For
a semi-second Stephens thought it must be Evans. But the small black beard, white
clerical collar and black clerical front and red blood dripping from the front of his head,
made Stephens jump to a conclusionEvans impersonating McLeery, had walked out.
Almost immediately the whole machinery jumped into action. No one bothered to check
the identity of the injured McLeery. The assumption of Stephens prevailed. It was
reinforced by the broader Scots accent and slimmer body of the parson he had seen off and
the blood coming out of wound and dress of the parson in the cell.
The hasty conjecture prevents one from seeing the obvious. The jail breaker might have
played a trick again. Even the Governor is deceived. He believes what his staff says. The
man who doubted everything and cross checked it, does not even examine the victim.
Due to their long sojourn in prison the criminals become familiar with the temperaments
of prison officers as well as the routine they follow. A criminal is always disbelieved. On
the other hand, an officers word is always accepted. The criminals are certain that
negligence of the prison authorities is their only passport to freedom. They doubt the
remotest possibility and doubt genuine telephone calls as fake ones, yet an assumption is
accepted as truth and the obvious is ignored. Hence the criminal is able to predict such
negligence on the part of prison authorities.

WORKSHEET57
1. The Governor should have escorted Evans himself to the Oxford Prison. He had only two
persons with him, and later it turned out that these two persons were associates of Evans.
One of them, who posed to be the silent prison officer instructed the driver to move on
faster. The driver, who spoke in a broad Scots accent, was the person who acted as the
Reverend S. McLeery. The Governor should have at least checked the identity of the staff to
whom he was entrusting the prisoner.
Secondly, he should have contacted Mr Jackson and Mr Stephens, the two prison officers,
Detective Superintendent Carter and Detective Chief Inspector Bell, who were all searching
Evans.
It was perhaps his over excitement and childish enthusiasm at his arm-chair reasoning in
locating the hide-out of Evans and catching him at the Golden Lion, that he threw all cautions
to wind and acted foolishly by reposing confidence in wrong persons. Evans and his associates
had befooled him earlier as well. The German teacher and the invigilator were friends of Evans.
The correction slip sent from Examination Branch was a clever device to convey the route of
escape and the hide-out. The Governors last act of foolishness really proved that he was only
worth being laughed at as he was too credulous and trustful.
2. People condemn the crime as it is an evil act against law and society. In the past, punishment
was the only way to treat the criminals. The greater the crime, the harsher and harder the
punishment, which could go to the extent of life-imprisonment or death sentence.
In the modern age, efforts are on to reform the criminals, even the hard core, and bring them
back to the mainstream. Hence police, prison officers, judges and other law-enforcing agencies
develop a soft corner for the people in custody. While the sufferer should get justice, the
innocent must not be punished. This idea too helps the prison staff often develop a soft corner
for the prisoners.
The behaviour of prison officer Jackson amply illustrates the above point. He is very strict in
enforcing the rules and regulations of prison as well as the Governors orders. Yet somewhere
in him we find a tiny core of compassion. Even Evans knew it. Mr Jackson has asked Evans
to remove that filthy bobble hat. Evans requested him to allow it to wear it during exam as it
brought luck to him. It was kind o lucky charm for him. Jackson agreed.

69 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

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WORKSHEET58
1. It was a bitter-cold day. The snow still covered the ground. The trees were bare. A large
bell rang for breakfast. Its loud metallic sound crashed through the belfry overhead and
penetrated into their sensitive ears.
2. The annoying clatter of shoes on bare floors disturbed the peace. There was a constant
clash of harsh noises and an undercurrent of many voices murmuring an unknown tongue.
All these sounds made a bedlam within which she was securely tied. Her spirit tore itself
in struggling for its lost freedom.
3. The ringing of a large bell summoned the students to the dining room. Then a small bell
tapped. Each pupil drew a chair from under the table. Then a second bell was sounded. All
were seated. A mans voice was heard at one end of the hall. They hung their heads over
the plates. The man ended his mutterings. Then a third bell tapped. Everyone picked up
his/her knife and fork and began eating.
4. Judewin knew a few words of English. She had overheard the paleface woman. She was talking
about cutting their long, heavy hair. Judewin said, We have to submit, because they are
strong. Zitkala-Sa rebelled. She declared that she would not submit. She would struggle first.

WORKSHEET59
1. The two accounts given in the unit Memories of Childhood are based in two distant
cultures. Two grown up and celebrated writers from marginalised communities look back
on their childhood. They reflect on their relationship with the mainstream.
The discrimination, oppression, humiliation, suffering and insults that they faced as young
members of the marginalised communities are common to both. Zitkala-Sa highlights the
severe prejudice that prevailed towards the Native American culture and women. Depriving
her of her blanket that covered her shoulders made her look indecent in her own eyes.
The cutting of her long hair reduces her to the status of a defeated warrior as in her
culture shingled hair are worn only by cowards. The replacing of her moccasins by
squeaking shoes and eating by formula at breakfast table are other signs of forcible
erosion of their own culture and imposition of dogma on them.
Bama highlights the humiliations faced by the untouchables who were never given any
honour, dignity or respect as they were born in lower classes. They were made to live
apart, run errands, and bow humbly to the masters. They scrupulously avoided direct
contact with the people of higher classes or the things used by them.
The sense of rebellion against the existing state of affairs and decision to improve them are
also common themes.
2. Children are more sensitive and observant than the adults. They see, hear, feel and
experience whatever happens around them. They are quick to note any deviation from the
normal or any aberration.
Bama at first, thinks the behaviour of the elder of her community is quite funny. He is
holding the packet by string and running with it awkwardly. But when she learns the
reason of his behaviour in that particular manner her ire is aroused against the cruel, rich
people of upper castes who shamelessly exploit them and heap humiliations on them. She
is ready to rebel against the oppression by snatching the packet of vadai from the landlord
and eating them herself. Her elder brother channelises her anger. He tells her to study
with care and make progress. We see the seeds of rebellion in her.
Zitkala-Sa too shows that she has the seeds of rebellion in her even at an early age. Her friend
Judewin tells her that the authorities are going to cut their long, heavy hair. She says that
they have to submit, because they (authorities) are strong. But Zitkala-Sa rebels. She declares
that she will not submit. She will struggle first. And, she does carry out her resolution. She hides
herself to foil their attempt. When she is detected hiding under the bed and dragged out, she
resists by kicking and scratching wildly. She is overpowered and tied fast in a chair, but she
does not take things lying down. The spark of rebellion in her is not put out by oppression.

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SECTION D : LONG READING TEXT/NOVEL


LORD OF THE FLIES
William Golding
WORKSHEET1
1. Jack, Roger and Ralph had an insatiable curiosity to explore the mystery of the beast.
They climbed the mountain and reached the top. As they came to the last slope, Jack and
Roger drew near. They stopped and crouched together. Jack suggested to move ahead one
hand and knees so that the beast may be deceived. Roger and Ralph moved on. They came
to the flat top where the rock was hard to hands and knees. They saw a creature that
bulged. Ralph put his hand in the cold, soft ashes of the fire and smothered a cry. Ralph
could hear a tiny chattering noise coming from somewhere perhaps from his own mouth.
He took two leaden steps forward. They saw a great ape sitting asleep with its head
between its knees. The strange creature lifted its head as the wind blew. They got scared
and left the mountain top in a hurry.
The forest was horrible. The sound of the waves could be heard in the forest. The wind
was blowing. They had the fear of the wild animals and the beast. The darkness seemed to
flew round them like a tide. A gust of wind set all the three spluttering Ralphs eyes were
blinded with tears. The occasional breeze was stirring up dust particles. It was a very
horrible experience.
2. Ralph is a tall, good-looking boy with blond hair. His father is a commander in the Navy.
He learnt swimming at the age of five. Ralph plays a significant role in Lord of the Flies.
His role epitomizes democracy. He blows the shell to call the other survivors of the plane.
He becomes the chief in a democratic way. He is elected by the members of the group. He
is an optimistic fellow. He focuses on keeping the signal fire so that they can be rescued by
the passersby. He is very supportive and caring also. When they climb the mountain to
explore the reality of the beast, he wishes to send someone to take care of the Littluns and
Piggy. He has indomitable faith in the participative management. All the members of the
group are given ample opportunities to express their invaluable ideas. He allocates duties
to the boys so as to make their survival easy. His foresightedness encourages his
supporters to erect shelters. He has the knack to face the challenges of life. He goes to the
Castle Rock to get Piggys eyeglass back. He has the ability to hunt also. But he becomes
insane when Simon is killed mercilessly. He feels guilty and blames himself for this act of
madness. Ralph safeguards himself from the clutches of the hunters and reaches the beach
where he meets the naval officer. It can be stated that Ralph is an emotional, sympathetic
and non-violent fellow. He is indecisive too. He is guided by Piggy time and again. Ralph
keeps focussing on maintaining the fire signal so that they can be rescued. He says, The
fire is the most important thing. Without the fire we cant be rescued. Id like to put on
war-paint and be a savage. But we must keep the fire burning. The fires the most
important thing on the island ... Ralph learns lot many things on the island. His bitter
experiences shatter his world of dreams and idealism. He represents the genteel, British,
middle class.

71

WORKSHEET2
2. Jack is a tall, thin and bony fellow. He has red hair. His face is crumpled, freckled and
ugly. His eyes are blue. He symbolizes callousness, brutality, hunger for authority and
cruelty. Jack is a born leader. He cannot follow others. His character is compared to
Satan. He has an unquenchable desire to hunt and kill a pig from the beginning. He
spends time in solitude traversing the island. He is adventurous by nature. He says,
This is real exploring. I bet nobodys been here before. In the first chapter of the novel
Jacks nature is revealed. He advises Ralph to cut a pigs throat to let the blood out,
otherwise you cant eat the meat. Jacks intelligence cannot be ignored altogether. It is
Jack who tells them that Piggys specs can be used as burning glasses. Jack and his
hunters are so crazy after hunting that they dont help Ralph to erect shelters. He
refuses to agree with Ralph when his hunters fail to maintain the signal fire. He candidly
confesses, We had to have them in the hunt or there wouldnt have been enough for a
ring. Jack smacks Piggys head when he accuses him of extinguishing the fire. He speaks
against the rules without any inhibition. He cannot be called a law-abiding citizen. His
arrogance is evident in the following lines: Bollocks to the rules ! Were strongwe
hunt ! If theres a beast, well hunt it down ! Well close in and beat and beat and beat!
These words prove that Jack is haughty and obstinate. He does not think before he
speaks. He is notorious also. Jacks transition puts him on a collision with Ralphs elected
authority. As Jack leaves and takes the majority of the boys with him, lured by the
promises of meat, play and freedom, there has arisen a clear dividing line between the
two. Jack epitomizes irrationality while Ralph represents rationality. Jacks rule favour
inter-tribal violence, torturing others, inciting the frenzy that leads to the murder of
Simon. He tries his level best to kill Ralph. He is immoral, violent, arrogant, irrational,
beastly and against civilization.

