This chapter examines the short-circuit current calculation procedures used in the
IEC_61363 Short Circuit Study.
The IEC_61363 Study follows the specifications of the International Electrotechncal
Commission (IEC) International Standard 61363: Electrical installations of ships and
mobile and fixed offshore units Procedures for calculating short-circuit currents in
three-phase a.c.
This guide includes:
Engineering Methodology
Examples
1.2
Engineering Methodology
1.3
17
1.4
Application Example
24
I N
T H I S
C H A P T E R
IEC_FAULT 2
Reference Manual
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 3
1.2.2 Definitions
Short circuit
accidental or intentional connection, by a relatively low resistance or impedance, of two or
more points in a circuit which are normally at different voltages. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Short circuit current
over-current resulting from a short circuit due to a fault or an incorrect connection in and
electric circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Prospective current
Short-circuit current that would flow in the circuit if each pole of the device were replaced
by a conductor of negligible impedance. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Symmetrical short-circuit current
r.m.s. value of the a.c. symmetrical component of a prospective short-circuit current, the
aperiodic component of current, if any, being neglected. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Initial symmetrical short-circuit current Ik
r.m.s. value of the a.c. symmetrical component of a prospective short-circuit current
applicable at the instant of short circuit if the impedance remains at zero-time value.
[61363-1 IEC:1998]
Current
Theoretical maximum
Peak at 1/2 cycle
Top envelope
idc
Asymmetrical values
including motor contributions
ip
2 I"k
i dc
2I k
Time
Bottom envelope
IEC_FAULT 4
Reference Manual
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 5
Quotient of the sinusoidal voltage per phase on a balanced a.c. system and the same
frequency component of the short-circuit current in that system. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Voltage source
Active element which can be represented by an ideal voltage source independent of all
currents and voltages in the circuit, in series with a passive circuit element. [61363-1
IEC:1998]
Nominal system voltage Un
Voltage (line-to-line) by which a system is designated and to which certain operating
characteristics are referred. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Subtransient voltage of a rotating machine E
r.m.s. value of the symmetrical internal voltage of a machine which is active behind the
subransient impedance Z at the moment of short circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Transient voltage of a rotating machine E
r.m.s. value of the symmetrical internal voltage of a machine which is active behind the
transient impedance Z at the moment of short circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Nominal value (n)
Suitable approximate quantity value used to designate or identify a component, device or
equipment. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Rated value (r)
Quantity value assigned, generally by a manufacturer, for a specified operating condition
of a component, device or equipment. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Equivalent generator
Fictitious generator having characteristics which will produce the same short-circuit
current at any point on an electrical installation, as would be produced by a combination
of generators having different ratings and different characteristics, which are connected to
the system. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Equivalent motor
Fictitious motor having characteristics which will produce the same short-circuit current at
any point on an electrical installation, as would be produced by a combination of motors
having different ratings and different characteristics, which are connected to the system.
[61363-1 IEC:1998]
IEC_FAULT 6
Reference Manual
3/26/2006
phase Angle
subtransient q-axis voltage of a generator (r.m.s.)
transient q-axis voltage of a generator (r.m.s.)
subtransient voltage of a motor (r.m.s.)
frequency
lowest frequency of a shaft generator
rated frequency of a network
subtransient short-circuit current of the equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
transient short-circuit current of the equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
current of the equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
subtransient short-circuit current of the equivalent motor (r.m.s.)
subtransient initial short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
transient initial short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
current (r.m.s.)
a.c. component of the short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
symmetrical short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor (r.m.s.)
asynchronous motor locked rotor current
d.c. component of the short-circuit current of a synchronous machine
(instantaneous).
d.c. component of the short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor and an
equivalent motor (instantaneous).
upper envelope of the short-circuit current.
steady-state short-circuit current of an equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
steady-state short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
upper envelope of the short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor.
peak value of the short-circuit current of a synchronous machine.
peak value of the short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor.
rated current (r.m.s.)
