Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

1

GHRM: Motivation of Employees towards


Organizational Environmental Performance
Business Research Method
Final Report
Sania Zahid 10108014
Anum Tariq 10108019
Aroosa Manzar 10108047
Class
BSc (hons) A
Semester
Spring 2013
Due Date
01/07/2013
Submission Date
01/07/2013
Submitted to
Sir Abid Awan
Department of Management Sciences, GIFT University,
Gujranwala

Acknowledgement

Finally we have completed our project report. For this first of all we would like
to Thank ALLAH ALMIGHTY, our teachers Sir Abid Awan and Sir Hassan Jabbar
and our Parents.
We learned a lot while doing our research project. Doing research was a
great and hard working experience indeed. There were a lot of difficult
phases but our Instructors made them very easy for us by his cooperation.
Our instructors worked really hard on us and its all due to their efforts that
today we know each & every single word of research included in our course.
We would like to say thank you to them with all our heart because they made
us pure researchers because without their support we wouldnt have been
able to prepare this report.
We would like to acknowledge our C.R too because throughout the semester
he was very cooperative. We would like to acknowledge our respondents too
due to their optimist behavior while filling the questionnaires. Last but not
the least we want to acknowledge the organizations, which let us to gather
the data.

Table of Contents
1

List of Appendices................................................................................................ 4

List of Tables......................................................................................................... 5

List of figures........................................................................................................ 6

List of Abbreviations............................................................................................. 8

Introduction.......................................................................................................... 9

5.1

Problem Statement...................................................................................... 12

5.2

Research questions...................................................................................... 12

5.3

Research objectives..................................................................................... 13

Literature review................................................................................................ 13
6.1

Organizational Environmental Performance.................................................13

6.2

Employee Motivation towards Eco-initiative................................................14

6.3

Rewards....................................................................................................... 15

6.4

Performance Assessment............................................................................. 16

6.5

Management Commitment..........................................................................18

6.6

Environmental Training of the Employees....................................................18

6.7

Supervisory Behavior...................................................................................19

Conceptual Framework....................................................................................... 20
7.1

Hypothesis................................................................................................... 20

Methodology...................................................................................................... 21
8.1

Population Frame......................................................................................... 21

8.2

Unit of Analysis............................................................................................ 21

4
8.3

Time Horizon................................................................................................ 21

8.4

Study Type................................................................................................... 21

8.5

Study Setting............................................................................................... 22

8.6

Data Collection Procedure............................................................................22

8.7

Instrument Development............................................................................. 22

8.8

Sample Size................................................................................................. 22

8.9

Sampling Technique..................................................................................... 22

8.10 Data Analysis Tools...................................................................................... 22


8.11 Data Analysis Software................................................................................ 23
9

Data Analysis..................................................................................................... 23
9.1

Demographics.............................................................................................. 23

9.2

Data Screening and Cleaning.......................................................................24

9.2.1

Out of range.......................................................................................... 24

9.2.2

Missing Values....................................................................................... 24

9.2.3

Outliers.................................................................................................. 25

9.2.4

Normality............................................................................................... 25

10

Reliability........................................................................................................ 26

11

Factor Analysis................................................................................................ 27

12

Descriptive...................................................................................................... 28

13

Correlation...................................................................................................... 29

14

Regression...................................................................................................... 30

15

One sample t-test........................................................................................... 33

16

Independent Sample t-test.............................................................................. 34

17

ANOVA............................................................................................................. 35

18

Recommendations.......................................................................................... 35

19

Discussion....................................................................................................... 35

20

Conclusion....................................................................................................... 37

21

References...................................................................................................... 38

1 List of Appendices
Appendix

Name of Appendix

Page No.
A
46

Questionnaire.....

2 List of Tables
Sr. No

Table Name

Page No.
1

Demographics Analysis.24

Normality Analysis.......25

Reliability Analysis .....26

Factor Analysis....27

Descriptive Analysis... 28

Correlation Analysis....30

Regression Analysis (without Moderating Variable)..31

Regression Analysis (with Moderating Variable)31

Regression Analysis1 (with Mediating Variable) ..

32
10

Regression Analysis2 (with Mediating Variable).

.. 32
11

Regression Analysis3 (with Mediating Variable)....32

12

One sample t-test Analysis..33

13

One sample t-test Analysis.34

14

Independent sample t-test Analysis.. 34

15

ANOVA Analysis . 35

3 List of figures
S.r No.

Page No.
1

Framework..21

Theoretical

4 List of Abbreviations
GHRM

Green Human Resource Management

OEP

Organization Environmental Performance

ET

Environmental Training

EM

Employee Motivation towards Eco initiatives

SB

Supervisory Behavior

PA

Performance Assessment

Rewards

MC

Management Commitment

Sample Size

Mean

SD

Standard Deviation

ANOVA

Analysis Of Variance

Probability

df

Degree Of freedom

Correlation Pearson Coefficient

T-test Statistics

GHRM: Motivation of Employees towards


Organization Environmental Performance
Aroosa Manzar, Anum Tariq, Sania Zahid & M. Abid Awan
Gift Business School, GIFT University, Gujranwala
Abstract
Green human resource management research is as the HRM aspects of
environmental management EM are variant and piecemeal. The purpose of
the study is to check the impact of employee motivation towards
organizational environmental performance. The questionnaire was
distributed among the employees of different organizations. This paper uses
data from 70 employees related to environmental performance to check the

10

relationship between the roles of employee motivation towards


environmental management. The contribution of the paper is to review the
extent literatures and attempted to overcome the limitations and the major
factors and issues that were associated with the employee motivation
towards EM. The findings of review suggest that the understanding of how
HRM practices influence employee motivation to become involve in
environmental activities with the development of Green abilities to provide
opportunities to the employees to be involved in environmental
performance.
Key Words
Green HRM, Employee motivation, supervisory behavior,
performance assessment, rewards, Management commitment,
Environmental Training, organizational environmental performance.
Paper type

Research Paper

5 Introduction
The industrial development over the centuries has brought a huge change in
our society. It has brought us wealth and prosperity, but it has also
deteriorated our environment. Therefore, the earth is undergoing many
ecological problems. (Brown & the staff of the Worldwatch Institute, 1991,
1992, 1993; Pryde, 1991; Smil, 1994, Shrivastava, 1995).
The earth faces many environmental problems,
including global warming, ozone depletion,
deforestation and desertification, declining
biodiversity, acid rain, industrial accidents, and
toxic wastes. (Brown & the staff of the Worldwatch
Institute, 1991, 1992, 1993; Pryde, 1991; Smil,
1994, Shrivastava, 1995).

