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TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE


FOR CALIBRATION FAILURES

September 9, 2003

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guidc

SCANNINGCALIBRATION

STANDARD..

Limits Encountered During


Comrnunication Error Displayed During Cal.ibration
QC

........... IO

.....

............. 13

SPINEPIIANTOMMEASUREMENTSNOTWIIIIINSPECIFICATION.................. ...........t4

CALIBRAONEXAMPLESAPPENDX

............... 15

XDRIFTGRA
AUTOSET.TRC EXAMPLE

PRINTOUTAPPENDIX...

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

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Page 2

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

CALIBRATION OVERVIEW
There are three major operations performed during a calibration: Diagnostics, Scanning
the calibration standard, and the scan of the QC phantom.

The Diagnostics performs test of the PMT's, ilters, and source before scanning the
calibration standard. lt will display pass/fail for each test performed.
The scanning calibration standard consists of measurements of the 77 steps of plastic
and metal combinations, using allthe filters. An initial calibration makes 4 complete
passes and takes approximately 6 hours for a scanner equipped with a high speed filter
and 12 hours for non-high speed. The daily calibration (performed each day by the
operator) takes approximately 30 minutes. The daily measurements are compared to a
reference value that is available in CALIB.FIL (created by the initial calibration). lf a
measurement result is out of speciication, an eror message will appear on the screen,
and the scanner will re-measure that location. lf subsequent attempts still fail, the
calibration will be flagged as'failed'and the enors are stored in an ERRORS.TRC file.
Due to the retries, a failing calibration may take more time than usual. lf the calibration
fails, the file CALIB.DBG is created. A failing calibration never affects your CALIB.FIL file.

As part of a daily calibration, the QC phantom is scanned. Precision and Accuracy is


calculated forthe last 16 scans (total numberif less than 16) using the values stored in
the Setup.fil. lf one or more of the scans is out of range a failure will occur.

ALL FAILU RES

1.

Printing the enors.trc is the first step to correcting a calibration failure.


lf your system has SFT 1.3.0 or later, select 'bn_trC from page 2 of the XSFT
menu. Make sure your printer is on and ready. This will only print 3 pages of the
enors. Normally the first few errors will be the only information that is needed.
The DOS type command may also be used to print the entire erors.trc ile.

'?

4-channel:

Type

'CD\)(R26\CALTRACE',

press Enter, then

'TYPE

ERRORS.TRC >PRN'.
2-channel: Enter'CDXR26', then'ryPE ERRORS.TRC >PRN"

2. Verify the laser is aligned


3. Make sure the stability and the alignment

collets have been removed from the upper

arm.

4.
5.

Veriy the source is properly aligned.

6.

Verifo the calibration standard is sitting straight on the tabletop. Verifu the laser
touches the top and bottom edges of the standard simultaneously. Check the front
and side. For XR26 scanners make sure it is hanging straight. Adjust the knobs on
the bracket untilthe standard is level.

Verify that Points A and B were marked properly during the calibration procedure.
The points must be marked on the Plexiglas and not the metal bracket.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page 3

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

7.

Verify the calibration standard is not damaged. Shake the standard to see if there are
any loose parts. Remove the covers to verify there is no foreign or loose material
inside.

..

J-l:

RE-INSTALL THE CALIBRATIoN STANDARD coVERS coRREcTLY. MAKE


SURE POINT A IS NO METAL, NO PISTIC CORNER, AND POINT B 1S ON THE
THICKEST METAL AND PISTIC CORNER. MAKE SURE THE CROSS MARKS IN
THE PLASTIC ALIGN WTH THESE CORNERS.

8.

Verify the calibration standard is in the marks on the tabletop. lt must fit within the
window that is cut out of the tabletop (this is only visible under the tabletop).

9. For an initial calibration veriff the only item on the tabletop

is the calibration standard.


The tabletop is measured as part of the calibration and no other items can be on the
table.

10. Make sure the parameters have been properly entered on the Service Setup scren
For 2-channel also make sure the conect configuration has been selected, (high vs
normal speed, high vs low intensity).

2
<;i
/'

-11

. For XR26, Eclipse, and XR36 scanners with


Motor Driver Board Shield is installed.

a motor driver board 387A017 , venfy a

for radiation leaks from the source; add lead as required. For 2-channel, a
failing spine or rough body scan on a normal speed scanner or a failure for a high
numbered ilter on a high speed scanner may be an indication of a radiation leak from
the source. Perform the Radiation Leakage Test in the 3885631 Repair Procedure.

