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IEC_61363 FAULT Study

This chapter examines the short-circuit current calculation procedures used in the
IEC_61363 Short Circuit Study.
The IEC_61363 Study follows the specifications of the International Electrotechncal
Commission (IEC) International Standard 61363: Electrical installations of ships and
mobile and fixed offshore units Procedures for calculating short-circuit currents in
three-phase a.c.
This guide includes:
Engineering Methodology

Terminology and Symbols

Assumptions and Equations

PTW Applied Methodology

Examples

IEC_61363 FAULT STUDY


1.1

What is the IEC_61363 Study?

1.2

Engineering Methodology

1.3

PTW Applied Methodology

17

1.4

Application Example

24

I N

T H I S

C H A P T E R

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1.1 What is the IEC_61363 Study?


The IEC_61363 Short Circuit Study (referred to hereafter as IEC363) models the current
that flows in the power system under abnormal conditions and determines the prospective
fault currents in an electrical power system. These currents must be calculated in order to
adequately specify electrical apparatus withstand and interrupting ratings. The Study
results are also used to selectively coordinate time current characteristics of electrical
protective devices.
IEC363 represents conditions that may affect typical marine or offshore installations more
significantly than land-based systems, including more emphasis on generator and motor
decay.

1.2 Engineering Methodology


IEC Standard 61363 describes a detailed method for calculating three-phase short circuit
duties for marine or offshore installation. The Standard contains 9 chapters. Individual
paragraphs are referred to as articles or clauses, and sub-paragraphs are referred to as subclauses.

1.2.1 IEC Standard 61363


The IEC 61363 standard outlines procedures for calculating short-circuit currents that may
occur on a marine or offshore a.c. electrical installation.
The calculation methods are intended for use on unmeshed three-phase a.c. systems
operating at 50 Hz or 60 Hz; having any system voltage specified in IEC 60092-201 table
2; having one or more different voltage levels; comprising generators, motors,
transformers, reactors, cables and converter units; having their neutral point connected to
the ships hull through an impedance (designed to limit the short-circuit current flowing to
the ships hull; or having their neutral point isolated from the ships hull.
The IEC 61363 standard is intended for three-phase symmetrical short circuit conditions
over the first 100 ms of the fault. The effects of voltage regulators are not considered.
The primary reasons for performing the IEC 61363 short circuit calculations include:
1) obtain the short-circuit current magnitude at each point in the power system;
2) compare the calculated fault current to the ratings of installed equipment to verify
the equipment ratings are adequate to handle the short circuit current;
3) support proper selection of circuit protection equipment.
Note that marine and offshore electrical systems typically have large generating capacities
confined in a small area resulting in high short circuit values with low power factors.
Special attention is required if the calculated power factor during fault conditions is below
the power factor used to test the circuit breakers.

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1.2.2 Definitions
Short circuit
accidental or intentional connection, by a relatively low resistance or impedance, of two or
more points in a circuit which are normally at different voltages. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Short circuit current
over-current resulting from a short circuit due to a fault or an incorrect connection in and
electric circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Prospective current
Short-circuit current that would flow in the circuit if each pole of the device were replaced
by a conductor of negligible impedance. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Symmetrical short-circuit current
r.m.s. value of the a.c. symmetrical component of a prospective short-circuit current, the
aperiodic component of current, if any, being neglected. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Initial symmetrical short-circuit current Ik
r.m.s. value of the a.c. symmetrical component of a prospective short-circuit current
applicable at the instant of short circuit if the impedance remains at zero-time value.
[61363-1 IEC:1998]
Current
Theoretical maximum
Peak at 1/2 cycle
Top envelope
idc

Asymmetrical values
including motor contributions

ip

2 I"k

Decaying (aperiodic) component


(DC decay)

i dc

2I k

Time
Bottom envelope

Steady state value


(no motor contributions)

Subtransient short-circuit current Ikd in the direct axis


r.m.s. value of the short-circuit current flowing through a circuit with rotating machines
having an impedance equal to the transient impedance of the circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Transient short-circuit current Ik d in the direct axis
r.m.s. value of the short-circuit current flowing through a circuit with rotating machines
having an impedance equal to the transient impedance of the circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Steady-state short-circuit current Ik d in the direct axis
r.m.s. value of the short-circuit symmetrical current flowing through a circuit with
generators witch remains after the decay of the transient phenomena. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Aperiodic (d.c.) component of the short-circuit current Idc
Component of current in a circuit immediately after it has been suddenly short-circuited,
all components of fundamental and higher frequencies being excluded. [61363-1
IEC:1998]
Peak short-circuit current Ip

