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SOME HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

(PLATES XLI-XLIV)
GEORGE C. MILES
Probably the only hope of assigning approximate dates to the,
various types of Ugancii attri samcenati, or bezants of Arab type,
issued by the Crusaders previous to A.D. 1251, and of localizing the
mints at which they were struck, lies in the cumulative evidence of
well documented hoards.1 Unfortunately very few hoards of these
gold coins, whether well documented or not, have hitherto been
published.2 This contribution to the problem summarizes the con^
tents of the published hoards and describes some new ones. The only
published hoards, so far s I know, are the following:
1 A hoard (evidently) found in the excavations of Emmaus elQubeibeh and environs (northwest of Jerusalem), published by
P. Bellarmino Bagatti in J monumenti di Emmaus el-Qubeibeh e dei
dintorni (Pubbticazioni dello Studium Biblicum Franciscanuin, No. 4).,
Jerusalem, 1947, pp. 159-160,165. The lot contained eight imitations
of al-mir (nos. 70-77), all of the type of B & Y 27. Seven obverses
and one reverse are illustrated in pl. 46. Several have points above
the elongated dd's and sd's of the "mint-date" formula. Found with
these saracenati, or at least in the same trench ("vano" 43), were
seven cuttings of gold coins with Latin legends (nos. 60-66, also
1 The most recent, and definitive, classification of Crusader coins of Arab type is .
to be found in an article by P. Balog and J. Yvon entitled "Monnaies
legendes arabes de l'Orient Latin," in RN 1958, pp. 133-168 (hereinafter
abbreviated B & Y). In general the numeration of types employed by Balog
and Yvon will be used in the description of the coins listed in the present
article.
2 Philip Grierson's statement in ANSMN 6 (1954), P- I 7 I > n - 8, to the effect
that the "B-T" bezants {B & Y types 13-16) are "found in hoards of too late a
date (mid-i3th Century) to justify" their attribution to Bohemund of Antioch
while Tancred was acting s regent, implies a knowledge of hoards of bezants
other than those listed here. Mr. Grierson's recollection is undoubtedly correct
but such hoards appear not to have been published. Balog and Yvon (op. cit.,
pp. 140-141) repeat Grierson's statement.

189

190

GEORGE C. MILES

illustrated in pl. 46 and here Plate XLIII), similar to those in hoard


no. 9, below. None of the coins shows any sign of wear.
2. A lioard reconstructed by Philip Grierson in "A rare Crusader
bezant with Christus vincit legend," ANSMN 6 (1954), p. 174. The
integrity of this hoard is by no means certain. It is reported to have
contained at least 31 coins: eight of B & 5 ; nine of B & Y 14;
three of B & Y 15; six of B & Y 27; four of B & Y 40; and one of
Agnus D ei type. The two coins of this hoard in the ANS show no
signs of wear.
3. Another much more doubtful "hoard", consisting of only three
pieces and also reconstructed by Grierson (loc. dt.}: one of B & Y 14;
one of B & Y 40; and one of Agn-us Dei type.
4. A hoard of 41 pieces acquired by the American Numismatic
Society (acc. no. 57.114), said by the Beirut dealer from whom it was
purchased to have been found in Lattaqiyah (Laodicea). This hoard
was published by Balog and Yvon in ANSMN n, (1964), pp. 295301, "Deux tresors de monnaies d'or des Croises." It consisted of:
nve Ftimid dinars of al-mir struck at Misr, al-Mucizziyah alQhirah and al-Iskandariyah, ranging in date from 508-518 H./A.D.
1114-1124; 12 of B & Y 25; thirteen of B & Y 27 and 30; and eleven
imitations of Sulayhid dinars of Yemen, dated "451 H./A.D. I059.3
None of the ^coins in this hoard shows any sign of wear.
5. A hoard of 15 pieces acquired by the American Numismatic
Society (acc. no. 59.203), of unknown provenance. This hoard also
was published by Balog and Yvon in ANSMN u (1964), pp. 301302. It consisted of: ten of B&Y 25; ftve of B & Y 27 (with some
combinations of B & Y 25 and 27 obverse andreverse types). None
of the coins shows any sign of wear.
These are, to my knowledge, the only published hoards containing
saracenati. To this list now may be added five more: one in the possession of a European collector, three in the collection of Dr. Paul
Bedoukian, and one recently acquired by the American Numismatic
Society.
3 1 suspect

that these imitations are eventually to be classed s Crusader coins.

HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

191

6. The hoard in the possession of a European collector consists of


24 pieces and is said to have been found near Aleppo. The owner h s
kindly permitted me to examine photographs which have enabled nie
to summarize the contents s follows: one Ayybid dinar of al-'Aziz
'Uthmn, struck at al-Qhirah in 594 H./A.D. 1197-8; eight of B & Y
20 (simulated date "506"); seven of B & Y 25; eight of B & Y 27
(several varieties). The weight of the Ayybid dinar is 5.41 gr. (!);
the weights of the Crusader pieces rnge between 3.38 and 3.98
grams.4 To judge by the photographs the coins are virtually uncirculated.
Fll descriptions follow of the three hoards owned by Dr. Bedoukian, to whom I am greatly indebted for permission to publish
them, and of the hoard recently acquired by the American Numisniatic Society.
7. Bedoukian hoard A:
Nine specimens, all imitations of dinars of al-mir. Provenance
unknown.
1-4. Imitations of Misr, 506 H., ending ^>- "& ^.^& The letters
dd and sd of ^ J and j#j* take the form . All specimens of
identkal obverse and reverse dies. Cf . B & Y 20.
1. 22 mm., 3.83 gr. ~>(PLATEXLI, i)
2. 22 mm., 3.96 gr. >
3. 22 mm., 3.91 gr. -
4. 22 mm., 3.92 gr. ->
5. Imitation of Misr, 516 H., reading:
s
P C-* ^^aC JI SOA <*-? *<~ Cf . B & Y 20.
22 mm., 3.93 gr. 4, (PLATE XLI, 2)
A. S. Ehrenkreutz in his article "Arabic dmrs struck by the Crusaders,"
in JESHO 1964, pp. 167-182, does not give the weights of the 55 saracenaii
on which he bases his analysis of the fineness of these imitations (all but three
below 85% fine), but I have found that the saracenati seldora reach 4 grams,
most are 3.8 and below, and many weigh s little s 3.4 and 3.5.
4

192

GEORGE C. MILES

6. Well formed characters but latter part of mint-date foramla


meaningless: 4JU-.?- j 4~**J * ebJI 1JU <^j^> ^>-J\i *~>*
Cf. B & Y 23-24.
22 mm., 3.74 gr. | (PLATE XLI, 3)

7. Reasonably well formed letters but most of the legends unintelligible. Type of B & Y 26.
2i mm., 3.95 gr. | (PLATE XLI, 4)
8. Heavy, debased letters, long exaggerated dd and sd. Type of
B & Y 27b.
23 mm., 3.53 gr. - (PLATE XLI, 5)
9. Similar to no. 8, but > beneath
Type of B & Y 29.
23 mm., 3.53 gr. - (PLATE XLI 6)
Several of the coins in this hoard are weakly struck but there are
practically no signs of wear.
8. Bedoukian hoard B :
Fifteen specimens, all imitations of dinars of al-mir. Said to have
been found in a small village near Tyre in December 1965.
1. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending 4 L- ZC**> 4^. Cf. B & Y 20.
22 mm., 3.87 gr. f (PLATE XLI, 7)
2. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending *, 4JLJ- C~* 4^.. Cf. B & Y 20.
22 mm., 3.78 gr. / (PLATE XLI, 8)
3. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending jJLUw?- \* 4^. Annulets at 4
and 8 o'clock in double border enclosing inner margin. Cf . B & Y 20.
23 mm., 3.85 gr. \E XLI, 9)
4. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending 0 C~*> 4X-*. Cf . B & Y 25.
23 mm., 3.71 gr. \E XLI, 10)
5. Similar to no. 4, same obverse die, different reverse die.
22 mm., 3.85 gr. 4, (PLATE XLI, n)

HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

193

6. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending 41* L*. Leiters dd and sd


take the form: . Cf. B & Y 25.
22 mm., 3.94 gr. <~ (PLATE XLI, 12)
7. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending gc~* *-. Leiters $,d, and s^
s on no. 6. Cf. B & Y 25.
22 mm., 3.48 gr. -^ (PLATE XLII, i)

