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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Most institutions and organizations make their best to improve quality service and performance
of their products, service, internal or external operations. It varies according to the goals of the
business or resources constraints. Important goals could be to ensure a firm and stable work
environment to promote good work performance and economic growth. The competition
between institutions and organizations can be a difficult task, and thus it becomes difficult for
them to reach higher goals and development (Bolman, 1997).
One tactic for reaching higher goals and development is motivation. When well motivated,
employees are able to render quality service and effectiveness which means that motivation is a
key factor for advancement within an organization. Understanding the concept of motivation and
its meaning is therefore essential for success of any organistion (Paré 2001). With well motivated
employees organization are able to achieve higher goals and economical success .
It is often believed that that public sector organizations are more likely to employ individuals
whose values and needs are consistent with the public mission of the organization (Baldwin,
1984, Crewson, 1997), encouraging general social welfare, as well as see to the safety of the
society and every individual in it. Public organizations often have objectives with broader scope
which have profound impact than organizations in the private sector (Baldwin 1984).The
Mauritian public sector has always been questions to much blame due to a lack of effiency and
motivation in its integrale aspect.
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEE
Perry and Wise (1990) advocate that those people working in public service have a
“predisposition to respond to motives grounded primarily or uniquely in public institutions and
organizations” (p. 367). That means those who choose to work in the public service may have an
innate nature which sets them up to adhere to the missions of public service, ethical respect
,political orientation, international regulations, human proximity, governmental directions and
self-pride .

more he is responsive to the definite objectives he must achieve. 1991. Rutherford (1990) stated that motivation frames an organization more successful because it ensures that employees are constantly looking for improved practices to do a work effectively and consistently according to instructions. so it is indispensable for organizations to induce motivation of their employees (Kalimullah et al. 2. The motivation of an individual envelops all the motives for which he selects to operate in a definite approach (Lefter et al). It is these individual characteristics that are often pushed as the key to motivating behaviour because “understanding the values and reward preferences of public managers is essential in structuring organizational environments and incentive systems to satisfy those preferences” (Wittmer. Getting employees to do their best work even in strenuous circumstances. More an employee is motivated. 2. 2009). 2010).3 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Employee motivation is one of the strategies of managers to increase usefulness of job management amongst employees in organizations (Shadare et al.2 MOTIVATION Motivation is a set of courses concerned with a kid of strength that boosts performance and directs towards accomplishing some definite targets (Kalimullah et al.The structure of the public workforce is meant to reflect the nature of the work in the public sector by attracting employees who desire greater opportunities to fulfil higher-order needs and selfless motives by performing public service which eventually make an impact in our society. 2010). is one of the employees most stable and greasy challenges and this can be made possible only through motivating them. . According to Barron (1983). In fact motivation is “inside the person’s head and heart” (Khadim et al) . thus he focuses his efforts in that direction. 2010). it is an accrual of diverse routes which engage and express our activities to attain some particular ambitions (Rizwan et al. 369). p.

5 EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Employee performance refers to the amount produced in terms of quantity and quality that supports the organization to achieves its set objectives. 570). (2002) Wright (2007) further . Yeager et al. behaviors’ or results. p. Feedback affects both employee motivation and performance” (Yeager. (Bratton and Gold. Rabin. performance adjustment and improvement. and Vocino. performance can be measured by traits. Rewards are organizational tools that positively contribute to firm’s success by influencing individual or group behavior. and therefore through their contribution. In a survey study conducted on federal. 2. “… the importance employees place on contributing to the public sector mission of their organizations may provide intrinsic rewards that compensate for the low levels of extrinsic rewards commonly associated with public sector work” ( p. one must first review investigation regarding those who are presently working in the public arena. bonuses or other types of rewards to motivate and boost high level performances of employees (Reena et al. B. 2009). All businesses and governmental bodies uses these motivational tools such as pay. Thus. is an essential element for effective organizational functioning. and goal attainment. Employee performance management is a practice that organizations use to ensure that their employees are working towards high quality product or service. 2010). 54). will be motivated to perform at a high level. Employee performance management encourages the employee to get involved in the planning for the company. research findings suggest that public service employees are more significantly influenced by intrinsic rewards than extrinsic rewards such as salary.2. (1985) found that acceptable feedback has positive effects on motivation in general. or telling employees how well they are performing. goal setting. 2003).4 THE NATURE OF MOTIVATION IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE In trying to understand motivational factors influencing public sector employees. and local government employees working in white collar positions and the effects of feedback on their job attitudes. promotion. Research has recommended that reward now cause fulfillment of the employee which directly influences performance of the employee (Kalimullah et al. Generally. Wright (2007) explains. “Feedback. Another significant factor which is essential to be considered when working to motivate public sector employee relates to feedback. effort. state.J. 1985. Kreisman.