11

Governments have tried to resolve these problems through their policies and
programs but their efforts to resolve these issues are not sufficient.
Consumers and corporations should also play a role in ecological
sustainability. Consumers must be willing to consume more green products
so that it has a positive impact on our environment. But the role of
corporations is considered to be more important in economic sustainability
because they have all the resources and knowledge required to face the
economic challenges (Shrivastava, 1995).
because much economic activity occurs within
corporations, these government efforts need to be
supplemented with new voluntary efforts by
corporations in order to address the industrially
induced ecological problems (Commoner, 1990;
Landy, Roberts, & Thomas, 1990; Lee, 1993,
Shrivastava, 1995).
From studies we come to know that stakeholder pressure is also a main
reason why some companies are adopting eco-innovative policies and
seeking more advanced green management. (Ramus, Steger, 2000, Teixeira,
Jabbour, Jabbour, 2012).
Green Management refers to combining the environmental management
objectives, strategies and processes with the organizational objectives,
strategies and processes. (Haden 2009, Teixeira, Jabbour, Jabbour, 2012).

12

To date a lot has been researched regarding Green Marketing (Peattie 1992),
Green Accounts (Bebbington 2001; Owen 1992), and Green Retailing (Keehung et al. 2010) and Green Management (McDonagh and Prothero 1997),
but GHRM Green Human Resources Management is an aspect of
Environmental Management that has not been explored sufficient yet.
(Renwick, Redman, Maguire, 2013). GHRM means to align the HR practices
such as recruitment, selection, training, performance assessment and
rewards, to a companys green management objectives (Renwick et al.,
2008; Jackson et al., 2011, Teixeira, Jabbour, Jabbour, 2012). Motivation is an
employees intrinsic enthusiasm to achieve the goal. For an organization to
strongly support environmental management system, motivation of
employees is of great significance. Researchers discuss that employees must
be motivated, empowered and environmentally aware of greening in order to
carry out green management initiatives (Suhaimi,Sudin,2011). Based on the
writing review, four factors: administration commitment, worker
empowerment, plunder, and comment and review stood out as key elements
in motivating employees for enhanced environmental performance
( Govindarajulu and Daily, 2004). For an organization to become
environmental friendly, motivation of employees is of great significance.
Employees who are strongly motivated towards environmental management
their planning and activities are the key to pollution management (Denton,
1999). Motivating employees for better participation in environmental
development efforts may also need service teams. The use of team-based EI

13

programs has turn out to be a main trend. Such program is mostly popular in
built-up organizations, where developed strategies, spirited pressures, and
higher technology require shop-floor employees to take more responsibility
towards making the environment green (Magjuka and Baldwin, 1991). Lack
of motivation may outcome in employees who are reluctant to participate in
environmental management. Employees who are strongly motivated towards
environmental management their planning and activities are the key to toxic
waste management (Denton, 1999). Employees motivated towards green
environmental management take on green HR practices which in long run
will contribute to the effective accomplishment of EMS and the progress of
green Intellectual capital (GIC) and this all in order contributes to the
achievement of corporate environmental citizenship (CEC). ( Jabbour, Camen,
2011).

5.1 Problem Statement


Studies have shown that environmental training influence teams to shape to
manage the green management system. Thus, environmental preparation
provides essential information for green teams in an organization to deal
with the complexity of emerging environmental problems, issues and
opportunities. (Daily et al. 2007). However motivating employees for superior
participation in environmental improvement may require the teams of
employee empowerment in encouraging employees to actively connect in
upbeat pollution prevention efforts towards environmental management.

14

(Govindarajulu, Daily, 2004). The research gap of the study is Motivation of


employees to be concerned in EM by means of performance assessment,
reward practices and supervisory performance (Renwick, Redman, Maguire,
2013). Furthermore must be known about the employee motivation through
performance assessment and rewards and effect of supervisory behaviors
towards environmental management. The aim of this study is to research
about factors which motivate employees towards environmental
performance.

5.2 Research questions

What is the impact of performance assessment, rewards and


supervisory behaviors on employee motivation towards environmental
management?

5.3 Research objectives

To explore the relationship between rewards and employee motivation

towards eco-initiative.
To create a link between employee motivation and organizational

friendly environmental performance.


To explore the relationship between performance assessment and

employee motivation towards eco-initiative.


To find out the effect of supervisory behaviors on employee motivation
towards eco-initiative.