HOUNDS OF THE BASKERVILLES


Arthur Conan Doyle
WORKSHEET1
1. Sherlock Holmes was a brilliant London-based consulting detective. He was famous for
his astute logical reasoning, his ability to take almost any disguise and his use of forensic
science skills to solve difficult cases. He was acknowledged as a practical man of affairs
that made him stand alone from other detectives. This fact was proved by the reason why
Dr. Mortimer not approached Monsiewe Bertillon but Holmes to discuss his problem.
There are several instances in this chapter from which we can find the great qualities that
a good detective requires Holmes was a alert person who can sense minutest things
happening around him. When Holmes asked Watson what he infered, he was surprised
that Holmes had seen him from a silver-plated coffee-pot in front of him.
He was knowledgeable as he easily concluded that C.C. if placed before a Hospital would
become charing cross. This shows how much informative he was.
He draw inferences from his experiences. He defined the owner of the stick as amiable,
unambitious and absent-minded and later gave proper reasons with logic as to why he gave
such adjectives for this person.

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He was a keen observer. This was proved by the fact that Watson could not find the teeth
marks on the stick but Holmes has identified the breed of the dog who hold this stick by
observing the jaw size from teeth marks.
For these and several other qualities, Holmes was considered the most famous and expert
detective.
2. Hints:
world renowned detective of Baker Street
more accessible in the context of constant posturing and pretension
the second best crime solver in Europe
Holmes admits of a fragile ego
Holmes announces some absurd and unsubstantiated conclusion
flouts his enemies equivocating, misleading and making fools out of them

WORKSHEET2
1. Dr. Mortimer told Holmes that something supernatural could be involved in Sir Charless
tragic case. He also told that since the tragedy. There have come to his ears several
incidents which are hard to believe and not natural. For example, he found that before the
terrible event occurred several people had seen a creature upon the moor which corresponds
with this Baskerville demon and which could not possibly be any animal known to science.
They all agreed that it was a huge creature, luminous, frightening and radiating in
different lights.
Dr. Mortimer had cross-examined these men, one of them a hard-headed countryman, one
a smith and one a moorland farmer. They all told that same story of this dreadful
appearance of unusual creature, exactly corresponding to the hell-hound of the legend. He
assured Holmes that there was a reign of terror in the district and that it was a strong
hardy man only who could cross the moor at night.
2. Hints:
Watson a lowly apprentice and live-in friend
keen to prove his own mettle by applying Holmes techniques
Watsons never-ending adulation comes through most forcefully at the end of the
novel
awestruck by Holmes power of observation
feels more powerful by association

73 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

73

FULL MARKS ASSIGNMENT1


1 I. (a) Stress makes human body vulnerable to diseases by
(i) depleting the stress related hormones
(ii) weakening the immunity system by suppressing bodys killer cells.
(b) Worry is chief source of stress. The symptoms are
(i) pain in the head and neck region (ii) teeth grinding (iii) nail nibbling
(iv) disturbed sleep (v) nervousness and shakiness
(c) Hypothalamus alters the nervous system and activates the pituitary gland which
releases stress hormones like adrenaline. These make the body alert to react to
the anxiety-provoking events. Increased levels of blood pressure, blood sugar and
risk of heart strokes are the possible results.
(d) (i) Adopting healthy lifestyle - exercise
(ii) engaging in soothing activities
(iii) Positive attitude, socialising instead of loneliness
(iv) alternative therapieshypnotherapy, faith therapy, yoga and meditation.
(e) (i) People tend to have poor diets and consume more junk food, caffeine and alcohol.
(ii) Prolonged stress causes vitamin and mineral depletion.
II. (a) immune (b) vague (c) amenable
2 I. Notes:
1. Confi. Makers
(a) overcoming problems unaided
(b) faith in indl ability
(c) (i) self-help (ii) self-dependence
2. Confi. Shakers
(a) overprotectn by family
(b) never left alone to manage for themselves
3. Confi. and Success
(a) manag without support
(i) more assurance (ii) greater self-esteem
4. Confi. Building
(a) avoid overprotectn
(b) self-reliance
(c) self-assurance
5. Mid Gen. Parents
(a) afraid of extra bold children - aggressiveness
(b) lack confidence - meek suggestions - children more confident
(c) obey and appease their old dictatorial parents
(d) want children with indl entity and confidence
(e) self-oriented child - disobey parents
(f) suffer from both sides - lack of confi.
II.

SELF-CONFIDENCE
Faith in ones own capacity and single handed tackling develops confidence while
overprotective attitude destroys it. Self-supporting children have more assurance, and

74

greater self-esteem. Self-reliance and self-assurance are essential for success. The mid
generation parents, are afraid of the aggressiveness of the naughty and extra bold
children. Their children are more confident and assertive because they have individual
entity and are self-oriented. These mid generation parents suffer both waysfrom
dictatorial parents and disobeying children simply because they lack self-confidence.
3.

ACCOMMODATION WANTED
Wanted for a Central Government senior officer, an independent accommodation
comprising three bedrooms with attached bathrooms, drawing-cum-dining room,
kitchen with modern amenities and facility for car parking in Greater Kailash Friends
Colony on reasonable rent. Provision for separate bathroom and a store will be
considered an extra facility. Contact Phone No. 2326 3081 between 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Or
D-59, Adarsh Nagar
New Delhi
18 May 200X
Dear Mridula
Thank you for your cordial invitation for spending a part of my summer vacation with
you in your native village. I was eager to go to your village but the sudden illness of
my mother has pushed back all my thoughts of recreation. I am sorry I am unable to
enjoy your hospitality this summer.
I hope you wont feel upset or take it to heart.
Yours sincerely
Vipasha

4.

PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS


People generally love animals and keep them as pets. Of late domestic animals are being illtreated by their masters. Instead of being well-fed, well nourished cattle, cows, bullocks and
horses, we find emaciated bullocks pulling overloaded carts or wooden legged horses yoked
to tongas. The fate of cows is the worst of all. The dry cows are let loose on the roads. These
stray cows wander about in search of grass and create many problems in the traffic besides
creating insanitation. This is a very sorry state of affairs. Animals are in no way less faithful,
punctual, helpful and sincere than man. They express love and loyalty, gratitude and anger.
They serve us as true servants and guard us as true guardians. We should stop maltreating
animals. The harassment of animals begins at home. If we cant maintain pets properly, we
have no right to keep them. The authorities should prevent cruelty to animals by checking
overloading of goods/passengers in carts. Similarly, attention should be paid to the animals
in circus or zoo. They should get proper food and care.
Or
REPORT ON OPENING CEREMONY OF SPORTS MEET
The tenth inter school state sports competitions were inaugurated at our school playgrounds
on Sunday, the 19th Feb, 200X. Mr T. N. Biswas, the Chief Secretary of the state declared
the games open. Over 2500 school boys and girls would compete for honours in 27 disciplines
over the next 10 days. The flame for the Sports Meet was lit by famous athlete Anjaiya.
29 participating contingents from various states and union territories took part in the
impressive march past. After the oath taking ceremony by the athletes, there was a
beautiful cultural programme of folk dances and music. In his brief speech, the Chief
Guest congratulated the participants for their enthusiasm and expressed the hope that
this sports meet will help the potential talent to bloom to full glory.

75 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

75

5. 16, Vasant Kunj


New Delhi
16 October 200X
My dear Arun
I hope this letter will find you in the best state of health and happiness. You are well
aware that the auspicious festival of Diwali is at hand. All the buildings present a very
gay and bright look as they have been whitewashed and painted. Diwali is also associated
with sending of gifts to relatives and friends. Young children indulge in exploding
crackers. I would like you not to indulge in the extravagance on crackers. It is not a
whim, fancy or sentiment of mine but has a solid argument behind it.
The bursting of fireworks spreads pollution as the harmful gases it emits are unhygienic
in nature. The suspended particulate matter affects the sensitive tissues of our body
adversely. Secondly, cracker-burst may cause severe burns on human body. Sometimes
people lose their eyes or suffer severe fatal burns. Every year shops catch fire due to
cracker-burst. The money spent on crackers can be utilised for a better cause. Thirdly,
the explosives in crackers are of very poor quality. These crackers are products of the
labour of small children who expose themselves to all dangers while manufacturing
them. Let us also raise our voice of protest against exploitation of child-labour.
So please celebrate Diwali jubiliantly without exploding crackers or using fireworks.
Pay my compliments to dear uncle and aunt.
Yours affectionately,
Rajan
Or
D-52, Shakti Nagar
Delhi
18 August 200X
The Editor
The Times of India
New Delhi
Sir
Sub: Non-availability of Essential Commodities
Through the columns of your esteemed daily I want to draw the attention of our popular leaders,
general public and the Food and Civil Supplies Department, Delhi, towards the non-availability
of essential commodities to the bonafide ration card holders at the fair price shops of our area.
Our area is densely populated and the arrival of migrant labour has worsened the consumer
supply ratio. The fair-price shops which used to cater to the needs of our locality have now
adopted unfair means and indulge in malpractices in order to make a fast buck.
Their modus operandi is quite simple and obvious. Whenever the consumersthe genuine
ration card holders approach them for sugar, rice, wheat or kerosene oil, the stock reply is
that they have not yet received the supply. In case a truck comes during the daytime,
serpentine queues can be seen. By the time half of them get their supply, the NO STOCK
board is put up. Poor consumers waste their time and energy and return empty handed.
We have lodged frequent protests and complained to the concerned authorities. We get
quite pleasing assurance. I think there is a vicious nexus between the blackmarketeers,
shop-owners and inspectors of Food and Civil Supplies Department.
I appeal to the political bosses to order a thorough probe into these irregularities and
safeguard the interest of the genuine ration card holders.
Yours truly
Rashmi

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6.

