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take sth in phrasal verb UNDERSTAND

1. [ M ] to understand completely the meaning or importance of something

I had to read the letter twice before I could take it all in.
It was an interesting exhibition, but there was too much to take in at once.

diverse /d a vs/ /dvs/ adjective

varied or different
Students from countries as diverse as Colombia and Lithuania use Cambridge
New York is a very culturally/ethnically diverse city.
hand sth over phrasal verb [ M ]
to give something to someone else
We were ordered to hand over our passports.
See also handover
hand sth/sb over phrasal verb [ M ]
to give another person control of someone or something, or responsibility for dealing
with them
The hijacker was handed over to the French police.
If you'll hold the line a moment I'll hand you over to someone who might be able to
See also handover

displace /dsples/ verb [ T ]

to force something or someone out of its usual or original position
The building of a new dam will displace thousands of people who live in this area.


/dsplest/ adjective

aside /sad/ adverb EXCEPT

4. aside from
except for
Money continues to be a problem but aside from that we're all well.
I hardly watch any television, aside from news and current affairs.

procedure /prsi.d r / /-d/ noun MEDICAL TREATMENT

2. [ C ] a medical operation
It's a routine/standard surgical procedure.

betray /btre/ verb [ T ] SHOW

3. to show feelings, thoughts or a particular characteristic without intending to
If he is nervous on stage, he does not betray it.
Although she often seems quite cold and harsh, her smiling eyes betray her true

moron /m.rn/ /mr.n/ noun [ C ] INFORMAL

a very stupid person
Some moron smashed into the back of my car yesterday.
[ as form of address ] You moron!

tagger /tg. r / noun [ C ] SLANG

someone who paints their name or a special mark on buildings

project /prdekt/ verb THROW

2. [ T ] to throw or direct something forwards, with force
Ninety percent of the projected missiles will hit their target.
3. project your voice
to sing or speak loudly and clearly
It's a big theatre so you really have to project your voice if you're going to be heard at
the back.

lash out (sth) phrasal verb UK INFORMAL

to spend a large amount of money in an unnecessary or wasteful way
He lashed out 5000 on his daughter's wedding.
lash out phrasal verb
to suddenly attack someone or something physically or criticise them in an angry way
I was only teasing him and suddenly he lashed out ( at me) and hit me in the face.
Why's Tina in such a bad mood? She really lashed out at me when I was late for work.

tease /tiz/ verb [ I or T ]

to laugh at someone or say unkind things about them, either because you are joking or
because you want to upset them
I used to hate being teased about my red hair when I was at school.
I was only teasing, I didn't mean to upset you.

freak /frik/ verb [ I or T ] INFORMAL

to become or cause someone to become extremely emotional

My parents freaked when I told them I was pregnant.
He freaked out when he heard he'd got the job.
This song just freaks me out whenever I hear it.

sober /s.b r / /so.b/ adjective NOT DRUNK

1. not drunk or affected by alcohol

Are you sober enough to drive, Jim?
I'd had no wine all evening so I was stone cold (= completely) sober.
hit the nail on the head
to describe exactly what is causing a situation or problem
I think Mick hit the nail on the head when he said that what's lacking from this
company is a feeling of confidence.

convention /knven t . n/ noun MEETING

1. [ C ] a large formal meeting of people who do a particular job or have a similar

interest, or a large meeting for a political party
the national Democratic convention
Where are they holding their party convention?
make your presence felt
to have a strong effect on other people or on a situation
The new police chief has really made his presence felt.

grounded /gran.dd/ adjective SENSIBLE

1. Someone who is grounded has a very sensible way of thinking or behaving.

He's very grounded even though he has so much money.
lock sb up phrasal verb [ M ]
to put someone in a prison or a hospital for people who are mentally ill
Murderers should be locked up for life.
After what she did, they should lock her up and throw away the key (= lock her up
until she dies) .
See also lockup

rip /rp/ verb -pp- TEAR

1. [ I or T ] to pull apart; to tear or be torn violently and quickly

His new trousers ripped when he bent down.
I ripped my shirt on a nail.
[ + object + adjective ] She excitedly ripped the parcel open .
The wind ripped the flag to/into shreds (= into little pieces) .
2. [ T + adverb or preposition ] to remove something quickly, without being careful
I wish the old fireplaces hadn't been ripped out .
We ripped up the carpets and laid a new wooden floor.
poke around phrasal verb ( UK ALSO poke about ) INFORMAL
to search for something by moving things about, usually not in a very careful or
organized way
I was poking about in the drawer, looking for the key, when I found this!