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Maximum possible instantaneous value of the prospective short-circuit current [61363-1


IEC:1998]
Direct-axis subtransient short-circuit time constant Td
Time required for the rapidly changing component, present during the first few cycles in
the direct-axis shrot-circuit current following a sudden change in operating conditions, to
decrease to 1/e, i.e. 0.368 of its initial value, the machine (or equivalent machine) running
at rated speed. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Direct-axis subtransient open-circuit time constant Tdo
Time required for the rapidly changing component present during the first few cycles of
the open-circuit primary winding voltage which is due to direct-axis flux following a
sudden change in operation, to decrease to 1/e i.e. 0.368 of its initial value, the machine
running at rated speed. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Direct-axis transient short-circuit time constant Td
Time required for the slowly changing component of the direct-axis short-circuit primary
current following a sudden change in operating conditions, to decrease to 1/e ie.e 0.368 of
its initial value, the machine running at rated speed. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Direct-axis transient opencircuit time constant Tdo
Time required for a slowly changing component of the open-circuit primary voltage,
whish is due to the direct-axis flux, follwing a sudden change in operating conditions, to
decrease to 1/e i.e. 0.368 of its initial value, the machine running at rated speed. [61363-1
IEC:1998]
DC time constant Tdc
Time required for the d.c. component present in the short-circuit current, following a
sudden change in operating conditions, to decrease to 1/e i.d. 0.368 of its initial value, the
machine running at rated speed. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Direct-axis subtransient reactance Xd (saturated)
Quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental a.c. component of
primary voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis primary flux, and the value of
the simultaneous change in fundamental a.c. component of direct-axis primary current, the
machine running at rated speed. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Direct-axis transient reactance Xd (saturated)
Quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental a.c. component of
primary voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis primary flux, and the value of
the simultaneous change in fundamental a.c. component of direct-axis primary current, the
machine running at rated speed and the high decrement components during the first cycles
being excluded. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Direct-axis synchronous reactance Xd
Quotient of the steady-state value of that fundamental a.c. component of primary voltage
which is produced by the total direct-axis primary flux, and direct-axis primary current
after the decay of the transient phenomena. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Stator resistance of a generator Ra
Resistance of the stator of a synchronous machine, measured at d.c. current. [61363-1
IEC:1998]
Short-circuit impedance Z

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Quotient of the sinusoidal voltage per phase on a balanced a.c. system and the same
frequency component of the short-circuit current in that system. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Voltage source
Active element which can be represented by an ideal voltage source independent of all
currents and voltages in the circuit, in series with a passive circuit element. [61363-1
IEC:1998]
Nominal system voltage Un
Voltage (line-to-line) by which a system is designated and to which certain operating
characteristics are referred. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Subtransient voltage of a rotating machine E
r.m.s. value of the symmetrical internal voltage of a machine which is active behind the
subransient impedance Z at the moment of short circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Transient voltage of a rotating machine E
r.m.s. value of the symmetrical internal voltage of a machine which is active behind the
transient impedance Z at the moment of short circuit. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Nominal value (n)
Suitable approximate quantity value used to designate or identify a component, device or
equipment. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Rated value (r)
Quantity value assigned, generally by a manufacturer, for a specified operating condition
of a component, device or equipment. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Equivalent generator
Fictitious generator having characteristics which will produce the same short-circuit
current at any point on an electrical installation, as would be produced by a combination
of generators having different ratings and different characteristics, which are connected to
the system. [61363-1 IEC:1998]
Equivalent motor
Fictitious motor having characteristics which will produce the same short-circuit current at
any point on an electrical installation, as would be produced by a combination of motors
having different ratings and different characteristics, which are connected to the system.
[61363-1 IEC:1998]

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1.2.3 IEC 61363 Symbols


PTWs Reports and documentation conform to IEC 61363 notation, including:
f
Eq
Eq
EM
f
fe
fr
I*
I*
I*
IM*
Ikd
Ikd
I
Iac
IacM
ILR
idc
idcM
ik
I*
Ikd
iM
ip
ipM
Ir
IrM
R
R*
Ra
RC
Rdc
RM
RR
RR*
RS
RS*
RT
t
Td
Td
Td*
Td*
Te
Te
TM