THE INVOLVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN POLITICS


The involvement of students in politics began during the freedom struggle. After
independence politicians utilised the exuberance of bubbling youth for their partisan and
selfish ends. The lowering of voting age and democratisation of the set up of educational
institutions brought politics to the school level. While contesting elections to the students
council, the student leaders resort to all the tricks employed by the seasoned politicians.
In the colleges and universities elections are contested on party lines. The political
parties thus make inroads into educational institutions. They get dedicated workers and
utilise their services during their own elections to parliament or state legislatures. Well,
political awareness is good, but too much involvement in politics is certainly harmful.
The frequent elections to various civic bodies and legislatures further aggravate the
violence and disruptive activities on the campus. Students ignore their studies and
indulge in slogan shouting, speech making and taking out processions. Sometimes there
are clashes amongst student groups owing allegience to political parties with diverse
ideologies. Students should not forget their main aim and missionstudies and learning.
They should develop political conciousness but not become tools of wily politicians.
Or
BRAIN-DRAIN
India can proudly proclaim the achievements of scientists, engineers and professionals in
the field of computer software. We have developed a large and sound infrastructure of science,
technology and industry. Our software professionals have made a significant contribution
to the development of Silicon Valley and now Germany is thinking of utilising the services
of our engineers and professionals. This brain-drain may bring lucrative rewards to the
migrating scientists, engineers etc. in the form of higher wages, better standard of living
and vast scope for research and professional advancement, but the motherland is deprived
of the fruit of their knowledge and skill. This brain-drain thwarts our development.
Monetary consideration such as hefty salaries and perks in developed countries is the
primary cause of brain-drain. Lack of facilities for research and inadequate pay force the
budding talent to seek greener pastures elsewhere. Bureaucratic and political domination
and interference in the field of science and technology irritates the young visionaries.
Corruption, nepotism and red-tapism thwart all their efforts to make significant contribution
to their fields. Lack of promotion and stagnation pours cold water on their hopes and
enthusiasm. Under such poor working conditions they resort to the escape route and
migrate to other countries, sometimes forever.
In case we want to check brain-drain, proper atmosphere of work, research facilities,
good pay and perks should be given to the talented professionals. Effective and positive
measures should be adopted by government to curb this trend.

7. 1. Green wars, wars with poisonous gases and wars with the fire are the different kinds
of wars.
2. It will be a victory where no survivors will be left to celebrate it.
3. They should put on clean clothes and walk with their brothers under the trees
leisurely doing nothing.
Or
1. The life of the people in countryside is quite miserable for want of money. Money
which can increase the level of their living is not found there. Hence the spirit of the
rural people remains depressed because of poverty.
2. The voice of the country people seems to complain of injustice against them and lack
of money in their lives.
3. The poet will feel a great relief if the rural people are liberated of all pains with one stroke.

77 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

77

8. 1. The poet has used beautiful images to highlight the stark contrast between the scene
inside the car and the activities going on outside. The ashen face of the poets mother
is pale and lifeless. It looks like that of a corpse. She is dozing and lost to herself. The
image of the dozing mother is contrasted with the spilling of children. The ashen
and corpse-like face is contrasted with the young trees sprinting outside.
2. In this poem Stephen Spender deals with the theme of social injustice and class
inequalities. He presents the theme by talking of two different and incompatible
worlds. The world of the rich and the civilized has nothing to do with the world of
narrow lanes and cramped holes. The gap between these two worlds highlights social
disparities and class inequalities.
3. Man himself is the root cause of his sufferings. We suffer from malice and distress. We
lack human qualities and it makes us inhuman. Our life becomes gloomy. We cultivate
unhealthy and evil ways. All such things bring misery, sorrows and sufferings to man.
4. When Aunt Jennifer dies, her hands will still look terrified. Perhaps she has experienced
a lot of hardships and troubles in the past. Their effect has left its print on her hands.
The ordeals that crushed her married life had sorrounded and cramped her fingers
and hands too.
9. 1. Firozabad is famous for its glass bangles. It is the centre of India's glass-blowing
industry. Families have spent generations working around furnaces, welding glass,
making bangles for all the women in the land. Every other family in Firozabad is
engaged in making bangles.
2. Franz had hoped to get to his desk unseen during the commotion. But that day it was
quite quiet. So Franz had to open the door and go in before everybody. He blushed as
he was late. He was frightened that the teacher might rebuke him, but M. Hamel
spoke kindly to him that day.
3. The old man had put his money in a leather pouch which hung on a nail in the window
frame. He picked out three wrinkled ten-kronor bills for his guest to see as he has
seemed sceptical. Then he stuffed them back into the pouch.
4. Gandhi cooperated with the officials. He helped them regulate the crowd. He was
polite and friendly. He gave the Britishers a concrete proof that their dreaded and
unquestioned power could be challenged by Indians.
5. The diversity and volume of Umbertos output baffles people. Even David Lodge, the
English novelist and academic once remarked that he could not understand how one
man could do all the things Eco did. Eco admits that he might have given the impression
of doing many things but he is convinced that he is always doing the same thing.
10. 1. Douglas was frightened as he was going down. His active mind suggested a strategy to
save himself from being drowned in water. He knew that water has buoyancy. He
must make a big jump as his feet hit the bottom. He hoped to rise up like a cork to
the surface, lie flat on it and paddle to the edge of the pool.
Before he touched bottom, his lungs were ready to burst. Using all his strength, he
made a great jump. He rose up very slowly. He saw nothing but yellow coloured dirty
water. He grew panicky and he was suffocated. He swallowed more water as he tried
to shout. He choked and went down again. His stiff legs refused to obey him. He had
lost all his breath. His lungs ached and head throbbed. He was getting dizzy. He went
down through darkwater again. An absolute terror seized Douglas. He was paralysed
under water. His reasoning power told him to jump again. He did so, but his arms and
legs wouldnt move. His eyes and nose came out of water, but not his mouth. He
swallowed more water and went down third time. Now a blackness swept over his
brain. He had experienced the terror that fear of death can produce as well as the
sensation of dying.

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2. Mr Lamb is quite gentle, accommodating and protective. He asks Derry to mind the
apples as he might trip. Instead of feeling angry over the way of his entry, he points
out that the gate is always open and he is welcome. His cordial manner and
conciliatory tone touch the inner most chords of a defiant boy like Derry who does not
want to mix up with others. On learning about his burnt face, he does not react like
others. Instead of exhibiting fear and revulsion, he shows understanding and affection.
He admits that he is the same as the boy. If the boy has a burnt face, he has got a tin
leg. Gradually, he tries to win over the confidence of Derry by reminding him of
Beauty and the Beast. He then tells him the story of a man who feared everything
and shut himself in a room. His positive attitude and different thinking to life inspires
the boy to talk to him like a friend.
11. India is a democratic state. It is replete with people who have diverse backgrounds, and
culture. Their customs and traditions vary. Their languages are also different. The language
of a South Indian is entirely different from that of the North Indians. People have their
regional languages and dialects too. In such circumstances it becomes a herculean task to
decide which language should be taught at schools. So, India opted for three language system
at schools. It is a boon to the residents of a particular area. They do not feel that their language
is insignificant and ignored. They are given ample opportunities to opt for the languages
they intend to speak or learn. Pupils get fundamental knowledge of three languages and
can appreciate the literature of all these three languages. Such students never face failure
due to language barriers. They bring laurels to their parents and nations as well. They explore
new avenues and horizons with an astonishing ease. Three language system must be adopted
by all nations so as to acquaint the children with various language patterns. The people of
Alsace and Lorraine could be taught both languages i.e. German and French. Linguistic
discrimination mars the future of humanity.
12. Hints:

a black-hearted, violent villain hidden beneath a benign bookish surface


peculiar ferocity, wonton peculiarity and dubious sanity
Stapletona man with a murderous heart and a wolf in sheeps clothing
worthy adversary because of his birthright
hidden nobility comes out
takes things seriously
Or

Simon is a small, thin boy with a pointed chin and very bright eyes. He has long, coarse
black hair over a low, broad forehead. He wears the remains of shorts and his feet are bare
like Jacks. Simon helps Jack in building shelters. He is a very social and co-operative fellow.
He finds fruits for the Littluns. Simon found for them the fruit they could not reach, pulled
off the choicest from up in the foliage, passed them back down to the endless, outstretched
hands. He knows the art of swimming. He has the knack to imagine the physical appearance
of the beast as explained by the boys. He does not believe in the presence of such a beast on
the island. Simon, walking in front of Ralph, felt a flicker of incredulitya beast with claws
that scratched, that sat on a mountain top, that left no tracks and yet was not fast enough
to catch Samneric. He visualizes the picture of a human at once heroic and sick. Simon
wishes to climb the mountain to reveal the mystery of the beast. He also goes to find out
the beast. He watches the brutal act of the hunters. Jack cuts the head of the pig and speaks,
This head is for the beast. Its a gift. Simon gets scared and he becomes unconscious. It
shows that Simon is a non-violent fellow. His character represents peace, humility and
positivity. He gets familiar with the island and loves the nature of the place. He is optimistic
and positive. He comes to know about the fact that of the beast. He reaches the top of the
mountain alone and finds the dead body of the parachutist. Simon is so sensitive that he

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knelt on all fours and was sick till his stomach was empty. He musters his courage and
takes the lines in his hands to free them from the rocks. He feels enthusiastic and wishes to
give this information to the rest of the boys. He is brutally killed by the boys, who fail to
identify him and consider him the beast. Simons character symbolizes humanity, courage,
rationality and sensitivity to beauty and truth.
13. Piggys physical appearance made him distinct from the other boys. He was short and very
fat. He had several disabilities and ailments. Other boys could run easily but he could not
dare to do so on account of asthma. He himself said, My auntie told me not to run on account
of my asthma. Piggy had been wearing specs since he was three. He could not see anything
without specs. His name was also peculiar as it was associated with the pigs, which the other
boys hunt and kill. Ralph teased him in the sound of the shell calling him Piggy time and
again. Piggys isolation and alienation made him wise and intelligent. He gave invaluable
suggestions to Ralph. He thoughtfully said, Life is scientific, thats what it is. In a year or
two when the wars over theyll be travelling to mars and back. I know there isnt no beat
not with claws and that, I meanbut I know there isnt no fear, either. His pragmatic thoughts
proved to be fruitful to the group of boys. It was very unfortunate that he had some ailments
and deformities. But it was not his fault. His physical appearance and wisdom made him
different. He became the laughing stock of the society.
Or
Upon knowing the inferences Watson made about the owner of the stick, Holmes in a very
ridiculous manner said that Watson had excelled himself in this investigation. Holmes, in a
sarcastic way said I am bound to say that in all the accounts which you have been so good
as to give of my own small achievements you have habitually underrated your own abilities.
People without possessing intellectual skills have a remarkable method of stimulating it. I
confess, my dear fellow, that I am very much in your debt.
Holmes had never said as much before and his words gave Watson keen pleasure, for he
had been irritated quite often by his indifference to Watsons admiration.
Holmes told Watson that his observation was interesting but elementary and that most of
his conclusions were erroneous when Holmes said that Watson stimulated him, he meant
that in noting Watsons wrong inferences. It is not that Watson was entirely wrong in this
case. His two inferences were correct that the man is a country practitioner and he walks a
good deal. But the rest was all wrong.

