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Introduction

Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned


with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or
employment. The goal of occupational safety and health programs is to foster a safe
and healthy work environment. As secondary effects, OSH may also protect coworkers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities,
and other members of the public who are impacted by the workplace environment
as well as reduce medical care, sick leave and disability benefit costs. OSH may
involve

interactions

medicine, occupational

among

many

(or

subject

industrial)

areas,

including occupational

hygiene, public

health, safety

engineering / industrial engineering, chemistry, health physics and ergonomics.


A company is committed to developing and maintaining the highest practicable
standards of occupational health, safety and welfare management. Through
teamwork, and in partnership with employees, clients and contractors A company
will work to meet legislative requirements and through continuous improvement
achieve best practice standards[1].
Through continuous improvement our goal is to create an environment and culture
where all employees, and non-employees who work with us, can reasonably expect
to be free from injury and illness. Through consultation, the sharing of ideas and
mutual respect and understanding we will continue to build on our culture of safe
working practices.
A company leadership team believes that the safety and welfare of employees,
contractors, clients and visitors is a prime business concern. It is an integral part of
every day business operations and our decision making process.
The leadership team are committed to ensuring we, as a company, have sound
health, safety and welfare practices in place. These practices are supported by local
OH&S policies and procedures that provide guidance for us to ensure we meet our
OH&S commitments on an ongoing basis.
Occupational health, safety and welfare are a shared responsibility and require
constant awareness and input from all levels of A company employees. We all have
the opportunity on a daily basis to ensure we support OH&S practices.

As the Responsible Officer, I ask that you support this goal by ensuring you take
reasonable care to avoid accidents to yourself and others by following our OH&S
procedures[2].

Purpose of the OH & S Policy & Procedures


A company Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Policy & Procedures has been
developed

to

assist

company

managers

and

employees

improve

their

understanding and management of OH&S in their workplace.


The OH&S Policy & Procedures provides practical information and guidance in how
managers and employees can work together to achieve a safe and healthy work
environment. Using the Policy & Procedures will assist to attain compliance with:

Relevant statutory legislation and codes of practice


Company policies and workplace standards
Common law duty of care
Recognised OH&S best practice

The processes outlined in the OH&S Policy & Procedures are designed for use as
integral components in operating the business to its maximum potential. An
organised approach to OH&S management is an essential contributor to ensuring
the staff, contractors and clients can do business safety[3].
The primary responsibility for ensuring OH&S standards are implemented within A
company is with the Responsible Officer (CEO), Company Directors, and the
Management Team. However, all employees and contractors have responsibilities in
creating a safe work environment.
A company places an emphasis on pro-active hazard and risk management to
eliminate or minimise workplace incidents and injuries. Effective hazard and risk
management leads to measurable improvements in workplace safety with
subsequent increases in productivity and profitability.
The OH&S Policy & Procedures should be used as the basis for establishing a
workplace hazard and risk management program. It is essential that managers and

employees consult together to develop OH&S plans that meet the standards
contained in this manual.
This health and safety policy will be reviewed each year, in consultation with
employees, using established consultative mechanisms, and revised as necessary
to keep up to date with new legislation and company changes[4].

OH & S Framework

Promptly and effectively dealing with occupational injury and ill health by

managing occupational rehabilitation programs


Providing adequate welfare facilities for employees

Employee responsibilities
Employees have a responsibility to take care of their own health and safety and for
that of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions. Employees
are required to:

Perform their work in a safe manner


Ensure by their actions they do not put at risk the health and safety of other

employees, temporary staff, contractors, visitors and clients[5]


Cooperate with management in the implementation of OH&S initiatives
Participate in rehabilitation programs
Report workplace hazards immediately to their manager
Report any incidents or injury which occurs at, or in connection with, their

work.
Complete an incident or accident report form within 24 hours of any incident
or injury incurred.

OH & S Roles & Responsibilities


Overview
A company has obligations placed upon it to provide a safe and healthy workplace
environment for all employees and others, due to the legal, moral and business
implications of non-compliance with OH&S legislation, codes of practice and

company standards. Therefore, all A company managers and employees have a


significant role to play in the provision of a safe and healthy work environment.
Benefits
Assigning specific roles and responsibilities to those involved at the workplace will
help ensure that A company aims are realised. Flow on benefits will include a
reduction in workplace hazards and risks, leading to the minimisation of injury.
Roles and Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the organisation positions and groups involved in OH&S are
listed below.
In addition to the above specified roles and responsibilities.

