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Chemistry Stilberberg 5th Edition

You study chemistry so that you know why a substance changes or how to
predict its behavior
Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Chemistry

Chemistry: the study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated
with those changes
Matter: anything that has mass and volume
o Composition of matter: the types and amounts of simpler substances that make matter up
o Substance: a type of matter that has a defined, fixed composition

Property: the characteristic that gives each substance a unique identity

o Physical property: properties that a substance shows by itself without changing into or interacting with
another substance (color, melting point, electrical conductivity, density)
Physical change: (same substance before and after) occurs when a substance alters its
physical form, not its composition (solid water vs. liquid water vs. gaseous water)
a physical changed caused by heating can be reversed by cooling
o Chemical property: properties of a substance that shows as the substance changes into or interacts
with other substances
Chemical change/ chemical reaction (different substance before and after, COMPOSITION
changes): occurs when a substance is converted into a different substance
a chemical reaction typically cannot be reversed

A substance is identified by its set of physical and chemical properties

substances exist in a specific state based on temperature and pressure

Submicroscopic properties: those that we cannot see

3 State of matter: states are defined by the way it fills a container

o (1) solid: solids have fixed shape that does not conform to the container shape
particles lie in a 3D, arranged pattern
o (2) liquid: conforms to the container shape but fills the container only to the extent to the liquids volume
forms a surface
particles are close together but move around one another randomly
o (3) gas: conforms to the container shape and fills the entire container
particles have great distances between them and move randomly
Macroscopic properties: those that we can see
o chemical and physical changes are defined by composition which we study macroscopically
o macroscopic properties arise from submicroscopic behavior
o Chemistry: we study observable changes to understand their unobservable causes
physical and chemical changes are accompanied by energy changes
o Energy: the ability to do work work involves moving something
the total energy an object possesses is the sum of its potential energy and its kinetic energy
potential energy: energy due to the POSITION of an object
kinetic energy: energy due to the MOTION of an object
energy is conserved: it may be converted from one form to another, but it is not destroyed
in nature, situations of lower energy are typically favored over those of higher energy
Example: the behavior of charged particles is due to interactions such as electrostatic forces:
opposite charges attract each other and like charges repel each other
negative-positive: when work is done to separate a + charge from a - charge, potential
energy increases. when the particles move together again, potential energy is
converted to kinetic energy (moves toward a position of lower energy which is more
positive-positive: when work is done to move two + charges together, potential energy
increases and when they move apart, potential energy is converted into kinetic energy
(moves toward a position of lower energy which is more stable)
the chemical potential energy of a substance results from the relative positions and
attractions/repulsions among all its particles
higher energy substances are less stable than lower energy substances

When a less stable substance is converted into a more stable substance,

potential energy (position) is converted into kinetic energy energy (motion)
which can do work

History of Chemistry
o Alchemy: study of nature: Greek idea that matter naturally strives toward perfection (change less valued
substances into precious ones): matter can be altered magically
encouraged observation and experimentation rather than the Greek approach of studying
nature solely through reason
o Chemical investigation: inquiry into the CAUSES of changes in matter
began in the late 17th century, slowed by the incorrect theory of combustion: the process of
At the time, scientists believed in the phlogiston theory: combustible materials contain an
undetectable substance called phlogiston which is released when the material burns
Antoine Lavoisier demonstrated the true nature of combustion: oxygen, a component of air, is
required for combustion and combines with a substance as it burns
theory was quantitative and had reproducible measurements science of chemistry
began with Lavoisier
Scientific Method: an approach to understanding nature to predict and explain phenomena
o Observations: are facts that our ideas must explains
data: pieces of quantitative information
natural law: when the same observation is made in many situations with no clear exceptions, it
is summarized into a natural law
law of mass conservation: the observation that mass remains constant during chemical change
o Hypothesis: a TESTABLE proposal made to explain an observation
needs to be revised or discarded if it is inconsistent with experimental results
o Experiment: a clear set of procedural steps that tests a hypothesis
contains variables: quantities that can have more than a single value
experiments are controlled so that it measures the effect of one variable on another while
keeping all other variables constant
for results to be accepted, they must be reproducible by others
o Model/ theories: models are based on experiments (not speculation)
models describe how the observed phenomenon occurs
it is a simplified version of nature that can be used to make predictions about related
Using units and conversion factors
o measured quantities consists of a number and a unit
o conversion factors: ratios used to express a measured quantity in different units
even though the number and unit of the quantity change, the size of the quantity remains the
o dimensional analysis (factor-label method): the use of conversion factors in calculations
Systematic approach to solving chemistry problems
o emphasize reasoning, not memorization, by planning how to solve the problem before you solve it
Problem Plan (clarify known and unknown variables and create a roadmap to solve for
unknown) Solution Check
SI (System International) Units
o 7 fundamental (base) units: (1) mass (2) length (3) time (4) temperature (5) electric current (6) amount of
substance (7) luminous intensity
o all other units are derived units (like decimal prefixes and exponential notation)