FULL MARKS ASSIGNMENT2


1 I. (a) The most prominent quality associated with youth is energy.
(b) It means learn to operate the modern devices, earn wealth by employing them,
burn the natural resources as well as oneself and enjoy ones own funeral.
(c) They are intelligent, skilful and hardworking but they lack insight and foresight.
Being self-indulgent they do not follow any moral code of conduct. They are confined
to present joys and do not think deeper.
(d) It may take the form of political opposition. Sometimes these rebels become violent
and indulge in insurgent and terrorist activities.
(e) Modern man is exploiting mother earth and nature to the extent of their destruction
and consequently his own. The sensitive youth are looking for an alternative model of
development based on mutual love, friendship, co-operation and harmony.

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II.

(f) Humanity is likely to be ushered into the third millennium by evolving a new way of
life and releasing a new principle of global consciousness through a fundamental
research in the science of life.
(a) insurgent
(b) insatiable (c) ethereal.

2 I. Notes:
1. Defn. of dietary fibres
2. Importance
(a) low incidence of heart diseases and cancer
(b) removes constipation
(c) checks obesity, diabetes, caries etc.
3. Characteristics
(a) include cellulose, lignin, pectin etc.
(b) specific chem. structure
(c) solubility
(i) some sol in water
(ii) others insoluble in H2O
4. Sources
(a) cereals and grains, legumes
(b) fruits with seeds, citrus fruits
(c) carrots, cabbages, green leafy vegs.
5. Properties
(a) not digested/absorbed by enzymes of stomach/small intestines
(b) hold waterget swollenact like sponge
(c) add bulk to dietincrease transit time in the gut
(d) undergo fermentn in the colon.
6. Action Mechanism
(a) bind bile saltsprevent reabsorptn
(b) decrease cholesterol level in circuln
(c) decrease post prandial glucose level in blood
7. Adverse Effects
(a) preventg absorpon of metals
(b) nutritional deficiencylesser minerals
II.

3.

ROLE OF DIETARY FIBRES


Dietary fibres are indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods, which result in low
incidence of many diseases. These fibres include cellulose, lignin, pectin, plant gums and
mucilages. They have a specific chemical structure but different physical and chemical
properties. Some are soluble in water while others are insoluble. Cereals and grains,
legumes, fruit with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbages and green leafy vegetables are
rich in fibres. Being indigestible they add bulk to diet and increase transit time in the
intestines. Since they hold water, they get swollen and act like sponge. Some fibres
undergo fermentation in colon. They bind bile salts and prevent its reabsorption. They
also decrease cholestoral level and glucose level in blood. Since they prevent absorption
of metals and minerals increased dietary fibres may result in nutritional deficiency.
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENT
DOGS & KENNELS
Adult Pekinese and Dachshund, Scotch Terrier Pups, nine in all, three each of a
breed, are available for sale. Age of pups 3 to 6 months; adult dogs 1 to 2 years
fully trained and inoculated, both male and female, imported blood line. Only genuine
dog lovers need. Contact: Sumit Bandopadhayay, 38, Salt Lake, Kolkata.

81 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

81

Or
NOTICE
GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY FOR
Book-lovers
The International Book Fair is being organised at Pragati Maidan as per details given
below:
Dates : 14 Nov. to 19 Nov. 200X
Time : 2 pm to 9 pm
Latest publications and rare books will be on display. All students are requested to
attend.
Chetan Swaroop
9 Nov. 200X
Librarian
4.

SPEEDING TRUCK HITS AND RUNS


Mani Aiyyar
Trichy, 7 March
In yet another hit and run accident, a speeding truck struck against an autorickshaw full
of school children. The head of driver of the auto bumped into the wind screen. As he lost
control, the vehicle overturned and the road was littered with bags, books, waterbottles
etc. A number of children were thrown off and two hit the railing on the pavement.
People rushed to save them. Fortunately they had received only minor injuries. The
truck driver utilised the opportunity and sped away.
Or

Sunil Joshi, Head boy


THE NEW STUDY CENTRE
The school has added another feather to its cap by converting the new wing to a Study
Centre comprising a spacious hall for library with 90 stacks of open shelves and about
60,000 books. The three reading rooms are well furnished with moulded chairs, gloss-top
tables and velvety carpets. One of the reading rooms is for newspapers and periodicals.
The other is for the faculty members. The third is reserved for self-study where we can
carry our books and read. All the reading rooms are well-lit and have curtains to ward off
the heat. The covers of newly arrived books are displayed on a notice-board. The
magazines and periodicals have their beautiful, transparent covers and are placed at
specific places and stands. Since the open shelf system has been introduced, it has
become easier to locate the books. In case it is not on the shelf, it can be requisitioned
with the help of catalogue card. The librarian is ever ready to help us.
5. Attempt yourself.
Or
123 Diplomatic Enclave
New Delhi
The Editor
The Hindustan Times
New Delhi
18 March, 200X
Sir
Sub: Hard Core Marketing
Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I wish to draw the attention of the
authorities and parents to the malpractices that are being carried on by the media under
the guise of marketing strategies.

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82

Advertisements are launched in such a way that children are the targets of the advertised
goods. Consumerism has made inroads to such an extent that all out efforts are made to
entice them into becoming prospective consumers. Then there are numerous awards
attached to schemes all very dear to the hearts of young children. Parents who love and
fondle their children yield to their insistence. The child and through him the parents are
easily exploited by the advertisers of sports goods, shoes, confectionaries, textiles, fast
food and fizzy drink manufacturers.
I think, before approving the advertisements for public display the authorities should
take note of its precise effect on children and check the errant agencies from committing
such malpractices.
Yours truly
Sudhanshu
6.

FAIR TREATMENT TO GIRL CHILD


For centuries the girl child has been a victim of misplaced notions and an object of ridicule
and discrimination. Even educated people consider boys superior to girls because they are
stronger physically, mentally and emotionally. The mothers fondle, cajole and coax the
boys and scold the equally intelligent, and rather more industrious girls due to the
misconceived notion that the family propagates only with the male child. These orthodox
and retrograde views have forced the grown up women to raise the banner of protest and
demand reservation for women. In fact, women are so suppressed and depressed in the
countryside that any project of women uplift is impossible without giving them special
treatment. It is only in the elite urban groups that the feats of girls and women are
applauded. In the educated middle classes we find girls and women competing with boys
and men in every spherestudies, jobs, administration or politics. Yet, the condition of
girls in 60% urban homes and 90% rural homes is still pitiable. Our constitution provides
for equality of sexes and no discrimination or gender bias should thwart the progress of
girl child. We have to change the social milieu and force the traditional, orthodox, retrograde
and backward looking people to change their point of view and treat boys and girls equally
by providing them equal opportunities for studies, creative sensibilities and developing
physical stamina. They will find the girl child more hardworking, patient and understanding.
Or

EXAMINATION PHOBIA
Examinations are an ordeal, a hellfire for the children as well as their dear parents. They
do not welcome it, yet they have to face this necessary evil year after year. The
aspirations of the children are high and the parents are so involved with the performance
of their wards in examination that both are tense. Since the portals of higher education
and technical / professional education are open to students with good grades, parents
expect their children to perform wonderfully well in the examination. They try to egg
their wards on by indulging in comparisons of the attainments of their siblings with those
of their friends or neighbours. Thus they cause a psychological strain on themselves
besides overburdening and harassing their children. In their myopic state they forget
that only one student can top the class. Every child cannot get the highest marks in each
subject. Sometimes these pressures drive students to the brink of mental breakdown.
Many students commit suicide because they fear that their performance may not match
their parents expectations. The need is to inculcate proper perspective in parents as well
as students. Let the students try to display their real talent and potential.
7. 1. The poem is A Thing of Beauty. The poet is John Keats.
2. The magnificence that we imagine for our mighty dead forefathers on the dooms day.
3. The beauty of daffodils, rills and musk-rose is more enchanting than all lovely stories
that we have heard or read.

83 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

83

1.
2.
3.

8. 1.

2.

3.

4.

9. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

84

Or
The colour of the classroom walls is sour cream or off white. This colour suggests the
decaying aspect and pathetic condition of the lives of the children in a slum-school.
The walls of the classroom have pictures of Shakespeare, buildings with domes, world
maps and beautiful valleys.
The poet hints at two worlds: the world of poverty, misery and malnutrition of the
slums where children are underfed, weak and have stunted growth. The other world is of
progress and prosperity peopled by the rich and the powerful. The pictures on the wall
suggesting happiness, richness, well being and beauty are in stark contrast to the dim
and dull slums.
The poet is driving to the Cochin airport. When she looks outside, the young trees
seem to be walking past them. With the speed of the car they seem to be running fast
or sprinting. The poet presents a contrasther dozing old mother and the sprinting
young trees.
Instead of indulging in wars, the people must come out in their best dresses with their
brothers. They should go out for a walk under the shady trees and enjoy themselves
doing nothing.
The greedy people will pose as good-doers. They will swarm over the lives of the poor
rural folk. They will make plans to extract maximum profit from them. These people
are more cruel than the wild beasts of prey. Their only aim is to mint money and earn
huge profits by befooling the innocent rural people. They will themselves sleep all
day but destroy their sleeping at night.
Aunt Jennifers tigers were created in the panel by her own hands. They appeared to
be prancing (jumping) across a screen. They looked sleek. They were bright like
yellow topaz. They were majestic and courageous. They didnt fear the men beneath
the tree. They paced in chivalric certainty.
Mukeshs father was born in the caste of bangle-makers. His father went blind with
the dust from polishing the glass of bangles. He is an old and poor bangle maker. He
has worked hard for long years, first as a tailor and then as a bangle-maker. He has
failed to renovate a house or send his two sons to school.
Franz hardly knew how to write. He had not learnt his lessons properly. He wasted
time on seeking birds eggs or going sliding on the Saar. Books seemed a nuisance to
him and a burden to carry. He had put off learning till the next day thinking he had
plenty of time.
Unpleasant memories of the past were revived and childish fears were stirred. In a
little while he gathered confidence. He paddled with his new water wings. He watched
the other boys and tried to imitate them. He did so two or three times on different
days. He began to feel comfortable.
The sharecropping arrangement was troublesome to the peasants. Many of them
signed the new agreement willingly. Some resisted and engaged lawyers. Then they
came to know about synthetic indigo. The peasants wanted their money back.
The author suggests that it might be because of his intimacy with the Boss or because
his general demeanour resembled that of a sycophant. It may have been due to his
readiness to say nice things about everything.
The reaction of the Dewan is quite funny and amusing. He thinks that the Maharaja wants
to marry him. He says that he has already two wives. The Maharaja clarifies that he does
not want to marry him. He wants a tiger. The Dewan interrupts him saying that his
ancestors were married to the sword. He might marry the gun if he liked. He added that
a Tiger King was more than enough for that state. It did not need a Tiger Queen as well.
ASSIGNMENTS
IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
84

10. 1. One dark evening the peddler reached a little gray cottage by the roadside. He
knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. The owner, an old man without wife
or child, welcomed him. He was happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness. He
served him hot porridge for supper and gave him tobacco for his pipe. Then he played
cards with him till bed time.
The host told the peddler that in his days of prosperity, he worked on land at Ramsjo
Ironworks. Now his cow supported him. He sold her milk at the creamery everyday. He
showed the peddler the thirty kronor notes he got as payment that month. Then he hung
the leather pouch on a nail in the window frame. Next morning the crofter went to milk
the cow, and the peddler went away. However, he returned after half an hour, broke the
window pane, took the money out of the leather pouch and put it back on the nail.
This episode shows that in loneliness, human beings crave for company, for social
bonding. Secondly, temptations can overpower the greatest philosopher. The peddler
who calls the world a rattrap is himself tempted by thirty kronor.
2. Dr Sadaos father had high dreams about the future of Japan. There was no limit to
their future as it depended on what they made it. He never played or joked with his
only son. But he spent infinite pains upon him. For the sake of the best possible medical
education, he sent his son to America. Sadao met Hana there, but waited to fall in love
with her until he was sure she was Japanese. His father would never have received
her unless she had been pure in her race. Their marriage was arranged in the old
Japanese way only after Sadaos father had seen her when both of them had come
home to Japan after finishing their education.
He was a Japanese every inch. The floor of his room was deeply matted. He would
never sit on a chair or sleep in a foreign bed in his house. The quilt was covered with
flowered silk and the lining was pure white silk. In short, everything here had been
Japanese to please him.
11. Initiation is the law of nature. Success depends on the actions taken by an individual.
One has to take actions without wasting time. Dreams give us directions. But it should
not be forgotten that a man cannot become influential by only dreaming . One who does
not utilise time fails to do anything significant in life. Actions shape the destiny of the
beings. Contemplation destroys happiness. Aimless thinking aggravates woes and worries.
It leads to nowhere. Such thinkers never get pleasure in this world of mortals. Those
who believe in taking actions attain their long cherished goals with an astonishing ease.
They never feel confused or perplexed. They never become a victim of depression. All the
human beings are to perform their duties on the earth. Contemplation leads to idleness.
Life is a judicious blend of contemplation and action. Contemplation transformed into
action is of utmost importance. Action without contemplation may be disastrous.
Contemplation without action is a sin. One should not waste time in thinking only. We
should always remember that life is short and time is swift. Procrastination is the thief of
time. One should not forget that theres a time for everything.
12. Hints:
world renowned detective of Baker Street
more accessible in the context of constant posturing and pretension
the second best crime solver in Europe
Holmes admits of a fragile ego
Holmes announces some absurd and unsubstantiated conclusion
flouts his enemies equivocating, misleading and making fools out of them
Or
Jack is a tall, thin and bony fellow. He has red hair. His face is crumpled, freckled and ugly.
His eyes are blue. He symbolizes callousness, brutality, hunger for authority and cruelty.

85 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

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Jack is a born leader. He cannot follow others. His character is compared to Satan. He has
an unquenchable desire to hunt and kill a pig from the beginning. He spends time in solitude
traversing the island. He is adventurous by nature. He says, This is real exploring. I bet
nobodys been here before. In the first chapter of the novel Jacks nature is revealed. He
advises Ralph to cut a pigs throat to let the blood out, otherwise you cant eat the meat.
Jacks intelligence cannot be ignored altogether. It is Jack who tells them that Piggys specs
can be used as burning glasses. Jack and his hunters are so crazy after hunting that they
dont help Ralph to erect shelters. He refuses to agree with Ralph when his hunters fail to
maintain the signal fire. He candidly confesses, We had to have them in the hunt or there
wouldnt have been enough for a ring. Jack smacks Piggys head when he accuses him of
extinguishing the fire. He speaks against the rules without any inhibition. He cannot be
called a law-abiding citizen. His arrogance is evident in the following lines: Bollocks to the
rules ! Were strongwe hunt ! If theres a beast, well hunt it down ! Well close in and beat
and beat and beat! These words prove that Jack is haughty, and obstinate. He does not
think before he speaks. He is notorious also. Jacks transition puts him on a collision with
Ralphs elected authority. As Jack leaves and takes the majority of the boys with him, lured
by the promises of meat, play and freedom, there has arisen a clear dividing line between
the two. Jack epitomizes irrationality while Ralph represents rationality. Jacks rule favours
inter-tribal violence, torturing others, inciting the frenzy that leads to the murder of Simon.
He tries his level best to kill Ralph. He is immoral, violent, arrogant, irrational, beastly and
against civilization.
13. Barrymore told Sir Henry Baskerville that his wife and he will be happy to stay with him
until he have made new arrangements. He meant to say that he would stay in the
Baskerville Hall till Sir Henry could not get new servants to replace them.
He also told Sir Henry that his house requires considerable staff to look after this house
under new conditions. By new conditions Barrymore meant that Sir Charles led a very
retired simple life and he and his wife were able to look after his wants. Now that Sir
Henry is young and unmarried and will have family in near future. There will be a
requirement of more staff to look after them.
On asking him, Barrymore told Sir Henry that they thought that after Sir Charles death,
these surroundings were very painful to them. They fear that they shall never again be
peaceful in this place. They would succeed in establishing themselves in some new
business that they can start from Sir Charles charity given to them.
Or
Lord of the Flies is a translation of the Hebrew word Baalzvuv, or its Greek equivalent
Beelzebub. It is universally accepted that man suffers because of his original sin. Mans
fundamental nature is characterized by evil. Lord of the Flies epitomizes the human
tendancy to feel inclined towards the wrong deeds. Golding delineates the difference between
good and evil, benevolence and callousness, accountability and anarchy, civilization and
savagery. Epstein opines, He does not, of course, suggest that the Devil is present in any
traditional religious sense; Goldings Beelzebub is the modern equivalent, the anarchic,
amoral, driving Id whose only function seems to be ensure the survival of the host in which
it is embedded or embodied, which function it performs with tremendous and single-minded
tenacity. Muller identifies the Lord of the Flies as Beelzebub, called in Luke 11:15" the
chief of the devils. He opines about the meaning behind the beast He is the demonic essence
whose inordinate hunger, never assuaged, seeks to devour all men, to bend them to his
will. Simon symbolizes salvation. He explores the reality of the beast as Christ realizes the
essence of the earthly existence. Simon is killed thoughtlessly like Christ was crucified when
he made efforts to reveal the truth of the unknown. The novel is the parable of fallen man.
But it does not close the door on that man; it entreats him to know himself and his adversary,
for he cannot do combat against an unrecognized force, especially when it lies within him.

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86

FULL MARKS ASSIGNMENT3


1 I. (a) It suggests breaking through the limitations of what the human body can achieve.
(b) The adventure sports thrill human beings by infusing a sense of achievement which
initially seemed beyond the endurance limit of human body.
(c) It showed that people involved in inexpensive leisure were more happy than those
involved in expensive ones. It is because the mind has to be pressed to the
maximum constructive use.
(d) The factors that inspire man to higher level of performance in life are:
(i) necessity/personal gain
(iii) pleasing others
(ii) fascination
(iv) solving problems
(v) actualising values
(e) (i) living for something greater than overselves
(ii) knowledge of doing something different
(f) (i) It is lonely, dull and monotonous
(ii) Others try to pull you back.
II. (a) trivial (b) parable (c) ingredients.
2 I.

Notes:
1. Impact of fossil fuels on envt.
(a) huge cloud of polluts
(i) haze (ii) acid rain
(b) global warmg
(i) green house gases (ii) acid gases (iii) depletn of ozone layer
(c) adverse effects of gn.house gases
(i) rise in the sea level (ii) shifting of various deserts and plateaus
2. Investt. for envtl. protn.
(a) Energy & Envt. correlated
(i) cleaning up polln. (ii) invt. at grass root level
(b) Energy consn.
(i) envtl. necessity (ii) cost saving
3. Refineries & Energy consumptn
(a) significant reduction in energy consumptn
(i) better opern. in processing: conserve petrol, reduce pollution
(ii) clean-burn pollt. free
4. Energy consn.
(a) combined efforts
(i) mental attitude (ii) behavl. aspects
(b) formulating envtl. mgt. system
(i) prevtg. polln. (ii) energy & resource consn.
(c) renewable sources of energy
(i) little envtl. harm (ii) no polln.

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5. Goal of Industry
(a) avoidance of wasting sources of energy
(b) efft. use of energy
(c) presn. of envt.
II.

