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14.

CONSUMABLES
Welding consumables are the electrodes, wires, fluxes and gases. Each consumable is critical in respect to
specification/supplier, condition and treatment (if any).

14.1 FUNCTION OF SHIELDING GASES (TIG/MIG/MAG)


It provides a suitable, ionize able atmosphere for the electric arc.
It protects the weld pool from the atmospheric contamination.
Argon:

Helium:

Nitrogen:

provides a smooth arc at low arc voltage with dc-ve also gives cleaning action with ac for
light alloys.
In addition of hydrogen, provides a high arc voltage and gives deeper penetration also
increase speed on stainless steel.
less than argon therefore high flow rate (2~2.5 times) required to achieve same
effectiveness with argon. Produces high arc voltage and heat suitable for thick section. More
cost expensive than argon.
inert gas in the room but becomes active with oxygen therefore unsuitable for majority of
material but gives good result on the copper. More cost effectiveness than argon or helium.

14.2 FUNCTION OF FLUXES

Provides a gas shield to protect the weld pool and arc from atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen.
Provides a slag, which gives additional shielding to the weld pool and assists in manipulation during
the welding.
Improves the physical properties of the arc (arc initiation and stability)
Introduces weld metal alloys such as iron powder, de-oxidant etc.
Improves metallurgical properties to lowering oxygen and nitrogen levels.
Increasing deposition factors and over all efficiency

14.3 TYPES OF FLUXES (MMA)


Rutile, cellulosic and basic fluxes are the common types of coverings for MMA electrodes; others include
acid and oxidizing coverings.

14.3.1

Constituents: titanium dioxide, clay and sodium silicate.


Medium weight of titanium dioxide plus fluorspar.
Used for general purpose such as MS fabrication, low pressure pipe work, supports, structure and
bracket etc.
Gives fast freezing slag, suitable to easy use in all positions but not for vertical down.
Should be kept dry but never baked.

14.3.2

RUTILE

CELLULOSIC

Constituents: cellulose (wood pulp), titanium dioxide, sodium silicate.


High cellulose content produces a large volume of gas around the arc.
Shield gas consist on H2, CO, CO2 & H2O
Most important gas is hydrogen, which increases the arc voltage and corresponding in power, which
cause for deep penetration.
Rapid, rate of burn.
Produces fast freezing weld pool and thin slag, suitable for vertical down and overhead work.
Main use on stovepipe welding of high strength large diameter pipelines and storage tanks.
Good quality of penetration bead.
Rough appearance and uneven ripples of completed weld.
Spatter content higher than other electrode.
Hydroscopic flux designed to hold between 4-7% moisture.
Must be kept dry but never baked

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Section 14

Welding Consumables

14.3.3

BASIC

High limestone and fluorspar content to produce weld metal with low hydrogen content )< 5ml /
100mg of weld metal)
Limestone has good stability and produces carbon dioxide gas shield.
May be bake up to 500C approximately or depending on the manufacturer.
Ability to weld low alloy, high & medium tensile strength with high sulphur content without any
cracking, also reduce the possibility of the hydrogen induced cracking in the weld metal and heataffected zone, but dependant upon the properly dried.
Need higher degree of skill and must be used vertical up technique.
Productive and expensive
Constituents; limestone (calcium carbonate) gas former, CO2 secondary ionizer, fluorspar slag
former, sodium/potassium silicate main ionizer
.

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Section 14

Welding Consumables

ELECTRODE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM OF AWS


MMA / SMAW ELECTRODES
AWS A 5.1 ELECTRODES

70

Covered Electrode
Tensile Strength (ksi)
Welding Position
Flux Covering & Electrical Characteristics
AWS A 5.5 ALLOYED ELECTRODES

70

8 D3

Covered Electrode
Tensile Strength (ksi)
Welding Position
Flux Covering & Electrical Characteristics
Alloy Content (1.5% Mn 0.5% Mo)
STRENGTH
Tensile X 1000 PSI

POSITIONAL CAPABILITIES
Symbol
1
2
3

Welding Position
All position
Horizontal & Flat
Flat only

Symbol
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8

Coating Type
Cellulosic
Cellulosic
Rutile
Rutile
Rutile + Iron Powder
Basic
Basic
Basic + Iron Powder

COVERING

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Classification
E 6010
E 6011
E 6012
E 6013
E 6020
E 6027
E 7014
E 7015
E 7016
E 7018
E 7024
E 7027
E 2028
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DC

AC

Positive

Negative

Section 14

Welding Consumables

SAW FILLER WIRE


AWS A 5.17
Temperature of Impact Test
Minimum UTS of Weld Metal (10 ksi)
Standard Identification

A 5.17 F 6 A 2 EM12K
SAW Welding Flux
Heat Treatment Conditions
Chemical Composition of Wire Electrode

MIG / MAG / TIG FILLER WIRE


AWS A 5.18
Chemical Composition of the Solid Wire or of the
Weld Metal in case of Composite Electrodes
Minimum UTS of Weld Metal ( ksi)
Standard Identification

A 5.18 ER 70 S 6
Designate an Electrode Rod (ER) or only an Electrode (E)
Solid (S) or Composite (C)

