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Prepositional Phrases Commonly Used


A continuacin encontrars una serie de frases preposicionales de uso

ordenadas alfabticamente, que pueden resultarte de mucha utilidad.

AT THE END OF, al final de.

The hero fell in love with the princess at the end of the sto
AT HOME IN/WITH, perfectamente familiar con.
Einstein was perfectly at home in/with all questions of relat
AT THE SIDE OF (BESIDE), al lado de.
The church is at the side of (beside) the small river.
AT THE TOP OF ONE'S VOICE, a voz en cuello, a toda vo
The boy in the water was shouting for help at the top of his v
AT VARIANCE WITH, de punta, en desacuerdo con.
As a new teacher I found himself at variance with the principal ove

BECAUSE OF, a causa de, debido a.

Because of his poor health, he could not work in a tropical co
BY FORCE OF, a fuerza de.
OM Personal staff achieved their goals by force of effort and deter
BY MEANS OF, por medio de.
Graciela passed the OM Basic examinations by means of hard
BY REASON OF, a causa de.
He has always succeeded by reason of his strong determina
BY THE SIDE OF (BESIDE), al lado de, por el lado de.
Their new house is located by the side of (beside) a beautifu
BY VIRTUE OF, en virtud de.
This candidate was given the job by virtue of his previous experiene
BY WAY OF, por va de, a modo de, pasando por.
My uncle travelled from Santiago de Chile to Miami by way of the Pa

FOR FEAR OF, por medio o temor de.

The old man did not travel by air for fear of having a heart-a
FOR THE PURPOSE OF, con el objeto de, con el propsito
The investigation was made for the purpose of discovering th
FOR THE SAKE OF, por amor de, en beneficio de.
I prefered to ignore Mike's rudeness for the sake of our long fri
FOR WANT OF, por falta de.
The metal has gone rusty for want of a fresh coat of pain

IN/ON BEHALF OF, en favor de, en nombre de.

"I would like to thank today's speaker in/on behalf of all the mem
IN CASE OF, en caso de.

In case of difficulty, please dial number 999-AB.

IN COMMON WITH, en comn con, del mismo modo que
The new student wrote on the wrong subject in common with Jes
IN CONSEQUENCE OF, a consecuencia de.
In consequence of the large number absent, we had to postpone t
IN (THE) COURSE OF, en va de.
Did Mrs. Cecilia Dufour ever go to Tibet in (the) course of her
IN DEFIANCE OF, en desafo de, sin poner atencin a.
The owners remained in their apartments in defiance of the evacu
IN FAVOUR OF, en favor de.
Who is in favour of taking a holiday in August?
IN FRONT OF, en frente de, cara a cara con.
Suddenly I recognised the girl who was standing in front of me in
IN HONOUR OF, en honor de.
Our manager was given a holiday in honour of his great efforts and a
IN (THE) HOPE OF, con la esperanza de.
The actress went to Africa in (the) hope of meeting her son onc
IN PLACE OF, en lugar de.
The teacher gave me a new exercise book in place of the old
IN PROSPECT OF, en vista de, en expectativa de.
He lost his job a month ago, but he is in prospect of finding somethin
IN SEARCH OF, en busca de.
The two friends went to South America in search of advent
IN SPITE OF, a pesar de.
Many people will probably come tonight in spite of this bad we
INSTEAD OF, en vez de, en lugar de.
Peter Edwards had to go to the meeting instead of his boss who is
IN VIEW OF, en vista de.
In view of the designer's success, the firm decided to promote him
IN THE EVENT OF, en caso de.
The old man asked his sons to stay at the farm in the event of h
IN THE FACE OF, en presencia de.
Why do you insist on going to Malaya in the face of all your fa
IN (WITH) THE HOPE OF, en (con) la esperanza de.
The millionaire went to Africa in (with) the hope of meeting his
IN THE NAME OF, en nombre de.
Please, spare the condemned man's life in the name of hum
IN THE REAR OF, a la cola de, a la retaguardia.
There was a cloud of dust in the rear of the caravan.
IN THE SIGHT OF, a la vista de.
He was guilty in the sight of the law.
IN THE TEETH OF, en oposicin a, contra toda la fuerza d
The young man stuck to his principles in the teeth of great opp
IN ORDER TO, para, a fin de, con el objeto de.
In order to listen to this audio file you have to download it f
IN PROPORTION TO, en proporcin a.
He told me that my success was in proportion to the work I ha
IN REGARD TO, en cuanto a, relacionado con.
Did he tell you anything in regard to your future job?
IN ACCORDANCE WITH, de acuerdo con, en armona co
They completed the form in accordance with all the rule
IN CONNECTION WITH, con referencia a
He interviewed me in connection with the proposed new co
IN HARMONY WITH, en armona con.
Luckily her tastes were in harmony with mine.
IN KEEPING WITH, de acuerdo con, en armona con.

The director of the firm was given a house in keeping with his hig

ON ACCOUNT OF, por motivo de, a cuenta de, a causa de

The girl could not go away on account of the terrible storm
ON BEHALF OF, de parte de.
"I would like to thank the speaker on behalf of all the members in
ON THE BRINK OF, al borde, a la orilla de.
The firm was on the brink of bankruptcy.
ON THE EVE OF, en vispera de, la vspera de.
Grandma came from Italy on the eve of my birthday.
ON THE FACE OF, a juzgar por las apariencias.
On the face of it, their proposal seems quite genuine.
ON THE GROUND OF, en base de, en razn de.
The young man was rejected by the Air Force on the ground of i
ON THE PART OF, por parte de.
There was complete agreement on the part of Mr. Jones
ON THE POINT OF, a punto de.
The thief was on the point of surrendering when he was cau
OUT OF HARMONY WITH, en desacuerdo con.
Unluckily her tastes are always out of harmony with min
OUT OF KEEPING WITH, en desacuerdo con.
Rock or jazz music are entirely out of keeping with this solemn
OUT OF PROPORTION WITH (TO), en desproporcin co
The head in the portrait seems to be out of proportion with th

UNDER THE NAME OF, bajo el nombre de.

A boy under the name of Johnson came to see you this mor

WITH THE HELP OF, con ayuda de.

We managed to repair the engine with the help of the new ele
WITH THE INTENTION OF, con la intencin de.
He attended evening school with the intention of learning more
WITH A VIEW TO, con la intencin de.
Mr. Dobson bought the land with a view to building houses o
WITH AN EYE TO, con la intencin de.
They bought the old houses with an eye to making them into a 5WITH REFERENCE TO, con referencia a.
With reference to your letter, I wish to inform you that I am leav
WITH REGARD TO, con relacin a.
Did he tell you anything with regard to your future promot
WITH RESPECT TO, con respecto a, tocante a, concerniente
With reference to your application, you are invited for an interview

prepositional phrases

A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and a noun phrase. We use prepositional phrases
for many purposes, for example:
- as adverbials of time and place:
We will be back in a few days.
They drove to Glasgow
.- as a postmodifier in a noun phrase:
Helen is the girl in the red dress
Weve got a new television with a thirty one inch screen.
- to show who did something:
The lion was killed by the hunter
I saw a wonderful painting by Van Gogh
- with double object verbs like give and get:
We gave five pounds to the woman on the corner.
They got a drink for me.
- after certain verbs, nouns and adjectives:
The book belongs to me.
I had an argument with my brother.
I feel sorry for you.

relative pronouns
The relative pronouns are:















We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
Or we can use that for people or things.
We use relative pronouns:
after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about:
the house that Jack built
the woman who discovered radium
an eight-year-old boy who attempted to rob a sweet shop
to tell us more about a person or thing:
My mother, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which is my favourite meal.
But we do not use that as a subject in this kind of relative clause.
We use whose as the possessive form of who:
This is George, whose brother went to school with me.
We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:

This is George, whom you met at our house last year.

This is Georges brother, with whom I went to school.
But nowadays we normally use who:
This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is Georges brother, who I went to school with.
When whom or which have a preposition the preposition can come at
the beginning of the clause...
I had an uncle in Germany, from who[m] I inherited a bit of money.
We bought a chainsaw, with which we cut up all the wood.
or at the end of the clause:
I had an uncle in Germany who[m] I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw, which we cut all the wood up with.
We can use that at the beginning of the clause:
I had an uncle in Germany that I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw that we cut all the wood up with.
- See more at: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/englishgrammar/pronouns/relative-pronouns#sthash.ghoh06Ff.dpuf

What ? - Qu? Cul? Cules?
How often ? - Con qu frecuencia?
What else? - Qu ms?
How long ? - Cunto tiempo? Qu longitud?
Which ? - Qu? Cul? Cules?
How long ago? - Hace cunto tiempo?
How ? - Cmo? Cun?
How old ? - Qu edad? Cun viejo?
How else ? - De qu otra manera?
How soon ? - Cun pronto?
How big ? - Qu tamao? Cun
When ? - Cundo?

Where ? - Dnde? Adnde?

Where else ? - Dnde ms?

How far ? - A qu distancia? Cun


How tall ? - Qu estatura? Cun alto?

Why ? - Por qu? Para qu?

Who ? - Quin? Quienes?
Who else? - Quin ms?
Whom ? - A quin? A quines?
Whose ? - De quin? De quines?
How much ? - Cunto/a?
How many ? - Cuntos/as?

How deep ? - Qu profundidad?

How early ? - Cun temprano?
How late ? - Cun tarde?
How heavy ? - Qu peso? Cun

How thick ? - Qu espesor? Cun


What time ? - Qu hora? A qu hora?

What kind ? - Qu clase ? Qu tipo?

Dependent prepositions (with verbs, adjectives and nouns)

Certain verbs, adjectives and nouns naturally take

certain prepositions when placed in a sentence these are called dependent
For example, you
can object to (something), participate in (something),complain about (somet
Unfortunately there are no fixed rules that can help you decide which dependent
prepositions should be placed with which words, you really just need to learn them.
Remember that sometimes usage of different dependent prepositions change the

Dependent prepositions example 1:

He is angry with us. (angry with someone)
He is angry about the problem. (angry about a situation)

Dependent prepositions example 2:

He is good at football (meaning he has skill / ability in something he is good at
(playing) football).

She is good with children (meaning she has a positive relationship with / has an
affinity with).
A teacher for example, might be good at teaching English and may
be goodwith their students.
The best way to learn more about dependent prepostions is to make a list of your
own, and then find sentences that use the structure. Google can be very useful for
that. For example, if you were trying to remember that complain is generally
followed by about, simply type in complain about in Google and see the results.
NOTE: It is important to use the speech marks ( ) around the phrase you are
searching for so that only results with that phrase will come up.
More examples of dependent prepositions follow in the table below.
Verbs and

Adjectives and

Nouns and

abide by

according to

in agreement

abstain from

accustomed to

attack on

accuse (somebody) of afraid of

attitude towards

add to

annoyed with/about/at on behalf of

adhere to

anxious about

comparison between

agree with

ashamed of

on condition (that)

aim at/for

astonished at

connection between

allow for

attached to

cruelty towards

apologise to someone
for something
aware of

decrease in

apply for

delighted at/about

delay in

approve of

different from

difference between/of

argue with/about

dissatisfied with

difficulty in/with

arrest (somebody) for doubtful about

disadvantage of

ask for

enthusiastic about

in doubt

attend to

envious of

under guarantee

believe in

excited about

increase in

belong to

famous for

information about

blame (somebody) for fed up with

intention of

boast about

fond of

knowledge of

borrow (something)
from (somebody)

frightened of

need for

call for

friendly with

notice of

care for

good at

in order

choose between

guilty of

pleasure in

comment on

incapable of

in power

compare with

interested in

in practice

complain about

jealous of

preference for

concentrate on

keen on

protection from

conform to

kind to

reaction to

congratulate on

mad at/about

reason for

consent to

opposed to

reduction in

consist of

pleased with

report on

deal with

popular with

result of

decide on

proud of

rise in

excel at/in

puzzled by/about

at risk

excuse (somebody)

safe from

room for

face up to

satisfied with

solution to

forgive (somebody)

sensitive to(wards)

on strike

hear of/about

serious about

on suspicion of

hope for

sick of

under suspicion

insist on

similar to

in theory

interfere with/in

sorry for/about

in trouble

joke about

suspicious of

trouble with

laugh at

sympathetic to(wards)

lend (something) to

tired of

listen to

typical of

long for

unaware of

mistake (somebody)

used to

object to
pay for
praise (somebody) for
prepare for
present (somebody)
prevent (somebody)
protest about
provide (somebody)
punish (somebody)
refer to
rely on
run for
save (somebody) from
sentence (somebody)
smile at
succeed in
suffer from
stand for
talk to (somebody)
about (something)
thank (somebody) for
think of/about
volunteer to
wait for

warn (somebody)
worry about

Como redactar emails y cartas informales en INGLES

by InglesTotal
Filed under Grammar, Writing
Curso para aprender ingls en lnea gratis WRITING ACTIVITY 1 : Redaccin de emails y cartas
informales en ingls
Hoy empezamos nuestra seccin de writing y para empezar vamos aestudiar como redactar /escribir /
componer emails o cartas informales en ingls. Si tienen preguntas o sugerencias no olviden de dejar sus

Writing an informal email or letter

In todays world it is very important to say connected with people. Globalization has made our world
smaller and English has emerged as the main language internationally. In this post we are going to talk
about an essential part of communicating. We are going to take a look at some useful language when we
write informal emails or letters.
There are three parts when we write an email or letter. These are the introduction, the body and
the conclusion.

The introduction
In this section we use opening expressions and the reason of our email. We can also thank or answer a
previous email which we received.
A veces nos cuesta empezar una carta o email. Una buena forma es mencionar la razon por la que
escribimos despues de un opening expression. Esto ayuda a que el compositor y el lector
entiendan el proposito principal de la carta o email. El prrafo de introduccin solo consta
de algunas lineas.

Opening Expressions: How to start an email / letter

How are you?
How have you been?
Hows everything going?
I was glad to hear from you.
I hope things are going well with you these days.
I hope you are doing fine.
Hope you are well.
Whats new?

Reason one is writing:

I am writing because
The reason I am writing is because
I wanted to
I would like to

Opening Expressions when we answer an email / letter

Thanks for you email / letter
It was great to hear from you
It was so nice to hear from you.
Sorry for not writing earlier
I hope you and your family are well

Responding to news

Sorry to hear about

Glad to hear that youre all well
Good luck with
Hope you feel better soon


This is the most important part. Here we talk about the main subject and expand with details about the
reason of writing the email. If we talk about two different things it is best to write another paragraph.
Intenten ordenar sus ideas en el cuerpo principal para que puedan desarrollar un patron lgico
para ordenar sus ideas. Cuando tienen mas de una idea podran empezar con : First, I wanted to
let you know Esto ayuda a que el lector pueda entenderlo mejor.
Then if you need to ask for something I suggest the following expressions:

Asking for something

Can you please?
Is it ok if you ?
I want to
Would you mind ?
I was wondering if


Closing expressions

Anyway, / Well thats all for now

Hope to hear from you soon / Looking forward to hearing from you soon
Send my regards (love) to
Take care / Best wishes / Regards / (Lots of) love from
Stay in touch / Keep in touch
Bye for now
See you
PS Please send me the photos of our last trip
Antes de mandar el email o carta asegurence de leerlo completamente para ver si hay algun error
ortogrfico. Tambin analizen si cumplieron con el objetivo de mandar el mensaje que queran y
que tenga un patron lgico.

