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# Classical Optimization Techniques

## Prof. Keyur P Hirpara

Assistant Professor
keyur.hirpara@nirmauni.ac.in
9879519312

## Relative and Global Optimum

A function is said to have a relative or local minimum at x =
x* if f(x*) f(x+h) for all sufficiently small positive and
negative values of h, i.e. in the near vicinity of the point x.
Similarly, a point x* is called a relative or local maximum if
f(x*) f(x+h) for all values of h sufficiently close to zero.
A function is said to have a global or absolute minimum at x
= x* if f(x*) f(x) for all x in the domain over which f(x) is
defined.
Similarly, a function is said to have a global or absolute
maximum at x = x* if f(x*)f(x) for all x in the domain over
which f(x) is defined.

## Functions of a single variable

Consider the function f(x) defined for axb
To find the value of x* [a, b] such that x* maximizes f(x) we
need to solve a single variable optimization problem.
We have the following theorems to understand the necessary
and sufficient conditions for the relative maximum of a
function of a single variable.

## Functions of a single variable

Necessary condition :
For a single variable function f(x) defined for x [a,b]
which has a relative maximum at x = x*, x* [a,b] if the
derivative f(x) = d f(x)/dx exists as a finite number at x =
x* then f(x*) = 0.

## We need to keep in mind that the above theorem

holds good for relative minimum as well.
The theorem only considers a domain where the
function is continuous.

## Functions of a single variable

The theorem does not say what
happens if a minimum or maximum
occurs at a point x* where the
derivative fails to exist.
The theorem does not say what
happens if a minimum or maximum
occurs at an endpoint of the interval
of definition of the function. In this
exists for positive values of h only or
for negative values of h only, and
hence the derivative is not defined at
the endpoints.
The theorem does not say that the
function necessarily will have a
minimum or maximum at every point
where the derivative is zero. For
example (fig), However, this point is
neither a minimum nor a maximum.
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Stationary points
In general, a point x* at which f(x*) = 0 is called a stationary
point.

## Figure showing the three types of stationary points

(a) minimum (b) maximum (c) inflection point
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## Functions of a single variable

Sufficient condition:
For the same function stated above let f (x*) = f (x*)
= . . . = f (n-1)(x*) = 0, but f (n)(x*) 0, then it can be
said that f (x*) is
a minimum value of f (x) if f (n)(x*) > 0 and n is even;
a maximum value of f (x) if f (n)(x*) < 0 and n is even;
neither a maximum nor a minimum if n is odd.

Example
Determine the maximum and minimum values of the function
f (x) = 12x5 45x4 + 40x3 + 5
f (x) = 60(x4 3x3 + 2x2)
= 60 x2(x 1)(x 2),
f (x) = 0 at x = 0, x = 1, and x = 2.
The second derivative is
f (x) = 60(4x3 9x2 + 4x)
At x = 1, f (x) = 60
Here value of function is negative, hence at x = 1 is a relative
maximum.
fmax = f (x = 1) = 12
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Example
At x = 2, f (x) = 240
Here value of function is positive, hence x = 2 is a relative maximum.
fmin = f (x = 2) = 11

At x = 0, f (x) = 0 and
Here value of function is zero, hence we must investigate the next
derivative:

## f (x) = 60(12x2 18x + 4) = 240 at x = 0

Since f (x) = 0 at x = 0,
Here n=3 (even)
x = 0 is neither a maximum nor a minimum, and it is an inflection
point.

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Example
Find the optimum value of the function f(x) = x2+3x-5 and
also state if the function attains a maximum or a minimum.
Solution:
f(x) = 2x+3 for maxima or minima
OR x* = -3/2
f(x) = 2
Which is positive hence the point x*= -3/2 is a point of minima
and the function attains a minimum value of -29/4 at this point.

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## Multivariable with No constraint

Necessary conditions
If f(X) has an extreme point
(maximum or minimum) at
X = X and if the first
partial derivatives of f(X)
exist at X, then

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## Multivariable with no constraint

Sufficient Condition:
A sufficient condition for a stationary point X to be an extreme point is
that the matrix of second partial derivatives (Hessian matrix) of f(X)
evaluated at X is
Positive definite when X is a relative minimum point
And negative definite when X is a relative maximum point.

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## Multivariable with no constraint

A square matrix is positive definite if all its Eigen values are
positive and it is negative definite if all its Eigen values are
negative. If some of the Eigen values are positive and some
negative then the matrix is neither positive definite or negative
definite.
To calculate the Eigen values of a square matrix then the
following equation is solved.
|A-I|=0

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Sufficient condition
Test that can be used to find the positive definiteness of a
matrix A of order n involves evaluation of the determinants

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## Nature of the extreme points

Point
X=X*

Value
(a11)

Value
H(x)

Nature of J

Nature of X

F(x)

(X1,X2)

+ Ve

+ Ve

Positive definite
(Convex)

Relative
Minimum

minimum value

(X1,X2)

+ Ve

- Ve

Indefinite

## Find the value of

function at [X1,X2]

(X1,X2)

- Ve

- Ve

Indefinite

## Find the value of

function at [X1,X2]

(X1,X2)

- Ve

+ Ve

Negative definite
(Concave)

Relative
Maximum

Maximum value

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## Nature of the extreme points

In the case of a function of two variables, f (x, y), the Hessian matrix may
be neither positive nor negative definite at a point (x, y) at which
In such a case, the point (x, y) is called a saddle point. it corresponds to
a relative minimum or maximum of f(x, y) with respect to one variable,
say, x (the other variable being fixed at y = y) and a relative maximum
or minimum of f(x, y) with respect to the second variable y (the other
variable being fixed at x).
As an example, consider the function f (x, y) = x2 y2. For this function

## These first derivatives are zero at x = 0 and y = 0. The Hessian matrix of f

at (x, y) is given by

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## Nature of the extreme points

Since this matrix is neither positive definite nor negative definite, the point
(x = 0, y = 0) is a saddle point.
The function is shown graphically in Fig.
It can be seen that f (x, y) = f (x, 0) has a relative minimum and f (x, y) =
f (0, y) has a relative maximum at the saddle point (x, y).
Saddle points may exist for functions of more than two variables also.