12. Check

DIAGNOSTICS
During the first segment of an Initial and Daily Calibration, a spectrum of the PMT is
displayed, the discriminators are set, background radiation is measured, and diagnostic
tests are performed for the reference beam, the shutter, high attenuation filter, medium
attenuation filter, low attenuation ilter, and dynamic filtration (HS scanners only). The
software expects to detect a certain amount of Low Energy and a certain amount of HighEnergy counts with each shutter or filter in place. Refer to the Low / High Energy Counts
in the General Troubleshooting Guide for an explanation of count rates.
The file DIAGNOST.TRC contains all the information gathered during this section of the
calibration.
The DOS "type" command may be used to print the entire diagnost.trc file.
4-channel: Type 'CDU(R26\CALTRACE', press Enter, then "TYPE
DIAGNOST.TRC >PRN".
2-channel: Enter'CD\)(R26'. then 'TYPE DIAGNOST.TRC >PRN"

o
o

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page 4

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

EXAMPLE OF A 24HANNEL DIAGNOSTIC SCREEN

rtr

0iscriristr {3
Sedgrourd 5lg
lcftrucr &rr
- Ptss
Shuttrr
- f:ss
ligir lttn. ilter - Prss
ltri,ul rlnen. Filur - P:ss
br lttu. Fil,ur - P:ss

I
I
T

I
a

bily ftIilr:tioe

Estirutrl

rnrint

lirr krinint
It:ll

0issirinrtc

L
con:ttioa frctor o.nr Fsr
g,
filtrr lor tmrt,
4

r.-hi litrr".

tltrsic

rtrl-?, ccnos-glr 1rrrrur rllorrbk


difftn-t {.tl tr rrd srim.

ilGI]

EXAMPLE OF A 4CHANNEL DIAGNOSTIC SCREEN


l,lR

lalibration Uersion 3,5.0

l\

n
n

ff,rt,lI,lt

0iscrininator'1X6,,221,1284,177

Brckground
Reference Bean
ray Off
Shutter
Lou Atten, tilter
ledun fitten. tilter
Hish tten, tilter
Oynanic FItretion

/i/\

June 9?

DNI[V TOLIBNATII{

/1

c
0

lr

T
E

Scrnnng

5,8,8,2

[elbrution

PASS

PA55
PASS

PA55
PA55
PASS

PA55

Standard

Iioe lanainins This Phrse: E:81:0

Iotrl lire Reraining:


Press <f5c>

0:81:09

to

Tarrinate rlibration

Calhntion Strtus: ll{

PISRESS

|-(ficel-l

Discriminators
Typically the 2-channel discriminators are less than 100. lf they are more it may indicate
a defective PMT or grounding problem.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page 5

,.
V

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

/:.'. -7

.'
-*, "'
u. ,
't-4"

"i.1>

->

For 4-channel the discriminators are normally between 1 100 and 1700. Discriminator
settings are the DAC values set by the software to separate the high and low energy in
each PMT and eliminate the noise. Final refers to the top PMT (high energy), and Initial
refers to the bottom PMT (low energy). On the printout, FH=Final High, FL=Final Low,
lH=lnitial High, lL=lnitial Low. (See printout below.) For systems with host software 3.9.5
or higher the Peak Values will also be displayed. For QS host software 3.0.0 to 3.9.4 the

peaks can be displayed by performing a Diagnostic peak from PeakPick of the XSST
menu. The Peak is the DAC setting that coresponds to the highest point on the
spectrum. The finalpeak (high energy PMT) should be between2200-2300, and the peak
for the initial tube (low energy PMT) should be between 1 100-1200. lf they are out of
range then refer to the 3885631 Repair Procedure to adjust the PMT Gains. An initial
calibration must be performed afler a gain adjustment.
lf the message "Discriminators Out of Range' is displayed for QS Host Software, verify
the discriminators are within the following ranges:
FH
1024 - 2560
Max chanqe - 250

FL
96-512
60

IL
96-512
40

IH

1024-3072
300

Verify the PMT spectrum is normal and does not indicate a defective PMT. Referto the
Calibration Example Appendix of this Calibration Troubleshooting Guide.
The following is an example of a calibration failed because of a High-Energy PMT without
a "Ghost" peak and using XR v3.1.3 Host Software.
lf, (rlibrrtion Urrson 3.1,1 98 Noecnber 9
DEIt

(ATISRATIO{

Oiscrininator

Fil,rt,ilr,

lI

(onplatr

61AJ56,1632,216

B:clgmund

Reerrnca 0err

Xrry Off
Shuttr

Lor

tltrr
ttetr. tiltrr
ltttn. iler

ftten,

llprliun

llish

0yiedc Filtntior

- ftIibrrtioa

Tm f,enainins his PhEscl 0rB8:t!0


otal line ten:ining; 0tl4t27
(Esc)

Fress
to
krnlnrtr (rlbrrtiol

(rlibrrtian

Status:

nsttT1

You can visibly see there is no "ghost' peak at the anow and the discriminator for FH is
at 610 instead within the specifications of 1024-2560. Install host software 3.9.5 or higher
if compatible with the scanner hardware, otherwise replace the high energy PMT.

Norland, a CooperSurgical ComPanY

Page 6

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

AutoSet
This is performed during the diagnostic tests for a daily and an initial calibration before
the peak spectrum is displayed, and often displays "Retrying'.
All XR46 and Excell Scanners with
the Autoset Detection section.