rated current of an asynchronous motor
resistance
resistance of an equivalent generator
stator resistance of a synchronous machine
cable resistance
d.c. resistance
motor resistance
rotor resistance of an asynchronous motor
rotor resistance of an equivalent asynchronous motor
stator resistance of an asynchronous motor
stator resistance of an equivalent asynchronous motor
resistance of a transformer
time duration from the beginning of a short circuit
subtransient time constant of a synchronous machine
transient time constant of a synchronous machine
subtransient time constant of an equivalent generator
transient time constant of an equivalent generator
subtransient time constant of a synchronous machine including the non-active
components
transient time constant of a synchronous machine including the non-active
components
subtransient time constant of a an asynchronous motor
TMe
Tdc
Tdc*
Tdce
TdcM
TdcM*
TdcMe
U0
Un
Ur
UrM
X*
X
Xd
Xd
XM
Z
Z*
IEC_FAULT 7
1.2.4 Methodology
The Conventional or Comprehensive short circuit analysis procedure involves reducing
the network at the short circuit location to a single Thevenin equivalent impedance,
determining the associated fault point R/X ratio calculated using complex vector algebra,
and defining a driving point voltage (assuming the effect of transformer taps on bus
voltage). The initial symmetrical short circuit current can be calculated and, given the
fault location R/X ratios, the asymmetrical short circuit current at various times during the
onset of the fault can be calculated.
Conventional short circuit analysis techniques do not satisfy IEC Standard 61363
methodology. IEC363 requires a time-dependent calculation divided into active and nonactive components with separate AC and DC calculations. Active components, such as
generators and motors, are combined to form equivalent motors and generators. The
equivalent motors and generators are combined with non-active components, such as
cables and transformers, to further adjust the impedance and time constants of the
equivalent components.
2.
3.
calculate the time-dependent short-circuit currents at the major points in the system
using the equations and methods described in the IEC 61363 standard;
4.
IEC_FAULT 8
Reference Manual
The short circuit occurs simultaneously in all three phases (three phase fault)
Unmeshed systems
The short-circuit current which results when several pieces of equipment are
connected in a system.
When an isolated machine is being considered, only the electrical parameters of the
machine affect the short-circuit current generated. In a system, however, this current is
limited by the impedance of the non-active components, for example, cables, transformers,
etc., forming the system, changing both the transient and steady-state values of the
resulting short-circuit current.
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 9
ik (t ) = 2 I ac (t ) + idc (t )
The a.c. component
"
I ac (t ) = ( I kd
I kd' )e t / Td + ( I kd' I kd )e t / Td + I kd
"
"
kd
'
kd
E q" 0
Z d"
Eq' 0
Z d'
E q" 0
'
Ra2 + X d" 2
Eq' 0
Ra2 + X d'2
E q" 0 =
2
U0
cos 0 + Ra I 0 +
3
2
U0
sin 0 + X d" I 0
3
Eq' 0 =
2
U0
cos 0 + Ra I 0 +
3
2
U0
sin 0 + X d' I 0
3
T
T
T
i p = ik ( ) = 2 I ac ( ) + idc ( )
2
2
2
for 60 Hz system
T 1000
=
= 8.33 ms
2 60 * 2
IEC_FAULT 10
Reference Manual
Z e" = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d" + X ) 2
Z e' = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
Time-constant changes
Te" =
Te' =
[( R
[( R
+ R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2 X d Td'
( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X )( X d + X ) X d'
Tdce =
Tdc + X
2fRa
1+ R
Ra
Motors
General motor parameter
RM = RR (rotor ) + RS ( stator )
XR + XS
r RR
TdcM =
XR + XS
r RS
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 11
i pM (t ) = 2 I acM (t ) + idcM (t )
I acM (t ) = I M" e t / TM
"
I M" =
E M"' =
E M"
=
Z M"
E M"
RM2 + X M2
2
2
U rM
U rM
cos M + RM I rM
+
sin M + X M' I rM
3
3
T
T
T
i p = ik ( ) = 2 I acM ( ) + idcM ( )
2
2
2
for 60 Hz system at cycle
IEC_FAULT 12
Reference Manual
T 1000
=
= 8.33 ms
2 60 * 2
RMe = RR + RS + R
"
X Me
= XR + XS + X