15

6 Literature review
6.1 Organizational Environmental Performance
Organizational environmental performance refers to performing activities in a
way that positively affect the environment. Environmental management
basically has two major objectives; firstly, to control the level of pollution in
an environment, and secondly, to upgrade the environment to an acceptable
level (Yasamis, 2011). The increase in concerns of protecting the
environment is forcing the companies to adopt the environmental
management practices (Boiral, 2006; Gonza lez-Benito and Gonza lezBenito, 2006, Jabbour, Jabbour, Teixeria, Freitas, 2012). One of the arguments
given by many researchers that favor the taking up of environmental
management activities is that it would give the company a competitive
advantage (Melynk, 2005). According to Edward (2004), there are four
reasons why organizations should adopt environmental management
practices: ethical; as its our duty to protect the world, economic; conserving
resources and energy means we save cost, legal to avoid the governmental
problems, commercial; a large number of companies are taking
environmental management into account.
Wilkinson (2001), states that Human Resources Department is very
important for environmental management. The Human Resource
management support is supposed to be most essential for adopting the EM
activities (Jackson et al., 2011; Govindarajulu and Daily, 2004; Daily and

16

Huang, 2001; Jabbour and Santos, 2008; Sarkis et al., 2010). Therefore in this
regard carefully recruiting and selecting the employees, giving them
performance based rewards and full fledge training programs are thoughtout as a strong force for motivating employees and such programs enhance
their knowledge about environmental management. ( Renwick 2008, Sudin,
2011).
Some of the big corporations of the world and particularly big companies in
India have set up commercially extensive environmental performance
standards to measure how much efficiently the companies are working for
greening the environment. The standards include 1.properly on site use of
material 2.appropriate management of wastage stock 3. Conducting
environmental audits 4. Diminution of waste material. Furthermore standards
include developing such
Information system that proves to be helpful in greening the environment i.e.
green systems and audits for collecting useful data on managerial
performance towards EM. (Mandip, 2012).

6.2 Employee Motivation towards Eco-initiative


The agenda concerning what basically motivates employees towards
environmental positive activities has become of great importance since the
beginning of the industrial revolution(Haslam, Powell & Turner, 2000). Baron
(1991, p.9) Motivation is considered to be a fundamental concern of the
modern organizational world of research. Motivating employees for

17

environmental management not only makes the company focus on negative


environmental affects it also guarantees that responsibility has been allotted
for acquiring credible environmental reputation( Morrow, Rondinelli, 2002).
(pg.162).
Following are the four factors that have been incorporated in maximizing
employee motivation regarding eco-initiatives. Firstly if the management is
strongly committed towards environmental goals then this would motivate
the employees. Secondly employees are empowered when they are involved
in decision making and empowerment in return leads to employee
motivation. Thirdly Feedback a strong monitoring force letting the
organization know how much the employees are satisfied and to what an
extent the environmental goals have been met also motivate the employees.
Fourthly rewards make the employees feel that their efforts are appreciated
and appraisal motivates them.(Govindarujulu, Daily, 2004).

6.3 Rewards
Basically rewards play a crucial role in motivating the employees and help in
identifying their significant performance in job towards environmental
management. (Danish, Usman, 2010) (pg.160)The goal of organizations for
using reward systems is to accomplish, keep and motivate employees for
performing well and realizing the importance of eco-initiatives. (Kaplan,
2005, Lindstrom, 2011). Benefits packages should be incorporated in
compensation system and employees must be rewarded after they have

18

achieved eco-initiatives (Mandip, 2012) (pg.247). For example, In Britain, ICI


has included environmental targets with their performance related pay
rewards for senior managers this results in positive environmental
performance (Snape, 1994, Renwick, Redman, Maguire, 2013) (pg.5).
Organizations are taking initiatives towards environmental performance by
practicing reward systems for improving EM performance (Renwick, Redman,
Maguire, 2013). Reward system demonstrate respect, self esteem and
recognition for the employees, it motivates them and triggers a participative
problem solving EM (Jabbour, Santos, 2008). Financial rewards and
recognition rewards are some of the forms of rewards. Monetary Rewards
seem to be the strongest pushing force for inspiring employees to play their
part in eco initiative efforts. Research shows that employee satisfaction and
work motivation are strongly affected by monetary rewards (Lawler, 1973,
Govindarajulu & Dairy, 2004). In another way some of the employees get
more motivated by appreciation from supervisors and recognition ( non
monetary rewards) than other monetary factors. Also there are anecdotal
evidence explaining that most of the businesses are taking initiatives for
beneficial environmental practices through acknowledgment. For example in
some of the countries like USA employees are being rewarded for their
innovative ideas and other beneficial environmental activities at different
levels of organizations. Activities include reducing waste, proper recycling,
attending green events and afterwards performing community services
(Mandip, 2012). Companies in United Kingdom are also practicing the same

19

fringe benefits system. Employees get rewards if they perform their job
successfully and consequently motivational factor lies in their performance
which enhances their interest regarding environmental management
(Entwistle, 1987).

6.4 Performance Assessment


Nowadays organizations are attempting to create a balance between
employee commitment and organizational performance through rewards
towards environmental management (Jiang, Xiao, Henan Qi, Xiao, 2009)
(pg.159). According to Nasud (1999), performance assessment is thought of
as a crucial factor in managing human capital of an organization and this
criterion is the most important tool that helps in bringing out an employees
extent of performance (Nasud, 1999)(pg.198). Hence, in order to keep the
employees motivated towards the environmental management of an
organization it is essential that the way the employees perform be assessed.
Likewise, Govindrajulu and Daily (2004) suggest that employees must be
provided with feedback regarding their efforts for improving the environment
or else their efforts may come to a standstill. The feedback may be provided
to employees only if the organization has a good performance assessment
structure (Govindrajulu and Daily, 2004) (pg.369). Similarly Chinnader
(2001)also emphasize that performance assessment of the employees
ensures that the employees are conscious about their tasks and such
consciousness leads to improved performance regarding EM. Performance

20

assessment creates a bridge between employee performance and rewards


system in order to determine environmental activities (Govindrajulu and
Daily, 2004) (pg.369). Programs of performance assessment are
characterized by fringe benefits and performance evaluation performance
evaluation.(Danish, Usman, 2010). These factors are strong bonding agents
of performance assessment. An example of performance assessment
program is, asking employees to come up with innovative green ideas, after
having brainstormed the ideas including them in objectives. When the
objectives pertaining to green ideas have been achieved, making it a criteria
for the assessment of performance of employees (Mandip, 2012) (pg.246).
Performance assessment concerns the need for managers to monitor EM
performance in order to wider environmental protective behaviors (Milliman
and Clair, 1996, Renwick, Redman, Maguire, 2013) (Pg.5). Studies have
shown that there are developing evidences that adopting reward system and
afterwards paying rewards on the basis of performance assessment for EM
performance results in employees disclosing successfully the environmental
problems (Renwick, Redman, Maguire, 2013) ( Pg. 5).