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phase Angle
subtransient q-axis voltage of a generator (r.m.s.)
transient q-axis voltage of a generator (r.m.s.)
subtransient voltage of a motor (r.m.s.)
frequency
lowest frequency of a shaft generator
rated frequency of a network
subtransient short-circuit current of the equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
transient short-circuit current of the equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
current of the equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
subtransient short-circuit current of the equivalent motor (r.m.s.)
subtransient initial short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
transient initial short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
current (r.m.s.)
a.c. component of the short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
symmetrical short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor (r.m.s.)
asynchronous motor locked rotor current
d.c. component of the short-circuit current of a synchronous machine
(instantaneous).
d.c. component of the short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor and an
equivalent motor (instantaneous).
upper envelope of the short-circuit current.
steady-state short-circuit current of an equivalent generator (r.m.s.)
steady-state short-circuit current of a synchronous machine (r.m.s.)
upper envelope of the short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor.
peak value of the short-circuit current of a synchronous machine.
peak value of the short-circuit current of an asynchronous motor.
rated current (r.m.s.)
rated current of an asynchronous motor
resistance
resistance of an equivalent generator
stator resistance of a synchronous machine
cable resistance
d.c. resistance
motor resistance
rotor resistance of an asynchronous motor
rotor resistance of an equivalent asynchronous motor
stator resistance of an asynchronous motor
stator resistance of an equivalent asynchronous motor
resistance of a transformer
time duration from the beginning of a short circuit
subtransient time constant of a synchronous machine
transient time constant of a synchronous machine
subtransient time constant of an equivalent generator
transient time constant of an equivalent generator
subtransient time constant of a synchronous machine including the non-active
components
transient time constant of a synchronous machine including the non-active
components
subtransient time constant of a an asynchronous motor

IEC_61363 FAULT Study

TMe
Tdc
Tdc*
Tdce
TdcM
TdcM*
TdcMe
U0
Un
Ur
UrM
X*
X
Xd
Xd
XM
Z
Z*

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subtransient time constant of a an equivalent asynchronous motor including


connecting cables.
d.c. time constant of a synchronous machine
d.c. time constant of an equivalent generator
d.c. time constant of a synchronous machine including the non-active
components.
d.c. time constant of an asynchronous motor
d.c. time constant of an equivalent asynchronous motor
d.c. time constant of an asynchronous motor including the connecting cables.
prefault voltage (line-to-line)
nominal voltage (line-to-line)
rated voltage (line-to-line)
rated voltage of a motor (line-to-line)
subtransient reactance of an equivalent generator
reactance
subtransient reactance of a synchronous machine in the d-axis
transient reactance of a synchronous machine in the d-axis
subtransient reactance of an asynchronous motor
impedance
equivalent impedance

1.2.4 Methodology
The Conventional or Comprehensive short circuit analysis procedure involves reducing
the network at the short circuit location to a single Thevenin equivalent impedance,
determining the associated fault point R/X ratio calculated using complex vector algebra,
and defining a driving point voltage (assuming the effect of transformer taps on bus
voltage). The initial symmetrical short circuit current can be calculated and, given the
fault location R/X ratios, the asymmetrical short circuit current at various times during the
onset of the fault can be calculated.
Conventional short circuit analysis techniques do not satisfy IEC Standard 61363
methodology. IEC363 requires a time-dependent calculation divided into active and nonactive components with separate AC and DC calculations. Active components, such as
generators and motors, are combined to form equivalent motors and generators. The
equivalent motors and generators are combined with non-active components, such as
cables and transformers, to further adjust the impedance and time constants of the
equivalent components.

Short-Circuit Study Procedure


The general study procedure outlined in the IEC 61363 standard includes:
1.

prepare a system one-line diagram;

2.

define component characteristics;

3.

calculate the time-dependent short-circuit currents at the major points in the system
using the equations and methods described in the IEC 61363 standard;

4.

prepare a short-circuit summary and document study conclusions.

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1.2.5 IEC 61363 Assumptions


IEC 61363 standard outlines procedures for calculating short-circuit currents that may
occur on a marine or offshore a.c. electrical installation. The calculation methods are for
use on unmeshed three-phase alternating current systems, operating at 50 Hz or 60 Hz.
The following assumptions are applied
-

All system capacitance are neglected

The short-circuit arc impedance is neglected

The short circuit occurs simultaneously in all three phases (three phase fault)

Unmeshed systems

When calculating short-circuit currents, it is important to understand the difference


between
-

The short-circuit current generated by an individual piece of equipment

The short-circuit current which results when several pieces of equipment are
connected in a system.