55). the performance of organisations is hooked on the performance of employees (job performance) and other factors such as the environment of the organisation. 2. 1999) and job performance is the sole result of an employee’s work (Hunter. 1986). the organization in which they work” (p.concluded. “…individuals are more committed to their performance objectives when they believe those objectives are achievable and will result in important outcomes for themselves or. a healthy organisation is one that is successfully attaining its objectives. The difference between organisational and job performance is obvious. 1999). to the extent they are committed to organizational goals.7 HOW EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AFFECTS EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE 2. that is one that is effectively applying appropriate strategy (Otley. 2. According to Otley.1 MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS self-actualization esteem needs social needs safety needs physiological needs Figure 1 maslow hierarchy of needs SELF-ACTUALIZATION .7.6 PERFORMANCE IN ORGANISATIONS Performance in organisations can be divided in organisational performance and job performance (Otley.

It is about the search of reaching one's full potential as a person. the desire to reach a degree of importance appears. Esteem needs can be regarded as external motivators and internal motivators. ESTEEM NEEDS After a person feels that they "belong". only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. Self-actualized people have a tendency to have motivators such as: • Truth • Justice • Wisdom • Meaning Self-actualized persons have recurrent rates of peak experiences. Unlike lower level needs. higher level motivators arouse. and selfrespect. External esteem needs are those such as reputation and recognition. this need is at no time fully satisfied. which are eager moments of deep happiness and harmony. Internally motivating esteem needs are those such as self-esteem. accomplishment. The first level of higher level needs are social needs. According to maslow.Self-actualization is the peak of maslow's motivation theory. Some examples of esteem needs are: • Recognition (external motivator) • Attention (external motivator) • Social status (external motivator) • Accomplishment (internal motivator) • Self-respect (internal motivator) Maslow later improved his model to add a layer in between self-actualization and esteem needs: the need for aesthetics and knowledge. SOCIAL NEEDS Once a person has achieved the lower level physiological and safety needs. as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Social needs are those related to relations with others and may include: • Friendship .

if a person feels endangered.• Belonging to a group • Giving and receiving love SAFETY NEEDS Once physiological needs are met.2 CLAYTON ALDERFER'S ERG (EXISTENCE. such as: • Air • Water • Food • Sleep According to this theory. Such needs might be fulfilled by: • Living in a safe area • Medical insurance • Job security • Financial reserves According to the maslow hierarchy. then one will certainly be motivated to satisfy them. \ 2. Although. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Physiological needs are those required to sustain life.7. RELATEDNESS.. if these vital needs are not satisfied. the main strong point of this theory is the recognition and identification of individual needs for the purpose of motivating behaviour (Bowditch et al. GROWTH) THEORY . one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the risk of physical and emotional harm. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to existence. higher needs in the pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been fixed. Maslow’s theory is still useful in certain areas. 1997).