6.5 Management Commitment


Management commitment means creating human energy that actually
activates human mind. Because activation of energy and mind is a source of
implementing green ideas and without these green goals cannot be
accomplished (arygris, 1998). Studies have suggested that employees
participate more willingly when their supervisors adopt democratic style of

21

decision making towards environmental performance showing management


is strongly committed (Ramus, 2001, Govindarajulu & Daily,2004).
Management commitment which is committed strongly allow employees for
enhancing the time for experimentation towards environmental performance
which would ultimately increase employee motivation towards EM (Woods,
1993, Govindarajulu & Daily, 2004).

6.6 Environmental Training of the Employees


Thorough employee training is necessary for employee motivation towards
environmental improvement because the lack of training may result in
employee reluctant to participate in environmental improvement.
(Govindarajulu, Daily, 2004).As stated by the experts environmental training
has two main purposes: (1) to properly educate the employees with the
companys environmental policies (2) By altering the activities of employees
through training to built a more deliberate and stable relationship of
employees towards environment ( Sammalisto and Brorson, 2008). Following
the practices of green environmental training provide the company attain the
cost minimization and corporate image (Marshall and Mayer, 1992).
Nowadays progress in environmental management is seen to be people
oriented and it is factual that skills of employees are improved through
thorough training (Brio, 2007). According to the research conducted at Ghana
it was concluded that training is considered to have a positive impact on
employees motivation and environmental performance of the companies.
Because training performs a basic role to teach employees new skills which

22

motivate them to work in an innovative environment that will positively


influence the environmental performance of the organization (Cole, 2008).
Training could be in two forms on the job training or off the job training. Both
of the forms are beneficial because some of the employees like to get trained
on the job. While others take interest in learning off the job at separate
places. This results in good public image of the company and encouragement
of the employees to work on green environment in the best positive way
(Cook and Seith, 1992).

6.7 Supervisory Behavior


From Ramus and Stegers (2000) study consisting of 353 employees, it is
evident that supervisors supporting behaviors are crucial for motivating
employee towards environmental management. Results of their study
indicated that supervisors behavior supporting environmental management
motivated employees towards eco initiative. According to their study
supervisory support promote environmental innovation. Supervisors if
behave fairly their behavior leads to proficiency building in employees.
Communication between top to lower management should be flattened so
that environmental goals are properly communicated to all the management
levels and these factors altogether has a significant effect on employees own
willingness to participate in eco initiatives (Ramus and Steger, 2000) To
conclude, the need of the hour for the organizations is to develop such
reward systems that produce desirable eco-initiatives after a thorough

23

performance assessment of the employees ( Mandip, 2012).Moreover


environmental improvements not only benefit the society because
employees themselves can accrue many benefits from it including worker
health, reduction in negative impact on environment and environmental
health. Furthermore it should not be neglected that rewards alone can never
lead to efficient environmental initiatives rather rewards together with
performance assessment, feedback, management commitment, clear
communication and training may result in environmental enhancement
(Govindarajulu & Daisy 2004).

7 Conceptual Framework

24

7.1 Hypothesis
H1 Rewards are positively associated with employee motivation towards ecoinitiatives.
H2 The positive impact of performance assessment with employee
motivation towards eco-initiatives.
H3 Supervisory behavior has a positive impact on environmental
management.
H4 Management commitment significantly moderates the positive impact of
supervisory behavior with employee motivation towards eco-initiatives.
H5 Employee motivation leads to organizational environmental performance.
H6 Environmental training of employees mediates the positive impact of
employee motivation towards environmental performance.

8 Methodology
8.1 Population Frame
The population frame/sample frame of this study is to target environmentally
aware employees working in different organizations. We selected this
population frame because environmentally aware employees would only be
able to respond to our questions accurately. The environmental performance
of the employees are closely related to their motivation towards eco-

25

initiatives so its necessary to study that variables whether they are


positively or negatively motivate the employees towards eco-initiatives.

8.2 Unit of Analysis


In this study we concentrate on the individual employee behavior because
every employee can more clearly know their preferences regarding
motivation and can explain better that what is the impact (positive &
negative) of the variables on their motivation towards eco-initiatives.

8.3 Time Horizon


Our study is cross-sectional as we would analyze the impact of different IVs,
rewards, performance assessment and supervisory behaviors on our DV,
environmental performance of organization in a current situation.

8.4 Study Type


This study is causal as we want to check the effect of independent variables
on dependent variable.

8.5 Study Setting


In this study all the things we take for measurement are non-contrived.
Nothing is taken as fictitious or non-natural and all the steps taken as it is.

26

8.6 Data Collection Procedure


Structured Questionnaires would be used to collect the data. Well distribute
the questionnaires to individual employees and collect data from them about
our study and then analyze it through the various tools so that we can
present authentic results.

8.7 Instrument Development


The questionnaires used to inquire our respondents would be entirely
developed by us. We would develop questionnaires ourselves related to our
variables.

8.8 Sample Size


We have used a non statistical formula, an item to respondent ratio
technique to determine our sample size. Our ratio selected was 10:1 and the
total number of respondents was 250.

8.9 Sampling Technique


The sampling technique used in this study is the cluster technique. We have
divided the population according to the geographical bases.

8.10 Data Analysis Tools


To analyze our study the analysis tools used would be mean, regression and
correlation. We would use these tools to measure the impact of our IVs on
our DVs.

27

8.11 Data Analysis Software


Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 19th version would be
used to compute and analyze the data collected. We would apply our
analysis tools to the data using this software.