Examples: (images from camenlu.com)


A causa de su velocidad de transmisin, la comunicacin

electrnica (email, e-mail o simplemente mail) difiere de las
comunicaciones en papel. Justamente porque el intercambio de
mensajes es tan veloz, un email es ms conversacional, breve y
conciso que una carta tradicional.
Sin embargo, en un correo electrnico es muy difcil expresar las
emociones de una conversacin porque le falta entonacin y
gestualidad. Por ello, resulta particularmente peligroso el uso del
sarcasmo en un email.
Si te ests dirigiendo a alguien que...
Un simple Hello es el saludo adecuado. Utilizar un saludo del tipo
de Dear Mr Vargas, es excesivamente formal para un email. Incluye
un nmero de telfono a continuacin de tu firma lo cual dar al
destinatario la posibilidad de llamarte si as lo necesita. No incluyas
tu direccin electrnica al pie ya que el destinatario puede
responder a la misma direccin que lleva el mensaje.
Escribe como si estuvieras conversando con esa persona. Para
estas situaciones saludos como Hi, Hi pal, Hey Paul! oHey, what's
up? son perfectamente adecuados. Utiliza las formas verbales
abreviadas (He's, We're, He'd, etc.)
En ambos casos como una de las reglas de cortesa en la red
(netiquette) elimina al responder toda informacin
innecesaria dejando nicamente las secciones de texto
relacionadas con tu respuesta.
Formal emails
Este es un ejemplo de un email formal, como los que generalmente
recibimos en OM Personal cuando un visitante se interesa por
nuestros productos:

I read on your web site that you offer an interactive 4-CD

Are the files transferred online or are your CDs sent by air mail? If
this is the case, how long does it usually take your products to
arrive abroad? Are there any special discounts on large
Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions. I look
forward to your response.

Mario Bergman

Informal emails
Este es un ejemplo de un email informal, en el cual un jefe cursa
una invitacin a uno de sus colaboradores:

Hi Mike,
Listen, all of us have been working hard this week, so I was
wondering if you would like to come to a party at 'Celeb Club' on
Saturday night (all expenses paid, of course).
Please can you let me know that you will be attending the party as
soon as possible, so that I know the number of people I need to
book for at the club.

All the best... and thanks for all your hard

Victorio Candall

Emailing enquiries/replies
Este es un ejemplo de emails seriados en los cuales dos amigas
intercambian informacin:

Hi Susan,

Many thanks for your barbecue last Sunday. The night was
fantastic and dinner was delicious. I really love your
Remember our talk about microwave ovens? Well, I'm not
sure which to buy. Delco ovens are good, but too
expensive for me. What brand did you buy?
La pregunta que Susan debe responder es What brand did you
buy? (Qu marca compraste?). Por lo tanto, al responder debera
incluir como recordatorio para Marissa slo la parte del
mensaje que se refiere a la pregunta. El resto el mensaje no es
necesario. Observa:

> Delco ovens are good but too expensive for me.
What brand did you buy?
I agree with you about their prices. That's why I finally
bought an Ultra oven which is running very well (and it is
much cheaper than Delco's).

Sin embargo, si el mensaje es formal conviene mantener el nombre

de la otra persona antes de la cita. Por ejemplo:

Marissa wrote on Monday, September 19, 2007:

> Delco ovens are good but too expensive for me.
What brand did you buy?
I agree with you about their prices. That's why I finally
bought an Ultra oven which is running very well (and it is
much cheaper than Delco's).

Ya hemos comentado al principio de esta unidad que en un correo

electrnico es muy difcil expresar las emociones de una
conversacin. Sin embargo, a veces es necesario enfatizar algunas
palabras o frases. En esos casos, muchos utilizan la negrita (bold
type) y otros escriben dos asteriscos (asterisks). Observa ambas
alternativas usando como modelo el primer email de esta serie:

Hi Susan,
Many thanks for your barbecue last Sunday. The night
wasfantastic and dinner was delicious. I really love your
Remember our talk about microwave ovens? Well, I'm not
sure which to buy. Delco ovens are good, but *too
expensive* for me. What brand did you buy?
Es posible aplicar un mayor nivel de nfasis por medio de
MAYSCULAS pero stas deben utilizarse con discrecin porque
en los emails suelen interpretarse como palabras "gritadas"

Hi Susan,
Many thanks for your barbecue last Sunday. The night
wasFANTASTIC and dinner was DELICIOUS. I really
love your terrace!!
Remember our talk about microwave ovens? Well, I'm not
sure which to buy. Delco ovens are good, but TOO
EXPENSIVE for me. What brand did you buy?
En la segunda parte de esta unidad estudiars el tema de amigos

epistolares (pen-friends).
La correspondencia con amigos de otros pases ha sido durante
mucho tiempo un medio popular de descubrir formas de vida
diferentes de la propia y de practicar una lengua extranjera.
En esta pgina se muestran dos cartas: una dirigida a un servicio
imaginario de amigos por correspondencia, y otra dirigida a un
nuevo amigo. La primera le proporciona un ejemplo de carta formal
y la segunda, de carta informal. Lee ambas cartas y, como en
anteriores ejemplos de este curso, observa las diferentes normas
que rigen la disposicin y el estilo de lenguaje empleados en ellas.
Formal letter to a Pen-friend Service

PO Box 5318
Buenos Aires
April 29th, 2008
Universal Pen-friend Service
35 Wellington Avenue
Southern Valley, CA, 32015
Dear Sir/Madam,
I noticed your advertisement in the website 'OM Personal
Multimedia English', and I am writing to you in the hope that you
can find me a pen-friend.
The following is some information about myself:

I am Argentine, I am eighteen years old, and I am in my last year

at school. Next year I will be beginning my studies at an
Engineering College. I am interested in movies, computers,
software and all kinds of music. I would like to correspond with
English-speaking people in the United States or Canada.
I hope you can help me and I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully,

Roberto Castro Cisneros

Informal letter to a pen-friend

PO Box 5318
Buenos Aires
June 2nd, 2008
Dear Stephen,

I got your name and address from the Universal Pen-friend

Service in the United States.
Let me tell you about myself: I am Argentine, I am 18, and I
am in my last year at school. Next year I'm going to start my
studies at an Engineering College. I'm interested in movies,
computers, software and all kinds of music.
Please write soon.

Best wishes,

Roberto Castro Cisneros



Intenta completar adecuadamente este email que Bernardo

dirige a Marina, su nueva amiga epistolar. Selecciona del
men las alternativas correctas (preposiciones y conectores
llevan color rojo).

Hello Marina,

My name's Bernardo and I'm

Argentina. I

in Cordoba, but we live


Buenos Aires now. I live


my parents, my

and my brother and



I'm twenty-two and I'm

. I'm studying Technology. I'm in my third


university. When I finish my university course I'm going

a job

an engineer in an international company. That's


why I

In my free time I


weekends I play basketball

the university team. I also


Please write soon and send a photo.

Best wishes,


Intenta completar ahora este breve texto seleccionando del

men las alternativas correctas.

OM Personal suggests that you now find some pen-friends

in the English-speaking countries.
all the pleasure you will get from your

letters, you will be practising your English in a very real and

interesting way.

how people live


in the Anglo-Saxon world, you will broaden your horizons

, you will

make friendships that will be

to you if you travel abroad one day.

There are several pen-friend organizations for schoolchildren and young people.
to do is to write to one of them sending

your first name and last name and address, giving your age,
sex and hobbies, and mentioning the languages you know
the countries in

which you would like to have a pen-friend.

add whether

you would prefer a male or a female correspondent and

indicate his/her approximate age.

Wish and If only

Wish and If only

Wish and If only are both used to talk about regrets things that we would like to change either about
the past or the present.
Talking about the present

If only I didnt have so much homework I could go to the concert tonight. She has a lot of
homework and she cant go to the concert.
I wish you didnt live so far away.
I wish I knew what to do.
When we talk about present regrets, both wish and if only are followed by the past simple tense. The
past tense emphasises that we are talking about something unreal.
Talking about the past

I wish Id studied harder when I was at school. He didnt study harder when he was at school.
I wish I hadnt eaten all that chocolate. I feel sick.
If only Id known you were coming.
Both wish and if only are followed by the past perfect tense when we talk about past regrets.
Wish/if only and would
We use wish + would to talk about something in the present that we would like to change usually
something that we find annoying.

I wish you wouldnt borrow my clothes without asking.

I wish it would rain. The garden really needs some water.
I wish youd give up smoking. its really bad for you.
NB We can only use wish + would to talk about things we cant change.
So I wish I wouldnt eat so much chocolate is not possible although we can say I wish I didnt eat so much

Wishes & Regrets

Grammar, Level B1+
In this exercise, you will look at wishes and regrets. We wish
things were different and we regret things we did in the past. So I
can say "I wish I had written a letter to you last week". What
sort of things do you wish and what do you regret?

Look at this table. It will help to explain the tenses we use in this

Time Tense

I wish I spoke Arabic (I am sorry

that I don't speak Arabic)


I wish (present) I
spoke (past)

I wish I were/was somewhere warm

and sunny (I am sorry that I am not
somewhere warm and sunny)


I wish (present) I
was/were (past)

I wish/If only he didn't smoke (I am Now

sorry that he smokes)

I wish (present) he didn't

smoke (past)

I wish he had a car (I am sorry he

hasn't got a car)


I wish (present) he
had (past)

I wish/If only he would

stop chewing gum (we usewould to
talk about things we would like
people to (not)do) (I want him to
stop chewing gum)


I wish (present) he
would (past)

I wish this car would start (I want

this car to start)


I wish (present) would

start (past)

I wish I hadn't said that (I am sorry

that I said that)


I wish (present) I hadn't

said (past perfect)

I wish I had gone to bed earlier last

night (I am sorry I went to bed late
last night)


I wish (present) I hadn't

gone (past perfect)


Complete the following sentences.


I wish he wouldn't


If only his


She wishes she hadn't


He wishes he had


If only I had


I wish it would


If only Liverpool would


I wish he would stop


If only she hadn't

10. I wish I didn't


Complete the following sentences.


I wish he wouldn't

.chew gum in class


If only his


She wishes she hadn't

.friend would phone him

.spent all her

money in the sales


He wishes he had

.never asked her to

marry him


If only I had

.learnt to speak French

when I was younger


I wish it would


If only Liverpool would

.stop raining

.win the

match on Saturday


I wish he would stop

.putting his

shoes on the table


If only she hadn't

.missed the train

10. I wish I didn't

Your score: 0/10

.live so far from school

Adjective Suffixes

Form adjectives from other word forms

Noun Form Adjective Form


Some adjectives are formed from nouns and others are formed from verbs. The word forms are from Latin,
Greek and other languages. There is no simple rule for adding suffixes, but there are common patterns.



The sky was a spectacle.

(a very beautiful thing to see)

The sky was filled with colors.

The sunset was red.

We felt awe.

(a feeling of inspiration and respect)


Adding a suffix to a noun form is one way of forming an adjective. A suffix is a part added to the end of a
word to mark the word form. An adjective is often used after It is or It seems (stative verbs).





It was spectacular.

It was a spectacular sky.

It was colorful.

It was a colorful sky.

It looked reddish.

It was a reddish sky.

It was awesome.

It was an awesome sight.

It + be + adjective (predicate adjective or predicate complement) See Specifying vs. Ascriptive "be" .
NP noun phrase; N noun; Det determiner; AdjP adjective phrase; Adj adjective

Also see Noun Suffixes changing adjectives to noun forms.

Common Adjective Suffixes I (Noun Adjective)





relating to

accident accidental
region regional

brute brutal
person person


relating to quality or place

custom customary
compliment complimentary

moment mome
honor honorar


full of

beauty beautiful
skill skillful

wonder wonde
success succe

athlete athletic
photograph photographic

base basic
science scienti

magic magical
practice practical

logic logical
statistic statisti

fool foolish
sheep sheepish

child childish
pink pinkish

power powerless
use useless

friend friendles
home homeles

like lifelike
child childlike

lady ladylike
bird birdlike

friend friendly
day daily

cost costly
order orderly

poison poisonous
courtesy courteous

danger danger
mystery myste

rain rainy
mess messy

fun funny
dirt dirty


having the nature of; caused by


having the nature of

origin, nature







quality, nature

Adjectivalization in linguistics, the forming of words from other categories , nouns and verbs, by suffixation. (Huddleston
Pop-Q "historic / historical"

Adjective Forms 2
Form adjectives from verbs

Verb Form Adjective Form


Some adjectives are formed by adding a suffix to the verb form. A suffix is a part added to the end of a word
to mark the word form.


They create ideas.

She is expecting a baby.

They don't permit smoking here.

They urge us to come immediately.

Today's news interests me.


Adjectives commonly occur after be verbs as predicate adjectives or predicate complements. Adjectives
also occur as modifiers to nouns (pre-position and post-position)


They are creative.


They have creative minds.

She is an expectant mother.

We congratulated the expectant mother.

Smoking is permissible.

Smoking is a permissible activity.


The matter is urgent.

This urgent matter needs your attention.

The news is interesting.

I am interested.

We have interesting news.

I am an interested reader.

Also see Modifiers ending in -ed / -ing

Common Adjective Suffixes II (Verb Adjective)



able, can do



agree agreeable
pass passable

expand expand
remark remark


able, can do

access accessible
flex flexible

force forcible
permit permiss


performing agent

please pleasant
resist resistant

rely reliant
vacate vacant


performing agent

excel excellent
urge urgent

depend depen
differ different

-IVE causing effect

attract attractive
posses possessive

create creative
prevent preven


causing effect

amuse amusing
relax relaxing

excite exciting
surprise surpris


receiving effect

amuse amused
relax relaxed

excite excited
surprise surpri


receiving effect

freeze frozen
braze brazen

lighten lightene
shorten shorte

Similar But Different

Adjective Suffixes with Different (Antithetical) Meanings




It was an awesome movie. having a great quality, inspiring

It was an awful movie. having a terrible quality


We have two dependent children. needing someone for care

We have two dependable children. having a nature of completing promises


The laughing child was playing. having a good nature

The laughable car was powered with tequila. impossible to be serious about


She has light hair. a natural quality

She has lightened hair. an unnatural/changed quality


He is a loving son. having a quality of giving love

He is a lovable son. having a nature of attracting love


She is reliant on money from her parents. having need of

She is reliable. a nature of being trustworthy, predictable


He is selective a bout what he eats. having a quality of being choosy

They are selling selected items. particular, carefully chosen
Select people can live there. a small number, exclusive, wealthy


He is a sensible person. reasonable [sensible]

He is a sensitive person. easily irritated or hurt [L. sensitivus]




It was childish behavior (behavior). having immature behavior, negative

It was childlike behavior. qualities like a child, positive


We are confident about winning. sure [L.confidere]

The message is confidential. private [L. confident]


It is a crisp day, today. cool and dry

It is a crispy cracker. thin and crunchy (makes a pleasant sound)


We had a fun time at the movies. amusing

We saw a funny movie. causing laughter


The company is responsive to customers' needs. acting quickly, sympathetically

The company is responsible for product safety. answerable, accountable


The general made a tactical advance. military move [L. tacticus]

He is a tactful politician. having skills handling situations [L. tactus] tact (N) skill in
dealing with difficult or delicate situations


Your food is tasty. having a good taste

You are a tasteful dresser. having good judgment for fashion


He is a worthy competitor. having good value, character

He is a worthless competitor. having no value or importance

antithetical (Adj) directly opposed or contrasted; opposite.