Time-constant changes
"
=
TMe
"
X Me
r RR
TdcMe =
"
X Me
r ( RS + R )
Equivalent generator
'
I ac (t ) * = M * e t / Td * + N * e t / Td * + I k *
"
'
"
*
I =
"
kdi
"
I Mj
+
i
i
n
'
*
'
I kdi
I =
i
n
I k* =
I kdi
i
M * = ( I *" I *' )
N * = ( I *' I k * )
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 13
For motor:
K " (t ) = I M" e t / TM
"
Thus,
K (t )* =
K (t ) +
i
Td"* (t x ) =
Td' * (t x ) =
Tdc* (t x ) =
I "jM e t / T "M
"
i
"
tx
K (t x )* I *'
ln
M*
"
tx
I (t ) ( M *e t x / Td * + I k * )
ln ac x *
N*
"
tx
i (t )
ln dc x " *
2 I*
Z*" =
U0
,
3I*"
Z*' =
R* (t ) = c 3 (t ) X *" (t ) ,
X *" (t ) =
U0
,
3I*'
c 3 (t ) =
Z* =
U0
3I*
1
2fTdc* (t )
Z *"
1 + c32
IEC_FAULT 14
Reference Manual
Z e" = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d" + X ) 2
Z e' = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2
Z e' = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d + X ) 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
Time-constant changes
[( R
[( R
+ R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2 X d Td'
T =
( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X )( X d + X ) X d'
'
e
Tdce =
Tdc + X
1+ R
2fRa
Ra
ik (t ) = 2 I ac (t ) + idc (t )
U0 '
U
U
, I kd = 0' , I kd == 0
"
Ze
Ze
Ze
"
I ac (t ) = ( I kd
I kd' )e t / Td + ( I kd' I kd )e t / Td + I kd
"
Equivalent motor
3/26/2006
'
IEC_FAULT 15
I acM (t )* = I M" *e t / TM *
"
"
I M" * = I Mj
j
K M" (t ) = I M" e t / TM
"
Tdc* (t x ) =
tx
K " (t )
ln M" x
IM*
tx
K dcM (t x )
ln
2 I M" *
RR * (t ) = c1 X M" * (t ) ,
c1 (t ) =
Z M" * =
"
M*
1
,
2fTM" * (t )
RS * (t ) = c 2 (t ) X M" * (t )
c 2 (t ) =
1
2fTdcM * (t )
U0
"
2
"2
or Z M * = ( RR * + RS * ) + X M *
"
3I M *
(t ) =
Z M" *
1 + (c1 (t ) + c 2 (t )) 2
IEC_FAULT 16
Reference Manual
RMe = RR + RS + R
"
X Me
= XR + XS + X
Time-constant changes
"
Me
"
X Me
=
r RR
TdcMe
"
X Me
=
r ( RS + R )
i M (t ) = 2 I acM (t ) + idcM (t )
The a.c. component
"
I kd
=
U0
Z e"
I ac (t ) = I kd" e t / Td
"
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 17
2.
Select the check box next to Short Circuit and choose the IEC 61363 option button.
3.
4.
Choose the OK button to return to the Study dialog box, and choose the Run button.
The Short Circuit Study runs, writes the results to the database, and creates a report.
IEC_FAULT 18
Reference Manual
System Modeling
These options further customize the Study.
System Frequency
The system frequency must be defined for the time-dependent calculations. The
system frequency is set in the Project>Options>Application menu.
Model Transformer Tap
You may model the transformer taps by selecting this check box.
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 19
The IEC 61363 calculations requires entry of the following values: Xd, Xd, Xd, Ra,
Td, Td and Tdc. For definitions of these values refer to section 1.2.2. Since the IEC
61363 calculations are for 3-phase faults only, the negative sequence, zero sequence and
neutral impedance values are not used. However values for these fields are still required
since the IEC60909, ANSI and Comprehensive fault calculations use them.
PTW calculates the machine kVA and voltage base using the data you enter in the first
subview of the Component Editor. The motor rated size is in mechanical units of work
(output) when entered as horsepower, but in equivalent electrical units of work (input)
when entered as electrical quantities of kVA, MVA or kW. Motor efficiency is used to
convert horsepower to electrical units of work, and power factor is used to convert kW to
kVA. If the rated kVA base in the IEC Contribution subview is zero, then PTW calculates
the equivalent kVA base from the machine rated size shown in the first subview of the
Component Editor. If the rated kVA base is not zero, PTW will not change it, even if you
enter a revised rated size in the motors first subview. Also, if the rated voltage is not zero,
PTW will not change it. Therefore, you may need to modify the rated machine kVA and
kVA base together; if you do not modify them together, the kVA base will remain
IEC_FAULT 20
Reference Manual
unchanged, even if you change the rated size on the first subview of the Component
Editor.