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Example
Figure shows two frictionless rigid bodies (carts) A and B connected
by three linear elastic springs having spring constants k1, k2, and k3.
The springs are at their natural positions when the applied force P is
zero. Find the displacements x1 and x2 under the force P by using
the principle of minimum potential energy.

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Example
The potential energy of the system is given by
potential energy (U) = strain energy of springs work done by external
forces
The necessary conditions for the minimum of U are

## The values of x1 and x2 corresponding to the equilibrium state,

obtained by solving above equations

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Example
The sufficiency conditions for the minimum at (x1* , x2*) can
also be verified by testing the positive definiteness of the
Hessian matrix of U. The Hessian matrix of U evaluated at
(x1* , x2*) is

## The determinants of the square sub matrices of J are

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Example
Find the extreme points of the function
The necessary conditions for the existence of an extreme point are

## These equations are satisfied at the points

To find the nature of these extreme points, we have to use the sufficiency
conditions. The second-order partial derivatives of f are given by

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Example
The Hessian matrix of f is given by

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## Multivariable with Equality constraint

Direct Substitution method
Example: Find the dimensions of a box of largest volume that can
be inscribed in a sphere of unit radius.
Let the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system x1, x2, x3 be at
the center of the sphere and the sides of the box be 2x1, 2x2,
and 2x3. The volume of the box is given by:
f(x1, x2, x3) = 8x1x2x3

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Example
Since the corners of the box lie on the surface of the sphere of
unit radius, x1, x2, and x3 have to satisfy the constraint
This problem has three design variables and one equality
constraint. Hence the equality constraint can be used to
eliminate any one of the design variables from the objective
function. If we choose to eliminate x3,
Thus the objective function becomes
which can be maximized as an unconstrained function in two
variables.

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Example
The necessary conditions for the maximum of f give,

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Example
To find whether the solution found corresponds to a maximum or a
minimum, we apply the sufficiency conditions to f(x1, x2)

Since,

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## Solution by Constrained Variation Method

In above figure PQ indicates the curve at each point of which constraint is
satisfied. If A is taken as the base point (x1* ,x2*), the variations in x1 and x2
leading to points B and C are called admissible variations. On the other hand,
the variations in x1 and x2 representing point D are not admissible since
point D does not lie on the constraint curve, g(x1, x2) = 0.
Necessary condition
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Example
A beam of uniform rectangular cross section is to be cut from a log having a
circular cross section of diameter 2a. The beam has to be used as a
cantilever beam (the length is fixed) to carry a concentrated load at the free
end. Find the dimensions of the beam that correspond to the maximum
tensile (bending) stress carrying capacity.

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Example
we know that the tensile stress induced in a rectangular beam () at any
fiber located a distance y from the neutral axis is given by
where M is the bending moment acting and I is the moment of inertia of the
cross section about the x axis.
If the width and depth of the rectangular beam shown in Fig. are 2x and 2y,
respectively, the maximum tensile stress induced is given by

## Subject to the constraint

x 2 + y 2 = a2
This problem has two variables and one constraint;
f = kx1y2
g = x2 + y2 a2 (Where, k= 3M/4)
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Example

We have equation,

## Put this value in constraint,

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Solution by
the Lagrange Multipliers method
Take example of two variables and one constraint
Minimize f (x1, x2)
Subject to, g(x1, x2) = 0
The necessary condition for the existence of an extreme point at X =
X* was found in previous Section
(Eq-1)
By defining a quantity , called the Lagrange multiplier, as
(Eq-2)
Equation can be expressed as
(Eq-3)
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Solution by
the Lagrange Multipliers method
Equation 2 can be expressed as
(Eq-4)
Hence equations (3) to (4) represent the necessary conditions
for the point [x1*, x2*] to be an extreme point.
Necessary conditions require that at least one of the partial
derivatives of g(x1, x2) be non-zero at an extreme point.
The necessary conditions given by Eqs. (3) to (4) are more
commonly generated by constructing a function L, known as
the Lagrange function, as

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Solution by
the Lagrange Multipliers method
By treating L as a function of the three variables x1, x2, and ,
the necessary conditions for its extreme are given by

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Example
Find the solution of Previous example using the Lagrange multiplier
method:
The necessary conditions for the minimum of f (x, y)

Comparing both values of derived from first two equations and put in to
third equation,

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## Necessary Condition for a General

Problem
The Lagrange function, L, in this case is defined by
introducing one Lagrange multiplier j for each constraint gj
(X) as

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## Sufficient Condition for a General

Problem

Where
If determinant of this equation is positive function is Minimum.
If determinant of this equation is Negative function is Maximum.
If some of the roots of this polynomial are positive while the others are
negative, the point X* is not an extreme point.
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## Multivariable optimization with

inequality constraint

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