Suffixes -ic versus -ical

Adjectives -ic and -ical


There is no particular way to know whether a word will use the -ic or the -ical ending. The suffix -ic comes
from French -ique, or Greek -ikos. and means having the nature of , or causing something.

academic, algebraic, arithmetic, artistic, athletic, catholic, domestic, dramatic, egoistic, emphatic, energetic,
fantastic, geometric, strategic, linguistic, majestic, neurotic, pathetic, pedagogic, phonetic, public, semantic,
syntactic, systematic, tragic

He buys classic cars.

traditional, old style

His comic verse filled books.

artistic comedy

His economic theory was proved unsound.

of the science of economics

An electric motor powered the car. a particular machine

That was a/an historic moment. recorded in past history

The hysteric / hysterical woman was out of control.

The little girl played with a magic wand.

He was a medic in the military.

He wrote in a poetic speech.

unable to control your behavior or emotions

of a mysterious source

intern or doctor

imaginative, having the quality of poetry, like poetry

It's not politic to ask such questions



The -ical form is often added to a word that already has a final -ic. Such adjectives often have a different or
an additional meaning from the more basic -ic form.

alphabetical, alphanumerical, archaeological, biblical, biological, chemical, chronological, critical, cynical,

ethical, grammatical, fanatical, illogical, logical, mathematical, mechanical, medical, musical, pedagogical,
physical, radical, surgical tactical, topical

We listen to classical music. from a cultural (sometimes Greek, Roman, European) source, or 18thC.

His comical verse entertained audiences.


He chose an economical car. inexpensive to use

Electrical equipment makes our work easier.

This is a/an historical moment.

general, mass

worthy of being recorded in history

The movie was hysterical. very funny, causing uncontrollable laughter

It was a magical experience.

He did medical research.

mysterious, wonderful, exciting

related to medicine

He wrote in a poetical manner.

It was a political question.

concerning government and politics

Common Mistakes
Errors and Solutions

Error and Solution

having the form of poetry


His answer was logic, but I didn't agree with him.

How can I tell if a word is an adjective or a noun?

My dad likes to listen to classic music on the car radio.

Use this to refer to traditional music (not Bach and Beethoven)

Do you know where I can buy an economic car?

Hal is a tasty dresser.

It was a chilly, crispy day.

Don't shout at my son. He's a very sensible person.


His answer was logical, but I didn't agree with him.

Tip: If you want to know if a word is an adjective, place "very" before the word:
It's very logical. / *It's very logic.

My dad likes to listen to classical music on the car radio.

This book is a classic. enjoyed by generations
Use "classical music" to refer to Beethoven, Bach, Haydn, etc.

Do you know where I can buy an economical car?

(money saving, affordable, gas saving?)

Hal is a tasteful dresser.

Use tasty for food. Use tasteful for fashion sense (dresses appropriately, has good fashion judgment) .

It was a chilly, crisp day.

(dry, low humidity)

He's a very sensitive person.

(easily hurt)

Pop-Q "Historical"


Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). Brigham Young University.

2013. Web. 30 Jun 2014. <corpus.byu.edu/coca>.

Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University
Press 2009. Print.

Wikipedia contributors. "List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes." Wikipedia,

The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Dec. 2013.
Web. 22 Dec. 2013.


Recently-coined words, terms and expressions with their meaning.
The English language is notoriously fast in adapting to the changing world.
New words enter English from every area of life where they represent and
describe the changes and developments that take place from day to day.
Here are some words and expressions that have been coined in recent years.








Burkini or Burquini





Chick lit

A blend of 'affluence' and 'influenza'.
A social disease resulting from extreme materialism and
excessive consumerism: earning more money and
consuming more, which can lead to overwork, debt,
stress, anxiety, etc.
A form of tourism in which tourists stay on farms or in
agricultural villages, and often participate in farm
Fruit drinks fortified with alcohol, designed and
marketed to appeal to young people.
Abbreviation of 'application', software that performs a
specific task.
Steal someone's iPhone.
Person who loves and collects high-quality audio
Blend of the words 'bag' and 'aggravation'. A feeling of
annoyance and frustration at the airport when your
baggage has not arrived but the other passengers' bags
A blend of 'book' and 'blog' : a book written by a
A navigation technique which helps users by displaying
a list of links to the pages they have visited when
exploring a website,
for example: home >>vocabulary>>transport.
Blend of 'brother' and 'romance'.
A close non-sexual relationship between two men.
Blend of 'burqa' and 'bikini' A swimsuit worn by Muslim
women which covers the whole body i.e. the arms to
the wrist, the legs to the ankle, with a hood to cover the
hair and neck.
Performing on the streets and other public places, while
soliciting donations. Busy urban areas will attract street
performers (buskers) who sing, play, juggle, etc
Excited interest or attention surrounding, for example, a
new invention, a recent event or something that has
become fashionable.
A new word or expression that is commonly used in
specialized work environments or age-groups, and has
become fashionable. Terms used in advertising can
often convert into buzzwords and become widely used
Completely Automated Public Turing Test To Tell
Computers and Humans Apart. A distorted image of
letters and numbers used to ensure that a response is
not generated by a computer, in order
to prevent spamming.
Blend of 'car' and 'hijacking'. When a car driver is forced
to give up his vehicle or drive to a destination
designated by the attacker.
Areas on the internet where people can communicate
by exchanging typed messages
Books, usually featuring female characters, written by
women on contemporary themes and issues that
appeal more to women than to men.
Blend of 'chilling' and relaxing'.


(page 2

copyleft funkinetics)

Recently-coined English words, terms and expressions with their

The English language is notoriously fast in adapting to the changing world.
New words enter English from every area of life where they represent and
describe the changes and developments that take place from day to day.
Here are some words and expressions that have been coined in recent years.
Some can be found in official dictionaries; others may never make their way
but new words will continue to appear as the English language adapts to
innovations and trends.

Opposite of copyright. Whereas copyright imposes
restrictions on the distribution of a work or publication,
copyleft eliminates restrictions and allows freedom of use for
A pharmaceutical product with beneficial effects on the skin
e.g. anti-ageing creams containing a product that changes
cell biology.
Very young child who spends a lot of time watching television.
Cot potato
(cot = a baby's bed)
Buying goods online from one's home.
A person who spends a lot of time sitting in front of the
Couch potato
A ring-shaped pastry that is a cross between a croissant and
a doughnut.
Raising money for a project by getting a large number of
Crowdfunding people to make a small financial contribution, particularly by
using a website.
A person who uses the Internet, electronic communication or
social networks to harm, harass or intimidate another person.
Cyber cafe
A place which provides internet access to the public.
A person who imagines that he/she is suffering from an
illness after reading about the symptoms on the Internet!
Spend time on the Internet at work doing personal things.
Using one's employer's Internet and email facilities for
personal purposes during working hours.
A trip or short vacation which lasts only one day Daycation
do not stay away overnight.


Drug driving
Dwell time
Face Time
Finlit / fin lit
Flame war

Euphemism for laying-off staff or downsizing a company.

A person who reduces by half their consumption of meat and
animal products in order to reduce the environmental impact
of their diet.
Extremely attractive, fashionable, impressive, etc
Blend of 'documentary' and 'soap'. (soap opera: sentimental
TV serial) A 'docusoap' is a reality television programme in
the style
of a documentary.
Combination of 'drama' and 'comedy'. A film, play or TV
programme that mixes drama and comedy.
Something so attractive or exciting that it makes you want to
have it e.g. a droolworthy dress, a droolworthy cake, etc.
Driving a vehicle while under the influence of drugs.
The length of time spent on a website.
A tune that keeps repeating itself over and over again in our
Online recruitment of employees, including online
of resumes and cover letters
A professional person who works from home and provides
services on the internet.
Icon used in electronic messages and webpages.
A blend of 'emotion' and 'icon'. A symbol, used in email
messages, which is made out of punctuation marks and
resembles a human face.
Electronic piracy Illegal downloading of material found on the
internet (films, music, etc.)
A person you know only through online networks.
To stalk (follow) someone using Internet searches and email.
Electric vehicle, a vehicle which runs entirely on electricity
in rechargeable batteries.
Electronic material and devices that have been thrown away.
Application which enables people to make video phone calls.
They can speak and see each other at the same time.
Person who dresses according to the latest fashion trends.
Favourite icon: a tiny little graphic that appears when you
bookmark a site.
Financial literacy
Knowledge and understanding of financial language and
issues related to finance.
A period during which angry or rude email messages are

A crowd that gathers in a pre-determined place, performs an

action then disperses very quickly. The mob is not told exactly
what to do until just before the event.
A vegetarian who sometimes eats meat or fish.
A woman who is happy to stay single and independent so that
she can do what she wants when she wants.
Blend of 'flight' and 'nightmare'. Unpleasant air travel
experience (lost luggage, missed connections, etc.)
A fake blog. A blog (online journal) which appears to have
been written by an independent person but has in fact been
created by
a company or business in order to advertise a product or
Blend of 'floor' and 'wardrobe'.
A pile of clothes dropped on the floor.
A blend of 'food' and 'memoir'. An account of someone's life
or personal experiences, with a strong emphasis on food,
often including recipes and cookery advice.
A method of extracting oil or natural gas from rock formations
deep below the earth's surface, by drilling and creating
Blend of Facebook and rape.
Making changes to someones Facebook pages without their
knowledge or permission.
An enemy who pretends to be your friend.
A blend of the words 'frost' and 'hijack'.
Stealing a car on a cold day when the owner leaves the
engine running to defrost the windows.
A blend of 'fun' and 'unemployed'. Someone who enjoys not
having a job because they have more time for leisure and fun
A form of energetic step aerobics that mixes exercise and
soul music.
describe the changes and developments that take place from day to day.
Here are some words and expressions that have been coined in recent years.
Flash mob



A pub which, in addition to beer and alcoholic drinks,
offers gastronomic cuisine.
A new generation of men who see cooking more as a
hobby than
a household chore, and use their cooking skills to
impress friends and potential partners.
A new generation of men who see cooking more as a
hobby than
a household chore, and use their cooking skills to

Glad rags
Glass cliff


Hoody or hoodie

ICE number


impress friends and potential partners.

A person obsessively concentrated on a particular
interest, especially new technological devices.
Your best clothes or dressy clothes you wear on special
Blend of 'glamour' and 'camping'. Luxury camping :
sleeping in the open but with every comfort including
cooking equipment.
Refers to a situation where women are selected for
positions when there is a strong likelihood of failure.
Blend of 'granny' and 'literature'.
Books that appeal more to older people.
Going on holiday or vacation with grandparents in order
to reduce the cost.
Blend of 'guess' and 'estimate'. A rough estimate without
any claim of accuracy.
A person who manipulates information on the internet in
order to transmit a message, usually political.
The # symbol (hashtag) is used on social networking
services such as Twitter to identify a keyword or topic of
interest and search for messages (tweets) related to the
A social networking app which allows people to share
their dislikes.
A holiday or vacation spent on a farm.
Abbreviation of high earner not rich yet; refers to a
person with an income between $100,000 and
A person, especially a youth, wearing a hooded top.
Location in which wireless Internet access is available
for example airports, hotels, train stations, etc.
To say something with apparent modesty but at the
same time actually boast about an achievement.
To be able to communicate and be instantly reachable
through multiple devices with Internet connectivity
(smartphones, laptops, tablets, etc.).
In Case of Emergency
The telephone number of a friend or relative who should
be contacted in an emergency situation. The ICE
number is stored in your mobile phone and identified in
your address book by the prefixICE.
ex: ICE1 or ICE Mum.
Having a great impact or effect, or making a strong
Constantly checking and responding to email and text

Blend of 'information' and 'entertainment'. Online
services connected to information and leisure activities.
High-priced designer handbag that is the bag "of the
It bag
moment", or
a "must-have" item.
A girl who has become a celebrity more through intense
It girl
media coverage than through any personal
achievements (e.g. Paris Hilton).
A family which includes the children from each partner's
Jigsaw family
previous relationship(s), in addition to any children they
may have together.
Blend of 'jumbo' and 'umbrella'. Very large umbrella set
above tables outdoors at a coffee shop, pub or
A telephone connected to wires in a fixed location as
opposed to
a mobile or cell phone.
Laymanise/laymaniz To simplify technical information so that it can be
understood by ordinary people or non-specialists.
A photograph taken by yourself of your suntanned legs
to show that you are enjoying your holiday.
(The sand and sea are usually visible in the picture.)
A person who only eats food produced locally.
A small bracelet made from brightly-coloured rubber
Loom band
bands which are woven together in a variety of
To deliberately try to disrupt another computer system
by sending massive amounts of email to it.
A period of time spent exclusively on yourself doing
Me time
something that you enjoy and allows you to relax.
Interjection used to express indifference or to show that
one simply does not care. Equivalent to shrugging ones
Used as an adjective it means 'mediocre'.
The idea that merit and individual effort determine one's
success rather than wealth or birth.
Non-alcoholic drink that looks like a cocktail.
Nail tat
A temporary tattoo applied to the nails.
A one-night holiday, or going away from home for one
Nano break
Small laptop computer which weighs less than 3 pounds
and has
a 7 to 10 inch screen.
Blend of 'network' and 'etiquette'. Set of rules governing



appropriate behaviour and courtesy on the internet.

Blend of 'internet' and 'citizen'. A person who spends an
excessive amount of time on the internet.
A person who surfs the internet looking for information in
order to impress others with their knowledge of current
A person who continues to work after they have reached
the age of retirement.
A new member of any group, community, or activity.