When an isolated machine is being considered, only the electrical parameters of the
machine affect the short-circuit current generated. In a system, however, this current is
limited by the impedance of the non-active components, for example, cables, transformers,
etc., forming the system, changing both the transient and steady-state values of the
resulting short-circuit current.

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1.2.6 IEC 61363 Equations


Generators
Three-phase short-circuit current calculation
The upper envelope of the maximum values of the three-phase short-circuit current of a
generator can be calculated as

ik (t ) = 2 I ac (t ) + idc (t )
The a.c. component
"
I ac (t ) = ( I kd
I kd' )e t / Td + ( I kd' I kd )e t / Td + I kd
"

"
kd

'
kd

E q" 0
Z d"
Eq' 0
Z d'

E q" 0

'

Ra2 + X d" 2
Eq' 0
Ra2 + X d'2

E q" 0 =

2
U0
cos 0 + Ra I 0 +
3

2
U0
sin 0 + X d" I 0
3

Eq' 0 =

2
U0
cos 0 + Ra I 0 +
3

2
U0
sin 0 + X d' I 0
3

The d.c. component


"
idc (t ) = 2 ( I kd
I 0 sin 0 )e t / Tdc

The peak value

T
T
T
i p = ik ( ) = 2 I ac ( ) + idc ( )
2
2
2
for 60 Hz system

T 1000
=
= 8.33 ms
2 60 * 2

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Effects of non-active components connected in series with Generators


Impedance changes

Z e" = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d" + X ) 2
Z e' = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Time-constant changes

Te" =

Te' =

[( R

+ R) 2 + ( X d" + X ) 2 X d' Td"


( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d" + X )( X d' + X ) X d"

[( R

+ R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2 X d Td'
( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X )( X d + X ) X d'

Tdce =

Tdc + X

2fRa

1+ R

Ra

Motors
General motor parameter

RM = RR (rotor ) + RS ( stator )

X M" = X R (rotor ) + X S ( stator )


TM" =

XR + XS
r RR

TdcM =

XR + XS
r RS

General data for large motors ( > 100 kW)

Z M" = 0.16 p.u.


X M" = 0.15 p.u.
RS = 0.034 p.u.
R R = 0.021 p.u.

at 60 Hz, TM" = 18.67 ms TdcM = 11.73 ms


at 50 Hz, TM" = 22.4 ms TdcM = 14.08 ms

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General data for small motors

Z M" = 0.2 p.u.


X M" = 0.188 p.u.
RS = 0.043 p.u.
R R = 0.027 p.u.

at 60 Hz, TM" = 18.67 ms TdcM = 11.73 ms


at 50 Hz, TM" = 22.4 ms TdcM = 14.08 ms

Three-phase short-circuit current calculation


The upper envelope of the maximum values of the three-phase short-circuit current of an
asynchronous motor can be calculated as

i pM (t ) = 2 I acM (t ) + idcM (t )

The a.c. component

I acM (t ) = I M" e t / TM
"

I M" =

E M"' =

E M"
=
Z M"

E M"
RM2 + X M2

2
2
U rM
U rM
cos M + RM I rM
+
sin M + X M' I rM
3
3

The d.c. component

idcM (t ) = 2 ( I M" I rM sin M )e t / TdcM


The peak value

T
T
T
i p = ik ( ) = 2 I acM ( ) + idcM ( )
2
2
2
for 60 Hz system at cycle

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T 1000
=
= 8.33 ms
2 60 * 2

Effects of non-active components connected in series Motors


Impedance Changes

RMe = RR + RS + R
"
X Me
= XR + XS + X

Time-constant changes
"
=
TMe

"
X Me
r RR

TdcMe =

"
X Me
r ( RS + R )

Equivalent generator

I ac (t ) * = ( I *" I *' )e t / Td * + ( I *' I * )e t / Td * + I k *


"

'

I ac (t ) * = M * e t / Td * + N * e t / Td * + I k *
"

'

I dcM (t )* = 2 I*"e t / Tdc*

where we defined the following variables,


n

"
*

I =

"
kdi

"
I Mj

+
i

i
n

'
*

'
I kdi

I =
i
n

I k* =

I kdi
i

M * = ( I *" I *' )
N * = ( I *' I k * )

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Equivalent generator time constant


For generator:

K " (t ) = ( I kd" I kd' )e t / Td + I kd'


"

For motor:

K " (t ) = I M" e t / TM
"