7.  Need for supremacy is the desire to influence others to behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. a person may move down the hierarchy. To begin his theory.  Existence needs are desires for physiological and material well‐being. and that as lower level needs are satisfied. Relatedness.The next important contributor to the field of content theories is Clayton Alderfer's ERG (Existence. 2. relatedness correspondence to social needs)  Growth needs are desires for continued psychological growth and development. (In terms of Maslow's model. (In terms of Maslow's model. but that they are actually acquired through life experiences.7. existence needs include physiological and safety needs)  Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.3 MCCLELLAND'S ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY David McClelland's developed needs theory recognizes that everyone ranks needs differently. close interpersonal relationships and conflict. 2. growth needs include esteem and self‐realization needs) This approach proposes that unsatisfied needs motivate behavior. (In terms of Maslow's model. and if these needs are not met. Higher level needs. become more important as they are satisfied.  Need for attachment is the desire for friendly.4 HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY . Alderfer collapses Maslow's five levels of needs into three categories. they become less important. which Alderfer calls the frustration‐regression principle. McClelland identifies three specific needs:  Need for achievement is the determination to surpass. though. An individual with a high need of power is likely to follow a path of continued promotion over time. He also considers that individuals are not born with these needs. Growth) theory is built upon Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.

which include company policy. work conditions. “the motivating factors are the six ‘job content’ factors that include achievement. 2. and job security”(ruthankoon. workers compare the reward potential to the effort they must expend. But employees just don't look at their potential rewards. Inequities occur when people feel that their rewards are inferior to the rewards offered to other persons sharing the same workloads.5 EQUITY THEORY According to the equity theory. recognition. advancement. relationship with subordinates. responsibility. relationship with peers .salary. they look at the rewards of others as well.Herzberg’s two-factor theory divides motivation and job satisfaction into two groups of factors known as the motivation factors and hygiene factors. personal life. Stacy Adams. work itself.7. According to frederick herzberg. based on the work of J. status. Equity exists when workers perceive that rewards equal efforts as seen in Figure below. Basically the theory differentiates the factors between intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators.supervision. and possibility of growth. Hygiene factors are the ‘job context’ factors. Employees who feel they are being treated inequitably may exhibit the following behaviors: . relationship with supervision. 2003).

7. Very simply. between performance and rewards. A good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards. the expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that: 1. between the rewards and individual goal satisfaction. L. The organizational rewards will satisfy his or her personal goals. motivation is usually high. The key to the expectancy theory is an understanding of an individual's goals and the relationships between effort and performance. This theory focuses on modifying an .7. 2. Thorndike's law of effect.6 EXPECTANCY THEORY Victor Vroom introduced one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation. Put less effort into their jobs  Ask for better treatment and/or rewards  Find ways to make their work seem better by comparison  Transfer or quit their jobs The equity theory makes a good point: People behave according to their perceptions. 2. 3. When an employee has a high level of expectancy and the reward is attractive. and finally. 2.7 REINFORCEMENT THEORY The reinforcement theory. based on E. Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences.

proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. If an employee does not engage in improper behavior. docking pay. in essence.  Punishment (threats. Goals. . This technique should only be used when the supervisor perceives the behavior as temporary.employee's on‐the‐job behavior through the appropriate use of one of the following four techniques:  Positive reinforcement rewards desirable behavior. and not serious. introduced in the late 1960s by Edwin Locke. is provided as a reward for positive behavior with the intention of increasing the probability that the desired behavior will be repeated.8 GOAL-SETTING THEORY The goal‐setting theory. the more difficult the goal.7.  Avoidance is an attempt to show an employee what the consequences of improper behavior will be. employees do better when they get feedback on their progress. such as a pay raise or promotion. In addition to feedback.  Extinction is basically ignoring the behavior of a subordinate and not providing either positive or negative reinforcement. he or she will not experience the consequence. the higher the level of performance expected. In general. No matter who sets the goal. Positive reinforcement. Classroom teachers often use this technique when they ignore students who are “acting out” to get attention. 2. four other factors influence the goals‐performance relationship:  The employee must be committed to the goal. tell employees what needs to be done and how much effort should be expanded. suspension) is an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior recurring by applying negative consequences. not typical. however.