,i.

/.

i:

type

REFER TO THE 9005007

9N

1600 or higher have autoset hardware, or refer to

Autoset Signal Flow

- seleci

the appropriate scanner

1. The autoset information from the Host software is stored in C:XR26\Caltrace\


Autoset.trc, and Autoset.his. These file should be printed and sent to Norland for
analysis.

2.

Perform the XSST "PAutoset -R" and then print a peak to see if the peak values are
set correctly at2250 and 1 150. Refer to the 3885631 Repair Procedure for more
details on setting the discriminators. flhe XSST autoset and host software autoset are
independent and do not have shared file. Performing the XSST autoset will only aid in
determining the failure and not fix the host software error.) These values are stored in
the XR26\Service\pautoset.trc file. Make sure beam path is clear of all objects except
the tabletop.

3.

Measure the voltages on TP2 and TP3 fIP1 is ground) on the Autoset board while
PAutoset - R is running. Verify the voltages are changing. lf they are not then autoset
is not working and the wiring should be ecked. lf they are changing then check the
filters to make sure they are working conectly.

4.

Wiring:
4.1. First of all check the wire connectors on the Laser Power Supply board:
P1 Pin 4=Purple, Pin S=Brown, Pin 6=Tan
P3 Has no connector
P4 Red on Top and Yellow on Bottom
P5 Red To Left (when standing in the back of the scanner)
P6 Orange on left and Gray on Right side (when standing in the back of the
scanner)

4.2Venty the 4 connectors on the Photon Integrator Board:


4.2.1 . The two pin connector under the Photon board that connects to TPS and
P6 of the main board. Blue wire to TP5 goes towards the front of the
scanner and the green wire to TP6 goes to the back of the scanner.
4.2.2The main connector that attaches the Photon board to the main board.
Verify it is not one pin off.
4.2.3 P3- pin 1=Yellow (to the left when standing in front of the scanner), pin
2=Gray (to the right when standing in front of the scanner).
4.2.4.fhe ribbon cable on P2 goes to P9 of the Main Board. The red stripe
should match the red color dots. (To the right when standing in front of the
scanner.) Verify it is not one row off.

Norland, a GooperSurgical Company

Page 7

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

5. The peaks may be manually adjusted if autoset fails using the "PMTVOLT -ixxx -f
xxx", where xxx is the voltage values for initial (IP3) and inal (IP2). Previous values
for the scanner can be obtained from the C:D(R26\Caltrace\Autoset.his. Perform a
diagnostic peak to view the spectrum and the peak values. lf they are not conect then
adjust the voltages until 2250 and 1150 values are achieved. Measure the voltages on
TP2 andTP3, using TP1 as ground on the Autoset Board. The measured voltage
should be the same as the voltage entered in the above command.
6.

Veriff 15 volts is getting to the Laser Power Supply Board. Measure the voltages Pin 5
-Brown wire (-15v), Pin 6=Tan wire (+15) on P1 of the Laser Power Supply Board.

7. Verify the 5 volt is being generated on the Laser Power Supply Board. Measure Pin 4
of P2 of the Laser Power Supply Board.

Background
For all system the background is normally less than 10. This measurement is of the
radiation or noise being detected by the PMT's without the shutter open. lf it is hgher then
10 veriy that no other sources of radiation are close to the scanner, such as another xray device or any nuclear medicine patients or material. This may also be caused by a
bd ground connection such as the one on the upper assembly orthe source, or noisy
components such as a PMT.

Reference Beam and Filters

The reference beam is a measurement through a specific step of the metal and plastic
as determined by the software. lf this measurement fails then refer to the 3885631
Repair Procedure to perform a Source Count Rate check. The actual count rate can be
viewed in the C:XR26\CALTRACE\DIAGNOST.TRC for 4-channel scanners . For 2channel scanners the file is C:XR26\DIAGNOST.TRC. lf there are no or low counts refer
to the general Troubleshooting section of this guide. For 2-channel, make sure the
correct parameters have been selected in the Service Setup (high intensity, low
intensity). Wren the Service Setup is configured for High Speed, High lntensity the
Reference Beam count rate ranges are: High=l79,000 - 691,000 ll Low=269,000 1,058,400. The count rate range for Low Speed, High Intensity Reference Beam the
values are : H igh= 1 72,000-6 1 9,000 // Low=269,000-968,000.
lf the reference beam fails the x-ray off, then the shutter may also fail because they are
based on the reference beam measurement. But it is probably a problem with the
reference beam count rates and not the shutter.

lfjustthe shutterfails verify proper operation of the micro switch on the filter casting and
the wiring from the shutter to the main board. For more details refer to the general
Troubleshooting section of this guide. Replace the ilter assembly because the shutter
arm thickness may be too thin.

Dynamic Filtration Errors

1.

Perform the Filter Test in the 3885631 Repair Procedure. lf this fails the make sure
the board and filter are a matched set. Replace the filter assembly.