8-9. Imitations of Misr, 506 H., ending %*C* **. Identical obverse
and reverse dies. Cf. B & Y 25.
8. 22 mm., 3.78 gr. \E XLII, 2}
9. 22 mm., 3.60 gr. \. Imitation of Misr, 515 H. F
but obverse marginal legend begins yi *> an(i ends &
o . l l U
o Cf. B & Y a o .
2i mm., 3.83 gr. / (PLATE XLII, 3]
11. Imitation of Misr, 516 H., ending j^v.^-j S^ C^ 4X*. Cf,
B&Y20.
21 mm., 3.88 gr. \E XLII, 4)
12. Imitation of Misr, 516 H., ending j \^^ \^ (^^t- Cf . B & Y 20.
22 mm., 3.67 gr. \E XLII, 5)
13. Imitation of Misr, date ?, ending j &**. Cf . B & Y 25. Dd ancj
sd: li3

22 mm., 3.70 gr. \E XLII, 6)


14. Imitation of Misr, date ?, ending^ (no word *). Cf. B & Y25,
Dd, and sd: m

22 mm., 3.81 gr. / (PLATE XLII, 7)


15. Imitation of Misr, date ?, ending j (no word 4X*). Cf. B & Y25,
Dd and sd: ll

23 mm., 3.40 gr. \E XLII, 8}


The entire hoard appears to be virtually uncirculated.
13 Notes 13

I94

GEORGE C. MILES

9. Bedoukian hoard C:
This hoard is of particular interest s it contains, in addition to
15 saracenati, 10 cuttings of gold coins with Latin legends of a type
known only from seven specimens in the Convent of the Flagellation
in Jerusalem (see hoard no. i, above). The dealer from whom Dr.
Bedoukian obtained the hoard reported that it was found near
Marash in December 1965 and that the 25 pieces constitute the
entire hoard. The saracenati, all imitations of al-mir, are the
following:
1. Imitation, probably of a dinar of al-Iskandariyah, with many
errors in the "mint-date" formula, ending > j u* ? Cf. B & Y 23-24.
2i mm., 3.88 gr. 4, (PLATE XLII, 9)
2. Crude Imitation of al-mir, without recognizable mint or date.
Cf. B & Y 27-33.
22 mm., 3.36 gr. -> (PLATE XLII, 10)
3. Similar to no. 2, but beneath the reverse: l. Cf. B & Y 32.
23 mm., 3.39 gr. 4, (PLATE XLII, n)
4. Similar to no. 2, but beneath the reverse .'.. Cf. B & Y 27-33
22 mm., 3.27 gr. \E XLII, 12)
5-12. Similar to no. 2, but beneath the obverse *. Cf. B & Y 28.
5. 24 mm., 3.37 gr. \.

23 mm., 3.38 g

7. 23 mm., 3.50 gr. f


8. 23 mm., 3.22 gr. /
9. 23 mm., 3.40 gr. / (PLATE XLIII, i)
10. 22 mm., 3.45 gr. f
11. 23 mm., 3.35 gr. ->
12. 23 mm., 3.36 gr. \. Similar to no. 2, but be
13. 23 mm., 3.56 gr. \. 23 mm., 3.30 gr. ->
15. 23 mm., 3.45 gr. 4, (PLATE XLIII, 2)

HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

195

Nos. 5-12 and 13-15 are so poorly struck that comparison of dies is
virtually impossible. All the coins sliow a little wear.
The ten cuttings of irregulr shape, some roughly rectangular,
others wedge-shaped, of uneven thiekness and of irregulr weight
(ranging between 1.08 and o.34grams) all bear fragments of the
obverse and reverse types, and on some one or more Latin letters are
preserved. The types are reconstructed in Figs. i and 2. I have
arbitrarily called the first of these two designs the obverse, and if the

Fig. i

Fig. 2

tentatively proposed reconstruction of the legends has any validity


this would appear to be the proper designation. Surrounding the
double linear border are the traces of a legend on both obverse and
reverse. The original diameter appears to have been about 24 mm.,
approximately the size of the bezant. None of the fragments joins
with another. The ten fragments are described on page 196.
These cuttings are similar to the seven pieces from Emmaus elQubeibeh described and illustrated by Bagatti and now preserved in
the Convent of the Flagellation in Jerusalem (see hoard no. i).
When Dr. Bedoukian showed me his cuttings I recalled having seen
the Emmaus pieces during a visit t o Jerusalem in 1963, and in response to my request Father Aug. Spijkerman OFM has kindly sent
me photographs of these cuttings. Their weights, respectively 0.57,
0.52, 0.69, 0.59, 0.54, 0.58 and 0.64 grams, are more uniform than
those of the present hoard. Bagatti wrote (p. 158), "Dalla parte
della stella abbiano le lettere: + - A- JA-1 C-V- | S- L | A- N- | A- | V- S
13"

GEORGE C. MILES

196
PLATE XLIII No.

Diam.