In order to fully model a synchronous machine, the rated size of the machine must be
defined, along with the power factor. Motors can be defined in the Component Editor as
either a single motor (the default) or as multiple motors. PTW will calculate the power for
multiple motors modeled at the bus.
Asynchronous Induction Motors
Asynchronous motor short circuit currents should be modeled in IEC 61363 calculations.
The Component Editor ANSI and IEC contribution data boxes are shown in the following
figures:
ANSI Format
IEC Format
The fields added specifically for the IEC 61363 calculations are the ratio of Stator
Resistance to Rotor Resistance, Td, and Tdc. Either entry format can be used.
3/26/2006
IEC_FAULT 21
The motor rated size is in mechanical units of work (output) when entered as horsepower,
but is in equivalent electrical units of work (input) when entered as electrical quantities of
kVA, MVA or kW. Motor efficiency is used to convert horsepower to electrical units of
work, and power factor is used to convert kW to kVA. If the rated kVA base is zero, then
PTW calculates the equivalent kVA base using the machine rated size as defined in the
first subview of the Component Editor. The number of pole pairs, combined with the rated
kW of asynchronous machines, is used to calculate the breaking current duty. If multiple
motors are modeled in a single motor object, PTW will model the MW/pp of each of the
individual motors that comprise the group. Asynchronous motors are modeled as deltaconnected. If specific motor data is not available, the following typical data can be used
for the IEC 61363 calculations:
IEC_FAULT 22
Reference Manual
Transformers also are modeled with a positive sequence impedance value. Zero sequence
impedance values are not used in the IEC 61363 calculations and therefore transformer
earthing impedance is also not used.
Transformer taps may be modeled. A negative primary tap raises the secondary voltage.
Taps will only be considered if the IEC 61363 Study Setup dialog box is set to model
them. The driving point voltages are defined by the generators and are not modified by the
transformer tap settings.
Transformer off-nominal voltage ratios, as compared to the primary and secondary bus
system nominal voltages, are modeled when the Model Transformer Taps check box is
selected in the Study setup dialog box. Essentially, PTW will create a fictitious primary
and/or secondary tap to ensure that the voltage ratios are properly matched.
It involves the entry of single-line-to-easrth short circuit contribution data. PTW uses the
three-phase fault data and the single-line-to-earth fault data to calculate the positive-,
negative- and zero-sequence impedances from the following per-unit equations:
Z1 = Z 2
1.0
Z1 =
I f3
b g
3 1.0
Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0
I fsle =
Z0 =
3
Z1 Z 2
I fsle
Utilities often report available single-line-to-earth fault duties on an equivalent threephase rating apparent power basis, using the equation:
kVA 3 = 3 I fsle kVLL
kV
3
where
kV
3/26/2006
line-to-line voltage.
IEC_FAULT 23
You cannot use the three-phase equivalent rating of a single-line-to-ground short circuit
contribution. If you do, PTW may attempt to calculate the zero-sequence impedance as a
negative value. The actual apparent power to be entered into PTW is the utility equivalent
single-line-to-earth duty divided by three. Enter the single-line-to-ground fault current
X/R ratio, not the zero sequence impedance X/R ratio.
1.3.6 Reports
For each fault location, IEC_363 reports:
Iac for each branch and source feeding the fault at 1/2 Cycle, 3 Cycles, 5 Cycles, and
one user-defined time, T4
Idc for each branch and source feeding the fault at 1/2 Cycle, 3 Cycles, 5 Cycles, and
one user-defined time, T4