Norland, a CooperSurgical ComPanY

Page 8

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

2. lf the filter test graph is U-shaped versus the normal L-shaped

then check the

following:

\Mren the filterarm moves in and out of the beam there is an acceleration pulse sent
and then a brake pulse. lt may be that the brake pulse is not be sent and the arm is
bouncing. There are 3 separate circuits on the board - one for each arm.
FilterArm 3 - brake pulse TP12 - acceleration pulse TP13 controlled by U12.
Filter Arm 2 - brake pulse TP6 - acceleration pulse TP7 - controlled by U6.
Filter Arm 1 - brake pulse TP2 - acceleration pulse TP3 - controlled by U1.
Ground = TP16
Run the filter test from the XSST menu. Run each filter separately by entering the
filter number instead of A forAll. \Mrile the arm is moving then look at the signals on
the conesponding test point. lf possible use a dual probe attach one to the
acceleration pulse and one to the brake pulse. The acceleration pulse will lead the
brake pulse. Set the scope to 2 ms/div, and 1vldiv. The signalis about 5 volts in
amplitude and 4.5 ms. Compare the signal for the defective filter arm to the other two.

View the signal for an extra pulse on the filter arm that is failing. Also listen for the
extra click.
For the defective arm try to change the corresponding lC to see if the problem moves
to the other arm. For example if filter arm 3 is failing then change U12 (filter arm 3)
for either U6 (ilter arm 2)or U1 (filter arm 1). All the lC's are in a socket. See if the
problem moves to the other filter arm. Make sure to mark the lC's with the original
location so it can be returned to the original configuration. lf U15 (filter 3), Ug (filter2),
and U3 (filter 1) are in a socket also try to exchange them.

3.
4.

Power-cycle the computer and scanner and restart the calibration.

Make sure the Filter Motor Driver Board and filter assembly have the same serial
number. They are matched at the factory and cannot be interchanged.

5.

Verify the ground wire going to the source is securely fastened.

6.

Print the DIAGNOST.TRC, DF3.TRC, and DF4.TRC immediately afier the failure for
analysis.
For 4-channel scanners enter the following commands:
Cd\x126\caltrace
Type diagnost.trc >prn
Type df3.trc >prn
Type df4.trc >pm
For 2-channel scanners enter the following commands:
Cd\xr26
Type diagnost.trc >prn
Type df3.trc >prn
Type df4.trc >pm

7.

For 2-channel: lower the PMT gains to 3.5 Volts.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page 9

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

For 2-channel: at full power and over an open area of the table, perform the PEAK
program and record the values. Then run SNPEAK and follow the on-screen
prompts, except do not use the lead. Record the values. lf there is a difference of
approximately 40 or more, replace the low energy PMT, if lowering the gains does not
conect the failure.

9.

For 2-channel: upgrade any High Speed systems that have Main Board 3884004 to
EPROM Rev 1.3.1 to take advantage of improvements in sampling software code.

10. For2-channel, make sure the parameters have been properlyentered on the Service
Setup screen (high speed, high intensity).
1

A Mark l, Low
lntensity, Low Speed scanner must first be upgraded to a Mark ll, High Intensity, Low
Speed system before attempting a High Speed upgrade. The attenuator plug must be
removed from the well of the Lorad source.

1. For 2-channel, if an lnitial Calibration will not pass after a HS upgrade.

12.For XR26, Eclipse, and XR36 scanners with a motor driver board 387A017, verifo a
Motor Driver Board Shield is installed.

SCANNING CALIBRATION STANDARD


The origin of calibration failures can be found in a wide range of causes or a combination
of several.
During an initial or dai|y calibration when an error occurs, the software automatically
retries the failed calibration standard measurement.

For 4-channel do not terminate the calibration if the .Status" in the lower left comer
indicate "Retrying". lt will re-measure the failed steps of the calibration standard. lf it is
not successful then the Status will indicate 'Failed'.
For 2-channel do not terminate the calibration if enors are displayed in the lower lefl
corner. The software will retry the measurements. lf the retry is successful, the original
error message remains on screen and the calibration will continue. lf the retry is not
successful (i.e. the calibration has failed), the original message remains on the
calibration screen, or is updated with additional eror messages, untilthe message
'CALIBRATION ERRORS DETECTED' is displayed on the lower right side of the
calibration screen, indicating a failed calibration.

Enors will be stored in the ERRORS.TRC file. The file


C:XR26\CALTRACE\ERRORS.TRC (2-channel C:XR26\ERRORS.TRC) contains all
the error messages generated in the last calibration. lt is an ordinary text file. Enter'TYPE
ERRORS.TRC' while in the conect directory to view the file. Detailed instruction for
printing the errors is listed below.
lf a new calibration is started, the contents of ERRORS.TRC will be cleared and any new
error messages will be written to the file. For 4-channel systems a history of all the failure
is stored in the C:D(R26\CALTACE\ERRORS.HIS, and may be viewed at any time. After
a problem is fixed, Norland recommends deleting this file. To delete the file type

CDXR26\CALTRACE, press enter, type DEL ERRORS.HIS, and press enter. For 2channel scanners the history of enors is not saved.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page 0

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

Printing the Errors.trc


Printing the errors.trc is the first step to correcting a calibration failure.
lf your system has SFT 1.3.0 or later, select bn_trC from page 2 of the
XSFT menu. Make sure your printer is on and ready. This will only print 3
pages of the erors. Normally the first few enors will be the only
information that is needed.