Thus,

K (t )* =

K (t ) +
i

Td"* (t x ) =

Td' * (t x ) =

Tdc* (t x ) =

I "jM e t / T "M

"
i

"

tx
K (t x )* I *'
ln
M*
"

tx
I (t ) ( M *e t x / Td * + I k * )
ln ac x *
N*
"

tx
i (t )
ln dc x " *
2 I*

Equivalent generator impedance

Z*" =

U0
,
3I*"

Z*' =

R* (t ) = c 3 (t ) X *" (t ) ,

X *" (t ) =

U0
,
3I*'
c 3 (t ) =

Z* =

U0
3I*

1
2fTdc* (t )

Z *"
1 + c32

X *' (t ) = Z *'2 R*2


X * (t ) = Z *2 R*2

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Effects of non-active components connected in series with Equivalent Generators


Impedance changes

Z e" = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d" + X ) 2
Z e' = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2
Z e' = ( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d + X ) 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Time-constant changes

[( R

+ R) 2 + ( X d" + X ) 2 X d' Td"


T =
( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d" + X )( X d' + X ) X d"
"
e

[( R

+ R) 2 + ( X d' + X ) 2 X d Td'
T =
( Ra + R) 2 + ( X d' + X )( X d + X ) X d'
'
e

Tdce =

Tdc + X
1+ R

2fRa

Ra

Three-phase short-circuit current calculation


The upper envelope of the maximum values of the three-phase short-circuit current of an
equivalent generator can be calculated as

ik (t ) = 2 I ac (t ) + idc (t )

The a.c. component


"
I kd
=

U0 '
U
U
, I kd = 0' , I kd == 0
"
Ze
Ze
Ze

"
I ac (t ) = ( I kd
I kd' )e t / Td + ( I kd' I kd )e t / Td + I kd
"

The d.c. component


"
idc (t ) = 2 ( I kd
)e t / Tdc

Equivalent motor

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I acM (t )* = I M" *e t / TM *
"

I dcM (t )* = 2 I M" *e t / TdcM *


where we defined the following variables,
n

"
I M" * = I Mj
j

Equivalent motor time constant

K M" (t ) = I M" e t / TM
"

K dcM (t ) = 2 I M" e t / TdcM


TM" * (t x ) =

Tdc* (t x ) =

tx
K " (t )
ln M" x
IM*

tx
K dcM (t x )
ln
2 I M" *

Equivalent motor impedance

RR * (t ) = c1 X M" * (t ) ,
c1 (t ) =
Z M" * =

"
M*

1
,
2fTM" * (t )

RS * (t ) = c 2 (t ) X M" * (t )
c 2 (t ) =

1
2fTdcM * (t )

U0
"
2
"2
or Z M * = ( RR * + RS * ) + X M *
"
3I M *

(t ) =

Z M" *
1 + (c1 (t ) + c 2 (t )) 2

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Effects of non-active components connected in series Equivalent Motors


Impedance Changes

RMe = RR + RS + R
"
X Me
= XR + XS + X

Time-constant changes
"
Me

"
X Me
=
r RR

TdcMe

"
X Me
=
r ( RS + R )

Three-phase short-circuit current calculation


The upper envelope of the maximum values of the three-phase short-circuit current of an
equivalent asynchronous motor can be calculated as

i M (t ) = 2 I acM (t ) + idcM (t )
The a.c. component
"
I kd
=

U0
Z e"

I ac (t ) = I kd" e t / Td

"

The d.c. component


"
idc (t ) = 2 ( I kd
)e t / Tdc

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1.3 PTW Applied Methodology


PTW applies the methodology described in Section 1.2. Section 1.3 describes how to run
the IEC_363 Study, including explanations of the various options associated with the
Study.

1.3.1 Before Running the IEC 61363 Fault Study


Before running the IEC 61363 Fault Study, you must:

Define the system topology and connections.

Define feeder and transformer sizes.

Define fault contribution data.

1.3.2 Running the IEC61363 Fault Study


You can run the Study from any screen in PTW, and it always runs on the active project.
To run the IEC 61363 Study
1.

From the Run menu, choose Analysis.

2.

Select the check box next to Short Circuit and choose the IEC 61363 option button.

3.

To change the Study options, choose the Setup button.

4.

Choose the OK button to return to the Study dialog box, and choose the Run button.

The Short Circuit Study runs, writes the results to the database, and creates a report.