Vroom used indication from existing data and described relationship between motivation and performance. He suggested that effective accomplishment of a task is not only related to motivation but also to other factors. motivation and performance cannot be treated as equivalent factors. In Vroom’s point of view motivation and abilities are equally important. .8 THE EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE The authors of theories presented in previous parts of this paper tried to explain what motivate people to work. However. In his opinion more is to be gained by increasing ability from people who are highly motivated to accomplish the task than from those who are not motivated. However. and independent.  Tasks involved in achieving the goal should be simple. it is not the only reason for a great interest in the topic of motivation. The employee must believe that he is capable of performing the task. The distinction between them was noted by Vroom (1964). The question that can be stated is if motivation really has influenced on peoples’ performance at work. Researches show that indeed there is a relation between motivation and performance (Deci & Gagne. 2. The answer to this question is important because it is obviously good to understand what influence people behavior. 2005).  The goal‐setting theory is culture bound and is popular in North American cultures. The picture that emerged from his studies suggested that even if people are motivated they cannot perform well if they do not posses abilities to fulfill the task. familiar.

2.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Independent variables dependent variable QUALITY SUPERVISION PROMOTION  MOTIVATION EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE RECOGNITION  REWARDS WORKING CONDITIONS Figure 2: five motivational factors which may influence employees’ performance .

H 3.10. 2. There is no significant relationship between recognition and employees’ performance. H 4.10 DEFINITION OF KEY VARIABLES: 2. There is no significant relationship between rewards and employees’ performance. There is significant relationship between working conditions and employees’ performance 2. 2005). There is significant relationship between promotion and employees’ performance Ho3. H 1. There is no significant relationship between promotion and employees’ performance. There is significant relationship between recognition and employees’ performance.10. typically that leads to enhancement of responsibility and rank and an improved compensation package is a . Ho5.Ho1. H 5. There is significant relationship between rewards and employees’ performance. There is significant relationship between quality supervision and employees’ performance. “the movement of an employee upward in the hierarchy of the organization. Ho2. 2. It is the art of influencing people towards achieving organizational goals. There is no significant relationship between working conditions and employees’ performance.10. Ho4. Motowidlo (1993) have considered job performance as the behaviour which can be evaluated in terms of its contribution to improve the organizational effectiveness.2 QUALITY SUPERVISION Quality supervision is the ability of supervisors to influence the behavior of subordinates taking a particular course of action (bernard. H 2. There is no significant relationship between quality supervision and employees’ performance. 1990).3PROMOTION “promotion is a shifting of employee for a job of higher significance and higher compensation”.1 EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE Employees’ performance on job has been defined solely as the employees’ behaviour that is consistent with the goals and objectives of organization (campbell.

knowledge expansion.promotion. 2. from supervisors.4RECOGNITION Recognition and attention. Financial rewards include direct or indirect payment such as wages or salary. when employees accomplish a mission. 2. Providing adequate and timely reward is important to guarantee the recruitment of motivated and qualified staff. so employees will feel their efforts are noticed and valued. and increase their visibility within the organisation. they believe that indeed they have achieved something and have the mindset that recognition from management is an appreciation for that achievement. and shift work flexibility. 2. but requires much effort and consistency to achieve it. allowances. motivation and performance. Many believe it should not be seen as a ritual affair but a continuous activity to be undertaken by management. internal promotion opportunities as a long plan. loans and tuition reimbursement.10. bonuses. merit pay.giving recognition to employees is something that does not come naturally to do. Promotion involves a new position in society as well. recognition. 2. Career development and professional growth opportunities will help employees to develop new skills.7 NON -MONETARY REWARDS There are different types of non-monetary rewards.6 MONETARY REWARDS It is certainly the most common and widely used approaches to facilitate recruitment.5 REWARDS Reward system is much more than just bonus plans and stock options. insurance.10. 2. Workman touching on this point argued that. such as work autonomy. retention. to meet the targeted and accepted standards.8 GOOD WORK ENVIRONMENT .10. It is actually a process that reinforces or drives innate feelings.10.10. Another definition of promotion is “the reassignment of an employee to a higher-rank of job”.

employees saw it otherwise ranking it number two! Giving an indication that working conditions were very important to the way employees felt about where they work. in a study conducted.Good work environment: reporting on the issue mc coy (2000). .