Someone who rarely or never uses the Internet, usually
because they cannot access it.
New Google employee
An area where there is slow Internet access or no connection
at all.
The years between 2000 and 2009 which contain a 'nought'
(zero), in the same way as other decades are called the
'thirties', 'sixties', etc .
Something that can be done or produced in another country,
especially at reduced costs.
Abbreviation of 'other half', a person's wife, husband or
A totally mismanaged situation characterized by numerous
blunders and miscalculations.
A one-piece garment for adults, rather like a babys sleeping
suit, usually made of soft material and worn for relaxing or
The way a situation appears to the general public, or the
impression it gives.
Traditional media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television)
as opposed to the internet.
Being excessively protective of one's children in order to
guarantee their safety and ensure their success in life.
Providing too much information on the Internet (credit card
details, personal information, etc.) especially through social
network sites.
A segment of today's working population where there is a
desire or need to work long hours.
Being tired of having to remember a large number of
passwords for different electronic devises.
An online service where a persons passwords can be stored

Pig ear
Pig's ear
Pixie cut


Road rage

Sip and See
Sip n See
Site scraper

and managed.
A system which restricts access to a website, or certain
webpage content, to users who have paid a subscription.
Intrude into the background of a photograph just before it is
Pieces of metal fixed to the edge of low walls, ledges,
benches, steps etc. in urban areas to prevent skateboarders
from sliding or jumping on them. These are also called
skateboard deterrents or skatestoppers.
A short hairstyle for women in which the hair is cut around the
ears and cropped in layers so as to create a tousled effect.
Derived from 'pod' (from Ipod) and 'broadcast'.
A digital file (radio, audio etc.) available on the Internet for
downloading to a computer or mobile device.
A blend of the adjective 'fantastic' and the prefix 'quin'. An
informal way of referring to a person who is aged fifty or over
but remains sexy, smart, energetic and successful, especially
someone famous. In August 2011 President Barack Obama
became a quintastic.
Popular new term for a person who succeeds in dressing
stylishly on a tight budget.
The sound made by a mobile or cell phone to indicate an
incoming call.
Aggressive habits often resulting in violence against other
Commercial telemarketing call which plays a recorded
A generation of middle-aged people who have to care both for
their children and their elderly parents.
A young person or teenager who spends a lot of time in front
of the computer screen.
A photograph that one has taken of oneself (for example a
photograph taken with a smartphone).
Cottage-style decor achieved by using worn or distressed
furniture and neutral-coloured fabrics, or new items suitably
treated to appear old and look comfortable. The result is an
elegant overall effect.
A party to celebrate the birth of a baby during which guests
can socialize while sipping their drinks and admiring the new
Single income now divorced.
Blend of 'situation' and 'comedy'. A drama, on television,
based on humorous everyday situations.
Software that collects content from other sites (without

Very poor, underprivileged person who lives in an

overcrowded squalid area of a city called a slum
A watch that can be used as a phone or a computer, with a
small keyboard.
Blend of 'smoke' and 'flirt' Smoking prohibition laws have led
to a new sort of social pastime : 'smirting', smokers getting to
know each other when outside on the pavement.
The standard system of delivering mail which is very slow in
Snail mail
contrast to electronic mail.
Supermarkets that offer discounted food exclusively to those
poverty. The food is donated by retailers and manufacturers.
The food is cheap because it may be mislabelled, have
damaged packaging or be nearing an expiration date, but it is
still edible.
Stay home and use the internet, phone or other electronic
Sofalise/sofaliz device to communicate with people (social networking,
chatting, tweeting, etc.), rather than go out and meet them
face to face.
A person who is the owner of their business and runs it alone.
language is notoriously fast in adapting to the changing world.
New words enter English from every area of life where they represent and
describe the changes and developments that take place from day to day.
Here are some words and expressions that have been coined in recent years.


A method of meeting a potential romantic partner by talking to a
group of individuals at an organised event. Participants are
Speed dating rotated to meet each other for no more than eight minutes.
They then move on to the next person. At the end they indicate
whether they are interested in any of the people they have met.
The language used by spin doctors, spokes-persons, campaign
managers, etc. when trying to present information in a
favourable light.
A vacation in which you stay at home and relax or visit places
close to where you live.
Food prepared and sold by vendors in a street or a public
Street food
location for immediate consumption.
The adjective subprime describes a risky loan, or lending
money at a higher rate of interest to borrowers who have a poor
credit history.
A number placement puzzle consisting of a grid of nine 3-by-3
squares. Each row, column and square must contain only one
instance of the numbers 1 to 9.
Wrinkles around the neck caused by looking down at phones,
Tech neck
tablets, etc.

A word produced by predictive text software when you press a

combination of numbers on the keypad of a mobile phone.
Language used in text messages consisting of abbreviations,
acronyms, initials, emoticons, etc.
Sending text messages to mobile phones which insult or abuse
Jumping or diving into water from a dangerously high place
such as a hotel balcony, a cliff, bridge, wall, roof, etc.
Blend of 'trash' and 'fashion'. Fashionable items created from
old, used and recycled elements.
A fan of the TV science fiction series Star Trek.
Marketing strategy which consists in using the social behaviour
of certain groups ('tribes') of consumers (e.g. surfers, rappers)
to promote a product or service. Very often used by clothing
and accessory brands.
Blend of 'Twitter' and 'peeps' (people).
Users who follow you on Twitter.
People who 'tweet' send short messages via the microblogging
service Twitter.
A user of the Twitter service who is very popular or admired, or
with whom other users communicate a lot.
Seats in a theatre or concert hall given to people who wish to
Tweet seats
tweet during the performance.
Blend of 'Twitter' and 'intern'.
A person, usually a student or recent graduate, employed by a
company to promote its products or services on Twitter or other
social media.
People who frequently use the social networking site Twitter.
Blend of 'Twitter' and 'petition', a Twitter petition.
Being provocatively rude or insulting on the Internet in order to
cause anger or conflict in an online community such as a blog,
chat room or discussion forum.
Stop receiving another's person's messages on Twitter.
Remove someone from your list of friends on social networks
such as Facebook.
Teach an employee new or additional skills.
Short for 'user experience'.
Person who is very interested in watching videos and making
recordings, and values high-quality results.
Marketing strategy that consists in encouraging people to pass
along information to friends, family and colleagues through emarketing
mail messages, blogs, video-sharing, etc., so that the
marketing message spreads like a virus.
A combination of video, text, images and social streams in an

Web rage

electronic book.
Anger or frustration as a result of difficulties or problems
encountered when using the Internet.
Presentation or seminar conducted over the web.
A form of English that is used on the web (use of abbreviations,
acronyms, small letters, absence of punctuation and hyphens
etc.) Also known as : webspeak, netspeak, internetese.
Blend of 'window' and 'gadget'. A small application or tool that
can be installed and executed within a web page.
A web page which allows multiple users to contribute to its
content. The most well-known is the website Wikipedia.
Blend of 'winter' and 'festival'. A festival that takes place in
The words of a piece of text arranged into a sort of graphic. The
more frequent a particular word appears in the text, the bigger
its size in the wordle. (Also called 'word cloud' or 'text cloud'.)
A fitness activity which combines lively international music with
dance exercises.


There is often confusion about the use of who, whose, whom, that,
which or where.

We use who when referring to people or when we want to know the

The person who answered the phone was very helpful.
Who ate all the chocolates?

We use which to refer to a thing or an idea, and to ask about choices.

My car, which is 20 years old, isn't worth much.
Which size would you like, small, medium or large?

We use that for both a person and a thing/idea.

I'm talking about the person that I saw yesterday.
This is the style that I want to use.

Whose is a possessive pronoun used to refer to ownership.

Whose dictionary is this?
There's the girl whose car was stolen.

When who is the object, whom, with a preposition, can be used instead,
but it is formal and rather old-fashioned. In modern speech, we use who,
or we leave out the pronoun.
You are referring to a person who no longer works here.
The person to whom you are referring no longer works here.
The person (who) you are you referring to no longer works here.

Where (relative adverb) refers to places and locations.

Where is the station please?
That's where I spent my childhood.
Examples of use :

I know a woman. She speaks 6 languages.

I know a woman who speaks 6 languages.

I know a woman. Her husband speaks 6


I know a woman whose husband speaks 6


I spoke to a person yesterday.

The person to whom I spoke yesterday.(formal)

The person (who) I spoke to yesterday. (informal)

I live in a house. It is 200 years old.

I live in a house which/that is 200 years old.

That's the hotel. We stayed there last year.

That's the hotel where we stayed last year.

That's the hotel that we stayed in last year.

When can we leave out relative pronouns ?

Compare :

The woman who wanted to see me is a doctor. ('Woman' is the subject of

the sentence)

The woman (that) I wanted to see is a doctor. (Here 'woman' is the

object, 'I" is the subject.)

Relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of a relative

There is often confusion about the use of who and whom.
Who and whom are pronouns.
Who is a subject pronoun, in the same way as 'he/she/they'.
Whom is an object pronoun, in the same way as 'him/her/them'.
In the sentence "John loves Julie." :

John is the subject of the verb 'love'

Julie is the object of John's affection.

Simple rule : If you can substitute 'he/they', use 'who'.

If you can substitute 'him/them', use 'whom'.





We use 'who' when it is the subject of a verb, that is, when it refers to the
person who
takes an action.

Julie played tennis. Julie is the subject of the verb 'to play'.

To find out the name of the player, we ask a question using 'who'.
Who played tennis? Julie played tennis.

Who can also be used as the subject of a non-identifying clause:

There's Mr. Jones who bought the house next door.


We can use 'whom' as the object of a verb, but it is very formal and not
often used in spoken English.

Formal English :

Whom did you see?

Everyday English : Who did you see?

In formal English, whom is used directly after a preposition:

With whom did you play?

In informal conversational English, it is more usual to ask :

Who did you play with?



To express a regret about the present, we use wish + the past

simple :

To express a regret about the past, we use wish + the past perfect :

I don't play the piano. I wish I played the piano.

Julie lost her umbrella yesterday. She wishes she hadn't lost her

To express a desire to change something, we use wish + the

conditional (would) :

The neighbours are making noise. I wish they would

stop making noise.

IF :

After if, we often use were instead of was, especially in a formal style
where it is considered more correct.

If I were rich, I would travel all over the world.

If he were a better manager, the company would be more


We use the structure "if I were you " + would to give advice

If I were you I would take English lessons.

Compound Adjectives
English Grammar
A compound adjective is sometimes called a hyphenated adjective. What are they?
Let's look at the following sentences:

I saw a man-eating alligator.

I saw a man eating alligator.

The first sentence contains a compound adjective.

The second sentence doesn't.
However the meaning of the two sentences are very different as can be seen in the picture

I saw a man-eating alligator.

We are describing the alligator. What type of alligator is it? It is one that eats men (or
I saw a man eating alligator.
This sentence without the hyphen sounds like a man is eating an alligator.
(man is the subject, eating is the verb, alligator is the object or thing that is being eaten).
As you can see, the hyphen (or lack of it) makes a big difference in the meaning of the

Before we explain in more detail why we put that hyphen between those two words in the
first sentence, we need to do a quick review of Adjectives.

What is an adjective?
An adjective is a word that describes something.
A red car (red is an adjective because it describes the car. How is the car? Red)
A big book (big is an adjective because it describes the book. How is the book? Big)
See our other grammar notes about Adjectives in English. (LINK)
But sometimes we use more than one adjective to describe something.

Compound adjectives
A compound adjective is an adjective that contains two or more words.
In general we put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want
them to act as a single idea (adjective) that describes something.

I live in an English-speaking country.

English-speaking is an adjective (used to describe the country). We use a hyphen to

connect the word English withspeaking to show that it is one adjective (or one idea).
This adjective with two words joined by the hyphen is called a compound adjective.
Some more examples of compound adjectives are:

Our office is in a twenty-storey building.

I have just finished reading a 300-page book.

He is a well-known writer.

There are many types of Compound Adjectives. Here is a list of the most common types:

Compound Adjectives + Periods of Time

When he have compound adjectives using numbers + a time period, that word referring to
a time period is in singular form and is joined to the number with a hyphen.

I work eight hours every day --> I work an eight-hour day

I'm going on vacation for three weeks --> I have a three-week vacation

There was a delay of 5 seconds --> There was a five-second delay

Notice how we normally write the number as a word, not in numerical form.

Adverbs and Compound Adjectives

Adverbs modify a verb.

She walks slowly.

How does she walk? Slowly. Slowly is an adverb that modifies (or describes) the verb.
Adverbs can also be used to modify an adjective.

It is very hot today. (Very is an adverb)

She is extremely intelligent. (Extremely is an adverb)

Notice how we do not put a hyphen between an adverb and an adjective (not even before a

It is a very hot day.

She is an extremely intelligent girl.

Adverb + Past Participle

However when we have an Adverb + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two
words to make it a compound adjective.

This is a brightly-lit room.

She is a well-known actress.

We live in a densely-populated city.

Noun + Past Participle

When we have a noun + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it
a compound adjective.

We should start using wind-powered generators to cut costs.

I love eating sun-dried raisins.

Noun + Present Participle

When we have a noun + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to
make it a compound adjective.

I bought some mouth-watering strawberries.

That was a record-breaking jump.

Noun + Adjective
When we have a noun + adjective, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a
compound adjective.

She is a world-famous singer.

This is a smoke-free restaurant.

Adjective + Noun
When we have an adjective + noun, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a
compound adjective.

It was a last-minute decision.

We watched the full-length version of the movie.

Adjective + Past Participle

When we have an adjective + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to
make it a compound adjective.

That is an old-fashioned dress

Reptiles are cold-blooded creatures.

Adjective + Present Participle

When we have an adjective + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words
to make it a compound adjective.

She is a good-looking girl.

It left a long-lasting taste in my mouth.

Compound Adjectives with Proper Nouns

A proper noun is the name of something or someone (e.g. John, Susan Sanders).

Compound Adjectives made from Proper nouns don't need a hyphen though must have
capital letters.

I bought the James Jackson tickets for us.

James Jackson is a compound adjective describing the tickets (What type of tickets?
James Jackson tickets). Since the adjective is a Proper noun, we don't need a hyphen
between the two names.

How do we know when to put a hyphen?

If you can use the word and between the two adjectives or words, then a hyphen isn't

She has a big blue book.

(Big and Blue are adjectives)

Can we say: She has a big and blue book. (Yes, it is possible)

He is a world famous singer

Can we say: He is a world and famous singer. No, it doesn't sound correct so we need a
hyphen to join the wordsworld and famous.
Also, look at the following:

It's an old coal-mining town

Notice how we didn't put a hyphen between the word old and coal. If we had have done
that, we would have been referring to old coal, as in coal that is old. We want to emphasis
that the town in old and not the coal.
Here we can say it is old and a coal-mining one.

Oxford Journals
Arts & Humanities
Journal of Semantics
Volume 1, Issue 3-4
Pp. 195-249.




Kenneth Reid Beesley

In this paper I will argue that evaluative adjectives, such as good, bad, clever
and skilful, should be analysed as one-place predicates in logical translation.
This approach, which is basically the traditional logical treatment of absolute
adjectives, is to be contrasted with the approach in Montague (1974a) and
Parsons (1972), wherein all adjectives are translated as two-place predicates,
i.e. as semantic attributives. The move away from the Montague-Parsons
analysis is not new: Bartsch (1972. 1975), McConnell-Ginet (1973), Kamp
(1975), Siegel (1976a, 1976b, 1979), Keenan &. Faltz (1978) and Klein (1980)
have similarly advocated one-place predicate status, at least for fairly
straightforward qualities (e.g. red, carnivorous, stony,) and even for degree
adjectives (e.g. tall, short, heavy and old). Evaluatives, however, remain
troublesome: Kamp concluded that their status was uncertain, and Siegel
classified them as two-place predicates after much argument. My remarks are
directed primarily against Siegel's analysis; I intend to show that there are
syntactic tests, some suggested by Siegel herself, which argue persuasively
that evaluative adjectives should be interpreted as one-place predicates

care for

carry on

carry out


Oxford University Press

1) like, want

1) He doesn't care for films about war.

No le interesan las pelculas de guerra.

2) look after, take care of

2) This house looks well cared for.

Esta casa se ve bien cuidada (en buenas condiciones)..

1) continue

1) The widow carried on as if nothing had happened.

La viuda continu como si nada hubiese ocurrido.

2) continue with

2) Both brothers carried on with their boring conversation.

Los dos hermanos continuaron con su aburrida

perform, put in practice

It is not easy to carry out this task.

No es fcil poner en prctica esta tarea.



keep at

persevere at

Keep at it! Persist in what you are doing!