?
?

The DOS type command may also be used to print the entire enors.trc
file.

o
o

4-channel: Type 'CDXR26\CALTRACE', press Enter, then


"TYPE ERRORS.TRC >PRN'.
2-channel: Enter "CDU(R26", then 'TYPE ERRORS.TRC >PRN'

Pass to Pass Errors


This erorwill only happen on an initial calibnation. The77 step wedge is measured four
times during the initial calibration. lf the count rate is different from pass to pass it will
display this error.
Pass to Pass Error Example
Excessive variation from pass I to pass 2.

Filter=O, Metal=3, Plastic=7, Detector=l

139765 3.96Yo
= 237495 -2.2%
counts = 242885 +l- 3.490 13444t +/- 3.66yo

Actual couttts (H/L)


Expected

Allowable

ranse =

234397

251373

t29515

139368

Explanation ofvalues:
(The filter nurnber, the metal step, and the plastic step are displayed.)
Metal=3, Plastic=7, Detector= I (Always displays I because the detectors
\Filter:O,
are stacked and not side bv side.)
(The frrst colurnn is the surn of the high energy cgunt rate frorn the final and initial tube.)
(The second colurnn is the surn of the ow energy count rate,frorn the hnal and initial tube.)

vv
(H/L) = 237495 -2.2% 139765
f

(measured corurts)Actual counts

=
Allowable range =
Expectedcounts

1.

3.96yo

242885 +l- 3.49Yo 134441 +L3.66yo


234397 - 251373 129515
139368

Veri[t the tabletop or the calibration standard has NOT been moved after marking
points A and B. Norland strongly recommends posting "Do not distu-xrays are
being emitted" signs while running the initial calibration.

2.

Perform a stability test with the source cooled to room temperature


be drifting or arcing, replace the source.

3. Perform a table test -

the source may

count rate differences at different locations will cause the

calibration to fail, level the table or make sure the cabling is secure.

4. Make sure the source fan is working or the count rates will drift.
5. Compare cold peak values to peak values after a system is warmed up to see if there
is a gain drift.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

6.

missing steps could cause the x-ray beam to be in the wrong


Perform a skiptest
location on the calibration standard. Failed skiptest could indicate a defective motor,
motor driver, main board, cabling, or something blocking the arm movement.
Another way to veriff the scanner ls not missing steps is do not move the calibration
standard or do not shut off the scanner. Terminate the current calibration. Re-enter
the Host Software. DO NOT find Table Origin. DO NOT shut off the scanner. DO
NOT initialize the system. Restart the calibration. Verify the laser is automatically
positioned over points A and B on the calibration standard. lf not, the scanner is
skipping steps. Note which axis is affected before proceeding.

Timeout Waiting for Counts


This enor can occur during a daily or an initial calibration.
Enor Example:
Tirneout waiting for counts on standard.
Filter=7, Metal=5, Plastic=0, Pass=4
:345658
Minirnurn counts
Maxirnurn tirne

(Sec)
rate

Minirnurn coullt

Actual count rate (Det

1)

:200.0
:5761 #Before Correction
: 0, 0, 0, 0 # After Correction

This means no counts are being detected. Refer to the No Counts section of the General
Troubleshooting Guide for details.

Residual Errors
This error can occur during a daily or an initial calibration. Basically it means the
measurements of the steps do not fit the polynomial equation. Verify the calibration
standard is not damaged, it is in the proper position, and sitting level on the table. Check
the PMT spectrum to verify the PMT's are good, refer to the Calibration Examples
Appendix of this Calibration Troubleshooting Guide procedure. Perform a skiptest,
stability test, ilter test, and table test. Veri[t the background counts for 4-channel
scanners are less than 12.

Correction Factors or Drift Errors


During a daily calibration there are many comparison checks.
The correction factor is dividing the current calibration values by the running average of
past calibrations or the initial. lf the values are perfectly matched then the conection
value is one. lf the difference is too great that means the count rate difference between
the cunent calibration and the running average is too great.
Drift errors are comparing the current calibration to the initial calibration. The following is
an example of an error message relating to a 2-channel drift enor:
"The counts 379800 at plastic 0, metal 0, for filter 6, low energy, have drifted 10.5%
from the reference counts 360,000. The maximum allowable is 10%'

1.