Density (d) of an object = mass/volume

intensive property: one that is independent of the amount of substance

o density is a ratio of mass to volume, which is constant at a specific temperature and pressure,
regardless of the sample size
Temperature: is a measure of how hot or cold a substance is RELATIVE to another substance
o The DIRECTION of the heat flow
an ice cube is cold because heat flows from your hand into the ice cube
o INTENSIVE property
the temperature of [one gallon] of boiling water is the same temperature of [one cup] of boiling
Heat is the energy that flows between objects that are at different temperatures
o energy is an EXTENSIVE property

Extensive property: properties dependent on the amount of substance

o mass and volume
the mass of [one gallon] of water is 4 times larger than the mass of [one quart] of water
the volume of [one gallon] of water is 4 times larger than the volume of [one quart] of water

Three temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin

o Converting temperature from C to K: Temperature in Kelvin = Temperature in C + 273.15
o Converting temperature from K to C: Temperature in C = Temperature in K - 273.15
o Converting temperature from C to F: Temperature in F = (9/5)(Temperature in C) + 32
o Converting temperature from F to C: Temperature in C = (5/9)(Temperature in F - 32)
uncertainty: we can never measure a quantity exactly
o we assume an uncertainty of one unit in the rightmost digit
significant figures = both the certain and uncertain digits we record as a measurement
o the greater the number of significant figures, the greater the certainty is
Rules for significant figures
o all digits are significant, except zeros that are not measured, but only used to position the decimal point
we assume that zeros are NOT significant

0.0030 L | 2 significant figures

53,069 mL | 5 significant figures
0.00004715 | 4 significant figures
57,600. | 5 significant figures

Significant figures in calculations

o measurements contain different numbers of significant figures
o General: the least certain measurement sets the limit on certainty for the entire calculation and
determines the number of significant figures in the final answer
o For multiplication and division: the answer contains the same number of significant figures as the
measurement with the fewest significant figures

For addition and subtraction: the answer has the same number of decimal places as the measurement
with the fewest decimal places
Exact numbers are numbers with no uncertainty associated with them
Precision is reproducibility: how close the measurements in a series are to each other
Accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to the actual value
Systematic error produces values that are either [all higher] or [all lower] than the actual value
o the error is due to a part of the experimental system: a faulty measuring device, or making a consistent
Random error produces values that are BOTH higher and lower than the actual value
o always occurs, the extent depends on the measurers skill and the instruments precision
Precise measurements have LOW random error (deviations from the average)
Accurate measurements have LOW systematic error and LOW random error
Instrument calibration can reduce systematic error: comparing a measuring device with a known standard

Textbook Problems
(Sample problem 1) Visualize the difference between a physical and chemical change
o Physical change: same composition but in a different form, leads to a different form of the same
o Chemical change: different composition, leads to a different substance
(Sample Problem 8) Significant figures
o 0.0030 L | 2 significant figures
o 53,069 mL | 5 significant figures
o 0.00004715 | 4 significant figures
o 57,600. | 5 significant figures