9 Data Analysis
For data analysis we have used Correlation Analysis and Regression Analysis,
One Sample T-Test and Independent Sample T- Test. The Pearson correlation
is used when you have two variables that are normal/scale. Correlation tells
about the strength of the relationship along with direction of relationship.
Regression is used to check the impact of IVs on DVs. It further tells us how
much the DVs will be affected by changing a unit of IVs. When we want to
check the level of variables then we will use t test. One sample t- test is
performed to check whether the sample mean is applicable on population or
not and Independent t- test is run to check the DV on a group of two
variables.

9.1 Demographics
Our total number of respondents consisted of 84.3% males and 15.7%
females. Regarding age, 51.4% respondents were below 30, 34.3%
respondents lied between the age group 30 40, 12.9% were between 40
50 years old and only 1% respondents had an age of more than 50 years. As
far as the demographic variable of work experience is concerned the

28

respondents who had an experience of less than 5 years were 57.1% and
between 5 1 0 years work experience were 28.6%. Whereas the work
experience of both the age groups, i.e. 10 15 years and more than 15 years
is 7%.

Table 1
Demographic Analysis
Variable

Perce
Category

Variable

nt

Gender

Perce
Category

nt

< 5 years
5-10 years
10-15

57.1
28.6

years
> 15 years

7.1
7.1

Work
Experien
Male
Female

84.3
15.7

Below 30
30 40
40 50
Above 50

51.4
34.3
12.9
1.4

ce

Age

9.2 Data Screening and Cleaning


The purposes of data screening and cleaning are:

To check out for the out of range values those are not defined in our

scale.
To find out the missing values in our data.
To find out the outliers in our data
To check the normality of our data.

29

9.2.1 Out of range


We ran descriptive statistics on our data and no out of range values were
found in our data.
9.2.2 Missing Values
We found out our missing values by analyzing and then selecting frequencies
from descriptive statistics. Then we treated them by taking the average of
the values and filling them in the blanks.
9.2.3 Outliers
Outliers are the values that fall out of the normal data range. There are two
types of outliers, mild and extreme. Mild outliers are denoted by a circle
whereas the extreme outliers are denoted by star. We first checked out our
existence of outliers by comparing our mean and 5% trimmed mean values
and then we checked it from table. Then we treated our outliers by adding 1
to the next frequent value. After treating the outliers we ran the analysis
again, and no outliers were found.
9.2.4 Normality
By operating the EDA (exploratory data analysis) the results of skewness and
kurtosis should lie between 1 for normality but it can never be at zero.
According to our data results for skewness and kurtosis values did lie
between 1 but in some items the values didnt lie between the required
regions so for the normality of R1, R5, SB5, EM7, and MC1 we treated those
items. Table of normality show the results of skewness and kurtosis.

30

Table 2
Normality
Ite

Skewn

Kurto

Ite

Skewn

Kurto

Ite

Skewn

Kurto

ms
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6

ess
-.097
-.671
-.524
-.168
-.127
-.170
-.212

sis
-.953
.096
-.24
.810
-.887
-.992
-.920

ms
SB1
SB2
SB3
SB4
SB5
SB6

ess
-.329
-.497
-.278
-.601
-.117
-.269
-.021

sis
-.755
-.577
-.643
-.230
-.891
-.991
-.597

ess
.059
-.602
-.815
-.459
-.454
-.442
.087

sis
-.615
-.493
.566
-.615
-.663
-.900
-.660

-.443

.069

-.059

-.615

-.336

-.235

-.532

-.414

.028

-.343

ms
ET2
ET3
ET4
ET5
ET6
ET7
OEP
1
OEP
2
OEP
3
OEP
4

-.545

-.657

-.411
-.440
-.386

-.486
-.361
-.741

-.286
-.290
-.515
-.442

-.790
-.685
.210
-.703

PA1

SB7
-.180

-.879

.173

-.972

PA2

EM1

PA3
PA4
PA5
PA6
MC1
MC2
MC3
MC4
MC5

EM2
-.404

-.533

-.367
-.272
.024

-.690
-.697
-.835

-.021
-.116
-.485
-.689

-.984
-.786
-.861
-.017

EM3
EM4
EM5
EM6
EM7
EM8
EM9
ET1

10 Reliability
Reliability is run to check whether the items of a particular variable are
related to it or not. It is run to check the consistency of the items. We check
our reliability through the value of Cronbach Alpha. The value of Cronbach
Alpha should be more than 0.60. If incase the value of Cronbach Alpha is less
than 0.60, then the item of that variable which has the highest value of
Cronbach Alpha if item deleted is deleted from the data. We have deleted

31

the R3 and PA5 items from our data in order to make it reliable. So the value
of Cronbach Alpha in these both cases, more than 0.50 is also acceptable.
Table 3
Reliability analysis (inter item consistency)
Serial

Variable

Cronbach

name
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

name
R
PA
MC
SB
EM
ET
OEP

alpha
0.526
0.550
0.596
0.646
0.635
0.660
0.746

no of items
5
5
5
7
9
7
4

11 Factor Analysis
The EFA has two assumptions which should be fulfilled in order to run the
analysis:

The value of KMO should be greater than 0.6


The score of Bartleys test significance should be less than 0.05

Table 4
Factor analysis
Serial no
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Variance

R
.605
.542
.536
.459
.771

PA
.547
.726
.536
.662
.512

MC
.795
.711
.485
.663
.410

SB
.600
.590
.530
.694
.666
.455
.464

35.047

36.287

39.624

33.537

EM
.705
.668
.278
.561
.445
.541
.348
.304
.655
27.425

ET
.277
.593
.710
.326
.718
.739
.584

OEP
.796
.761
.795
.685

34.877

57.859

32

Explained
KMO
0.56
Barttlet
.003

0.594
.001

0.654
.000

0.708
.000

0.655
.000

0.726
.000

0.702
.000

In this analysis, all the variables have KMO of more than 0.60 and the
Bartletts values are also significant.