1.3.3 IEC 61363 Study Options


The IEC_FAULT Study dialog box lets you select options for running the Study.

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Following is a list of the available Study options.

Report and Study Options


These boxes allow you to customize the breadth of the Study and its Report. You can
choose between a summary report, standard report or a detailed report

Faulted Buses: All or Selected


You can report a fault at a single bus, a group of buses or all buses. If a fault is to be
reported at a single bus or selected group of buses, then the faulted bus(es) must be
specified using the Select button. The default is to report the fault current at all buses.

System Modeling
These options further customize the Study.
System Frequency
The system frequency must be defined for the time-dependent calculations. The
system frequency is set in the Project>Options>Application menu.
Model Transformer Tap
You may model the transformer taps by selecting this check box.

Time Varying Setup


The time varying setup allows you to specify times to report Iac and Idc time-dependent
short circuit currents.

1.3.4 Component Modeling


Fault Contribution Data
Contribution data must be defined for synchronous generators, synchronous motors, and
asynchronous motors.
Synchronous Generators and Motors
Synchronous generator and motor short circuit current contributions are defined in the
Component Editor as shown in the following figures:

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IEC_61363 FAULT Study

IEC_FAULT 19

ANSI Contribution Format

IEC Contribution Format

The IEC 61363 calculations requires entry of the following values: Xd, Xd, Xd, Ra,
Td, Td and Tdc. For definitions of these values refer to section 1.2.2. Since the IEC
61363 calculations are for 3-phase faults only, the negative sequence, zero sequence and
neutral impedance values are not used. However values for these fields are still required
since the IEC60909, ANSI and Comprehensive fault calculations use them.
PTW calculates the machine kVA and voltage base using the data you enter in the first
subview of the Component Editor. The motor rated size is in mechanical units of work
(output) when entered as horsepower, but in equivalent electrical units of work (input)
when entered as electrical quantities of kVA, MVA or kW. Motor efficiency is used to
convert horsepower to electrical units of work, and power factor is used to convert kW to
kVA. If the rated kVA base in the IEC Contribution subview is zero, then PTW calculates
the equivalent kVA base from the machine rated size shown in the first subview of the
Component Editor. If the rated kVA base is not zero, PTW will not change it, even if you
enter a revised rated size in the motors first subview. Also, if the rated voltage is not zero,
PTW will not change it. Therefore, you may need to modify the rated machine kVA and
kVA base together; if you do not modify them together, the kVA base will remain

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Reference Manual

unchanged, even if you change the rated size on the first subview of the Component
Editor.
In order to fully model a synchronous machine, the rated size of the machine must be
defined, along with the power factor. Motors can be defined in the Component Editor as
either a single motor (the default) or as multiple motors. PTW will calculate the power for
multiple motors modeled at the bus.
Asynchronous Induction Motors
Asynchronous motor short circuit currents should be modeled in IEC 61363 calculations.
The Component Editor ANSI and IEC contribution data boxes are shown in the following
figures:
ANSI Format

IEC Format

The fields added specifically for the IEC 61363 calculations are the ratio of Stator
Resistance to Rotor Resistance, Td, and Tdc. Either entry format can be used.

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IEC_61363 FAULT Study

IEC_FAULT 21

The motor rated size is in mechanical units of work (output) when entered as horsepower,
but is in equivalent electrical units of work (input) when entered as electrical quantities of
kVA, MVA or kW. Motor efficiency is used to convert horsepower to electrical units of
work, and power factor is used to convert kW to kVA. If the rated kVA base is zero, then
PTW calculates the equivalent kVA base using the machine rated size as defined in the
first subview of the Component Editor. The number of pole pairs, combined with the rated
kW of asynchronous machines, is used to calculate the breaking current duty. If multiple
motors are modeled in a single motor object, PTW will model the MW/pp of each of the
individual motors that comprise the group. Asynchronous motors are modeled as deltaconnected. If specific motor data is not available, the following typical data can be used
for the IEC 61363 calculations:

Large motors ( > 100 kW)

Z M" = 0.16 p.u.


X M" = 0.15 p.u.
RS = 0.034 p.u.
R R = 0.021 p.u.

at 60 Hz, TM" = 18.67 ms TdcM = 11.73 ms


at 50 Hz, TM" = 22.4 ms TdcM = 14.08 ms

Small motors (<100kW)

Z M" = 0.2 p.u.