Th.

wt.

I.

3- .011 x. 006 .002 1.08 Pale

2.

4.

34.

56.

5-

7-

6.
7-

8.
9-

8,
9-

10.

10.

12.

ii.

Obv,

Color

S-D

Traces of
2-3 letters
.009 x .008 .0015 1.07 Pale
o & trace Trace of i
of i letter letter
.008 x .007 .002 0.91 Pale
OfMan
OfMan
.008 x .007 .0015 0.77 Pale
Traces of Traces of
1-2 letters 1-2 letters
.008 x .007 .001 0.65 Pale
Traces of Trace of i
1-2 letters letter
.009 x .008 .OOI 0.63 Pale
C(?)V
oXTrace
of
i
.009 x .005 .001 0.51 Pale
Trace of i
letter?
letter
.009 x .004 .OOI 0.44 Brighter I(?)V
TA
.006 x .005 .0015 0.34 Brighter Offflan
Offflan
.001 x .005 .001 0.46 Bright Trace and LE and
trace of angold
<>A
other letter

tutte divise da un punto. NelTaltra parte: + D j E- [ E- R | E- R | E L- E |


S- 11 $ I(?) j S- L," but he renders the letters differently on p. 164.
On Bagatti's plate four fragments are photographed together (figs. 9
and 10), but unless I am mistaken only two of these actually join.
The three other fragments are photographed together (figs. n and
12), but I rather doubt that any of these joins with another. Here is
what I see in the photographs (PLATE XLIII, 13-19):
Obverse

13. -C-V
14. A- M16. o A*
17. -S- L18. -V-S
19. oA-M(?)

Reverse
E-R-

S(?)-L- and beginning of another letter


E-R
Lo and beginning of another letter
S(?)X-D-

HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

197

Bagatti suggested that the obverse might carry a name beginning


with A, such s "Amalrico," and that the reverse might be intended to
read "De Hierusalem." Some correspondences between the letters
preserved on the Emmaus specimens and those on the specimens in
the present hoard can be discerned, but there are some conflicts. One
is indeed tempted to reconstruct AMALRICVS REX on the obverse, but
neither S-D on no. i nor I (?) V on no. 8 of our hoard fit. Nor, for
that matter, does the S-L on an Emmaus hoard fragment (PLATE
XLIII, 17). As for the reverse, DE IERVSLEM (or the like) seems
quite possible, except for the embarrassment of the X on no. 6 of our
hoard and on one of the Emmaus hoard (PLATE XLIII, 18) and, even
more troublesome, the clear TA on our no. 8. The letters TA might
belong to CIVITAS, but that would be unlikely on a gold coin and
furthermore it would not suit the other preserved letters.
Quite obviously we are dealing with an unknown type of Crusader
coin, but who issued the type and where are questions that cannot
be answered with any confidence until more such cuttings or intact
coins are found. If we are in fact dealing with an Amalric, King of
Jerusalem, the only possible candidate is Amalric, son of Fulk,
1163-1174. The letter forms are not unlikely for the period, but such
an early date for an experimental gold Crusader coin with Latin
legends would be really extraordinary.
The similarity of the reverse type to the reverses of two copper
issues illustrated by Schlumberger (pl. III, 17 and 18) is pointed out
by Bagatti and also has been brought to my attention by Philip
Grierson. Schlumberger suggested Antioch, or perhaps Tripoli, and
compared the head on the obverse to that of Bohemud IV and Ray~
mond-Rupin (first quarter of the I3th c.); he cited also two probably
related coins illustrated by de Saulcy (Numismatique des Croisades,
pl. VIII, nos. 8 and 9). The design, Schlumberger feit, was probably
of Islamic origin. Grierson has drawn my attention to the resemblance
of the letter K to that letter at Antioch.
Another question is why these coins were cut into fragments. Presumably they were traded for certain numbers of silver or billion
deniers, but they would have had to be weighed at least those of
the present hoard. Those of the Emmaus hoard would seem to have
been cut to conform with a fixed Standard.

198

GEORGE C. MILES

10. A hoard of 12 saracenati, 20 gros tournois of Philip IV of France,


9 gros of the Counts of Tripoli and 4 demi-gros of Cyprus. Acquired
by the American Numismatic Society in 1966 (acc. no. 66.197).
According to the dealer, the pcrson from whom the hoard was obtained declared that it had been found in a broken earthenware pot
near the walls of the citadel of Ras Shamra. The coins here described
are said to have constituted the entire hoard.
a) Saracenati
The saracenati are all imitations of dinars of al-mir.
i. Imitation of Misr, 506 H., ending AI*- **. Annulets at 12, 3 and
8 o'clock in double border enclosing inner margin of obverse. Cf.
B & Y 25.
.