Print the C:XR26\CALTRACE\Drift.his file (2-channel C:XR26\CALDRIFT.TRC), by


selecting Xdrift from page 2 of the XSST menu, rev 1 .3.1 or higher (2-channel enter
SERVICE, the type XDRIFT). When prompted press any key to display the graph.
After the graph is displayed press P to print.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page

12

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

NOTE: lf the message appears 'lnvalid European data in ile' the CALDRIFT.TRC file
must be edited, using any type of DOS editor. This is caused by changing the date
from European to USA in host software Preferences under lhe Setup menu.
To analyze the graphs refer to the Xdrift Graphs Appendix of this Calibration
Troubleshooting Guide.

2. lf the conection factors

or drift is not severe a new initial calibration may fix the


problem. However the system should be monitored to verify the failure does not
occur in the near future.

3.

Check the PMT spectrum, stability test, and filter tests.

Limits Encountered During Calibration


During an initial calibration the system measures the tabletop. The scanner arm may
come in contact with one of the limit switches during an initial calibration. lf an enor dump
occurs (blue screen background) press enter to print the enor. lf the screen has been by
bypassed the enors are stored in the C:\XR26\ERRORS.LOG ile. To print the contents
of this file enter 'CD\)(R26" to ange to the XR26 directory, then enter 'TYPE
ERRORS.LOG >PRN'and press enter.

1. ALWAYS FIND TABLE ORIGIN AND FIND TABLE

DIMENSIONS, BEFORE AN

INITIAL CALIBRATION.

2.
3.

Verify the arm has clearance around the entire table area.
Verify the position of the Main Cable in the bottom of the scanner.
For XR26: Make sure it is positioned properly around the guideposts.

Make sure the cable is bracketed to the scanner in such a way that the Main
Cable is not restricting arm travel.

4.

Veriff the arm moves freely on the rails. Any excess friction can cause the scanner to
miss steps and encounter a limit switch. lt may be necessary to oil the rails. Do not
use any lubrication with a degreaser such as WD40. Use light machine oil such as 3
in

1.

Communication Error Displayed During Calibration


1. You will have the option to retry if this situation occurs. Select the RETRY option to
continue the calibration. The RETRY command first sends the scanner arm to locate
its origin, and then continues on with the calibration from the point where it received
errors.

2.

lf the RETRY option fails, tum off the scanner power, tum it back on, and select
RETRY again to continue.

WARNING!! DO NOT SHUT OFF THE COMPUTER


SCANNER.

3.

ONLY TURN OFF THE

lf the system still does not respond, tum the computer and scanner off. Tum the
power back on and restart the calibration process. lf errors continue to occur, refer to
the No Communication section of the GeneralTroubleshooting Guide.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page

13

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

QC SPINE PHANTOM MEASUREMENTS NOT WITHIN


SPECIFICATION
For host software 2.3 or later a measurement of the Quality Control Phantom (QC
Phantom) is part of the Daily Calibration routine. The precision and accuracy results of
this scan(s) are displayed graphically on the QA screen. Refer to the Operato/s Guide
for detailed information about the precision and accuracy wamings. lndividual QC scan
results are stored in the file C:XR26\QC.FIL, or for software versions 3.9.5 or later
C:XR26\NRLD_QC.FlL.
Also displayed is the numerical information regarding the BMC and BMD (optionalfat and
lean) values for the most recent QC Phantom scan, the average of the last 16 scans,
and the entered values.

1.

To view these files type XD_QC at the C:tr prompt. To view the fat and lean values
enterXD_QC -T.

2.

To delete any invalid scan, type XD_QC -Dxxx, where xxx is the record number of the
invalid scan.

3.

Verify the conect information has been entered into the service setup screen of the
host software. The calculations for precision and accuracy are based on these
entered values.

4.
5.

Verify a final factor has been set. Refer to the 3885631 Repair procedure for details.

6.

Verify the last 16 scans are valid. The calculations are based on the last 16 scans. lf
some of those measurements are significantly different then the precision and
accuracy for the last scan will be affected. Delete all bad values or start a new QC
file. To rename the existing file enter CD XR26 to change to the XR26 directory, for
host software revision <3.9.5 enter REN QC.FIL QCMMDD.FIL (where mmdd is the
month and day), and for host software revision 3.9.5 or later enter REN
NRLD_QC.FIL NRLDMMDD.FIL (where mmdd is the month and day).

7.

Perform a skiptest to verify proper arm movement.

Veriy the QC phantom has been placed on the table conectly and marked in the
proper order.

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page 4

r
lCalib ration Troubleshooting Guide

CALI BRATION EXAMPLES APPEN DIX

l-

peak graphs showing


This appendix will give examples of calibration screens and
such'
as
are
Oiff"*h passed or taiteO calibrations and why they

t-

XR v3.5.0 Host
The following is an example of a passing initial calibration using

t-

It[ trli*rtior,:lltrig

t'86

Jtue

softrare'

9?

IflIIIAL Cil-lgflfirl(ll

t-

Background

&ference Derr

It

l-

*fl'?:1,iff:"

0iscrininatrr,

llr:r.