X M" = 0.188 p.u.
RS = 0.043 p.u.
R R = 0.027 p.u.

at 60 Hz, TM" = 18.67 ms TdcM = 11.73 ms


at 50 Hz, TM" = 22.4 ms TdcM = 14.08 ms

Cables and Transformers


Cables and transformers are modeled with a series resistance and reactance as positive
sequence components. PTW assumes that the negative-sequence impedance is equal to
the positive-sequence value. No shunt capacitance is modeled in IEC 61363.

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Transformers also are modeled with a positive sequence impedance value. Zero sequence
impedance values are not used in the IEC 61363 calculations and therefore transformer
earthing impedance is also not used.
Transformer taps may be modeled. A negative primary tap raises the secondary voltage.
Taps will only be considered if the IEC 61363 Study Setup dialog box is set to model
them. The driving point voltages are defined by the generators and are not modified by the
transformer tap settings.
Transformer off-nominal voltage ratios, as compared to the primary and secondary bus
system nominal voltages, are modeled when the Model Transformer Taps check box is
selected in the Study setup dialog box. Essentially, PTW will create a fictitious primary
and/or secondary tap to ensure that the voltage ratios are properly matched.

1.3.5 Error Messages


PTW examines the entered data for the IEC 61363 Study. If PTW finds missing or
incomplete information, it sends an error message to the Study Message dialog box. The
Study Messages dialog box will report both fatal and warning messages. The Study will
attempt to run to completion even if fatal errors are detected, in order to identify any other
errors. The error messages are shared between all fault studies even though each has
slightly different data requirements.
A somewhat common error is:
The calculated zero sequence impedance is negative.

It involves the entry of single-line-to-easrth short circuit contribution data. PTW uses the
three-phase fault data and the single-line-to-earth fault data to calculate the positive-,
negative- and zero-sequence impedances from the following per-unit equations:
Z1 = Z 2
1.0
Z1 =
I f3

b g

3 1.0
Z1 + Z 2 + Z 0

I fsle =

Z0 =

3
Z1 Z 2
I fsle

Utilities often report available single-line-to-earth fault duties on an equivalent threephase rating apparent power basis, using the equation:
kVA 3 = 3 I fsle kVLL

However, the actual apparent power of a single-line-to-ground fault is:


kVA1 = I fsle

kV
3

where
kV

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line-to-line voltage.

IEC_61363 FAULT Study

IEC_FAULT 23

You cannot use the three-phase equivalent rating of a single-line-to-ground short circuit
contribution. If you do, PTW may attempt to calculate the zero-sequence impedance as a
negative value. The actual apparent power to be entered into PTW is the utility equivalent
single-line-to-earth duty divided by three. Enter the single-line-to-ground fault current
X/R ratio, not the zero sequence impedance X/R ratio.

1.3.6 Reports
For each fault location, IEC_363 reports:

Iac at 1/2 Cycle, 3 Cycles, 5 Cycles, and one user-defined time, T4

Idc at 1/2 Cycle, 3 Cycles, 5 Cycles, and one user-defined time, T4

Iac for each branch and source feeding the fault at 1/2 Cycle, 3 Cycles, 5 Cycles, and
one user-defined time, T4

Idc for each branch and source feeding the fault at 1/2 Cycle, 3 Cycles, 5 Cycles, and
one user-defined time, T4

Ipeak for each bus and branch

*FAULT BUS: B1
Voltage: 4.200 kV

Ipeak: 38583.56 A

x(peak factor): 1.615

TIME (Cycles)
0.0
0.5
3.0
5.0
12.5
================================================================================
Iac(A)
16893.27
14520.23
9684.34
8743.52
7935.77
Idc(A)
22907.14
18048.85
9065.28
6133.30
1573.11

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1.4 Application Example


1.4.1 Sample Project in IEC 61363 Standard
The following example was included in the IEC 61363 1996 Standard:
G1

500 kW
X"d 0.12 pu
X'd 0.18 pu
Xd 2.60 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 20.00 ms
Td' 320.00 ms
Tdc 64.00 ms
E1

E1C

10.0 Meters
R 0.110 Ohms/km
X 0.095 Ohms/km

3500 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms

G2

T2C
10.0 Meters
R 0.125 Ohms/km
X 0.098 Ohms/km
T2
2000.0 kVA
R 1.150 %
X 6.400 %
T2B5C
18.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km
B5
600 V

3500 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms

G3

T4C
10.0 Meters
R 0.095 Ohms/km
X 0.095 Ohms/km
T4
2500.0 kVA
R 1.050 %
X 6.410 %