dig /dg/ verb digging , dug , dug APPROVE

5. [ T ] OLD-FASHIONED SLANG to like or understand something
Hey, I really dig those shoes!
You dig my meaning, man?

heady /hed.i/ adjective

having a powerful effect, making you feel slightly drunk or excited
a heady wine/perfume
In the heady days of their youth, they thought anything was possible.

mind-boggling /mandbg.l ./ /-b.gl ./ adjective INFORMAL

extremely surprising and difficult to understand or imagine
She was paid the mind-boggling sum of ten million pounds for that film.

hitchhike /ht.hak/ verb [ I ]

to travel by getting free rides in someone else's vehicle
Women should never hitchhike on their own.
See also hitch

rebellious /rbel.i.s/ adjective

1. If a group of people are rebellious, they oppose the ideas of the people in authority
and plan to change the system, often using force
rebellious groups of southern tribespeople
2. If someone is rebellious, they are difficult to control and do not behave in the way
they are expected to
Her teachers regard her as a rebellious, trouble-making girl.

boom /bum/ verb MAKE A SOUND

1. [ I or T ] to make a very deep and loud hollow sound

The cannons boomed (out) in the night.
He boomed (out) an order to the soldiers.

beach bum noun [ C ] INFORMAL

someone who spends most of their time enjoying themselves on the beach

junkie , ALSO junky /d.ki/ noun [ C ] INFORMAL

1. someone who cannot stop taking illegal drugs

2. someone who wants to have or do something all the time
a computer/TV junkie
a publicity junkie

culture vulture noun [ C ] INFORMAL

someone who is very interested in music, art, theatre, etc.

He's a bit of a culture vulture - always out at galleries and theatres.

float /flt/ /flot/ verb MOVE

2. [ I or T usually + adverb or preposition ] to (cause to) move easily through, or along

the surface of a liquid, or to (cause to) move easily through air
We spent a lazy afternoon floating down/along the river.
He tossed the bottle into the waves and watched it float out to sea.
The children enjoy floating their boats on the pond in the park.
Fluffy white clouds were floating across the sky.
FIGURATIVE The sound of piano-playing floated out through the open window.
3. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] LITERARY to move smoothly and attractively
She sort of floats around, like a ballet dancer.
4. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to move or act without purpose
Since he lost his job, he's just floated around/about doing nothing.

chill out phrasal verb ( ALSO chill ) INFORMAL

to relax completely, or not allow things to upset you
I'm just chilling out in front of the TV.
Chill out, Dad. The train doesn't leave for another hour!

bedlam /bed.lm/ noun [ U ]

a noisy situation with no order

It was bedlam at the football ground after the match was suspended.
dry sth up phrasal verb [ M ] MAINLY UK
to dry plates, cups, etc. with a cloth after they have been washed
dry up phrasal verb WATER
1. If a river, lake, etc. dries up, the water in it disappears.

overlook /.vlk/ /o.v-/ verb [ T ] VIEW

1. to provide a view of, especially from above
Our hotel room overlooked the harbour.
The house is surrounded by trees, so it's not overlooked at all (= it cannot be seen
from any other buildings) .

snowy /sn.i/ /sno-/ adjective

full of or like snow
We've had a very snowy winter this year.
I remember him as an old man with a snowy- white (= pure white) beard.
bundle ( sb ) up phrasal verb [ M ]
to put warm clothes on yourself or someone else
The kids were bundled up in coats and scarves.