Of

Shutter

PASS

P*55

p*s5

'tr{"**m,'fitter
ttra;'FiJter

?r55

&nanir Filtrarim

?{55

?5S
+455

1{dilirn

llish {tten, Filter

T
E

{alibntiea Standad fuaining This ?hrse: !t!]l


iiiit iline Xeiairdr$ S:iltl9

Scrnnisg

'l*rne

(Erc) to
prtss -(alitrrtion

TPminat!

talibrrtion'Statusi lll

l-nceil

?RORSS

using.4-channel Host software'


The following is an
print the entire peak graph.
not
does
6f-Mare
of
The Daily Clibration in ti. versin

ex

alibretion ltersion 3.5,8 05 June

9?

)AILY CALIBNSIIH

FH'FL,lll'lL --

.s,s.s,z
0iscririnator'lt,22r:1?14'177

E;;[;;;ile
_-f,eference Bean
$;i'f

36uter
ii-iien, rilter
friiin-iie.-ruter
iiiq["iti."Fitier
iiyiir-ilitiliion

PAIS
Pss
.pA55

PA5t
PAss

?i5t
Ptss

- Scrnning (alihration Standerd Iire Renaining This Phare: Q:Q:89


ioil in Refuning: B:81:tl9
Prrss (Esc) to

Ttrdnate [rlibration

[alibnton itrtus:

IN

PR[6RE55

Norland, a CooPerSurgical ComPanY

fGncerl

Page

15

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

The following is an example of an initial calibration failed because of bad Low-Energy


PMT. You can visibly see there is no high-energy peak at the anow

llt [rlibrrtion 0erslor t.l.t 8!

lloueer

Referenca Bean

PR55

Off

tA55

trry

Shutter

Pe55

l-os Atten. Filter


f{Bdiun f,ttn, FiltFr

PA55

Pes9

Hish Atteo, Filter


Oynrnic Filtntott

- telibrrtion
Tin

otal

PA55

PnsS

Cop&tr

Renaining Ths

Fhase: 8:8:80

lim Reirainins:

0:@:@

Prtss (Es to

frrinte (alibrltiott

ftIibrrtion

lTi'tin

Status:

This is an example of a bad high energy PMT. Unable to adjust it.


es.ts*.d
Dat:

!,

: ll
tun

Jut
t./lt,

t9t

eo{utF5d
!.t:

l,

ChD

trqa'Ern

! at
t/ltr

Jut

tgr

i ?ca*
ibc9e

a..Tl

q/bi
k taiirt
!/fl
Llt\
3H6
??a tr6

<!m
F*
7/lL
t t
t?a

i
:
i

Norland, a GooperSurgical Company

Page

16

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

Example of a defective high energy PMT because of the spike.

in.ly-.4

: ll
t.

lrir

lg

chrn
'./L

tgl

l.stFa
3 lt a{
a.a! t. G.i l/tl-

llt

*
lric

t/tl
ll?a

l^!
B lntiill
l,/FL l/lt
laSr
a(.a l{at

ral
tr
.tL
lgrt
t?t

c
i

lirat

t l]nla

146

.t

?al

lrla

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

Page

17

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

XDRIFT GRAPH APPENDIX

the XDRIFT program' The graphs


The following pages represent graphs printed from
are stored for each daily and initial
represent long term count rat hang"t tntt
C:XR26\CALTRACE\DRIFT'HIS for 4calibration performed. The iles are stored in the
for 2-channel scanners'
channel scanners, rno c'xnz6\cALDRIFT.TRC
certain problems during your calibration'
By the change in the graphs, Y.ou can recognize
tn" change in a graph may have several
Keep in mind when yu view these grapt
wy the graphs changed as they
causes, not just on. Th.r. may b several reasons
did.

t-

t-

troubleshooting principles
The following examples are 2-channel images' however,the
is the 4-channel graphs have 4 lines,
are the same for 4-channel. The major Jiri"no
PMT), FL (Final Low = low energy counts
FH (Finat High = nig; ; counts or the top
bottom PMT)' lL (lnitial
forthe top pMT), lH (lnitial High = the hig ilggt counts'forthe
Low = the low energy counts for the bottom PMT)

tAnalyzing the Xdrift GraPh


t^

XDRIFT EMMPLE

t^

a defective
is drifting faster than the other. The majgl c-a9se is
failure'
this
cause
pMT. A Charge nmrin.i "iO-ot Bias Board could also

one

PMT',s count rate

XDRIFT EMMPLE 2
Both PMT's are drifting lower at the same rate'
L

1.
1

gain adjustment to verify the high voltage


Defective High Voltage Board. check the
Monitor the system to verify this
has not decreased. Readjust tfre gai;i ir n"-".rt"ry.
fixed the Problem.

a Lorad source
Adding a

is most common for


2. Oil may be leaking into the source well. This
the filter casting assembly'

(source Sn',f .fdO) Check by removing


pressure, but the system must be
desiccator kit (Lorad only) may retieve some
problem'
monitored to veiity the desiccator kit fixed the

3.