Roles
Company Directors

Responsibilities
Directors have the overall responsibility for the health and
safety of all employees within the company. Directors need
to ensure
appropriate OH&S management systems are in place and
that

Chief

Executive

these systems comply with the relevant OH&S legislations


The Chief Executive Officer (Responsible Officer) is

Officer

responsible for ensuring the business complies with the

Responsible Officer

OH&S legislation.
Ultimate responsibility for ensuring that Valuation Exchange
Pty
Ltd meets (or exceeds) its corporate responsibilities lies with
the
CEO. This includes:

Ensure the business complies with OH&S legislation

and provides a safe and healthy workplace


Ensure
the
organisations
overall

planning

incorporates health and safety. Provision adequate

human and financial resources to establish and

manage management systems and programs


Monitor performance across the organisation and
recommendation and/or implement corrective action

Management Team

as required
Provide commitment, direction and leadership to Team
Leaders and employees to empower them to achieve and
maintain a safe and healthy work environment.

Consult with leaders to ensure OH&S plans are

accounted for in business operating plans.


Establish and maintain OH&S standards

performance measures with leaders.


Allocate sufficient resources for the practicable

and

ALL

elimination of workplace hazards and risks.


Receive and consider reports on OH&S performance.
Ensure OH&S audits are undertaken and deficiencies notes

Team Leaders

and corrected.
Ensure employees are provided with proper information,
instruction, training and supervision to enable them to
perform their work in a safe manner.

Communicate and consult with employees and/or,


health

and

safety

representatives

and

OH&S

committee.
Identify, assess and control workplace hazards and

risks.
Report, record and investigate incidents and injuries.
Supervise and monitor the rehabilitation in
partnership with the Return to Work Rehabilitation

Coordinator of injured employees


Maintain appropriate OH&S records
Undertake workplace inspections using General

Workplace Hazard Identification Checklist


Actively participate in OH&S issue resolution with

employees
Report to Management Team on OH&S performance

and procedure improvements


Cooperate in OH&S audits

and

correct

notes

Health and Safety

deficiencies
Assist Managers in the resolution of heath and safety

issues
Participate in A company OH&S committee meetings

on a rotating basis
Act as a communication point for staff on OH&S

Representatives
(HSR)

matters and escalate to Management team or the

OH&S committee if necessary


Provide input on OH&S issues to the OH&S committee
and their leaders in their area

OH & S Consultative Roles and Responsibilities


OH&S Consultative Process
A company recognises the contribution employees have made and continue to
make in maintaining a safe and healthy work environment. By drawing on employee
knowledge, experience and ideas and encouraging employee participation and input
effective OH&S management systems can be enhanced and maintained in
consultation with Leaders. Consultation within A companytakes a number of forms
and includes one or a combination of the following:

Inclusion of OH&S on the agenda at meetings


Inclusion of employee consultation in project objectives where changes in

the work environment or work practices may affect health and safety
Employee surveys, focus groups or other feedback mechanisms that may be

developed and utilised from time to time


The formation of OH&S consultative

teams,

committees

and

or

representatives
At all times the arrangements for consultation will address the requirements of the
relevant state Occupational Health and Safety legislation[6].
The responsibilities of the parties involved in OH&S consultative structures are
described below.
Roles
Leaders/HSR/RTW

Responsibilities
Formulate OH&S and injury prevention strategies for

RC/
OH&SC

OH&SC

HR Manager

implementation within Valuation Exchange Pty Ltd


Monitor the effectiveness of such strategies, design and implement

improvement strategies
Provide professional consultancy and support to the

business
Resolve OH&S issues raised by HSR that cannot be

resolved by their leader


Assist in the resolution of OH&S concerns raised by staff

in local workplaces
Agree on implementation plans for OH&S programs and

monitor impact to the workplace


Provide employee feedback on existing or proposed

OH&S initiatives
Provide consultation regarding implementation of OH&S

strategies at company
Provide commentary

on

state-wide

developments

affecting the health and safety of the A company

Team Leaders

workplace
Advise on the health and safety implication of new

business initiatives
Advise on initiatives proposed to provide healthy and

safe workplaces Australia Wide


Provide employee feedback on existing or proposed

OH&S initiatives
To establish and

support

appropriate

and

agreed

mechanisms for consultation where changes to work


practices and/or procedures may have a direct impact
on the health or safety of employees working in the