23 mm., 3.78 gr. / (PLATE XLIV, i)

2-7. Crude imitations of al-mir, without recognizable mint or date.


Cf. B & Y 27-33.
2. 23 mm., 3.49 gr. f (PLATE XLIV, 2)
3. 23 mm., 3.45 gr.\. 23 mm., 3.43 gr. ~
5. 23 mm., 3.50 gr. 6. 23 mm., 3.55 gr. \. 23 mm., 3.53 gr.

B & Y 29.

8. 22 mm., 3.77 gr. / (PLATE XLIV, 3)


9. 23 mm., 3.50 gr. \. 23 mm., 3.77 gr. /
11. 23 mm., 3.52 gr. f
12. 22 mm., 3.77 gr. ->
Nos. 2-12 are all so poorly struck that comparison of dies is
virtually impossible. All the saracenati are weakly struck and appear
to be slightly worn.
. .

BOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

199

b) France, Philip IV
A. Gros tournois "a l'O rond," datable to 1285, 1302 and April 1305.
x~2.0bv.: PbILIPPVS !?
BHICYV: SIYSHOSBBSBHI I MII IMI IBV.XPI
Rev.:fi&YVKQHVSCIVIS
* at 12 o'clock.
1. 26 mm., 4.08 gr. / (PLATE XLIV, 4)
2. 26 mm., 4.00 gr. /*
Cf. J. Lafaurie, Les Monnaies des Rois de France, Hugues Capet
Louis XII (Paris, 1951), no. 217.

3. Obv. : s no. i, but H VXPI


Rev.: s no. i, but W KON V S and no pellets on neur-de-lis
at 12 o'clock.
26 mm., 4.01 gr. \. Obv.
s no. 3, different die.
Rev. s no. 3, but YVKQNVS"
26 mm., 3.99 gr.
s
no.
3,
different
die.
5. Obv.
Rev. s no. 4, different die.
26 mm., 3.97 gr, \s no. 6, d
6. Obv. s no. i but BH1IICY.V. and IfcVXPI.
Rev. s no. i, different die.
26 mm., 4.04 gr, \5 mm., 4
7. Obv.
Rev. s no. i, different die.
8. Obv. s no. i, different die.
Rev. s no. i, but no pellets on fleur-de-lis at 12 o'clock.
26 mm., 3.92 gr, /
g. Obv. s no. i, but Kfi-*
Rev. s no. 8, different die.
25 mm., 4.00 gr,
10. Obv. s no. i, but PMMPPVS +KBX
Rev. s no. 3, but YVKONVS*
24 mm., 3.94 gr,

200

GEORGE C. MILES

ii. Obv.: s no. i, but PbIfcIPPVS *


Rev.: s no. 3, but "SVKOHVS

27 mm., 4.00 gr. \ Obv


Rev.: asno. 3, but YVOHVS*
26 mm., 4.09 gr. N^
13. Obv.: s no.i, but P&ILIPPVS'-* and H*V !
JRw.: s no. 3, but VBONVSv
25 mm., 3.96 gr. /

B. Gros tournois " l'O long," 1290


1. Obv.: 9PfeI&IPPVSKBX
BHIICVV ! SI
I1HI IIIKI IMI :HV.XFT
w.: SVVKOHVS CIVIS
26 mm., 4.00 gr. /* (PLATE XLIV, 5)
Ci. Lafaurie, no. 218.
2. Ow. and Rev. : s no. i, different dies.

25 mm., 4.08 gr. \. O&y

26 mm., 3.93 gr. \. Gros

i. obv.: *PMLIPPVS*KEX
BH1ICTV :SI -HOHN! 11HI IIKI III IHAf.XFI
w.: dfc VKOHVS* CIVIS
26 mm., 3.90 gr. f (PLATE XLIV, 6)
Cf. Lafaurie, no. 219.
2. Obv. and .Rev. : s no. i, different dies.
26 mm., 4.02 gr. f

3. 0z>. and ew. : s no. i, different dies.