12 Descriptive
We collected data from different organizations through questionnaires. Our
total number of respondents is 70. Minimum and maximum values show the
responses by most of the respondents. Mean is the average number of
responses while standard deviation shows how much the respondents have
deviated from the mean. Skewness and Kurtosis tell us whether the data is
normal or not. If the value of Skewness and Kurtosis is between 1, then the
data would be normal.
Table 5
Descriptive Analysis
Variable
s
R

Mean

SD

Min.

Max.

Kurtosis

5.00

Skewne
ss
.310

70

3.39

.561

2.20

PA

70

3.50

.569

2.00

4.60

-.494

.247

MC

70

3.75

.557

2.60

5.00

.310

-.634

SB

70

3.73

.525

2.57

4.71

.207

-.865

EM

70

3.74

.427

3.00

5.00

.549

-.054

ET

70

3.81

.530

2.71

5.00

.503

-.032

OEP

70

3.82

.651

2.50

5.00

.281

-.707

-.634

Note: (R= Rewards, PA=Performance Assessment, MC=Management


Commitment, SB=Supervisory Behavior, EM= Employee Motivation towards

33

Eco-Initiative, ET=Environmental Training, OEP= Organizational


Environmental Performance)
The average level OEP from 70 respondents is 3.82 and it has a standard
deviation of .651. The minimum response from LIKERT scale given by most of
the respondents is 2.50 and the maximum is 5.00. The value of Skewness
and Kurtosis also lie between 1. The value of Skewness is .281 and Kurtosis
is -.707. All other values are also interpreted likewise.

13 Correlation
Correlation tells about the magnitude and direction of the data. The
magnitude is represented by the numerical value of the Pearson whereas the
direction is shown by signs of the numerical value. Magnitude shows how
strongly or weakly are the variables related to each other. The value of r
more than 0 and less than 0.5 indicates a weak relation. The value of r more
than 0.5 but less 0.7 tells that a moderately strong relation exists and if the
value of r lies between 0.7 1 then this shows a strong relation. The value of
r between our both independent variables EM and OEP is .467** which
represents a weak positive relation with each other. The correlation values
between our other dependant variables and OEP are -.129, .035, .640**, .
562** and .609**. Rewards have a negatively weak relation with OEP.
Performance Assessment has a weak positive relation with OEP. The
Management Commitment, Supervisory Behavior and Environmental Training
have a positive moderately weak relation with OEP. All other values are also
interpreted likewise.

34

Table 6
Correlation Analysis
Variable R
s
R
1

PA

MC

SB

EM

PA

MC

.
470**
.073

.108

SB

-.004

.189

.489**

EM

-.233

.210

.406**

.549**

ET

.068

.304*

.634**

.537**

.583**

OEP

-.129

.035

.640**

.562**

.467**

.609**

Note:
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

ET

OEP

14
Regres
sion

To check the impact of IV on DV Regression analysis is conducted. We apply


regression to test the hypothesis of our study. Whether the hypothesis we
created are rejected or accepted. We check the significance value for that.
By significance we mean the p value must be less than .05. If the value if the
p value is significant than our hypothesis is accepted otherwise it will be
rejected. Beta value tells the impact of IV on DV whereas R2 tells the impact
of whole model. R2 tells the model fitness that how much independent
variable explain the dependent variable. As we had two IVs in our framework,
so we ran regression by dividing our framework into two parts. The first part

35

consisted of all the variables till EM and the second part consisted of all the
variables from EM to OEP.
The first part consisted of all the IVs i.e. R, PA, SB and a moderating variable
MC. We first checked the regression of the IVs on our DV which in this part of
framework is EM. According to Table 7, the hypothesis H1 that rewards are
positively related with EM is rejected whereas the hypotheses H2 that PA has
a positive impact on EM and H3 that SB is related to EM are accepted.
Table 7
Regression Analysis
Variable

Constant

2.432

-.279

S.E

t-value

p-value

.389

6.252

.000

.082

-3.425

.001

Hypothesis
Not
supported

PA

.217

.082

2.653

.010

Supported

SB

.401

.078

5.121

.000

Supported

Note: R2=.417, f (3,66) =15.723, P value < .05


Then we regressed our moderating variable MC on EM. The results are shown
in Table 8. As the value of changes significantly so it means that our
moderating variable is playing a role. Hence, our hypothesis H4 is accepted.
Table 8
Regression Analysis
Variable

Constant

2.839

MCSB

.064

S.E

t-value

p-value

.178

15.929

.000

.012

5.244

.000

Note: R2=.288, f (1,68) =27.503, P value < .05

Hypothesis
Supported

36

Then we checked regression of our second part of framework which


consisted of a mediating variable ET. We first checked the impact of EM on ET
and then EM on OEP. Then in the third step we checked the impact of both
EM and ET on OEP. The first step and second step answers are shown below
in Table 9 and Table 10.
Table 9
Regression Analysis
Variable

S.E

t-value

p-value

Constant

1.105

.460

2.400

.019

EM

.723

.122

5.921

.000

Hypothesis
Supported

Note: R2=.340, f (1,68) =6.600, P value < .05


According to table 10 results, the hypothesis that employee motivation
towards environmental eco-initiatives leads to organizational environmental
performance is significant. So our hypothesis H5 is also accepted.
Table 10
Regression Analysis
Variable

S.E

t-value

p-value

Constant

1.163

.616

1.888

.063

EM

.712

.163

4.353

.000

Hypothesis
Supported

Note: R =.218, f (1,68) =18.950, P value < .05


Our last hypothesis that environmental training has a mediating effect in the
relation of EM and ET has also been accepted as the value of B is positive
and significant. So our H6 is also accepted.
Table 11

37

Regression Analysis
Variable

S.E

t-value

p-value

Hypothesis

Constant

.470

.571

.823

.413

EM

.258

.179

1.441

.154

Supported

ET

.627

.144

4.341

.000

Supported

Note: R2=.390, f (2,67) =21.385, p - value < .05

15 One sample t-test


One sample t-test is applied to check the level of variables. One sample ttest tells us that either the sample average is applicable on population or
not. Our sample size is 70. The mean of the data represents the average
level of variables. It is calculated by summing up the values and dividing it
by the number of values. To check the applicability of our sample results we
run one sample t- tests. The mean response by our respondents of OEP is
3.81 with a SD of .651.
Table 12
One Sample Statistics
Variables
R
PA
MC
SB
EM
ET
OEP

N
70
70
70
70
70
70
70

Mean
3.39
3.50
3.75
3.73
3.74
3.81
3.81

Std.
Deviation
.5615
.5694
.5573
.5255
.4276
.5302
.6518

The applicability is checked through the significance value. If the value of p


< .05 then it represents the applicability of our data on the whole population.