area
Provide sufficient time and resources to the OH&SC and

HSR to undertake their role


Address OH&S issues and feedback raised or provided

by employees
Demonstrate that health and safety issues have been
considered in

Employees

workplace and task design phase where possible


Participate in the consultative mechanisms developed for their
area

of work and provide constructive and meaningful input to assist


in
establishing

and

maintain

safe

and

healthy

working

environment

Workplace Hazard Management


Hazard Management
A hazard can be defined as something that has the potential to cause harm, injury
or damage people or property. A company recognises that the identification,
assessment and control of hazards within the workplace is a key factor in creating
and maintaining a safe and healthy working environment.
Primary responsibility for workplace hazard identification, assessment and control
rests with Leaders. Through the effective management of hazards leaders can
significantly reduce the number and the severity of work related injuries and illness
thereby reducing the impact to both employees[7] .
Hazard management is a fundamental element of an effective workplace
occupational health and safety management system designed to comply with OH&S
legislation. Identifying, assessing and controlling workplace hazards and risks
promptly will eliminate or reduce the likelihood of their causing harm to employees
who could become exposed to them. This document provides guidance to managers
and employees in regard to:

Methods to hazard identification


Risk assessment
Risk control measures (using hierarchy of controls)

Controlling Workplace hazards


Workplace hazards arise as a result of the activities performed, equipment used and
the physical and environmental conditions of the workplace.
The factors that create hazards can best be controlled by managers and employees
at the workplace. Therefore managers and employees must be equipped with

adequate knowledge, skills and an understanding of the application of simple


hazard management techniques in relation

Malaysia
In Malaysia, the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) under the
Ministry of Human Resource is responsible to ensure that the safety, health and
welfare of workers in both the public and private sector is upheld. DOSH is
responsible to enforce the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and the Occupational
Safety and Health Act 1994.

Hazard Assessment
Hazard analysis or hazard assessment is a process in which individual hazards of
the workplace are identified, assessed and controlled/eliminated as close to source
(location of the hazard) as reasonable and possible. As technology, resources, social
expectation or regulatory requirements change, hazard analysis focuses controls
more closely toward the source of the hazard. Thus hazard control is a dynamic
program of prevention. Hazard-based programs also have the advantage of not
assigning or implying there are "acceptable risks" in the workplace. A hazard-based
program may not be able to eliminate all risks, but neither does it accept
"satisfactory" -- but still riskyoutcomes. And as those who calculate and manage
the risk are usually managers while those exposed to the risks are a different group,
workers, a hazard-based approach can by-pass conflict inherent in a risk-based
approach.
Risk assessment
Modern occupational safety and health legislation usually demands that a risk
assessment be carried out prior to making an intervention. It should be kept in mind
that risk management requires risk to be managed to a level which is as low as is
reasonably practical.
This assessment should:

Identify the hazards

Identify all affected by the hazard and how

Evaluate the risk

Identify and prioritize appropriate control measures

The calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the harm being
realized

and

the

severity

of

the

consequences.

This

can

be

expressed

mathematically as a quantitative assessment (by assigning low, medium and high


likelihood and severity with integers and multiplying them to obtain a risk factor), or
qualitatively as a description of the circumstances by which the harm could arise.
The assessment should be recorded and reviewed periodically and whenever there
is a significant change to work practices. The assessment should include practical
recommendations to control the risk. Once recommended controls are implemented,
the risk should be re-calculated to determine of it has been lowered to an
acceptable level. Generally speaking, newly introduced controls should lower risk by
one level, i.e., from high to medium or from medium to low.

Conclusion

We Can conclude that Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and
maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of
workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from
health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their
employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and
maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his
physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of
work to man and of each man to his job
The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: (i) the
maintenance and promotion of workers health and working capacity; (ii) the
improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and
health and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a

direction which supports health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a
positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the
undertakings. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a
reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned.
Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy,
principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the
undertaking."

References
1. Health and Safety Executive (2009): A Guide to Safety and Health Regulation
in Great Britain. 4th edition. ISBN 978 0 7176 6319
4, http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/web42.pdf.
2.

Danish government web page How a good working environment is secured


in Denmark, http://www.nyidanmark.dk/en
us/Integration/online_danish/working_in_denmark/occupational_safety_and_h
ealth_at_the_workplace/how_a_good_working_environment_is_secured_in_den
mark.htm.

3.

English web pages of the Danish Working Environment


Authority, http://arbejdstilsynet.dk/en/engelsk/wea.aspx

4.

The inspection results can be found from the main page of the Danish
Working Environment Authority at: http://arbejdstilsynet.dk/da/ under the
heading Smiley Status. See
alsohttp://arbejdstilsynet.dk/en/engelsk/inspection/smiley-26-6-07.aspx.

5.

Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.

6.

About NIOSH. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.

7. Occupational Disease Control Act of the People's Republic of


China" http://www.gov.cn/banshi/2005-08/01/content_19003.htm