Dale! (Persevera!) Contina en lo que ests haciendo!

keep away from

avoid coming near,

stay away from

The angry woman shouted the thief to keep away from her.
La mujer enojada le grit al ladrn que se alejara de ella.

keep back

1) conceal

1) They discovered that the boy was keeping something

Detectaron que el muchacho estaba ocultando algo.

2) restrain, hinder

2) An urgent meeting at the office kept me back.

Me retuvo una reunin urgente en la oficina.

3) not come forward,

stay back

3) Please, try to keep back. This fire is dangerous.

Por favor, qudate atrs. Este fuego es peligroso.

keep back from

stay away from

Keep back from the edge of the platform. The train is coming.
Aljate del borde de la plataforma. Est llegando el tren.

keep down

1) lie low, crouch

1) Keep down or they will see you.

Agchate (qudate abajo) o te vern.

2) subject, repress

2) This country has been kept down for several decades.

Este pas ha permanecido sometido durante varias dcadas.

keep in
1) confine, detain

1) The teacher kept him in for two hours after school.

El profesor lo retuvo durante dos horas despus de la

2) allow to continue burning

2) Keep the fire in until I return.

Mantn el fuego encendido hasta que regrese.

keep in with

continue on good terms

with someone

It's advisable to keep in with your boss.

Es aconsejable andar bien con tu jefe.

keep off

1) stay away

1) Keep off from the grass.

Mantngase alejado del csped (No pise el csped).

2) stay at a distance,
not near

2) If the rain keeps off we could play in the garden.

Si la lluvia se mantiene alejada podramos jugar en el jardn.

keep on

persist in, continue

(followed by an ing verb)

Helen kept on changing the topic of our conversation.

Helen insisti en cambiar el tema de nuestra charla.

keep on at

worry, snag,
scold someone

Why do you persist in keeping on at Fernando so much? He

has not hurt you.
Por qu insistes tanto en reprender a Fernando? No te ha

keep out

1) prevent people or things

from entering

1) The janitor in our building is good at keeping strangers out.

El encargado de nuestro edificio es bueno para mantener
alejados a los intrusos.

2) stay outside

2) Keep out!! Can't you read the sign on the door?

Aljate!! No lees el cartel sobre la puerta?

keep to

adhere to

This train always keeps to the schedule.

Este tren siempre cumple (respeta) el horario.

keep up with

1) go forward at an equal pace 1) Please, walk more slowly. I can't keep up with you.
Por favor, camina ms despacio. No puedo alcanzarte.
2) learn as much as

2) Herbert can't keep up with the rest of the class.

Herbert no puede emparejarse con (ponerse al mismo nivel
que) el resto de la clase.

3) compete with
(as indicating social status)

3) We are not trying to keep up with the Joneses.

No estamos tratando de competir con la familia Jones.

Synonyms for
Synonyms (Grouped by Similarity of Meaning) ofverb meet
Sense 1:
meet, run into, encounter, run across, come across, see
Sense 7:
meet, gather, assemble, forgather, foregather
Sense 3:
converge, meet
Sense 13:
touch, adjoin, meet, contact
Sense 2:
meet, get together
Sense 4:
meet, satisfy, fill, fulfill, fulfil
provide, supply, ply, cater
Sense 5:
meet, fit, conform to
match, fit, correspond, check, jibe, gibe, tally, agree
Sense 6:
meet, match, cope with
cope, get by, make out, make do, contend, grapple, deal, manage
Sense 8:

Sense 9:
meet, gather, assemble, forgather, foregather
Sense 10:
meet, encounter, play, take on
Sense 11:
meet, encounter, receive
have, experience
Sense 12:
suffer, meet
experience, see, go through

Writing a review
Look at this task.
You have been asked to write a short film review for a school /college magazine. Choose
any film which you think might be of interest to your fellow students. The film can be in
any language and it can be of any type: comedy, thriller, science fiction, romance,
historical drama etc.
Your brief is to include a clear description of the story/contents, to comment on what you
think the most successful and least successful features are, and to give an overall
recommendation. Write about 250 words.
First, choose a film to review. It doesnt have to be a new film, though it is helpful if you have
seen it recently, and you dont have to have enjoyed it. Sometimes its easier to pinpoint what
you dont like about something than what you like! Think about what you liked or didnt like
about the film.
The purpose of a review is firstly to give factual information about the subject, and secondly to
give an opinion about it which will help the reader to decide whether to buy the book, see the
play or film or visit the exhibition.
Reviews normally contain three main ingredients: overview, pros and cons, and verdict,
which are described more fully below. A review may not always fall into three neat sections,
however. The writer may decide to describe an aspect of the subject and comment immediately
on strengths and weaknesses, for example, before going on to describe another aspect of the
Overview a description of the subject
Book non-fiction:
What is it about? Who is it for? How technical is it? How is it organised? What topics are
covered? What special features are there? How much does it cost? etc.
Book fiction
What kind of book is it? (thriller, historical novel, science fiction etc)? Is it different in any way
from other books of this type? Whats the story? etc (You can give an outline but dont give the
ending away!)
Play / film / TV programme
What is it about? Is there anything special / unusual about the production? Play / film: Where is
it on? Are there any well-known actors? Who is the director? TV programme: Which channel?
Is it part of a series? Who is the producer?

Pros and cons detailed comments on the successful and unsuccessful features of the
Your comments will probably include both objective views (the photographs in a book were
poor quality or the costumes didnt fit the actors properly, for example) and subjective views
(based on personal feelings) the story wasnt interesting or the film was too violent. Make
sure, however, that you give reasons for your comments.
You may have strong positive or negative feelings about the subject of the review and this is no
bad thing. A strong opinion, clearly argued, is often more interesting to read than a carefully
balanced assessment. Even so, try not to be completely one-sided.
Verdict summing-up and recommendation
The last paragraph should sum up your feelings and make it clear to the reader whether you
recommend the subject without any reservations, recommend it with one or two reservations, or
dont recommend it at all. In real life, readers often look at the last paragraph of a review first to
see what the general verdict is. Make sure your review gives a clear verdict.
Example of a film review.
Crazy Plumber Plaza Cinema
If you have seen the advance publicity, you might imagine that this was a funny film. Wrong. Its
a film which tries very hard to be funny and fails consistently. The story concerns a plumber who
isnt very good at his job. When his customers desert, and he cant pay his bills, he decides to
turn to crime. He tries a little shoplifting (he isnt very good at it, of course) but then he gets
involved in bigger things.
Wayne Gibson, who plays the hero, has one or two good lines but most of the time hes
struggling with a terrible script. There are a few good moments the car chase sequence is
memorable but the storyline is very slight and the director seems to have run out of ideas very
quickly. As the film progresses, the level of violence increases. Despite the publicity, this is not a
film for young children.
A great deal of money went into the making of Crazy Plumber but in the end spectacular
effects are no substitute for real humour.
Useful language
The book / film / programme concerns
deals with
tells the story of
It contains
It includes

a study of
a survey of
a history of

a chapter on
a section on

Pros and cons



quite interesting
fairly entertaining


over the top

All in all

In the last analysis

In conclusion

To sum up


Facial Expressions in Nonverbal

Communication: Importance,
Lesson & Quiz
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Instructor: Bethany Davis
Bethany has taught college business courses and has a master's degree in organizational and human
resource development.

Facial expressions are a very important part of communication. Though nothing is said
verbally, there is much to be understood about the messages we send and receive through
the use of nonverbal communication, such as facial expressions.
We also recommend watching Understanding the Nonverbal Communication of Group
Members and What is Communication? - Definition & Importance

The Importance of Facial Expressions

Communication involves both verbal and nonverbal forms of making sure our message is
heard. When communicating with others, we often use facial expressions. It is important
to understand these more subtle signals as a larger part of the communication process. A
simple smile may indicate that we are in agreement with a message or approve of the
message being heard. Meanwhile, a scowl may indicate displeasure or disagreement with
the message. Understanding facial expressions and their meaning is an important part of
the communication process.


Communication involves two or more people exchanging both verbal and nonverbal cues to
reach a point of shared understanding. When communicating with another person, we
typically use verbal communication (words and sounds) that we are accustomed to from our
own language and experience. The communication process involves both a sender and a
receiver. The sender is sending a message, and the receiver is hearing and seeing the
This process is complicated by many factors, such as parties who are trying to
communicate while speaking different languages. Other complications are often affected by
the personal 'screens' we all process communication through. These screens include things
like experience, faith, values, background, gender, education, and more. We both send
messages and receive messages through these screens, making the ability to understand
one another more difficult. Often we make assumptions about the message being
communicated to us because of these screens. Another way in which we make
assumptions is through observing, analyzing, and assigning meaning to the facial
expressions we see in others.

Facial Expressions
In today's business world, much of our communication takes place via electronic methods
such as email and text messages. Often, employees report that it is hard to understand the
context or meaning behind a message that is received electronically. In person, this is often
easier to do because of visual cues from facial expressions.
Facial expressions include such actions as smiling, frowning, eye rolling, eye contact,
scowling, and appearing bored or interested. Other facial expressions might indicate
interest or excitement or even shock, like opening one's eyes or mouth widely. Winking
might indicate that we are joking about the remark we made, or flirting with the person to
whom we are speaking! Raising our eyebrows often indicates that we are surprised or do
not believe the statement we are hearing.
The interpretations we assign to these facial expressions vary greatly, so we must be
careful when using them to prepare ourselves for the way in which they may be assigned
meaning. Many of the facial expressions we make are ones we are accustomed to from our
own cultural, familial, and business backgrounds. Because we understand facial
expressions differently based on our background and experience, we can easily
misunderstand the intent behind such nonverbal cues. Eye contact is an example of a facial
expression that can easily be misunderstood. Different cultures assign different meanings
to eye contact. In America a moderate level of eye contact is expected in business dealings,
while in other countries such as Libya, eye contact between men and women is impolite.

Appropriate levels of eye contact differ by culture.

Continue reading...

s to communicate

Living with dementia

Day to day living

Staying connected

Ways to communicate

Helping with communication


Planning for the future

I have dementia

Caring for someone

Understanding behaviour

BrainBooster activities

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Ways to communicate

Communication is a critical component of our life; it enables us to express who we are

and allows us to relate to one another. When we communicate, we convey messages or
exchange information to share information, needs, opinions, ideas, beliefs, feelings,
emotions, experiences and values. Communication is more than talking and listening; it
involves understanding and interpreting.
Information is conveyed in many ways:

Verbal: words we use and understand

Non-verbal: body language (facial expression, posture and gesture)

Written: words we read and write

Para-verbal: tone, pacing and volume of our voice

How does dementia affect communication?

Dementia creates distinct challenges in how people express themselves and understand
what is being communicated to them.
The following communication changes are common among people with dementia:

Difficulty finding a word

Creating new words for ones that are forgotten

Repeating a word or phrase (perseveration)

Difficulty organizing words into logical sentences

Cursing or using other offensive language

Reverting a first language

Talking less than usual

Watch this webinar on communication strategies to use when communicating with

someone who has dementia, presented by the Canadian Dementia Resource and
Knowledge Exchange.


Although each person is unique, dementia has a profound effect on the language
abilities of people living with the disease and therefore on the way they communicate.
This language degeneration is known as aphasia.
People with aphasia have difficulty expressing themselves, finding the right words,
understanding the words they hear, reading and writing. As the disease progresses,
communication can become increasingly challenging. Recognizing those changes will
help the person with the disease, and her family and friends, find ways to communicate
more effectively.

Communication challenges during each stage of

Alzheimer's disease
People with dementia lose particular communication abilities during the early, middle
and late stages of the disease. As the illness progresses, they experience a gradual
deterioration of their ability to express themselves clearly and understand what others
say. However, some form of communication does remain possible at every stage of the
As the disease progresses, delusions namely paranoid beliefs or false accusations
may occur. It is common for people with dementia to believe that their food is poisoned
or that their belongings have been stolen. Others may believe that someone is spying on
them or trying to hurt them. And some may even accuse their partner of having an affair.
Remember that these accusations are the result of the disease; they are not willful or
intentional. And although they can be hurtful, try not to take them personally. It is
important not to argue with a person with dementia or try to convince him that his
perception is not real. His perception is part of his own reality; try to accept it and meet
him where he is.
In the early stage, the person often cannot find the right words particularly the names
of objects. The person may substitute an incorrect word, or may not find any word at all.
At this stage, the person may:

Have difficulty understanding humour, jokes, and fast talk

Have difficulty following multiple-step instructions

Require increased concentration to follow conversations

Have trouble staying on topic

Need more time to respond to questions

Experience increased frustration

Have trouble finding the right word

Lose train of thought more often

In the middle stage, more and more words become lost, and the person needs to think
longer before expressing thoughts. The person loses spontaneity, vocabulary is more and
more limited and sometimes the person repeats the same word over and over again.
At this stage, the person may:

Have mild trouble understanding everyday conversation

Often ask the speaker to repeat simple sentences

Find it difficult to follow long conversations

Have difficulty understanding reading materials

Repeat the same word or information over and over (perseveration)

Not be able to interpret facial expressions (like a wink or the nod of the head)

Have trouble explaining or understanding abstract concepts (e.g. "I feel blue")

Lose interest in talking/speak less

Have difficulty raising or lowering the voice

Have difficulty finishing sentences

Speak in vague and rambling sentences

In the late stage, individuals appear to lose the capacity for recognizable speech,
although words or phrases may occasionally be uttered.
Non-verbal communication will become increasingly important as, at this stage, the
person may:

Be unable to understand the meaning of most words

Lose the capacity for recognizable speech, although words or phrases may
occasionally be uttered. Language often does not make sense to others.

Become totally mute in some cases.

Person-centred approach to communication

A person-centred philosophy views people with dementia first and foremost as
individuals, with unique attributes, personal values and history.
A successful person-centred approach to communication is based on:

Learning about dementia, its progression, and how it affects individuals

Believing that communication is possible

Focusing on the persons abilities and skills

Reassuring the individual with dementia and being positive

Meeting people with dementia where they are and accepting their reality

Quality of life for people with dementia is largely dependent on their connection with
others. Maintaining a relationship can be a complex and challenging process, especially
when verbal communication is affected.

Methods of communication

The best communication methods succeed in putting across the right message
in a clear, unambiguous way that gets noticed by the target audience, whilst
also saving on time and cost. Good communicators succeed in choosing the
best medium of communication for the particular purpose in mind. For external
communications, the Inland Revenue typically uses:
Written communications dispatched by mail e.g. statements detailing tax
liabilities and payment schedules. Paper-based items sent by mail have the
advantage of providing a clear, fileable statement that is likely to reach its
intended recipient.

Oral communications: customers can 'phone in' with their queries. They
can also speak directly to the employee who is managing their account. Oral
communication allows most misunderstandings to be resolved immediately.
Face-to-face communications e.g. a visit to the local office by
arrangement. This can save time and subsequent communications.
Online communications. Today consumers can complete their Tax
Return, claim tax credits and do a variety of other business with the Inland
Revenue directly online, thereby saving a great deal of time. An important
advantage of this method is that ongoing 'help' is provided by pop-up help
facilities. This is a cheap, quick and efficient means of communication.
Advertising on TV and in the press e.g. to alert people to tax payment
deadlines or to eligibility for tax credits. By this method the Inland Revenue is
able to communicate with millions of customers cost effectively.
The Inland Revenue uses similar methods for internal communications e.g.
Written communications - internal memos, staff magazines, notices or
posters on staff notice boards.
Oral communications - phone conversations between employees.
Face-to-face - team briefings, meetings and presentations.
Online - internal e-mails and intranet.
Face-to-face conversations and oral communications make possible more
detailed discussions to clarify issues. Written communications provide clear
statements of discussions and their outcome can be recorded and filed. Online
communications have revolutionised ways of working by providing fast, cheap
and efficient ways of interacting that can easily be stored within files.
Online communications can also be easily edited and shared between teams of
employees working together. For example, a customer's account details can be
accessed both in a local office and in the central tax-paying department in
Glasgow, simultaneously.