38

Our all variables are significant which means that our data is applicable on
population. Here in the table all the variables are at significant so we can say
that results of sample are applicable on the population and if we change our
sample size the results will be same at 95% confidence level. Only 5%
variation will be in the data due to other factors of the population.
Table 13
One Sample Test
Variables

df

Sig.(2

95% Confidence

Tailed)

Interval
Lower

Upper

50.57

69

.000

3.26

3.52

PA

51.54

69

.000

3.37

3.64

MC

56.40

69

.000

3.62

3.89

SB

59.51

69

.000

3.61

3.86

EM

73.28

69

.000

3.64

3.84

ET

60.18

69

.000

3.68

3.94

OEP

49.14

69

.000

3.67

3.98

16 Independent Sample t-test


Independent sample t- test or two sample t-test is performed on an
independent group. The test will be use only when we want to compare 2
groups on a single variable. For the purpose of using independent sample ttest we have to fulfill its assumption of normality of data and Levene test as
well. The data should be normal and Levene test should be insignificant. The
insignificance of Levene and the significant p value tells us that the overall
sample results are applicable on our population. If the p value is not

39

significant, then the results are not applicable on population and we apply
Mann Whitney Test. In the below mentioned results, the value of Levene is
insignificant and p value is significant, so the results are applicable on the
population.
Table 14
Comparison of gender on variables
Variables
EM
Male

Mean
3.68
4.07

S.D
.403
.422

t
-2.88

Levene
.551

Sig.
.005

Female

17 ANOVA
Generally an independent sample test is performed when we want to check
the effect of two groups of a variable on a DV whereas ANOVA is done when
we want to check the effect of a variable consisting of more than 2 groups on
another variable. We wanted to check the effect of age on our DV EM but we
could not run EM as our one group consisted of only one response. So we
checked it through independent sample t test. For this, the Levene should be
insignificant and the p value should be significant. As our assumptions are
fulfilled, so our results are applicable on population.
Table 15
Comparison of age on variable employee mo tivation towards ecoinitiatives.
Variables

Mean

S.D

Levene

Sig.

40

EM
3

<=

3.5
3.78

.352
.427

-2.008

.425

.049

>3

18 Recommendations
A study on relationship between employee motivation and environmental
training should be conducted in lieu of GHRM from the employees of
corporate world. A study on association between Employee empowerment
and employee motivation should be conducted with respect to GHRM in the
industrial world.

19 Discussion
Our H1 has been rejected which states that reward are positively associated
with employee motivation towards eco-initiatives. It is not necessary that an
employee feels satisfied with the rewards. Sometimes employee shows his
commitment because of the salary package or sometimes the environment
of the organization satisfies the employee more than the rewards.
Sometimes employees are discriminated on the basis of rewards thats the
reason rewards not always motivate the employees.
Our H2 has been accepted which states that the positive impact of
performance assessment with employee motivation towards eco-initiatives.
Because when they employees know that their work is being assessed they
work with more dedication which leads to motivation towards environmental
performance.

41

The hypothesis that supervisory behavior leads to employee motivation is


justified as that if the supervisor is determined to implement the
environmental policies then only an organization would be able to achieve
environmental performance. The employees in the organization follow what
their supervisors do. If the employees are aware of the fact that their
supervisor follows environmental policies then they would also be motivated
towards environmental motivation.
Our H4 has been accepted as the management commitment play
significantly role to make the supervisory behavior to motivate the
employees toward environmental performance. And the management
committed the employees to perform their activities more effectively and
efficiently to create the Green environmental in the organizations so this has
positive impact to motivate employees towards organizational environmental
performance
Our H5 has been accepted which states EM Leads to OEP. It is because when
employee would be motivated they would work proficiently for the
environmental. Motivated employees would come up with green ideas and
afterwards implement them which lead to organizations friendly
environmental performance.
Our H6 has been accepted which states that environmental training of
employees mediates the positive impact of employee motivation towards
environmental performance. It is because training of the employees makes

42

them knowledgeable about the environmental activities and they get


motivated.

20 Conclusion
As our topic was related to GHRM, the HR managers should implement this
study in order to develop and organization which has an environmental
performance. The employees are more motivated towards EM through PA
and they are motivated if the management is also committed towards the
implementation of environmental policies in the organization. Moreover this
study has shown that even if the employees are motivated towards
environmental management then also they require training in order to
implement those policies. Because if they employees are motivated towards
environmental acts, but they have no knowledge about it or the organization
doesnt have environmental policies then the organization environmental
performance would not be achieved.