change from a samarium pellet to


The filter casting may be changing characteristics'
a samarium foil filter casting assembly'
Scanners with samarium pellet filter castings:
s/N <4064
MARK I
s/N <826
MARK II
S/N <2010
MARK II HS,
s/N <3007
Eclipse

XR-30

4.

cunent due to oil contamination'


Lorad sources only: there may be internal leakage
x-ray source control board with
the
on
check by measuring between TP2 and TP24
gmA. To do this, type 'SERVICE'and then VC 100 0'' lf
the source set at 1gKeV and
be leakage cunent. Do not leave
there is more than 50mV to the source, there 'ay
than necessary' This may
the source at tufi voltage and zero cunent any longer
cause damage to the source'

Norland, a CooPerSurgical ComPanY

Page

18

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

XDRIFT EMMPLE 3

-ttlity
|ftherearespikesintheCALDRIFTgraphthismaybeduetothethermalinstabi|ityofthe
test, filter test' and check for
a
Perform
casting.
source or itter
"oiJ
wirin g'
defective/inte rmitte nt

XDRIFT EMMPLE 4
all channels' This scanner was failing daily
It appears that the count rate is unstable for
Perform a
i.it to ve5r.fu ine.,-source is stable'the
catibrations. perronri';;il-t liour stability
correct
Vrify..tfre calibration in
fitter test to verify th;iit.;are workinj'co1199tly,
iX'
'B'
on the
'A'
or
in ih" platic.and not the
mart<ing.,ine
iV
place on the tabte
problem
".
;neiit is warmed up then it may be a thermal
metat bracket. lf tne
Verify there..are not extemal environmental
that should be detected by the stability.test'
cafibration standard sit straight on
Verifythe
issues, rike power oi'nol.ii-ray oevic.
te lase.r should hit the edge of the top
the table. Use the rar.i to verify it is siiaight,
beam
rirn,ittaneously. lf it is not straight the x-ray
cover and the edge of the bottom .ou"t
to
test
table
a
p"n ar" for point 'A'' Run
could be hitting the first step instead. of lfte
count
the
if
see
1ttpgom and ilex cables to
verify the lower cable g.0 Use the
rates droP.

"t
lairy;t;.;

lI

l-

l-

Norland, a CooPerSurgical ComPanY

Page

19

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

XDRIFT EXAMPLE
64138r'1997

XR

15:53

414-563-S6Zt;

Xray Sourcc

PA'GE 61

Drlft Plot Serl,rl lt

Csrr.n drtcrTue Lpr 29 L7.17.50

1997

I .200

'-'Xlgh
"""Lw
i

--l

r .150

l. roo l-I

I
I

I
I

ol
OI

r.oso

9l
PI

ol
ol
oi

r.ooo i.|{

v-^','--\tl
.44r 'lAv
'i*,-r-n

,[[ ll
I
"'-'--".;r.,ll,i t--{rH\-A\${t
'r\r..ur

dl
ol
6l

o.rso i*-

'-i1rv..l-----

\'

't

a.ra.

*..
r \\tr,

'r'l'

0.900

/\

'r

l.-.

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I

r!,...,
. i !..

0.s50 l-.
I
I

.r
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I
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i
!
I

o.8oo

ft-.."
o

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Sncr ktl,rl Crllbrctlon

Norland, a Coopersurgical Cornpany

Page 20

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

XDRIFT EXAMPLE 2
94138/'1997

XR
I .100

15:53

Xrey Sourcc

PAGE

414-563-9626

Drft ?lot

_--

Sorirl J:

A2

Cuttent deterTuo Apr 29 l:36144

tl

L997
:

1.090
Htgh
1.o80

Le

I .070

l.060
I .050
I .040
1.o30
a

1.020

l.oto

cl
o

n
D
c

t .000
0

.990

ii .ivr
. ''' 'i"1

0.980
0.970
o.960
0.950

0.940
0.930

o.920

0.9t0
0.900

Deya SLncc

Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

lnltl-el c.lbrtl.on

Page

21

Calibration Troubleshooting Guide

XDRIFT EXAMPLE 3
g4l38lLgs7

L5t53

FA6E

414-563-962ti

Sarir1 l:

63

Currrnt drt.rTuc Apt 29 L7t24zO3 l99t

'-- Etsb
-'- Lot

q
t
!
t
!
J

t
!
!

lt

_t..
a
o

*!--_----------------J-

o9
o

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Norland, a CooperSurgical Company

C.llbrstl.on

Page 22

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

XDRIFT EXAMPLE 4

i t:ri

rr+f

s{v,rt'ii l^tvs.!.d

............ .y.i

Jtivt

8+{1.{,

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it

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I

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i'

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ird:{

* $i.ll.i

Norland, a Coopersurgical Company

.trjl.i:: r:.s:I. {14 l. }gr..r.I .(rr

Page 23

Calib ration Troubleshooting Guide

AUTOSET.TRC EXAMPLE PRINTOUT APPENDIX

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Norland, a Coopersurgical Company

Page 24