PETROLEUM CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT


A huge cloud of pollutants hovers over us due to burning of fossil fuels. Haze and acid
rain will follow this global warming caused by greenhouse gases and depletion of ozone
layer. Rising sea level and shifting of various deserts and plateaus may follow. Hence
investment for environmental protection is essential. Since energy and environment are
correlated, investment at grassroot level will clean up pollution. Energy conservation is
environmental necessity as well as cost saving. Refineries can help energy consumption
by better operations in processing and pollutant free clean-burn combined efforts, proper
environment management and utilisation of renewable sources of energy are essential to
conserve energy and preserve environment.

3.

POSTER

THE RED CROSS SOCIETY, FARIDABAD


is organising

A BLOOD DONA
TION CAMP
DONATION
at
CAMBRIDGE SCHOOL, SECTOR 16
on

15 August, 200X
at
11.00 Hours
EVERY DONOR WILL BE AWARDED CERTIFICATE

Remember
BLOOD DONATION CAUSES NO WEAKNESS

COME FORWARD

Donate Blood and Save a Life


Secretary
District Red Cross Society, Faridabad
Or
NOTICE
15 Nov. 200X
While playing hockey in the games period today, I lost my wristwatch in the school
playground. It is an HMT Supriya model with golden case and a brown strap.
It bears my initials on the backside. Being a birthday present, it has a sentimental
value for me. The finder is requested to hand it over to the undersigned or the
Principal.
Mithun/Madhuri
XII-A, Roll No. 305

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4.

COMPUTER EDUCATION
Computers have covered five generations since Charles Babbage invented a machine that
could take in information and sort it in the form of tables. During the last three decades
of the twentieth century new dimensions have been added to computer technology. The
Indian computer industry has also taken rapid strides and now computers have far wider
applications.
Scientists use computer for engineering science, oceanography and geology. Business
houses and government departments use computers for data collection, analysis,
comparison. Sales accounting, sales analysis and stock verification can be done accurately.
E-mail and E-commerce are the latest applications of computer science. Banks, hotels and
other establishments use them in various calculations and maintenance of record of
funds, taxes, income, expenditure, profit/loss and record of employees/patrons. Traffic
control and space technology can be assisted by computers. Thus computer education has
become essential in the new millennium.
Or
A BURGLARY
Burglary is a hateful and heinous crime of entering a building in order to steal.
Nowadays the burglars have no qualms of conscience while snatching or removing money
and material forcibly. Sometimes the burglars do not hesitate to use force and cause
bloodshed also. I witnessed a gory accident yesterday. Four youngmen with masked faces
broke into the house of Mr Sumer Chand, a jeweller who lives in a house opposite ours.
It was about 11.00 p.m. His wife and children had gone to bed. On hearing sounds of
footsteps he raised alarm. But the burglars pointed a gun towards him and demanded the
keys of the chest. Two of the burglars tied the members of his family with ropes. They
fired a shot in the air. I was too frightened to inform the police, but my father did so
when he heard the gun shot. The burglars tied cash and jewellery in bundles when the
police surrounded the building and asked the burglars to surrender. Thus timely action
by vigilant neighbours led to the arrest of the criminals.

5.

SARVODAYA SCHOOL, BIKANER


Students Forum
No 328/SSB/01
15 March, 200X
The General Manager
Northern Railway
Baroda House, New Delhi
Sir
Sub: Reservation of a Bogie for 60 students
A group of 60 students of senior classes of this school have planned to visit Bhubaneswar
and nearby worth seeing spots during the summer vacation. They will be accompanied by
three lecturers and two attendants. The touring party intends to leave Bikaner on 15
May, 200X by Bikaner Mail in a specially reserved bogie to be linked to Konark Express
at Delhi. They are likely to commence their return journey on 5 June by the same train.
Please confirm whether a bogie can be reserved for them during the above dates. An
early confirmation at your end will help the school authorities finalise the other
necessary arrangements.

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You are also requested to supply the details of estimated expenditure with student
concession so that the money may be deposited well in time. List of tour party on
prescribed proformas is enclosed.
Hoping for an early reply
Yours faithfully
Varsha
Secretary
Students Forum
Or
C-564, Vishnu Gardens
Karnal
21 September, 200X
The Chairman
Municipal Corporation
Karnal
Sir
Sub: Insanitary conditions and erratic water supply
I would like to bring to your kind notice the plight of the residents of Vishnu Gardens
due to unsatisfactory state of sanitary arrangements and improper supply of drinking
water.
Heaps of dirt keep lying in the streets. The drains are open and keep over-flowing with
garbage and dirt. Low-lying areas and pits remain filled with stagnant waters. Stray dogs,
pigs and cows also add to the worsening insanitary conditions.
The supply of drinking water is very irregular and inadequate so people use water of
hand pumps. Due to non-availability of pure drinking water, the residents have become
victims of water borne diseases like cholera, malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea. We have
requested the sanitary inspector time and again but our grievances remain unattended.
We, therefore request you to kindly spare some time, visit our locality in person and take
immediate steps to improve the living conditions.
Yours faithfully
Harish Kumar
Secretary
Residents Welfare Association
6.

RAGGING IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS


Ragging in schools and colleges has become a customary practice and symbol of modernity.
No wonder ragging sessions have gained respectability in public schools. The motive behind
ragging is to make the freshers comfortable in the new set up. Many defend the practice of
ragging the freshers as a harmless way of introduction and free mixing up. However, the senior
students resort to tricks of C-grade horror movies. They bully, intimidate, humiliate and even
beat up their juniors. Imagine the torture and insults the freshers have to undergo during
a ragging session. Physical and mental torture of the freshers is a harassment. The barbaric
acts of beating innocent freshers, locking them up in lavatories, giving them electric shocks
or asking them to parade naked are worst forms of torture and abuse. Authorities should take
care that ragging doesn't affect the self-esteem of the freshers or dehumanise them. The
strategy of 3Ps: Prohibition-Prevention-Punishment devised by the UGC for colleges and

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universities should be made applicable to schools also. The administrators should keep a close
watch on the activities of the students. Ragging should be banned and the guilty should be
given exemplary punishment.
Or
SMOKINGA HEALTH HAZARD
The use of tobacco in any form is harmful for health. Smoking is the most dangerous evil
which is prevalent in almost all the countries of the world. In the western countries
women are addicted to smoking. In India too, mod girls copy their peers and indulge in
smoking. The poor labourersindustrial, domestic or farm labourersresort to smoking
to snatch some moments of peace and rest from their back breaking routine. Although
every packet of cigarettes contains the statutory warning that smoking is injurious to
health, it has little effect on the smoker.
Tobacco contains nicotine that harms the lungs and may cause incurable cancer. Smoking
affects our nervous system, heart and circulatory system. It clogs the arteries and causes
respiratory problems like asthma and bronchitis. It reduces stamina and life-span but
increases blood pressure and incidence of heart attack. In short the use of tobacco in any
form is harmful for health.
7. 1.
(i) Greedy people pretending to be doing good things.
(ii) People who are cruel like the flesh-eating wild animals pretending to be generous.
2. The innocent rural people will be befooled. The cunning and greedy people will force
them to part with their money. They will exploit the rural poor and mint money.
3. They will pretend to teach the rural people how to sleep, relax and rest. Actually they
will make them work but they themselves will sleep all day.
Or
1. Her mother was lost somewhere else in thoughts. It pained her.
2. The poet withdrew her thoughts from her mother and looked outside.
3. The young trees growing outside went past as if they were sprinting. Happy children
were coming out of their houses.
8. 1. The conquerors and dictators can change the map of the world according to their
whims and will. They change the boundaries of various nations and shape the map.
Their fair map is of a beautiful world full of domes, bells and flowers, rivers, capes and
stars.
2. The title of the poem is quite appropriate and logical. It suggests the necessity of
quiet introspection. The people of the world are overactive and always on the move.
Their activities have caused untold troubles and sufferings. Keeping quiet will do
them a lot of good. It will save them from many harmful and violent activities.
Moreover, it will help in reflecting over the fate of man and help in creating a feeling
of mutual understanding among human beings.
3. The dooms-day is considered the day of judgement, when the dead will receive what is
due to them. Our mighty dead forefathers earned name and fame with their noble
deeds. It is hoped that they will be rewarded with rare magnificence and grandeur.
4. Aunt Jennifer is making her tigers in the panels. She is using ivory needles. Her
fingers are fluttering through the wool. She finds it difficult (hard) to pull even the
ivory needles. The reason is obvious. The weight of unhappy and unfortunate
experiences of her married life sits heavily on her hands.

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9. 1. Wachter was a blacksmith. He was reading the latest bulletin. He asked Franz not to
go so fast to his school. He added that the little boy would get to his school in plenty
of time. Wachter had read the latest bulletin about teaching of German. Franz
thought that the blacksmith was making a fun of him. So he ran to the school and
reached there breathless.
2. Douglas was frightened when he went down into the pool and was about to be
drowned. He had an aversion to water and now he was filled with terror. He had
remarkable self-control. He used his mind even in the crisis and thought of a strategy
to save himself from being drowned.
3. The owner of that mill was a very prominent ironmaster. His greatest ambition was
to ship out good iron to the market. He insisted on quality and kept a watch on the
work both night and day. He came to the forge on one of his nightly rounds of
inspection.
4. The author says that a frustrated person always directs his anger towards a single
person openly or covertly. He does so to explain the conduct of the boy in make-up
department towards Subbu as the former held the latter responsible for all his woes,
ignominy and neglect.
5. Ecos American publisher told him that she loved her book, but she didnt expect to
sell more than 3000 copies there. So Eco was given an advance for 3,000 copies only.
But in the end it sold two or three million in the U.S.
6. The manner of the death of the Tiger King is of extraordinary interest. The most
fantastic aspect of his demise was that as soon as he was born, astrologers had
foretold that one day the Tiger King would actually have to die.
10. 1. Gandhi had reached Motihari, the Capital of Champaran, to study the problems of the
sharecropper peasants. He was on his way to a neighbouring village, where a peasant
was ill-treated. On the way, he was stopped by the police superintendents messenger
and ordered to return to town. When he reached home, he was served with an official
notice to quit Champaran at once. Gandhi wrote on the receipt that he would disobey
the order. So Gandhi received a summons to appear in court the next day.
Next morning the town of Motihari was black with peasants. Thousands of peasants
demonstrated voluntarily outside the court. The prosecutor requested the judge to
postpone the trial. Gandhi protested against the delay. He read out a statement
pleading guilty. He asked the penalty. The judge announced that he would pronounce
the sentence after a two-hour recess. He asked Gandhi to furnish bail for that period.
Gandhi refused. The judge released him without bail. After the recess, the judge said
that he would not deliver the judgment for several days. Meanwhile he allowed
Gandhi to remain at liberty.
Several days later Gandhi received a letter. The case against him had been dropped.
Thus civil disobedience had triumphed, for the first time in India.
2. Jack feels that he has been caught in an ugly middle position physically, emotionally
as well as mentally. The woodwork, a cage of mouldings and rails and skirting boards
all around them was half old tan and half new ivory.
He was conscious of his duties as a father and as a husband. Little Bobby was already
asleep. His efforts to make Jo fall asleep proved quite fatiguing. She kept on
interrupting him, asking for clarifications, pointing errors and suggesting alternatives.
Jack did not like that women should take anything for granted. He liked them to be
apprehensive. So he extended the story, though he was in a haste to go down stairs
and help his pregnant wife in her hard work of painting the woodwork. The result of