3500 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms

B1
4200 V

M2
2000.0 kW (Output)
X"d 0.1500 pu
Td" 18.67 ms
Tdc 11.73 ms
Rs/Rr 1.6190

T4B2C
10.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km

MB4/5
2000.0 kW (Output)
X"d 0.1880 pu
Td" 18.67 ms
Tdc 11.73 ms
Rs/Rr 1.5926

B2
600 V
MB2/3
B2BEC
46.0 Meters
R 0.164 Ohms/km
X 0.096 Ohms/km

T7
250.0 kVA
R 1.780 %
X 6.770 %

B7

1700.0 kW (Output)
X"d 0.1880 pu
Td" 18.67 ms
Tdc 11.73 ms
Rs/Rr 1.5926

B2B3C
30.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km

2000 kW
X"d 0.17 pu
X'd 0.29 pu
Xd 2.75 pu
Ra 0.01 pu
Td" 26.00 ms
Td' 420.00 ms
Tdc 93.00 ms
G4
G4C
11.0 Meters
R 0.069 Ohms/km
X 0.092 Ohms/km

120 V
BE
600 V

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IEC_61363 FAULT Study

IEC_FAULT 25

A portion of the output report is shown:

*FAULT BUS: B1
Voltage: 4.200 kV

Ipeak: 38406.35 A

x(peak factor): 1.616

TIME (Cycles)
0.0
0.5
3.0
5.0
12.5
================================================================================
Iac(A)
16806.57
14453.94
9663.52
8732.21
7930.09
Idc(A)
22784.53
17965.39
9036.90
6119.38
1571.28
TIME-DEPENDENT SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS AT THE MAJOR POINTS:

Bus Name:B1
Voltage: 4.200 kV
TIME(Cycles)
0.0
0.5
3.0
5.0
12.5
================================================================================
- M2
Ipeak: 3127.69 A.
Iac(A)
1884.71
1206.14
129.47
21.72
0.03
Idc(A)
2893.48
1421.95
40.76
2.38
0.00
- G1
Ipeak: 9382.70 A.
Iac(A)
3838.60
3454.88
2608.89
2419.96
2221.24
Idc(A)
4918.30
4496.76
2872.92
2007.53
523.52
- G2
Ipeak: 9382.70 A.
Iac(A)
3838.60
3454.88
2608.89
2419.96
2221.24
Idc(A)
4918.30
4496.76
2872.92
2007.53
523.52
- G3
Ipeak: 9382.70 A.
Iac(A)
3838.60
3454.88
2608.89
2419.96
2221.24
Idc(A)
4918.30
4496.76
2872.92
2007.53
523.52
- MB4/5 (Eq. Motor)
Ipeak: 2004.50 A.
Iac(A)
1047.51
775.94
173.05
52.10
0.58
Idc(A)
1800.69
907.16
29.44
1.90
0.00
- B2 (Eq. Gen.)
Ipeak: 5126.06 A.
Iac(A)
2358.54
2107.21
1534.33
1398.52
1265.76
Idc(A)
3335.47
2146.01
347.95
92.52
0.72

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Datablock results for the same faulted bus are displayed on the following one-line:
AC (T0) 3842 A
DC (T0) 4924 A
Ip 9392 A
G1

AC (T0) 3842 A
DC (T0) 4924 A
Ip 9392 A

AC (T0) 3842 A
DC (T0) 4924 A
Ip 9392 A

G2

G3
B1
AC (0.5cy) 14520 A
AC (3cy) 9684 A
DC (0.5cy) 18049 A
DC (3cy) 9065 A
Ip 38584 A

T2C
T4C
M2
AC (0.5cy) 2108 A
AC (3cy) 1535 A
Ip 5143 A

T2
AC (0.5cy) 831 A
AC (3cy) 185 A
Ip 2136 A

T4
S

AC (0.5cy) 1206 A
AC (3cy) 129 A
DC (0.5cy) 1422 A
DC (3cy) 41 A
Ip 3128 A

T2B5C
B5

T4B2C

MB4/5
B2

B2BEC
E1

T7

B2B3C
MB2/3

E1C

G4
G4C

BE

B7

B3

Note that the contributions from MB4/5 Equivalent and Equivalent Generator EG are
slightly different in PTW than the hand calculation example shown in the IEC 61363
standard. These slight differences are due to neglecting motor pre-load condition in PTW
and inconsistent rounding in the hand calculation. The contributions from G1, G2, G3
and M2 match as expected.

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