*FAULT BUS: B1
Voltage: 4.200 kV
Ipeak: 38583.56 A
TIME (Cycles)
0.0
0.5
3.0
5.0
12.5
================================================================================
Iac(A)
16893.27
14520.23
9684.34
8743.52
7935.77
Idc(A)
22907.14
18048.85
9065.28
6133.30
1573.11
IEC_FAULT 24
Reference Manual
500 kW
X"d 0.12 pu
X'd 0.18 pu
Xd 2.60 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 20.00 ms
Td' 320.00 ms
Tdc 64.00 ms
E1
E1C
10.0 Meters
R 0.110 Ohms/km
X 0.095 Ohms/km
3500 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms
G2
T2C
10.0 Meters
R 0.125 Ohms/km
X 0.098 Ohms/km
T2
2000.0 kVA
R 1.150 %
X 6.400 %
T2B5C
18.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km
B5
600 V
3500 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms
G3
T4C
10.0 Meters
R 0.095 Ohms/km
X 0.095 Ohms/km
T4
2500.0 kVA
R 1.050 %
X 6.410 %
3500 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms
B1
4200 V
M2
2000.0 kW (Output)
X"d 0.1500 pu
Td" 18.67 ms
Tdc 11.73 ms
Rs/Rr 1.6190
T4B2C
10.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km
MB4/5
2000.0 kW (Output)
X"d 0.1880 pu
Td" 18.67 ms
Tdc 11.73 ms
Rs/Rr 1.5926
B2
600 V
MB2/3
B2BEC
46.0 Meters
R 0.164 Ohms/km
X 0.096 Ohms/km
T7
250.0 kVA
R 1.780 %
X 6.770 %
B7
1700.0 kW (Output)
X"d 0.1880 pu
Td" 18.67 ms
Tdc 11.73 ms
Rs/Rr 1.5926
B2B3C
30.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km
2000 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms
G4
G4C
11.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km
120 V
BE
600 V
3/26/2006
B3
600 V
IEC_FAULT 25
*FAULT BUS: B1
Voltage: 4.200 kV
Ipeak: 38406.35 A
TIME (Cycles)
0.0
0.5
3.0
5.0
12.5
================================================================================
Iac(A)
16806.57
14453.94
9663.52
8732.21
7930.09
Idc(A)
22784.53
17965.39
9036.90
6119.38
1571.28
TIME-DEPENDENT SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS AT THE MAJOR POINTS:
Bus Name:B1
Voltage: 4.200 kV
TIME(Cycles)
0.0
0.5
3.0
5.0
12.5
================================================================================
- M2
Ipeak: 3127.69 A.
Iac(A)
1884.71
1206.14
129.47
21.72
0.03
Idc(A)
2893.48
1421.95
40.76
2.38
0.00
- G1
Ipeak: 9382.70 A.
Iac(A)
3838.60
3454.88
2608.89
2419.96
2221.24
Idc(A)
4918.30
4496.76
2872.92
2007.53
523.52
- G2
Ipeak: 9382.70 A.
Iac(A)
3838.60
3454.88
2608.89
2419.96
2221.24
Idc(A)
4918.30
4496.76
2872.92
2007.53
523.52
- G3
Ipeak: 9382.70 A.
Iac(A)
3838.60
3454.88
2608.89
2419.96
2221.24
Idc(A)
4918.30
4496.76
2872.92
2007.53
523.52
- MB4/5 (Eq. Motor)
Ipeak: 2004.50 A.
Iac(A)
1047.51
775.94
173.05
52.10
0.58
Idc(A)
1800.69
907.16
29.44
1.90
0.00
- B2 (Eq. Gen.)
Ipeak: 5126.06 A.
Iac(A)
2358.54
2107.21
1534.33
1398.52
1265.76
Idc(A)
3335.47
2146.01
347.95
92.52
0.72
IEC_FAULT 26
Reference Manual
Datablock results for the same faulted bus are displayed on the following one-line:
AC (T0) 3842 A
DC (T0) 4924 A
Ip 9392 A
G1
AC (T0) 3842 A
DC (T0) 4924 A
Ip 9392 A
AC (T0) 3842 A
DC (T0) 4924 A
Ip 9392 A
G2
G3
B1
AC (0.5cy) 14520 A
AC (3cy) 9684 A
DC (0.5cy) 18049 A
DC (3cy) 9065 A
Ip 38584 A
T2C
T4C
M2
AC (0.5cy) 2108 A
AC (3cy) 1535 A
Ip 5143 A
T2
AC (0.5cy) 831 A
AC (3cy) 185 A
Ip 2136 A
T4
S
AC (0.5cy) 1206 A
AC (3cy) 129 A
DC (0.5cy) 1422 A
DC (3cy) 41 A
Ip 3128 A
T2B5C
B5
T4B2C
MB4/5
B2
B2BEC
E1
T7
B2B3C
MB2/3
E1C
G4
G4C
BE
B7
B3
Note that the contributions from MB4/5 Equivalent and Equivalent Generator EG are
slightly different in PTW than the hand calculation example shown in the IEC 61363
standard. These slight differences are due to neglecting motor pre-load condition in PTW
and inconsistent rounding in the hand calculation. The contributions from G1, G2, G3
and M2 match as expected.
3/26/2006
Bien plus que des documents.
Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.
Annulez à tout moment.