vanish /vn./ verb [ I ]

to disappear or stop being present or existing, especially in a sudden, surprising way
The child vanished while on her way home from school.
We rushed out of the shop in hot pursuit, but the thief had vanished into thin air (=
had completely disappeared) .
Cheap rural housing is vanishing in the south of the country.

vulnerable /vl.n r..bl / , /vn.r-/ /vl.n.-/ adjective

able to be easily physically, emotionally, or mentally hurt, influenced or attacked

I felt very vulnerable, standing there without any clothes on.
It is on economic policy that the government is most vulnerable.
Tourists are more vulnerable to attack, because they do not know which areas of the
city to avoid.

goodwill /gdwl/ noun [ U ]

friendly and helpful feelings
The school has to rely on the goodwill of the parents to help it raise money.
Releasing the hostages has been seen as a gesture of goodwill/a goodwill gesture .

compassion /kmp. n/ noun [ U ] APPROVING

a strong feeling of sympathy and sadness for the suffering or bad luck of others and a
wish to help them
I was hoping she might show a little compassion.

commute /kmjut/ verb TRAVEL

1. [ I ] to make the same journey regularly between work and home
It's exhausting commuting from Brighton to London every day.

commute /kmjut/ verb CHANGE

2. [ T ] FORMAL to change one thing into another
People used to believe that you could commute base metals into gold.
3. [ T ] SPECIALIZED to exchange one type of payment for a different type
I think I'll commute my life insurance into an annuity.
4. [ T ] LEGAL to change a punishment to one that is less severe

Her sentence was commuted from death to life imprisonment.

shower sb with sth phrasal verb ( ALSO shower sth on sb )
to give someone a lot of presents or praise
She only sees her niece occasionally, so she showers her with presents when she
His boss showered him with praise .

arty /.ti/ /r.t i/ adjective

( US artsy ) INFORMAL USUALLY DISAPPROVING being or wishing to seem very interested in
everything connected with art and artists
She hangs out with a lot of arty types.
in person
If you do something or go somewhere in person, you do it or go there yourself
If you can't be there in person, the next best thing is watching it on TV.

overreact /.v.rikt/ /o.v-/ verb [ I ]

to react in an extreme, especially an angry or frightened, way
You must learn not to overreact to criticism.
get bent out of shape US INFORMAL
to become very angry or upset
I'm not getting bent out of shape because people don't respect my opinion. I'm used to
stop by (somewhere) phrasal verb
to visit someone for a short time, usually on the way to another place
I was passing your house, so I thought I'd stop by for a chat.
stick to sth phrasal verb
1. to limit yourself to doing or using one particular thing and not change to anything
Could you stick to the point, please?
We'd better stick to the main road, because the other roads are blocked with snow.
2. If you stick to a law, rule or promise, you obey it or do what it states
If you make a promise, you should stick to it.
3. US FOR stick at sth
carry sb away phrasal verb
1. be/get carried away
to become so excited about something that you do not control what you say or do
There's far too much food - I'm afraid I got a bit carried away.
The manager warned his young players not to get carried away by the emotion of the
2. [ M ] to cause someone to become very excited and to lose control
The crowd were carried away by his passionate speech.
blow sb away phrasal verb PLEASE
1. MAINLY US INFORMAL to surprise or please someone very much
The ending will blow you away.

suspend /sspend/ verb STOP

1. [ T ] to stop or to cause to be not active, either temporarily or permanently

The ferry service has been suspended for the day because of bad weather.
The President has suspended the constitution and assumed total power.
When you go to the theatre, you have to be willing to suspend disbelief (= to act as if
you believe that what you are seeing is real or true, although you know that it is not) .
I'm suspending judgment (= not forming an opinion) on the book I'm reading until
I've finished it.
LEGAL Mr Young was given a six-month jail sentence suspended for two years (= If he
commits another crime within two years, he will have to go to prison for six months for his
original crime) .
2. [ T ] If someone is suspended from work, school, etc., they are temporarily not
allowed to work, go to school or take part in an activity because they have done something
She was suspended from school for fighting.
He was suspended for four matches after arguing with the referee.

regard /rgd/ /-grd/ verb [ T usually + adv/prep ]