26 mm., 3.98 gr. j


4. Obv. and .Reu. : s no. i, different dies.
25 mm., 3.88 gr.
All these gros toiwnois are virtually uncirculated.

HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS

20*

c) Counts of Tripoli
Bohevmmd VI, 1252-1275
1. Gros.
Obv.:
Rev.: C I - V - I Y S Y E I P O L ' I
26 mm., 4.15 gr. 4, (PLATE XLIV, 7)
Cf. Schlumberger, Numismatiqiie de l'Orient Latin, p. 105, pl. IV, 19.
Bohemund VII, 1275-1287
2. Gros.
Obv.: S12PVIMVS!BOMVHI5s!COM<3S
Rev.:
I TRIPOLIS! SVRI
26 mm., 4.12 gr. / (PLATE XLIV, 8)
Cf. Schlumberger, p. 106, pl. IV, 21.
3. Obv.: s no. 2, different die.
Rev.: s no. 2, same die.

25 mm., 4.23 gr. \. Obv. and


26 mm., 4.12 gr. /
5. Obv.: s no. 2, different die.
Rev.: s no. 2, die uncertain, badly corroded.

25 mm., 4.35 gr. \. Obv. and J


25 mm., 4.20 gr. /*, pierced
7. 0z>. and JRe;.: s no. 2, different dies.

25 mm., 4.12 gr. /', pierced


8. Obv.: SPVIMVS*BOCMVH1IVS.C:OMS
j?<?5!;.:,as no. 2, different die.
25mm.,4.i6gr. \. Obv.: SB
jfoz;.: s no. 2, but SVKIC

26 mm., 4.29 gr. /


Obverse badly corroded.
All these coins of Tripoli show some slight signs of wear, and it is to
be noted that two specimens are pierced.

202

. GEORGE C. MILES
d) Kingdom of Cyprus
Henry II, 2nd period, 1310-1324

i. Demi-gros.
0w.:feNKI KI (double strack)
Rev.: SKIHSMLfOTCdlfCfelPB
2i mm., 2.25 gr. (PLATE XLIV, 9)
Cf. Schlumberger, p. 192, pl. VI, 22.
2. Obv. s no. i, different die.
Rev. s no. i, different die.
2O mm., 2.26 gr.
3. Obv.
Rev. s no. i, different die.
22 mm., 2.27 gr.
4. Obv. s no. i, but -X- in left field (double struck).
Rev. s no. i, different die.
20 mm., 2.22 gr. All four specimens are considerably worn.
How much do the previously published hoards and the new ones
contribute to the problems of dating and localizing the saracenati ?
Very little, I am afraid. There are many questions. How reliable are
the hoards? Only one of the ten was unearthed in scientificlly
controlled circumstances. Were the saracenati of no. 10 actually in
circulation about 1324, or had they been hoarded by a previous
owner much earlier ? In any case, a brief summary of the data may be
useful for future reference.

HOARDS OF CRUSADER BEZANTS


Hoard
Provenance
No.
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.
6
7.

.
9.
10.

Samcenati

El-Qubei- Al-mir type


beh
B &Y27
Unknown Al-Mustansir types
B_&Y,5, 14, 15
Al-Amir type
B &Y27
St. Louis type
B &Y40
Unknown Al-Mustansir type
B &Yi4
St. Louis type
B & Y 40
Al-mir types
"Lattaqiyah"
B & Y 25, 27, 30
Unknown Al-Amir types
B & Y 25, 27
"Near
Al-mir types
Aleppo" B & Y 20, 25, 27
Unknown Al-mir types
B & Y 20, 23, 24,
26, 27, 29
"Near
Al-mir types
Tyre"
B & Y 20, 25
"Near
Al-rnir types
Marash" B & Y 23, 24,
27-33
"Ras
Al-Amir types
Shamra" B & Y 25, 27-33

Associated
Coins

20'

Dates of
Assoc. Coins

Crusader gold I3th c. ?


cuttings
Agmts Dei type ca. 1253 ?

Agmts Dei type ca. 1253?

Ftimid dinars

508-518 H./
A.D.III4-24

None
Ayybid dinar

594 H./A.D.
1197

None
None
Crusader gold
cuttings

i3th c. ?

1275-1324
Philip IV
Bohemund VI
Bohemund VII
Henry II

XL

COINAGE OF BASIL II

XLI

CRUSADER HOARDS
Hoardno. 7:1-6

Hoardno. 8:7-12

XLII

CRUSADER BOARDS
Hoard no. 8:1-8

Hoard no. 9: 9-12

10

11

12

14

13

17

18

CRUSADER HOARDS
Hoard no. 9:1-12

Hoard no. 1:13-lSj

XLIV

CRUSADER HOARDS
Hoard no. 10:1-9