Read more: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/hmrc/getting-the-message-acrossthe-importance-of-good-communications/methods-ofcommunication.html#ixzz3OTDG2odo

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Cuando deseas hablar acerca de una "posible" situacin y sus resultados, debes
utilizar una oracin condicional. Observa estos ejemplos:
If people invite you to a party, they expect you to come properly dressed.
(Si te invitan a una fiesta, se espera que vayas correctamente vestido/a)
If I wear the green jacket, it'll go with my new shoes.
(Si uso la chaqueta verde, sta har juego con mis zapatos nuevos)
En este tipo de oraciones condicionales existe una posibilidad real de que suceda lo

que en ellas se expresa. Bsicamente, existen DOS tipos de estructuras:

IF + present simple

present simple

Se usa este tipo de oracin condicional para hablar acerca de algo que siempre
sucede. Es como una ley. En este tipo de condicin if (si) tiene un significado similar
a when(cuando):
If you put water in a cooler, it freezes.
(Si colocas agua en el congelador, sta se congela)
(= When you put water in a cooler, it freezes)
(Cuando colocas agua en el congelador, sta se congela)
If you heat ice, it melts.
(Si calientas hielo, ste se derrite)
(= When you heat ice, it melts)
(Cuando calientas hielo, ste se derrite)

IF + present simple

WILL / 'LL / WON'T + infinitive

En cambio, se utiliza esta segunda alternativa de oracin condicional para hablar

acerca de un probable resultado futuro, es decir, que no es absolutamente seguro:
If I wear the green jacket, it'll go with my new shoes.
(Si uso la chaqueta verde, sta har juego con mis zapatos nuevos)
If you don't study, you won't pass the FCE exam.
(Si no estudias, no aprobars el examen de First Certificate) >> ;-(
En estas oraciones condicionales generalmente podemos utilizar unless (a menos
que)en lugar de la estructura if... not (si... no). Observa:
Unless you study, you won't pass the exam.
(A menos que estudies, no aprobars el examen de First Certificate)
(= If you don't study, you won't pass the exam)
(= Si no estudias, no aprobars el examen)
Unless I wear clothes like theirs, my friends will think I'm a bit strange.
(A menos que use el mismo tipo de ropa que ellos, mis amigos pensarn que soy
algo raro/a)
(= If I don't wear clothes like theirs, my friends will think I'm a bit
(Si no uso el mismo tipo de ropa que ellos, mis compaeros pensarn que soy algo
Los ejemplos que has analizado arriba muestran dos patrones diferentes para esta
case de condiciones. Sin embargo, son posibles tambin otras combinaciones de
formas verbales. Aqu tienes dos ejemplos:

If you get the chance, visit Buenos Aires in spring.

(Si tienes la oportunidad, visita Buenos Aires en primavera)
If you're not nervous, why is your hand shaking?
(Si no ests nervioso/a, por qu est temblando tu mano?)
Las combinaciones posibles pueden llevar incluso verbos modales como en estos
tres ejemplos.
If you have finished, you may go.
>> MODAL VERB: may
(Si has terminado, puedes irte)
If you're feeling ill, you ought to see a doctor.
>> MODAL VERB: ought to
(Si te ests sintiendo mal, deberas ver a un mdico)
If Mirta, Ricardo and Miguel could do those webs, they can do anything.
>> MODAL VERBS: could (past) - can (present)
(Si Mirta, Ricardo y Miguel pudieron hacer esas webs, pueden hacer cualquier cosa).

Pulsa aqu y ampla este tema gramatical consultando


Los Cuatro Condicionales


Many visitors and subscribers ask us: I was told there are four con
English, but I suppose I know just one. It is true, there exist FOUR
types of conditional sentences in English. Let's study them here...

Muchos visitantes y suscriptores nos consultan: Me dijeron que hay cuatro

condicionales pero creo saber slo uno. Es cierto, bsicamente existen CU
condicionales en ingls que analizamos aqu...

conditional type 0 >> ZERO CONDITIONAL


Used for scientific facts or general truths (usado para expresa

cientficas, hechos que nunca cambian o situaciones que siempr
Algunos gramticos incluyen este tipo de condicional dentro de F
CONDITIONAL o Conditional Type I.
If you heat butter, it melts.
Si calientas manteca, sta se derrite.
If you put water in a cooler, it freezes.
Si colocas agua en el congelador, sta se congela.
If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
Si calientas agua a 100 grados, sta hierve.
If you cross an international date line, the time changes.
Si cruzas una lnea de tiempo internacional, la hora cambia.
If you drop ice in water, it floats.
Si tiras hielo al agua, ste flota.
If iron gets wet, it rusts.
Si el hierro se moja, se oxida.

conditional type I >> FIRST CONDITIONAL

Used to talk about things which are possible in the present o

is generally used for things which may happen (utilizado para co
ocurrir en presente o futuro).
If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
Si estudias intensamente aprobars tus exmenes.
If we do not protect the panda bears, they will soon become
Si no protegemos a los osos panda, pronto se extinguirn.

Used for threats and promises (usado para expresar amenazas y promesas

Don't say a word about this, or I will kill you.

No cuentes una palabra de esto o te mato.
Finish your job, and you will have a bonus.
Termina tu tarea y tendrs una gratificacin.

Contact me if you need any help.

Ponte en contacto conmigo si necesitas ayuda.
Call them in case you need help.
Llmalos en caso de necesitar ayuda.

conditional type II >> SECOND CONDITIONAL

Used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not po
present or the future. It is generally used for things which don't
happen. It is generally used for things which may happen (utiliza
o futuro para expresar situaciones hipotticas, que normalmente

If FIRST verb in the sentence is TO BE, WERE is used for all persons.
(Si el PRIMER verbo de la oracin es TO BE, se usa WERE para todas las pe

If I were rich, I would buy a castle.

Si fuera rico, comprara un castillo.
If I were him, I would go and see a doctor.
Si fuera l -en su lugar- consultara con un mdico.
If elephants had wings, they would be able to fly.
Si los elefantes tuvieran alas, podran volar.

conditional type III >> THIRD CONDITIONAL

Used to talk about unreal situations in the past, that is, thing
happen in the past. (utilizado para expresar situaciones irreales
sucedieron en el pasado y, en general, dentro de un contexto d
remordimiento). En espaol tienes una construccin similar por lo
condicional no debera resultar complicado.

If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see y
Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habra ido a ver.

The real situation was that I didn't know you were sick. So I say If I had know
talking about the past, you use the Past Perfect (I had known) after IF.

If you had saved your money, you could have bought a lapto
Si hubieses ahorrado tu dinero, podras haberte comprado una c

The real situation was that you didn't save your money. So they say If you had
are talking about the past, you use the Past Perfect (you had saved) after IF.

If you hadn't been late for work so often, they wouldn't have
Si no hubieses llegado tarde al trabajo tan seguido, no te habran

The real situation was that you wasn't early for work. So they say If you hadn't bee
you are talking about the past, you use the Past Perfect (you hadn't been late) aft

Conditionals - Unit 17



Put the verb into the correct form.

If I found a $100 bill on the street, I would keep (keep) it.
They'd be very angry if you didn't visit (not / visit) them.






If the company offered me the job, I think I

(take) it.

I'm sure Liz will lend you some money. I would be very surprised if she

Many people would be out of work if that factory

If she sold her car, she

(close) do

(not / get) much money for it.

They're expecting us. They would be disappointed if we






Would George be angry if I

(take) his bicycle without asking

Ann gave me this ring. She

(be) terribly upset if I lost it.

If someone

(walk) in here with a gun, I'd be very frightene

What would happen if you

10. I'm sure she


(not / go) to work tomorrow?

(understand) if you explained the situation to

Make questions.

Perhaps one day somebody will give you a lot of money.
What would you do if someone gave you a lot of money?

1. Perhaps one day a millionaire will ask you to marry him/her.

What would you do if

2. Perhaps one day you will lose your passport in a foreign country.
What would you do if

3. Perhaps one day somebody will throw an egg at you.

What would you do if

4. Perhaps one day your car will be stolen.

What would you do if

5. Perhaps one day somebody will park a car on your foot.

What would you do if


Answer these questions in the way shown.

Are you going to take the 10:30 train? (we / arrive too early)
No. If we took the 10:30 train, we would arrrive too early.

1. Is he going to take the exam? (he / fail it)

No. If he
, he

2. Are you going to invite Bill to the party? (I / have to invite Linda too)
No. If I

3. Are you going to bed now? (I / not / sleep)


4. Is she going to apply for the job? (she / not / get it)

ANSWERS UNIT 17 - Exercise A

1. would take
2. refused
3. closed
4. wouldn't get
5. didn't come

6. took
7. would be
8. walked
9. didn't go
10. would understand

ANSWERS UNIT 17 - Exercise B

1. What would you do if a millionaire asked you to marry him/her?
2. What would you do if you lost your passport in a foreign country?
3. What would you do if somebody threw an egg at you?
4. What would you do if your car was stolen?
5. What would you do if somebody parked a car on your foot?

ANSWERS UNIT 17 - Exercise C

ook the exam, he would fail it.

nvited Bill to the party, I would have to invite Linda too.

nt to bed now, I wouldn't sleep.

applied to the job, she wouldn't get it.

Conditionals - Unit 18



1) In IF sentences and after WISH we usually
useWERE instead of WAS. e.g. If I were you, I
wouldn't go to Praga. However, "if I was you"
is being colloquially accepted.
2) After WISH we use the past for a present
situation. e.g. I wish I had an umbrella (I
haven't got one and it's raining hard).



1) En oraciones con IF y desp
usamosWERE en lugar de WA
en tu lugar, no ira a Praga. S
you" se est aceptando coloq
2) Despus de WISH usamos
expresar una situacin del pr
tuviese un paraguas (no teng

Put the verb into the correct form.

If I knew (know) her number, I would call her.
I wouldn't buy (not/buy) that coat if I were you.




(give) you a cigarette if I had one, but I'm afra

This soup would taste better if it

If you

(have) more sa

(not/go) to bed so late every night, you w

the time.



I wouldn't mind living in Toronto if the weather

I'd help you if I

(can), but I'm afraid I can't.

If I were you, I

(not/marry) him.

7. We would gladly buy that house if it


(not/be) so

Read the situation and write a sentence with IF.

We don't visit you very often because you live so far away.
But if you didn't live so far away, we would visit you more often.

1. People don't understand him because he doesn't speak very clearly.

But if he
, people

2. I'm not going to buy that book because it's too expensive.
But if that book

3. She doesn't go out very often because she can't walk without help.
But if

4. He's fat because he doesn't get any exercise.


5. We can't have lunch outside because it's raining.


6. I can't meet you tomorrow evening because I have to work.



Write sentences with I WISH ...

I don't know many people (and I'm lonely).

I wish I knew more people.







I can't give up smoking (but I'd like to). I wish I

I don't have any cigarettes (and I need one). I wish

George isn't here (and I need him). I wish George

It's cold (and I hate cold weather). I wish

I live in New York City (and I hate New York City). I

Tina can't come to the party (she's your best friend). I

7. I hate to work tomorrow (but I'd like to stay in


I don't know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down).

I'm not lying on a beautiful sunny beach (and that's a shame).

ANSWERS UNIT 18 - Exercise A

1. would give
2. had

3. didn't go
4. were
5. could
6. wouldn't marry
7. weren't

ANSWERS UNIT 18 - Exercise B

1. But if he spoke (more) clearly, people would understand him.

2. But if that book weren't so expensive, I would buy it.

3. But if she could walk without help, she would go out more of
4. But if he got some/more exercise, he wouldn't be (so) fat.

5. But if it weren't raining, we could (or would be able to) have lu


6. But if I didn't have to work, I could (or I would be able to) mee
tomorrow evening.

ANSWERS UNIT 18 - Exercise C

1. I wish I could give up smoking.
2. I wish I had a cigarette / some cigarettes.
3. I wish George were here.
4. I wish it weren't so cold (or I wish it were warm).
5. I wish I didn't live in New York City.

6. I wish Tina could come to the party.

7. I wish I didn't have to work tomorrow
(or I wish I could stay in bed tomorrow).
8. I wish I knew something about cars.
9. I wish I were lying on a beautiful sunny beach.

Simple Conditional
What would you do? Qu haras?




subject + would + 1




I would go

I wouldn't go

Would I go ?

You would go

You wouldn't go

Would you go ?

He would go

He wouldn't go

Would he go ?

She would go

She wouldn't go

Would she go ?

It would go

It wouldn't go

Would it go ?

We would go

We wouldn't go

Would we go ?

You would go

You wouldn't go

Would you go ?

They would go

They wouldn't go

Would they go ?


subject + would + 1

I would go to New York - Yo ira a New York

He would go to New York - El ira a New York

subject + wouldn't + 1

I wouldn't go to New York - Yo no ira a New York

He wouldn't go to New York - El no ira a New York

Would + subject + 1 ?

Would I go to New York ? - Ira yo a New York ?

Would he go to New York ? - Ira l a New York ?

usos del condicional simple

Comentarios acerca de algo que no es real en el presente pero
que puede ser posible.
I would visit her if I had time. (I haven't got time but I might have some time)
Yo la visitara si tuviese tiempo. (Realmente no tengo tiempo pero podra tenerlo)

Comentarios acerca de una situacin que no es real en estos

momentos y que nunca podra serlo.
If I were you, I would give up smoking. (but I could never be you).
Si estuviera en tu lugar, dejara el cigarrillo. (pero nunca podra estar en tu lugar)

Segundo Condicional (Condicional tipo II).

If I were a plant, I would love the rain.
Si fuera un rbol, me encantara la lluvia.
If you really loved me, you would buy me a Mercedes XL600.
Si realmente me amaras, me compraras un Mercedes XL600.
Would your father go to see the match if I gave him a free ticket?
Ira tu padre a ver el partido si le diese una entrada gratis?

expresiones usuales del condicional simple

If I were ... - If she were ...

Progressive Conditional
What would you be doing? Qu estaras haciendo?




subject + would be + 1 > "ing"

...ing (...ando, ...endo)




I would be going

I would not be going

Would I be going ?

You would be going

You would not be going

Would you be going ?

He would be going

He would not be going

Would he be going ?

She would be going

She would not be going

Would she be going ?

It would be going

It would not be going

Would it be going ?

We would be going

We would not be going

Would we be going ?

You would be going

You would not be going

Would you be going ?

They would be going

They would not be going

Would they be going ?


subject + would be + 1 > "ing"

I would be going to New York - Yo estara yendo a New York

He would be going to New York - El estara yendo a New York

subject + wouldn't (would not) be + 1 > "ing"

I wouldn't be going to New York - Yo no estara yendo a New York

He wouldn't be going to New York - El no estara yendo a New York

Would + subject + be + 1 > "ing" ?