1. to consider or have an opinion about something or someone
Local people regard this idea of a motorway through their village with horror.
Her parents always regarded her as the cleverest of their children.
2. FORMAL to look carefully at something or someone
The bird regarded me with suspicion as I walked up to its nest.
3. as regards FORMAL
in connection with
There is no problem as regards the financial arrangements.

praise /prez/ verb [ T ] SHOW APPROVAL

1. to express admiration or approval about the achievements or characteristics of a
person or thing
He should be praised for his honesty.
My parents always praised me when I did well at school.
He was highly praised for his research on heart disease.

taste buds plural noun

a group of cells, found especially on the tongue, which allow different tastes to be
play a joke/trick on sb
to confuse someone or cause problem for them
I thought I heard something - my ears must have been playing tricks on me.
Fate played a cruel trick on him when he was injured in his first game.

remedy /rem..di/ noun [ C ]

1. a successful way of curing an illness or dealing with a problem or difficulty
an effective herbal remedy for headaches
The best remedy for grief is hard work.
fall back on sth phrasal verb
to use something for help because no other choice is available
When the business failed, we had to fall back on our savings.
If I lose my job, I'll have nothing to fall back on.
wrap ( sb ) up phrasal verb [ M ]
to dress in warm clothes, or to dress someone in warm clothes
Wrap up well - it's cold outside.
wrap sth up phrasal verb [ M ] FINISH
2. INFORMAL to complete something successfully
That just about wraps it up for today.

overwhelming /.vwel.m/ /o.v-/ adjective

1. difficult to fight against
She felt an overwhelming urge/desire/need to tell someone about what had
2. very great or very large
She said how much she appreciated the overwhelming generosity of the public in
responding to the appeal.
An overwhelming majority have voted in favour of the proposal.

overwhelm /.vwelm/ /o.v-/ verb EMOTION

2. [ T usually passive ] to cause someone to feel sudden strong emotion

They were overwhelmed with/by grief when their baby died.
I was quite overwhelmed by all the flowers and letters of support I received.
no room for sth
If you say there is no room for a feeling or type of behaviour, you mean it is not
In a small company like this, there is no room for lazy staff.
burn (sth) down phrasal verb [ M ]
to destroy something, especially a building, by fire, or to be destroyed by fire
He tried to burn down the school by setting fire to papers on a noticeboard.

venue /ven.ju/ noun [ C ]

1. the place where a public event or meeting happens
The hotel is an ideal venue for conferences and business meetings.
The stadium has been specifically designed as a venue for European Cup matches.
2. US SPECIALIZED the city or county in which a trial happens

get your hands dirty

to involve yourself in all parts of a job, including the parts that are unpleasant, or involve hard, practica
l work Unlike other bosses, he's notafraid to get his hands dirty and the men like that in him.

horrendous /hren.ds/ adjective

extremely unpleasant or bad
a horrendous accident/tragedy/crime
horrendous suffering/damage
Conditions in the refugee camps were horrendous.
The firm made horrendous (= very big) losses last year.

spy /spa/ noun [ C ]

a person who secretly collects and reports information about the activities of another
country or organization
spy on sb/sth phrasal verb
to watch someone or something secretly, often in order to discover information about
He was spying on her through the keyhole.

pop /pp/ /pp/ verb -pp- GO

1. [ I + adverb or preposition ] MAINLY UK INFORMAL to go to a particular place
I've just got to pop into the bank to get some money.
Paula popped out for a minute.
Would you pop upstairs and see if Grandad is okay?
Why don't you pop in/over and see us this afternoon?

uncover /nkv. r / /-/ verb [ T ]

1. to discover something secret or hidden or remove something covering something


The investigation uncovered evidence of a large-scale illegal trade in wild birds.