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the extension to the story proved unfruitful and unpleasant for Jo, Jack and Clare. Jo
wanted him to change the ending of the story. Clare complained that he had told a
long story. Jack felt utter weariness and did not want to speak with his wife or work
with her or touch her. He was really caught in an ugly middle position.
11. It is rightly said that failure plays an important role in a mans life. Failure in one field
becomes the cause of exploring success in other fields. It is a sure key to many a riddle.
Failures make us familiar with our weaknesses and flaws. They become the stepping
stones and inspire us to fight against odd circumstances. Man should learn from his
mistakes and strive hard to reach at his destination. Most of the successful peoples failed
at any step but could get their target because failures guided them and encouraged them
to try harder. One should never give up ones target. Our duty is to do our karma. The
result is in the hands of the Almighty. It is certain that failure inspires us to work with
more strength and vigour. One should never get depressed and dejected. All leaders,
fighters, businessmen, bureaucrats firmly say that failures are the pillars to success.
12. The Lodge gates were made of wrought iron with ruin pillars on either side patched with
fungus and surmounted by the wild pigs heads. The Lodge was a ruined building made of
black granite, but facing it was a new building, half constructed, built by Sir Charles.
Through the gateway we passed into the avenue which opened into a broad expanse of
grassland.
The centre of the avenue was a heavy block of building from which a porch was projected.
From this central block rose the turn towers with many holes in it. To right and left of
towers were modern wings of black granite. Windows were fitted with vertical iron bars.
From inside the hall, the roof is beamed heavily with squared beams made of oak wood.
There were stags heads and coats of arms upon the walls, old stained glasses fitted with
oak panelling doors, all dim and dull in the subdued light of the central lamp of the hall.
From the central point, two long corridors extended the whole length of the building,
fromwhich all the bedrooms opened.
Or
Attempt yourself.
13. Undoubtedly, Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel. Cudden says, an allegory is a
story with a double meaning: a primary or surface meaning; and a secondary or under
the surface meaning. It is a story, therefore, that can be read; understood and interpreted
at two levels. It is thus closely related to the fable and the parable. Simon, Piggy, Jack,
Ralph and the beast are symbolic. Peter opines that the society formed by the boys on the
deserted island represents, in embryo, the society of the adult world, their impulses and
convictions are those of adults incisively abridged and the whole narrative is a powerful
ironic commentary on the nature of man, an accusation levelled at us all. Jack epitomizes
barbarous nature of man. Simons death is compared to the crucification of Christ. People
like Piggy become the victim in this world of mortals. Golding depicts Satan who resides
in man. The satanic nature of man lies dormant. But when man finds himself in trying
circumstances, his beastly nature overpowers him. The novel reveals the bare fact that
the civilized human beings also become brutal and savage in the absence of civilized
restraints. Golding has efficiently shown mans inherent nature. He believes that man
produces evil as a bee produces honey. He criticizes the civilized society is a very apt
way. The novel is a satire on mans nature and society.
Or
Stapleton invited Watson to his house in order to introduce him to his sister who was at
Merripit House. Watsons first thought was that he should be by Sir Henrys side. But
then he remembered the pile of papers and bills. It was certain that he could not help

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with those. Also, Holmes had expressly said that he should study the neighbours upon
the moor who were closely located to the Baskerville Hall. So, he readily accepted
Stapletons invitation.
On the way to the Meeripit House, Stapleton showed Watson the great plain with the
strange hills surrounding it. He asked Watson if he has observed anything remarkable
about that. Watson found it a rare place for a horse ride. This plain had bright green
spots scattered thickly over it which seems more fertile than the rest. Stapleton told him
that is the great Grimpen Mire. A wrong step in that direction means death. He also told
him that it was yesterday only that he saw one of the ponies wander into it and it never
came out. He saw its head for quite a long time craning out of the bog-hole, but it
swallowed him at last. Even in dry seasons, this moorland is dangerous to cross.

FULL MARKS ASSIGNMENT4


1 I. (a) An air pollutant is a substance which is present in air although normally it is not or
it is present in an amount exceeding the normal concentrations.
(b) The air pollutants may be present either in gaseous form or as a particulate matter.
(c) It is caused by the lack of oxygen there.
(d) It is a set of symptoms which indicate diseases caused by indoor pollutants. Sick
building syndrome is increasing due to overfurnished small houses. The indoor
concentration of pollutants exceeds those of outdoors.
(e) It can be overcome by identifying the offending antigen and then by removing it
completely.
II. environmental tobacco smoke exposure causes several medical problems.
III. (a) syndrome (b) incidence (c) radon.
2 I. TITLE: FACING AN INTERVIEW
Notes:
1. Importance of Interview
(a) prospects depend on interview.
2. What is an Interview?
(a) discussion interviewer candidate
(b) questions (i) probe knowledge (ii) assess personality
(c) formal means of interaction
3. Tips for facing interview
(a) knowge imp. component of success
(i) range beyond specialn
(ii) depth awareness of various aspects
(b) Readg and listeng imp. for gaing know.
(c) Dress elegant but simple no casuals.
(d) conducting oneself properly
(i) way of movg, sitting, placing briefcase & talking.
(e) Good expn
(i) clarity of mind balanced thinkg
(ii) clarity of speech: use right words. Avoid ambiguity/verbosity.

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(iii) convey your pt. of view


(iv) disagreement not to be visible on face
(v) create imn of being a ldr.
II. Summary: Facing an interview is essential because our future prospects depend on
its success. An interview is a formal interaction between an interviewer (or group of
interviewers) and a candidate. Questions are put to the interviewee to probe his
knowledge and assess personality. Hence knowledge is most important component of
success. One must put on elegant but simple dress. Casuals should be avoided. Ones
deportment is an index of ones personality. Good expression conveying clarity of
mind, speech and point of view is an asset. Disagreement should not be visible on
face. Leave impression of your leadership qualities.
3. Ajay Gupta
23D-Vasant Vihar
New Delhi
5 May, 200X
The Secretary
Leo Club
South West Delhi
Vasant Vihar
Dear Sir
It is a matter of pleasure for all of us that the Leo Club is organising a seminar on
Elimination of Child Labour at the Community Centre on 15 May, 200X at 5 p.m. I will
certainly make it a point to participate in the seminar and acquaint others with my views
and be benefitted by the ideas of other honourable members. I thank you for the
invitation extended to me.
Yours sincerely
Ajay Gupta
Or
Attempt yourself.
4.

FROM MARKS TO GRADES


New Delhi: 15 Feb, 200X
Nishi: TOI Reporter
The Chairman NCERT called a press conference today to enlighten the teaching fraternity,
students and public at large about the proposed changes in evaluation from marks to
grades. The NCERT has come out with a project paper to elicit the views of educationists,
administrators and all those involved with the cause of education. One of the points that
goes in favour of switch over to the grading system is the flexibility of approach. In the
modern world of stress and strain caused by competition at every stage, students have to
exert their capacities to the maximum to increase their marks tally by 0.5 per cent. The
grading system will unburden them from this tension and inculcate in them the spirit of
inquiry and quest for depeer learning.
Or
TREE PLANTATION DAY
Trees are mans best friends as they help to keep the human environment free from
pollution by absorbing toxic carbon dioxide and releasing health giving oxygen. Our Delhi
has become highly populated and polluted. In order to make Delhi greener and cleaner,

95 TEACHERS HANDBOOK

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plantation of new trees as well as preservation of the old ones is essential. Our school
took up the project of tree plantation by observing tree plantation week from 1 August to
7 August. Fresh saplings of shady trees were planted in the school campus as well as the
road leading to the school. To seek willing co-operation and involvement of students one
tree was assigned to a group of four, who would look after it till it grew to a proper
height. The outgoing members would be replaced by fresh ones. Thus the project would
continue throughout the year. The Principal announced special prizes for the tree lovers
whose trees exhibited proper growth.
5. Attempt yourself.
Or
Puneet Verma
32, Gautam Nagar
Delhi
16 March, 200X
The Incharge
Textbook Section NCERT
New Delhi
Sir
Sub: Complaint about poor quality of textbooks.
Please permit me to draw your attention to certain facts about the quality of textbooks
provided by you for class XII. The books on Economics lack complete and up to date data.
For example, the chapter on population does not detail the true picture about population
growth and the means undertaken to decrease it. Although the books carry a galaxy of
names of the highly qualified and experienced authors, yet the quality speaks otherwise.
The books also suffer from lack of balance in learning objectives. For example, in Maths
some chapters are quite detailed while others present only a rough sketch. I was shocked
beyond belief when I discovered no practice exercises or do yourself assignment after so
many chapters. The textbooks in English have many printing errors. Besides these
shortcomings the paper used is rough and of low quality. This type of paper keeps the
printed price cheap but the book is not durable. Sometimes we are forced to buy another
copy after three months. Thus the price-quality equation is self-defeating.
I do hope that you will pay proper attention to these suggestions and improve the quality
of textbooks in subsequent editions.
Thanking you
Yours faithfully
Puneet Verma
6.

HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


(by Pravin Chopra)
Environmental pollution is the most dangerous health hazard for the modern generation.
Progress in science and technology has resulted in advancement in the fields of industry,
transport, medicine and agriculture. Population explosion has increased the population of
cities. Urbanisation, industralisation and rapid transport have resulted in pollution. Our
environment is being polluted by different means through air, water, noise and food.
Certain species face extermination and humanity is under a great threat.
The tall chimneys of factories emit out smoke and pollute the air. The smoke spewed by
trucks, buses and other vehicles spreads poisonous gases as well as suspended particulate

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matter. Consequently city dwellers have become victims of incurable chest related
diseases. The noise of machines in factories, vehicles, loudspeakers etc. has brought
deafness to millions. Even the water has become so polluted that fish do not find their
survival there. Inhaling fresh pure air has become a thing of the past. Our soil which
produces grain, vegetables and fruit has also been polluted by the excessive use of
pesticides and chemical fertilizers. The soil pollution is contaminating the rivers along
with the rainfall.
Or
FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR IT PROFESSIONALS
(by Rohit)
The IT industry has seen many changes over the years, creating a need for newer skills.
The software training industry has come of age and private institutes have certainly
carved a niche for themselves. With the convergence of computing and television
technologies and with a leap towards graphical user interfaces and visual computing, it
has become essential for the computer professionals to acquire a combination of skills. A
planned approach to arming the skills will lead to a plethora of job opportunities for the
aspiring computer professionals. It is expected that basic computer awareness will be
made available to students at school level in the 21st century. But there will be
continuous need for professionals who have good programming skills and an ability to
develop applications and for those capable of integrating the larger applications of the
enterprise. Besides the traditional career options there are a large number of nontraditional career options available to todays IT aspirants. The service delivery industries
like Insurance, Hospitality and Airlines run out of customer support functions. This area
of IT enabled services is expected to employ millions all over the world. Web designing is
opening up career opportunities for artists, graphics, designers and animators. E-commerce
is opening up opportunities in a whole range of areas from interactive web site design to
Group Ware applications, to Internet security and payment systems implementation. You
must have good communication skills to cash in on the huge demand for IT professionals.
7. 1. The poet was driving from her parents home to the Cochin airport. Her mother was
sitting beside her.
2. She noticed that her mother was dozing with her mouth open.
3. Her mothers face looked pale, faded and lifeless like a dead body.
Or
1. The earth can teach us a lesson how to live on it.
2. Only the earth remains alive when everything seems dead.
3. The poet is Pablo Neruda. He wants to count upto twelve.
8. 1. Stephen Spender uses contrasting images in the poem to picturise the condition of the
slum children. For example:
A narrow street sealed in with a lead sky
Far far from rivers, capes and stars of words.
The first line presents the dark, narrow, cramped holes and lanes closed in by the
bluish grey sky. The second line presents a world of beauty, prosperity, progress, wellbeing and openness.
2. The mighty dead were very powerful and dominating persons during their own times.
Their achievements made them mighty and great. Their noble works dazzle our eyes.
We imagine that such mighty dead forefathers will attain more grandeur on the
doomsday. Hence grandeur is associated with the mighty dead.

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3. There are many things that bring us troubles and sufferings. They dampen our spirits.
Howezver, some shape of beauty brings love and happiness in our lives in spite of
such unpleasant things. A thing of beauty removes the pall of sadness and sufferings.
It makes us love life.
4. In the third stanza, the poet refers to Aunt Jennifers terrified hands. The old
unhappy memories are still fresh in her mind. She had passed through many testing
and horrible times during her married life. These ordeals crushed and suppressed her.
Their effect is still visible. So she is still ringed with those ordeals that dominated her
life.
9. 1. His full name is Saheb-e-Alam. It means the lord of the universe. He does not know
it. If he knew it, he would hardly believe it. He roams the streets barefoot with other
rag-pickers. This army of barefoot boys appears in the morning and disappears at
noon.
2. When Douglas grew up, he took the help of an instructor to learn swimming. His
training went on from October to April. For three months he was taken across the
pool with the help of a rope. As he went under, terror filled him and his legs froze.
The instructor taught him to exhale under water and inhale through raised nose. He
made him kick his legs to make them relax. Then he asked him to swim. He
continued swimming from April to July. Still all terror had not left. He swam two
miles across Lake Wentworth and the whole length to the shore and back of Warm
Lake. Then he overcame his fear of water.
3. As Edla lifted the peddlers hat, he jumped up abruptly and seemed to be quite
frightened. Even her kind looks, disclosure of her name and purpose of visit failed to
calm him. From his fear, she thought that either he had stolen something or he had
escaped from jail.
4. Jansie was a classmate and friend of Sophie. She lived in the same neighbourhood.
She knew Sophie quite well. She was also aware of Sophies habit of dreaming. On
learning of her meeting with Danny Casey, her first reaction was of disbelief. You
never did, exclaimed Jansie. But when Sophie told her about her request for
autograph, Jansie softened a little and said, Jesus, I wish Id have been there.
5. Derry says that people always change the subject. They dont ask him about his
physical impairment. They simply pretend that it is not true and isnt there. They
dont want the boy to mind and get upset. He thinks that the old man has changed the
subject because he is afraid to ask him about his burnt face.
7. When the psychiatrist said that Charley was unhappy and wanted to escape, Charleys
wife, Louisa was shocked. The remark made her kind of mad. The psychiatrist
explained that the modern world was full of insecurity, fear, war, worry etc. He
regarded Charleys stamp-collecting as a temporary refuge from reality. Charleys
friends agreed to the psychiatrists observation but Charley didnt.
10. 1. For the poor of India means of survival are far more important than freedom or legal
justice. I dont think the poor of India are free from fear after Independence.The
foreign rulers have been replaced by corrupt politicians and self-serving bureaucracy.
Power-brokers and moneylenders have a field day. The situation has improved in
cities and towns for the poor but the poor in the remote villages still fear the big
farmers and moneylenders. The police and revenue officials are still objects of terror
for them.
The poor, landless workers have to still work hard to make both ends meet. Peasants
and tenant-farmers have to borrow money from rich moneylenders on exorbitant rates
of interest, which usually they fail to repay due to failure of monsoon or bad crops.

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IN ENGLISH PLUS (CORE)-XII
98

Cases of small farmers committing suicide are quite common. If this is not due to fear,
what is the reason behind it?
2. James Roderick Evans was a smart fellow. He was known as Evans the Break among
the prison officers. He had escaped from prison three times. Now he was taking OLevel German Examination in prison.
His solitary cell was located in D-Wing, which had two heavy gatesouter and inner.
Both were locked securely. Evanss cell was kept under strict observation. Prison
officer Mr Stephens watched his activities every minute through the peep-hole. Mr
Jackson, the incharge of D-Wing, was in constant touch with the Governor on phone.
The Governor himself listened in to the conversation in the cell. During his stay in
prison, Evans was not allowed to have any visitor or letters.
All potential weapons such as knife, scissors, nail-file and razor had been removed
from the cell of Evans. The contents of the suitcase of the invigilator, Reverend S.
McLeery were also thoroughly searched. Even the paper-knife was taken away. In
short, all precautions had been taken to see that Evans did not get a means to escape.
11. Do yourself.
12. Ralph is a tall, good-looking boy with blond hair. His father is a commander in the Navy.
He learnt swimming at the age of five. Ralph plays a significant role in Lord of the Flies.
His role epitomizes democracy. He blows the shell to call the other survivors of the
plane. He becomes the chief in a democratic way. He is elected by the members of the
group. He is an optimistic fellow. He focuses on keeping the signal fire so that they can
be rescued by the passersby. He is very supportive and caring also. When they climb the
mountain to explore the reality of the beast, he wishes to send someone to take care of
the Littluns and Piggy. He has indomitable faith in the participative management. All the
members of the group are given ample opportunities to express their invaluable ideas.
He allocates duties to the boys so as to make their survival easy. His foresightedness
encourages his supporters to erect shelters. He has the knack to face the challenges of
life. He goes to the Castle Rock to get Piggys eyeglass back. He has the ability to hunt
also. But he becomes insane when Simon is killed mercilessly. He feels guilty and blames
himself for this act of madness. Ralph safeguards himself from the clutches of the
hunters and reaches the beach where he meets the naval officer. It can be stated that
Ralph is an emotional, sympathetic and non-violent fellow. He is indecisive too. He is
guided by Piggy time and again. Ralph keeps focussing on maintaining the fire signal so
that they can be rescued. He says, The fire is the most important thing. Without the fire
we cant be rescued. Id like to put on war-paint and be a savage. But we must keep the
fire burning. The fires the most important thing on the island ... Ralph learns lot many
things on the island. His bitter experiences shatter his world of dreams and idealism. He
represents the genteel, British, middle class.
Or
Refer to Full Marks Assignment1
13. The boys could not recognize the dead parachutist and mistook him as a beast because
they were scared. They failed to retain their calm and cool so could not use their wisdom.
Jacks words Lets creep forward on hands and knees. Marpetts asleep prove that they
did not have the knack to confront the beast. Their fear made them weak. Man dreads to
explore the unknown. Fear restricts him to do so. Theres no denying the fact that the
boys misunderstanding of the dead parachutist as a beast, highlights and magnify its
importance. The boys made the beast significant and changed the location of the signal
fire. It is an irony that the three reach the parachutist and flee from the place without

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taking into account the reality. Even Ralph who symbolizes the civilized world acts
insanely and unwisely. He does not try to understand that the beast lies there motionless.
It does not harm them when they reach it. Fear to unravel the mystery of the unknown
becomes significant. It also enhances the unknowns importance. The children of this
novel are clearly victims of ambition, manners, not thinking, not speaking and therefore
turning to fighting of some people; but did they ever think about the cause of all those
calamities and catastrophes around them? No, they never did... Goldings Lord of the
Flies emphasizes on mans essential sickness.
Or
While searching for things in the hut, Watson found a sheet of paper under the stone
slab. A short message was written in pencil over itDr. Watson has gone to Coombe
Tracey for a minute Watson stood there with the paper in his hands thinking about the
meaning of this brief message. He inferred that it was he and not Sir Henry who was
being dogged. He thought that there was this feeling of an unseen force, a fine net drawn
round them with skill and utmost care in which they got entangled unknowingly.
He thought that if there was one report there might be others, so he looked round the
hut in search of them. But found no trace of anything of the kind or its character or
intentions of the man who lived in that strange place. He could not judge if that strange
man was enemy or guardian angel?

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ASSIGNMENTS
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