Would I be going to New York ? - Estara yo yendo a New York ?

Would he be going to New York ? - Estara l yendo a New York ?

usos del condicional continuo

Hechos o situaciones incompletas o contnuas, probablemente
como resultado de una condicin irreal.
I would be working in New York by now if I spoke American English.
(but I don't speak American English at all, so I am not working in New York).
Estara trabajando en Nueva York en estos momentos si hablara Ingls Americano.
(pero no hablo Ingls Americano, por lo tanto no estoy trabajando en Nueva York).
Mabel would be living with Fernando if she wasn't living with her parents.
(but Mabel is living with her parents, so she's not living with him).
Mabel estara viviendo con Fernando si ella no estuviese viviendo con sus padres.
(pero Mabel est viviendo con sus padres, por lo tanto no est viviendo con l).
I wouldn't be eating this horrible cake if I wasn't extremely hungry.
(but I'm starvng now, so I'm eating it).
No estara comiendo esta espantosa torta si no tuviese tanto apetito.
(pero me estoy muriendo de hambre, por lo tanto la estoy comiendo).

expresiones usuales del condicional continuo

If I had... I would...

I wouldn't... if I had...

Simple Conditional Perfect

What would you have done? Qu habras hecho?




subject + would have + 3




I would have gone

I wouldn't have gone

Would I have gone ?

You would have gone

You wouldn't have gone

Would you have gone ?

He would have gone

He wouldn't have gone

Would he have gone ?

She would have gone

She wouldn't have gone

Would she have gone ?

It would have gone

It wouldn't have gone

Would it have gone ?

We would have gone

We wouldn't have gone

Would we have gone ?

You would have gone

You wouldn't have gone

Would you have gone ?

They would have gone

They wouldn't have gone

Would they have gone ?


subject + would have + 3

I would have gone to New York - Yo habra ido a New York

He would have gone to New York - El habra ido a New York


subject + wouldn't have + 3

I wouldn't have gone to New York - Yo no habra ido a New York

He wouldn't have gone to New York - El no habra ido a New York

Would + subject + have 3 ?

Would I have gone to New York? - Habra ido yo a New York ?

Would he have gone to New York? - Habra ido l a New York?

usos del condicional perfecto simple

Tercer Condicional o Condicional Tipo III.
If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.
Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habra ido a ver.
If she had studied at OM Personal, she would have passed her FCE examination.
Si hubiese estudiado en OM Personal, habra aprobado su examen de First Certificate.
If I had known that Buenos Aires was so cheap, I would have gone there.
Si hubiese sabido que Buenos Aires es tan barato, habra ido all.

expresiones usuales del condicional perfecto simple

if I had ... - if I were ... - if he were ...

Progressive Conditional Perfect

What would you have been doing? Qu habras estado haciendo?




subject + would have been + 1 > "ing"

...ing (...ando, ...endo)




I would have been going

I would not have been going

Would I have been going ?

You would have been going

You would not have been going

Would you have been going ?

He would have been going

He would not have been going

Would he have been going ?

She would have been going

She would not have been going

Would she have been going ?

It would have been going

It would not have been going

Would it have been going ?

We would have been going

We would not have been going

Would we have been going ?

You would have been going

You would not have been going

Would you have been going ?

They would have been going

They would not have been going

Would they have been going ?


subject + would have been + 1 > "ing"

I would have been going to New York - Yo habra estado yendo a N.Y.

He would have been going to New York - El habra estado yendo a N.Y.

subject + wouldn't (would not) have been + 1 > "ing"

I wouldn't have been going to New York - No habra estado yendo a N.Y.
He wouldn't have been going to New York - El no habra estado yendo a N.Y.

Would + subject + have been + 1 > "ing" ?

Would I have been going to New York ? - Habra yo estado yendo a N.Y. ?
Would he have been going to New York ? - Habra l estado yendo a N.Y. ?

usos del condicional perfecto continuo

Este tiempo verbal hace referencia al resultado incompleto de la accin de la

clusula if y expresa este resultado como una accin continua o no finalizada.

Tercer Condicional o Condicional Tipo III.

If the weather had been better (but it wasn't), my sister-in-law would have
been sitting in the garden when I arrived (but she wasn't and so I didn't see
Si el tiempo hubiese estado mejor (pero no fue as), mi cuada habra estado
sentada en el jardn cuando yo llegu (pero no lo estaba y, por lo tanto, no la v).
If the youngsters had known it was dangerous, they would not have been
climbing such a mountain.
Si los jvenes hubiesen sabido que era peligroso, no habran estado escalando
semejante montaa.
If I had had more money, I would have been travelling all around Europe
with my friends that summer.
Si hubiese tenido ms dinero, habra estado recorriendo toda Europa con mis amigos
ese verano.

expresiones usuales del condicional perfecto continuo

if I had had ... - if he had known ...

Simple Modals
What (can/could) you do? Qu (puedes/podras) hacer?
What (may/might) you do? Qu (puedes/podras) hacer?
What (must/should) you do? Qu (debes/deberas) hacer?




subject + modal + 1




I can go

I can't go

Can I go ?

I could go

I couldn't go

Could I go ?

I may go

I may not go

May I go ?

I might go

I might not go

Might I go ?

I must go

I mustn't go

Must I go ?

I should go

I shouldn't go

Should I go ?


subject + modal + 1

I can go to New York - Puedo ir a New York (posibilidad fsica, conocimiento)

I could go to New York - Podra ir a New York (alternativa)

I may go to New York - Puedo ir a New York (permiso)

I might go to New York - Podra ir a New York (posibilidad)

I must go to New York - Debo ir a New York (obligacin)

I should go to New York - Debera ir a New York (obligacin moral, consejo)


subject + modal + not + 1

I can't go to New York - No puedo ir a New York

I couldn't go to New York - No podra ir a New York

I may not go to New York - No puedo ir a New York

I might not go to New York - No podra ir a New York

I mustn't go to New York - No debo ir a New York

I shouldn't go to New York - No debera ir a New York


modal + subject + 1 ?

Can I go to New York ? - Puedo ir a New York ?

Could I go to New York ? - Podra ir a New York ?

May I go to New York ? - Puedo ir a New York ?

Might I go to New York ? - Podra ir a New York ?

Must I go to New York ? - Debo ir a New York ?

Should I go to New York ? - Debera ir a New York ?

om personal english

ndice de om verbs

Progressive Modals
What (can/could) you be doing? Qu (puedes/podras) estar haciendo?
What (may/might) you be doing? Qu (puedes/podras) estar haciendo?
What (must/should) you be doing? Qu (debes/deberas) estar haciendo?




subject + modal + be
+ 1 > "ing"




I can be going

I can't be going

Can I be going ?

I could be going

I couldn't be going

Could I be going ?

I may be going

I may not be going

May I be going ?

I might be going

I might not be going

Might I be going ?

I must be going

I mustn't be going

Must I be going ?

I should be going

I shouldn't be going

Should I be going ?


subject + modal + be + 1 > "ing"

I can be going to New York - Puedo estar yendo a NY (posib. fsica, conocimiento)
I could be going to New York - Podra estar yendo a NY (alternativa)
I may be going to New York - Puedo estar yendo a NY (permiso)

I might be going to New York - Podra estar yendo a NY (posibilidad)

I must be going to New York - Debo estar yendo a NY (obligacin)
I should be going to New York - Debera estar yendo a NY (oblig. moral, consejo)

subject + modal + not be + 1 > "ing"

I can't be going to New York - No puedo estar yendo a NY

I couldn't be going to New York - No podra estar yendo a NY
I may not be going to New York - No puedo estar yendo a NY
I might not be going to New York - No podra estar yendo a NY
I mustn't be going to New York - No debo estar yendo a NY
I shouldn't be going to New York - No debera estar yendo a NY

modal + subject + be + 1 > "ing" ?

Can I be going to New York ? - Puedo estar yendo a NY ?

Could I be going to New York ? - Podra estar yendo a NY ?
May I be going to New York ? - Puedo estar yendo a NY?
Might I be going to New York ? - Podra estar yendo a NY ?
Must I be going to New York ? - Debo estar yendo a NY ?
Should I be going to New York ? - Debera estar yendo a NY ?

Hope Wait Expect & Look Forward to

What's the difference?

When I say hope wait expect or look forward to, are you 100% sure what they
mean and when to use them? Take a look at the next paragraph.
You have been waiting for some grammar explanations and I am happy to
give you my first English grammar article. You might have expected me to
write about something like; 'Make vs Do' or maybe you were hoping that I
would talk about phrasal verbs.
Not today, but soon. I hope that you are looking forward to today's article
focusing on the difference between hope wait expect and look forward to.
Let's define the terms hope wait expect and look forward to and then compare
Using Practical English Usage by Michael Swan makes this much easier.

1) To wait
the act of waiting (remaining inactive in one place while expecting something
-Basically to wait is when you pass time until something else happens or occurs.
To wait is usually related to something physically. For example: You wait at the
bus stop for the bus. Imagine sitting or standing at the bus stop. You are there
(physically) waiting for the bus.

2) To expect

to see something as probable, likely or reasonable

-When you expect something it is like you are mentally assuming that it will
happen. You expect the sun to rise in the morning because it has happened
everyday of your life so far.
You also expect to get paid for the work that you do because it is reasonable.
Imagine that you are still waiting for the bus. You expect it to come at 5pm
because that is the schedule and it has come at that time for the last month.

3)To hope
the general feeling that some desire will be fulfilled
-Hope is close to expect but the difference is that hope involves emotions. When
you expect something it is a mental process whereas hoping for something to
happen is more of an emotional desire.
If you are waiting for the bus you could say that you hope the bus is on time
because you have a plane to catch.

4)To look forward to

thinking about something in the future, with pleasure
-When you look forward to something, it is a combined sense or feeling of
hoping, expecting and waiting regarding something pleasurable in the future.
For example I am looking forward to going to Canada this summer.
Now that you have a good understanding of the definitions for hope wait expect
and look forward to, lets look at how each word changes the meaning of a
similar sentence.
Let's use the bus example from above. You will see that each sentence needs to
change a little for it to make sense.

I wait for the bus at the bus stop everyday.

- If you wait for the bus you are standing in one place waiting for an
event that you need to occur.

I hope that the bus will arrive on time everyday.

- If you hope the bus arrives on time, you are thinking about the bus'
arrival and that you would like it to arrive on time.

I expect that the bus will arrive on time everyday.

- If you expect the bus will arrive on time, you are thinking about the
bus' arrival and you are pretty sure it will happen.

I look forward to speaking to the bus driver everyday.

- If you are looking forward to speaking to the bus driver it means that
you like speaking to the driver and you are anticipating this enjoyable
future event.

- See more at: http://www.helping-you-learn-english.com/hope-wait-

Wait, Hope, Expect and Look

Forward to


How to Use them in Real Situations.

I thought I would take the terms 'wait', 'hope', 'expect' and 'look forward to'
and use them to talk about three aspects of my life.

This website

My new job

My trip to Canada

1) This website
This website is the perfect topic for this grammar point. There are many things
that I hope for.
I hope that this website teaches you a lot. I think that learning English needs to
be fun and interesting and I hope that you enjoy this website.
I expect that people will not think it is perfect though.
When you don't think something works or you have a better idea I hope that
you tell me via the suggestions form.
Feedback from you, the user, is the best way for me to improve the site to meet
your needs. I hope you have some good and bad things to say about it.
That might take a while, so I will write more articles in the mean time. Seriously,
I am looking forward to hearing what you have to say.
2) My new job
I moved to Huelva in 2008 and I expected it to be difficult to find a job here.
Huelva is much smaller than Madrid and I didn't know if an English teacher
could find work here. I waited a couple of months before looking for a job.
Then I got an interview at a local academy. I was a bit nervous but I
was looking forward to meeting the director of the company and learning

what sort of teaching I would be able to do. I signed my pre-contract and I

am looking forward to starting this October. I hope that I get a good
schedule. :)
3) My trip to Canada
I am really looking forward to going to Canada in July. My flight is on the 12th
of July and I hope that all of my flights are on schedule.
I will be in Calgary for a month and a half and Paco will be there for 20 days.
I hope that he enjoys himself as much as he did last year. He is really looking
forward to seeing my parents again.
Paco is Spanish and my parents do not speak Spanish. Paco's English is really
good but I expect that my parents will speak too quickly at times. My parents
will be waiting for me at the airport when I arrive.
Go back to the grammar explanation of: wait, hope, expect etc.
Find more GRAMMAR help here.
Need some advice to learn quicker? Click here.
Back to the Home Page

New! Comments
What do you think about this page? Leave me a comment in the box below.
- See more at: http://www.helping-you-learn-e
stick out for

insist on

The men stuck out for better conditions of employment.

Los hombres insistieron en mejores condiciones laborales

stick to

adhere to

The architect said that he would stick to the original plan.

El arquitecto dijo que se ajustara al plano original.

stick up for

defend, support

Will you stick up for me at the trial?

Me defenders (apoyars) en el juicio?


it correct to use multiple adjectives that mean the same

thing as one adjective?


I came across this quote from some popular guy who likes to use big words and I
vote1do was wondering if it's correct.
wn vote


Their vacuous posturing, pharissaical sanctimonies and sadducceical homilies now has the
tinge of becoming nauseating, megalomaniacal, vexatious and scabrously schizophrenic.

Basically, is it possible for all the adjectives to mean one thing, is there a form or
category of speech (not tautology) that allows you to use multiple adjectives and
still refer to them as one adjective?

grammar word-usage

shareimprove this question

edited Sep 30 '14 at 13:55



Chibueze Opata



All the adjectives in this passage seem to perform a unique function to me (they all denote separate, specific,
characteristics). But maybe I'm overlooking something obvious: which set of adverbs do you find repetitious? BTW
the rule to bear in mind is that English is not algebra, and that repetition (and many other things which would be
considered bad form or even erroneous in an algebraic statement) is not only common and permissible, but in many
cases useful. Repetition can be used for emphasis, clarity, humor, etc. Nothing inherently wrong with it.
3 Bron Sep 30 '14 at 11:49
Hmmmm, interesting opinion. Well, the reason I'm asking is that the has in the sentence seems like an error as it
should be have right? Chibueze Opata Sep 30 '14 at 12:11

That's a bit different than your original question, but the short answer is either has or have would fit (consider: "
vacuous posturing have"? No). Using "has" combines all the activities mentioned (and possibly more like them) in
an undifferentiated mass of behavior which the speaker disdains. Using "have" works fine as well "
homilies have"), but treats each type of activity, and potentially each instance, distinctly. In this context, I would pr
"has", because it better focuses on the "sinners" rather than the "sins". But either works. Dan Bron
1 12:27
Hmmmm, thanks these two perfectly answer my question. Can you put it down? Chibueze Opata
@DanBron I disagree. It should indeed be have since the verb applies to their vacuous posturing, pharissaical
sanctimonies and sadducceical homilies which are three separate things. terdon Sep 30 '14 at 13:56

add a comment

up vote2down This particular sentence is admittedly pretentious and in an attempt to show


off his or her sesquipedality the author you quote has run aground.