The biography is an attempt to uncover the inner man.
2. to find something buried under the ground by removing the earth on top of it
Digging in her garden, she uncovered a hoard of gold dating back to the 9th century.

surveillance /sve.ln t s/ /s-/ noun [ U ]

the careful watching of a person or place, especially by the police or army, because of a
crime that has happened or is expected
The police have kept the nightclub under surveillance because of suspected illegal
drug activity.
More banks are now installing surveillance cameras .
delve into sth phrasal verb
to examine something carefully in order to discover more information about someone
or something
It's not always a good idea to delve too deeply into someone's past.

eye-opener /a.p n. r / /-o.p n./ noun [ C usually singular ]

something that surprises you and teaches you new facts about life, people, etc
Living in another country can be a real eye-opener.

turn a blind eye

to ignore something that you know is wrong
Management often turn a blind eye to bullying in the workplace.

fictitious /fkt.s/ adjective

invented and not true or not existing

He dismissed recent rumours about his private life as fictitious.
Characters in this film are entirely fictitious.

seemingly /si.m.li/ adverb

1. appearing to be something, especially when this is not true
He remains confident and seemingly untroubled by his recent problems.
2. according to the facts that you know
The factory closure is seemingly inevitable.
Seemingly, she's gone off to live with another man.

click /klk/ verb BECOME FRIENDLY

3. [ I ] INFORMAL to become friendly or popular

Liz and I really clicked the first time we met.
The new daytime soap opera has yet to show signs that it's clicking with the television

condolence /knd.ln t s/ /-do-/ noun [ C usually plural U ]

sympathy and sadness for the family or close friends of a person who has recently died,
or an expression of this, especially in written form
a letter of condolence
Dignitaries from all over the world came to offer their condolences.

mix-up /mks.p/ noun [ C ]

a mistake that causes confusion

There was a mix-up at the office and we all received the wrong forms.
mix sth up phrasal verb [ M ]
to make a group of things untidy or badly organized, or to move them into the wrong
Don't mix up the bottles - you'll have to repeat the experiment if you do.
Your jigsaw puzzles and games are all mixed up together in that box.
mix sb up phrasal verb [ M ]
to confuse, worry or upset someone
The roadworks mixed me up and I went the wrong way.

hit /ht/ verb hitting , hit , hit SUCCESS

7. hit it off INFORMAL

to like someone and become friendly immediately
I didn't really hit it off with his friends.
Jake and Sue hit it off immediately.
kiss sb's arse UK ( US kiss sb's ass )
OFFENSIVE to be very nice to someone in order to get an advantage

murmur /m.m r / /m.m/ verb SPEAK QUIETLY

1. [ I or T ] to speak or say very quietly

[ + speech ] "I love you," she murmured.
He was murmuring to him self .
HUMOROUS He murmured sweet nothings (= romantic talk) in her ear.
take each day as it comes/take it one day at a time
to deal with things as they happen, and not to make plans or to worry about the future
I've lived through a lot of changes recently, but I've learnt to take each day at it

barf /bf/ /brf/ verb [ I ] SLANG

to vomit
He got drunk and barfed all over the carpet.

handicapped /hn.d.kpt/ adjective OLD-FASHIONED


not able to use part of your body or your mind because it has been damaged in some

What's the best way of improving theatre access for people who are physically

bluff /blf/ verb [ I or T ]

1. to deceive someone by making them think either that you are going to do something
when you really have no intention of doing it, or that you have knowledge that you do not
really have, or that you are someone else
Is he going to jump or is he only bluffing?
Tony seems to know a lot about music, but sometimes I think he's only bluffing.
She bluffed the doorman into think ing that she was a reporter.
2. bluff your way into/out of sth
If you bluff your way into or out of a situation, you get yourself into or out of it by
deceiving people
However did Mina manage to bluff her way into that job?
He's one of those people who is very good at bluffing their way out of trouble.

expel /kspel/ verb [ T ] -ll- MAKE LEAVE

1. to force someone to leave a school, organisation or country

The new government has expelled all foreign diplomats.
My brother was expelled from school for bad behaviour.
make out phrasal verb US INFORMAL HAVE SEX
2. to kiss and touch in a sexual way, or to succeed in having sex with someone
Boys at that age are only interested in making out with girls.
track sth/sb down phrasal verb [ M ]
to find something or someone after looking for them in a lot of different places
He finally managed to track down the book he wanted.