43

21 References
Barnes,P.(1996). Improving worker performance. Journal Of B&E Review 24-8
Brio,J.,and Junquera,B.(2007). Management and employee involvement in
achieving an environmental action based competitive advantage.
International Journal Of Human Rsource Management 18, 491-522
Chaudhary,N., and Sharma,B. (2012). Impact of employee motivation on
performance (productivity) In private organization. International Journal Of
Business Trends And Technology 9
Danish,R. Impact of rewards and recognition on job satisfaction and
motivation: An empirical study from Pakistan.International Journal Of
Business Management 5, 2
Devadaas,R.(2011). Employees Motivation in Organization An integrative
literature review. International Journal Of Sociality And Economics
Development 1
Flejszman,A.(2009) Benefits of environmental management system in polish
companies compliant with IS0 14001. Journal Of Environmental Studies 18,
411-419
Govindarajulu, N., and Daily, B. (2004). Motivating employees for
environmental improvement. Journal of Industrial Management & Data
Systems 104, 364-372

44

Jabbour, C.,and Santos, A. (2008). The central role of human resource


management in the search for sustainable organizations. The Journal Of
Human Resource Management 9, 2133-2154
Jabbour,C.(2013). Environmental Training in Organizations: From a literature
Review to theoretical framework. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 12
Jabbour,C.,Jabbour.L., and Freitas,S.(2012). Environmental development in
Brazilian companies: The role of human resource management.Journal Of
Environmental Developemnt 137-147
Mandip,G,. (2012). Green Hrm: people management commitment to
environmental sustainability. Research Journal Of Recent Sciences 1, 244252
Milliman,J.,and Clair,J.(1996). Best environmental Hrm practices in the U.s In
Wehrmeyer, Greening People:Human Resources and Environmental
Management. Journal Of Green Leaf Management 49-73
Perron,G.(2006). Improving environmental awareness training in business.
From The Journal Of Cleaner Production 16, 551-562
Ramus,C.(2002). Organizational support for employees: Encouraging
Creative ideas for environmental sustainability. California Managament
Review 43, 151-164

45

Ramus,C., and Steger, U. (2000). The role of supervisory support behaviours


and environmental policy in employee Eco.Initiatives at leading-edge
European Companies. Journal of academy of Managemnt 43, 605-643
Renwick,C., and Camen,M. (2011). State-of-the-Art and Future Directions for
Green HumanResource Management.Introduction to the Special Issue.
German Journal Of Research In Human Resource Management 25, 99-116
Renwick, D., Redman, T.,and Maguire, S. (2013). Green human resource
management a research and review agenda. International Journal Of
Management 5, 1-14
Russo,M.(2005). Organizational Design and environmental performance:
clues from Electronics industry. Academy Of Management Of Journal 48, 583593
Russel,S. (2008). The role of emotions in driving pro.environmental
behaviours. Journal Of Managing Emotions In Workplace 83-107
Savely, S., and Delclos, G.(2006). An environmental management system
implementation model for U.s colleges and universities. Journal of Cleaner
Productions 15, 660-670
Teixeira,A.,Jaboour,C., and Jabbour,A. (2012). Relationship between green
management and environmental training in companies located in Brazil: A
theoretical framework and case studies. Journal Of Career 140, 318-329

46

Theyel,G.(2000). Management practices for environmental innovation and


performance.International Journal Of Production And Operation Management
20, 249-266
Yasamis, F., (2011). Economic instruments of environmental management.
Journal of academy and ecology of environmental sciences 2, 97-111
Zutshi, A., and Sohal, A. (2000). Adoption and maintenance of environmental
management system(critical success factors). Journal of Human Resource
Management 399-419

Appendix
Items
Rewards

Measurement
My organization has a good
reward system.
Establishing performance targets
based on training needs results in
improved environmental practices.
Rewards based on performance
enhance my efficiency.
My organization provides me both,
monetary and non-monetary

47

rewards.
Rewards in my organization are
based on the achievement of
environmental goals.
My organization practices rewards
after competion of every task.
My organization has a good
reward system.
Establishing performance targets
based on training needs results in
improved environmental practices.
Rewards based on performance
enhance my efficiency.
My organization provides me both,
monetary and non-monetary
rewards.
Rewards in my organization are
based on the achievement of
environmental goals.
My organization practices rewards
Performance Assessment

after competion of every task.


My organization conducts
performance assessment.
My company has a good
performance assessment
structure.
My company's performance
assessment criterion is fair and
just.

48

Performance assessment helps me


performing in a better way.
My organization assesses my
performance based on
organizational environmental
goals.
My performance depends upon
the person conducting the
Management Commiment

performance assessment.
My organization's management is
committed towards protecting the
environment.
The management of my
organization is committed towards
controling the activities that cause
harm to the environment.
Top management of my company
is committed towards
implementing enviromental rules
and regulations based on ISO
140001.
Management is commited towards
creating an eco-friendly
enviroment withiin the
organization.
Monitoring environmental
activities (recycling, waste

49

reduction, pollution emission)


increases management
Supervisory Behaviour

commitment.
I can disagree with my manager or
supervisor on work related issues
without fear.
Supervisors encouragement
regarding innovative ideas
enhances my capability.
I have opportunities to socialize
with my supervisor.
My supervisor assigns work fairly.
I expect my supervisor to praise
me publically.
My supervisor helps me develop
my environmental management
skills.
My supervisor selects candidates

Employee Motivation

based on environmental criteria.


I will be more motivated if I know
company's mission towards
environmental management.
Moral responsibility to protect the
environment motivates me.
Including environmental
dimensions in job description
would motivate me.
Take a genuine interest by
organisation in employees work-

50

life balance motivates me.


Creating a work environment that
encourages employee
engagement motivates me.
Effectively communicate the
organisation processing towards
achieving goals motivates me.
Give employees opportunities for
personal growth motivates me.
Make employees feel that they are
doing something meaningful
motivates me
My ideas if seem to be counted
Employee Training

motivates .
Employee training and
development programs help with
employee retention.
provide time for learning and
allow for practice of new skills onthe-job create green environment.
In house/ on the job training
results in best environmental
practices.
Off the job training contributes
more towards organizations green
environment.
Insufficient training may result in
poor environmental practices and

51

de-motivation.
Establishing performance targets
based on training needs results in
improved environmental practices.
Employee training and
development programs help with
Organization Environmental

employee retention.
Environmental Performance

Performance

results in improved
competitiveness of my company.
Organization environmental
performance enhnces my
company's image.
My company's environmental
performance leads towards
economic improvement.
Environmental Performance
increases my knowledge.