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Section 14

Welding Consumables

ELECTRODE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM OF BS EN


MMA / SMAW ELECTRODES
BS EN 499
Positional Capabilities
Covering
Impact Properties
Electrode

E 46 3 1Ni B 5 4 H5
Strength (Yield, UTS & Elongation)
Alloying Composition
Weld Metal recovery and Type of Current
Low Hydrogen Potential
STRENGTH
Symbol
35
38
42
46
50

Tensile Strength N/mm2


440 570
470 600
500 640
530 680
560 720

Yield Strength N/mm2


355
380
420
460
500

Elongation min. %
22
20
20
20
18

IMPACT PROPERTIES
Impact Energy Charpy V Temp C for 47 J min
No requirements
+ 20
0
- 20
- 30
- 40
- 50
- 60

Symbol
Z
A
0
2
3
4
5
6

ALLOYING COMPOSITION
Symbol

Chemical Composition of all Weld Metal %


Mo
Ni
No Symbol
Mo
0.3 0.6
MnMo
0.3 0.6
1Ni
0.6 1.2
2Ni
1.8 2.6
3Ni
> 2.6 3.8
Mn1Ni
0.6 1.2
1NiMo
0.3 1.6
0.6 1.2
Z
Any other agreed composition
If not specified Mo < 0.2, Ni < 0.3, Cr < 0.2, V < 0.05, Nb < 0.05, Cu < 0.3
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Section 14
Welding Consumables
Mn
2.0
1.4
> 1.4 2.0
1.4
1.4
1.4
> 1.4 2.0
1.4

Singles values shown in the table mean maximum values

COVERING
Symbol
A
B
C
R
RR
RC
RA
RB

Coating Type
Acid
Basic
Cellulosic
Rutile
Rutile (Thick Coated)
Rutile Cellulosic
Rutile - Acid
Rutile - Basic

WELD METAL RECOVERY AND TYPE OF CURRENT


Symbol
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Metal Recovery %
< 105
< 105
> 105 < 125
> 105 < 125
> 125 < 160
> 125 < 160
> 160
> 160

Type of Current
AC + DC
DC
AC + DC
DC
AC + DC
DC
AC + DC
DC

POSITIONAL CAPABILITIES
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5

Welding Position
All position
All position, except vertical down
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld, horizontal - vertical fillet weld
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld
Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3

LOW HYDROGEN POTENTIAL


Symbol
H5
H10
H15

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Hydrogen content, ml / 100g deposited weld metal, max.


5
10
15

Section 14

Welding Consumables

MIG / MAG / TIG FILLER WIRE


BS EN 440
Type of Shielding Gas
Tensile Properties
Standard Identification

EN 440 - G 46 3 M G3Si1
Weld deposit produced by Gas Shielded Metal Arc
Welding
Impact Properties
Type of Wire Electrode

SAW FILLER WIRE


BS EN 756
Type of Welding Flux
Tensile Properties
Standard Identification

EN 756 - S 46 3 AB S2
Wire Electrode and / or Wire / Flux Combination
Impact Properties
Chemical Composition of Wire Electrode

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Section 14

Welding Consumables

SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


Question No 1:
Describe each part of the following electrodes:
E 38 0 C
E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5
E 42 2 R 1 3 H15
Solution:
E 38 0 C
E
38
0
No Symbol
C

Electrode
Strength (Yield, UTS & Elongation)
Impact Properties (47 Joules @ 0 C)
Chemical Composition (2.0% Mn)
Covering (Cellulosic)

E 50 4 2 Ni B 2 1 H5
E
50
4
2Ni
B
2
1
H5
-

Electrode
Strength (Yield, UTS & Elongation)
Impact Properties (47 Joules @ -40 C)
Chemical Composition (1.4 Mn, 1.8 2.6 Ni)
Covering (Basic)
Weld Metal recovery & Type of Current
Position
Hydrogen Content

E 42 2 R 1 3 H15
E
42
2
No Symbol
R
1
3
H15
-

Electrode
Strength (Yield, UTS & Elongation)
Impact Properties (47 Joules @ -20 C)
Chemical Composition (2.0% Mn)
Covering (Rutile)
Weld Metal recovery & Type of Current
Position
Hydrogen Content

Question No 2:
Which, if any of the following types of electrode require baking?
E 38 0 C
E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5
E 42 2 R 1 3 H15
Solution:
E 38 0 C
E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5
E 42 2 R 1 3 H15

Cellulosic (No Baking)


Basic (Will require baking)
Rutile (keep dry but no baking)

Question No 3:
What is meant by S.T.C. (STC)
Solution:
S
Strength
T
Toughness
C
Covering
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Section 14

Welding Consumables

Question No 4:
Which, of the following AWS classified electrodes have Cellulosic coating?
E 6010
E 7016
E 7012
E 6011
E 6013
E 7018
E 9010 - G
Solution:
E 6010
E 7016
E 7012
E 6011
E 6013
E 7018
E 9010 G

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Cellulosic
Basic
Rutile (Wrong value for UTS)
Cellulosic
Rutile
Basic
Cellulosic (Classified to AWS A5.5)

Section 14

Welding Consumables