stubborn /stb.n/ /-n/ adjective MAINLY DISAPPROVING

1. describes someone who is determined to do what they want and refuses to do

anything else
They have massive rows because they're both so stubborn.
2. Things that are stubborn are difficult to move, change or deal with
He was famed for his stubborn resistance and his refusal to accept defeat.
Stubborn stains can be removed using a small amount of detergent.
be as stubborn as a mule
to be very stubborn

meddle /med.l / verb [ I ] DISAPPROVING

to try to change or have an influence on things which are not your responsibility,
especially by criticizing in a damaging or annoying way
My sister's always meddling in other people's affairs .
People shouldn't meddle with things they don't understand.

accountable /kan.t.bl / /-t -/ adjective

Someone who is accountable is completely responsible for what they do and must be
able to give a satisfactory reason for it
She is accountable only to the managing director.
The recent tax reforms have made government more accountable for its spending.
Politicians should be accountable to the public who elected them.

cheesed off /tizdf/ /-f/ adjective [ after verb ] UK INFORMAL

annoyed and disappointed with something or someone
She's a bit cheesed off with her job.
cheese sb off phrasal verb [ M ] UK INFORMAL
to annoy someone
Her attitude to the whole thing really cheeses me off!

blind /bland/ verb [ T ] DAMAGE SIGHT

1. to make someone unable to see, permanently or for a short time
She was blinded in an accident at an early age.
Turning the corner the sun blinded me, so I didn't see the other car.

rattle /rt.l / /rt -/ verb WORRY

1. [ T ] to worry someone or make someone nervous

The creaking upstairs was starting to rattle me.
bend the law/rules
to change the rules in a way that is considered to be not important or not harmful
Can't you bend the rules a little? I was only a few minutes late.

goofy /gu.fi/ adjective MAINLY US INFORMAL

That was a real goofy thing to do.
I like Jim, but he's a little goofy.
cool (sb/sth) down/off phrasal verb [ M ]
to become less hot, or to make someone or something become less hot
She waited until her coffee had cooled down before taking a sip.
We went for a swim to cool off.
cool (sb) down/off phrasal verb [ M ]
to stop feeling angry after an argument, or to stop someone else feeling angry after an
Leave her to cool off and then talk to her.
take sides
to support one person or group rather than another, in an argument or war
My mother never takes sides when my brother and I argue.
take sb's side
to support someone in an argument
My mother always takes my father's side when I argue with him.

crap /krp/ noun SOLID WASTE

1. [ S or U ] OFFENSIVE solid waste, or when an animal or person produces solid waste

I stepped in a pile of crap.
That dog's just UK had / US taken a crap on my lawn.

crap /krp/ adjective crapper , crappest INFORMAL OR OFFENSIVE

1. of very bad quality
A bad film? It was crap!
UK He watches a lot of crap TV.
2. not skilled or not organized
He's totally crap at football.
I meant to call him and invite him, but I've been a bit crap about asking people.

fishy /f.i/ adjective DISHONEST

1. INFORMAL seeming dishonest or false
There's something fishy going on here.
smell fishy INFORMAL
If a situation or an explanation smells fishy, it causes you to think that someone is
being dishonest.

ouch /at/ exclamation

1. used to express sudden physical pain

Ouch, you're hurting me!
2. HUMOROUS used in answer to something unkind that someone says
"I really think you're much too fat, Dorothy." "Ouch, that was a bit unkind."
check up on sb phrasal verb
to try to discover what someone is doing in order to be certain that they are doing what
they should be doing
My mum checks up on me most evenings to see that I've done my homework.

bribe /brab/ verb [ T ]

to try to make someone do something for you by giving them money, presents or
something else that they want
He bribed immigration officials and entered the country illegally.
[ + to infinitive ] They bribed the waiter to find them a better table.
stick around phrasal verb INFORMAL
to stay somewhere for a period of time
You go - I'll stick around here a bit longer.
on the go
1. very busy
I've been on the go all day and I'm really tired.
2. UK in the process of being produced
Did you know that she's got a new book on the go (= being written) ?