First of all, it should indeed be have since the verb in that sentence applies
to three separate things: their vacuous posturing, their pharissaical
sanctimonies and their sadducceical homilies.
I also don't quite get how something can have the tinge of becoming. It
could have the tinge of but not really the tinge of becoming. At any rate, it
sounds very strange to me.
In short, the whole sentence reads like someone showing off. Badly.
However, there is absolutely nothing wrong with stringing multiple
adjectives with similar meanings together. This has been used to great
effect by many authors over the centuries. To take a bad example from a
great author:

And with them scourge the bad revolting stars

(Shakespeare, Henry VI, part 1, Act 1, Scene 1 )

Though the sentence you posted is not really an example of it since the
words are not so similar in meaning, the use of multiple words that mean
the same thing (or which are unnecessary) is calledpleonasm, a type
of tautology. For example, this quote from Becket's Molloy which I found
onWikipedia (emphasis mine):
"Let me tell you this, when social workers offer you, free, gratis and for nothing,


Writing: Formal Letters and E-mails


Click on PLAY to listen


Cartas y Mails Formales Formal Letters and E-mails


Avenida del Alamo 2050

Buenos Aires 1425 - Argentina
May 15, 2003

(commercial letters

Tu dir


The Director
Mr. Walter Burton,
Tourist Information Center
1520 High Street,
New York, 13110

(slo c
el nom
la cart

Dear Sir

Dear S
Dear M


Ms Jo


I am writing to enquire about holiday

accommodation in New York.


I would be very grateful if you could send

me details of cheap hotels or campsites
near the city center.

Yours faithfully

es Dea
es Dea




Recuerda que este tipo de cartas y mails deben

redactarse en estilo FORMAL. Por lo tanto SE DEBEN
EVITAR las contracciones como I'm, I'd, I've, etc.


Formal letter
El autor de esta primera carta (formal letter) utiliza una
redaccin impersonal y trata a su lector con una aparente
muestra de respeto imponiendo cierta distancia:
Dear Sir,
I read your article in Friday's Buenos Aires Times with
amazement. I'm afraid that if, as your article would seem to
suggest, you are seriously proposing that the bullock and human
muscle power be re-introduced as farming methods, the proposal
cannot be given any serious consideration.
There can be no doubt that bullocks do in fact permit savings in
fuel and fertiliser, as well as being non-pollutant, cheap and

contributing to soil quality.

However, it would surely not be called progress to force men to
return to back-breaking labour, nor would anyone these days be
prepared to undertake this kind of work. And I also have strong
reservations as to the bullock's productivity in comparison with
that of a tractor.
I fear that your proposal can only lead to hard work, poor
productivity and more imports, a situation I fail to see any
advantage in.
I remain,
Yours faithfully,

Milton Rainier
Burgos 1830
1425 Buenos Aires
(5411) 4821-3618

Informal letter
El autor de esta segunda carta (informal letter) es mucho
ms directo, abierto y franco que el anterior y es evidente
que se dirige a un pblico diferente:
Dear Sir,
When I read your article the other day I was horrified. Are you
seriously suggesting we should start farming with bullocks and
human muscle power again? With all respect, you must be out of
your tiny mind.
Yes, I`m sure we'd save on fuel and fertilisers, and sure that
bullocks are cheap and good for the soil and don`t pollute either,
but do you really think you can make people do back-breaking
work again and call that progress? And, anyway, who do you think
you'd find these days willing to do work like that? Not me, for one!
I'd like to know, too, just how productive a bullock is. How many
fields can it plough in a day? Not half as many as a tractor. I bet!
Apparently you'd be quite happy to send us back to the fields, but
to produce less so we'd have to import more? What's the sense in
all that?
Yours faithfully,

Carlo Pontino
Belgrano 125
3115 Santa Fe
(5411) 3811-2509

Has observado la gran diferencia entre ambas cartas?

Interesante, verdad? Y ahora nos dedicaremos al ltimo
Putting something right
La semana pasada, la autora de esta carta fue a la
inauguracin de una discoteca en su ciudad. Al da siguiente,
en un diario local ley una resea descalificadora acerca de
la discoteca. Expresando "las cosas tal como son", en su
carta defiende al flamante local y explica sus puntos de vista:
Dear Sir,
I am writing to disagree with the opinions expressed by Rosie
Gossiper in her review of the FireWall disco.
I do not think Ms Gossiper gave FireWall a fair chance. She must
have got there too early. When my friends and I arrived, the place
was bursting with an enthusiastic crowd of dancers, all enjoying
the lively atmosphere.
Ms Gossiper complains about the music. She cannot have stayed
long, or she would have heard the biggest hits from Europe and
North and South America. They probably played just a few slow
numbers before the dancers got warmed up.
Ms Gossiper also objects to the cost of refreshments. Admittedly
this is high, but entrance charges are reasonable. You can have
an enjoyable night out for less than the price of a trip to the
Altogether I think Ms Gossiper's report was unfair. She should not
discourage people from trying FireWall for themselves. My friends
and I can thoroughly recommend it, as we would have told her if
she had spoken to us.
Yours faithfully,

Mirtha Muller

Reston 4215
Virginia, VA 31425



Para las dos actividades de esta unidad utilizaremos un

titular imaginario de un peridico y dos cartas imaginarias
(una descalificadora y otra aprobatoria) comentando el
articulo que acompaa al titular.
[Gobierno autoriza continuidad de planta nuclear]

Lee atentamente la primera carta e intenta completarla

adecuadamente con las palabras del men.
Dear Sir,
It was with the
dismay that I read yesterday of the

Government decision to go
with the construction of a

nuclear power plant. I can

see this decision as a great

step backwards for mankind. Nowhere in the world

anyone been able to guarantee the safety of nuclear plants

or find an adequate method of disposing of nuclear waste.
Yet the Government seems to be willing to

population to such risks.

to say on behalf of my children and myself

that we cannot accept this decision and we have no

to register a strong protest against this

decision. We
hope that others will join us in this protest

so that sufficient pressure is put on the Government to

think again and wisely change their minds.


Ahora lee atentamente la segunda carta e intenta

completarla adecuadamente con las palabras del men.
Dear Sir,
Congratulations! Congratulations to your newspaper for
your hard-fought campaign and congratulations to the
its decision to adopt nuclear power. This is

one of the most sensible decisions this Government has


Now at

we can look forward

a guaranteed supply of cheap energy with no

worries about what happens the day coal and gas run

delighted I am that people's unfounded and emotional

fears have been overcome,

our industry can look forward to a secure


energy supply and

that the man

the street won't have to tolerate any


restrictions on his personal consumption.


Writing Paper: Part 2

Task type: A formal letter
You are reading an English language magazine and you see details of a language
school that you are interested in.


If you would like to study English on a course
that has been specially designed to meet your
needs and interests, then contact the Principal of
the Effective Learning School giving details of

Motivation for studying English; length of

time studying English; strengths and
weaknesses in the language

Preferred start date and length of course

Hobbies and interests

We will contact you once we have received your

details in order to arrange a programme of study
for you.

Write your letter to the Principal of the school. (around 120-180 words)

Click on the underlined words or phrases for comments. The numbers in brackets offer
suggestions. General feedback appears below the essay.

School: Bridges
Dear Sir,
I am writing with regard to your advertisement in the Sunday's{1} edition of
Glamour, in which you offer an English course that meets my own expectations. I
am interested in a twelve-month intensive English course, four or five hours per
week if possible.
I am 18 and have been studying English for ten years, which implies my level is
high. However, I am sure I need to improve lots of things. Despite the fact {***}{2} I
am quite good at grammar and use of English, I must admit I have difficulties in
phrasal verbs and listening exercises. Apart from this, I would also like to improve
my level of comprehension and vocabulary, through dynamic exercises which help
me remember new words. {3}
I am very interested in languages, and my favourite hobbies are reading, writing,
and studying English as well as Italian. I consider all these activities are
worthwhile since they make you develop your intellectual skills. Besides, I enjoy
doing different activities every day in order to take advantage of the experience I
may gain and the things I can learn.
As I am not quite busy next week{4}, I would prefer to start on Monday, and would
appreciate a reply at your earliest convenience.
Yours faithfully,
Alejandra de Picciotto.

Alejandra, this is an excellent answer. You address all of the points in the
task clearly and precisely, and your letter is organised appropriately. I also
really like the way that you start and end your letter. This would leave the
reader with an entirely positive impression.
Apart from a couple of minor errors, your control of language is extremely
good. I wish you every success in the exam.
Best wishes
Fiona Joseph


Vocabulary | Vocabulary Quiz | Crime | C

Tourists | Traffic | Witnesses | Iden

me and Punishment

s a serious offence such as murder or robbery. A punishment is a penalty imposed on some

nvicted of a crime. A punishment could be, for example, time in prison or a fine.

an important difference between criminal law and civil law. Criminal law deals with matter
er. Civil law deals with matters such as contracts or divorce. The police are not normally invo

ions from law breakers or suspected criminals

y did you pull me over?

ve I done something wrong?

his illegal?

at are my rights?
I call a lawyer?

ere are you taking me?

I make a phone call?

ions police may ask a suspected criminal

you carrying any illegal drugs?

you have a weapon?

es this belong to you?

ose car is this?

ere were you at eight last night?

ming someone of laws and police procedures

are under arrest.
your hands on your head.

m taking you to the police station.

ase get in the police car.

will have to pay a fine for this.

ll give you a warning this time.

going to write you a ticket.

ll tow your car to the station.

oking in restaurants is illegal in this country.

s against the law to do drugs in public.

s of crime


taking a person to a secret location using force


using a weapon to steal

setting fire to a place on purpose
hurting another person physically

ted murder

trying to kill someone (but failing)

g and entering

going into another person's home or business with force


injuring a child on purpose

ic violence

physical assault that occur within the home


trading illegal drugs


driving after having too much alcohol

lying or cheating for business or monetary purposes


holding people in transit hostage (usually on a plane)


taking someone's life through violence


stealing merchandise from a store


bringing products into a country secretly and illegally

driving beyond the speed limit

acts of crime against a group (political/religious) or another country

extremely cruel and unfair treatment (often towards prisoners)


damaging public or private property (for example with spray paint)

ollar crime

breaking the law in business

s of punishment

e offence)


g, parking)

leaves marks on driving record/involves paying a fine


driving rights are removed for a certain period of time

pay money as punishment for minor/petty crime

out of season)

g offender who is waiting to go

remain in one's home for a certain period of time

nity service
that steals a car for the first

do volunteer work such as teaching children about crime o

cleaning up garbage

ho assaults his wife)

spend a certain amount of months or years locked away fr


n who commits homicide)

spend the rest of one's life in prison with no chance of goi

back into society



(de, d)


el, la, los, las

El ingls tiene una sola forma de artculo determinado: the man, el

hombre;the girls, las chicas.
1. Este artculo no se contrae con ninguna preposicin: The door
of the hall, la puerta del vestbulo.
2. Su pronunciacin presenta diferencias:
a) Antes de consonante se pronuncia de: the lamp, la lmpara (de
b) Antes de vocal se pronuncia di: the enemy, el enemigo (di nemi)
3. Se omite:
a) Con sustantivos contables en plural cuando se habla en sentido
general: I love flowers and birds, amo las flores y los pjaros; Elephants
can't fly, los elefantes no vuelan; Boys like to play soccer, a los
muchachos les gusta jugar ftbol.
b) Con sustantivos incontables que se refieren a una comida (I like
cheese, me gusta el queso), msica (I like tango, me gusta el tango),
juegos (I like chess,me gusta el ajedrez), deportes (Soccer is very
popular, el ftbol es muy popular), materiales (Glass is transparent, el
vidrio es transparente), etc.
c) Con las partes del cuerpo y los objetos de uso personal. En su lugar se
utilizan los adjetivos posesivos (my, your, his, her, its, our, your,
their): Give me your hand, dame la mano; He put his tie on, se
puso la corbata; He lost his glasses, perdi los anteojos.
d) Delante de los nombres de las estaciones del ao y los das de la
semana:Winter in Bariloche is wonderful, el invierno en Bariloche es
fantstico; I am giving a party next Sunday, doy una fiesta el domingo

e) Delante de nombres abstractos: Life is beautiful, la vida es hermosa
(pero, en cambio: The life of Napoleon, la vida de Napolen).
f) Con nombres propios y ttulos seguidos de nombres: King Louis, el rey
Luis;Queen Elizabeth II, La Reina Isabel II.
g) No llevan artculo tampoco los nombres de las estaciones, idiomas,
fiestas (tomados en sentido general) y deportes: I like Spring, me gusta
la primavera; I speak Spanish, hablo el castellano; I like Christmas, me
gusta la Navidad; Can you play tennis? Sabes jugar al tenis?
4. No se omite, por ejemplo, cuando un sustantivo propio se presenta
precedido por el artculo the, porque el mismo se usa con carcter de
sustantivo comn: He is the Leonardo of today, es el Leonardo de hoy.
Cuando una persona se convierte en famosa --adquiriendo de ese modo
jerarqua internacional-- (como ocurre con los grandes cantantes,
pintores, etc.) suele usarse su nombre como parmetro para otra
persona an no tan famosa.
En ese sentido, puede decirse por ejemplo, This singer is the Sinatra of
Mexico, este cantante es el Sinatra de Mexico, para referirse a que dicho
cantante tiene tan buena voz como la del afamado Frank Sinatra. Y en
ese caso, como ocurre en espaol, el artculo THE no se omite en ingls.


(e, en)

a - an

uno, una

El ingls tiene una sola forma de artculo indeterminado: a book, un libro; a table, una
1. Adopta la forma an delante de palabras que empiezan con sonido voclico: an
apple, una manzana; an orange, una naranja.
2. Existen, no obstante, palabras que empezando con vocal piden el artculo a por
presentar esa vocal un sonido semivoclico: a University, una universidad; a European
magazine, una revista europea.
3. Existen 4 palabras que comienzan con h muda y llevan el artculo an: an hour, una
hora;an heir, un heredero; an honour, un honor; an honest boy, un muchacho
honesto. Para los derivados de estas 4 palabras se aplica la misma regla.
4. El plural o, si se quiere, la idea de varios, se expresa con los
indefinidos some y any: I see some books, veo unos libros.
5. En general, se corresponde el uso del artculo indeterminado en ingls y en
castellano. Sin embargo, hay casos en que el castellano lo omite y el ingls no, como

en nombres de religin, nacionalidad y profesin: Helen is a catholic, Elena es

catlica; George is an Englishman, Jorge es ingls; Charles is a doctor, Carlos es


Articles: 7 points to remember



Estas siete reglas bsicas te ayudarn a utilizar correctamente los a


No se utiliza el artculo con nombres de pases. Sin embargo existen

excepciones a esta regla, por ejemplo: the United States, the Nether
Philippines. Otros lugares geogrficos con los que no utilizamos el a
los nombres de los continentes, ciudades, lagos, montaas y calles:

Europe, Africa, New York, Buenos Aires, Lake Michigan, Lake

Mont Blanc, Mount Aconcagua, Fifth Avenue, Florida Street.

Pero utilizamos el artculo con estos lugares geogrficos: nombres d

canales, ocanos, mares y cordilleras o cordones montaosos:
the Amazon, the Parana, the Panama Canal, the Atlantic,
the Indian
Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Andes, the Alps, theHimalayas.


No se utiliza el artculo para referirse a sustantivos no contables (o s

contables en plural) de una manera indefinida.
the advice (el consejo) no es correcto
the love (el amor, el cario) no es correcto

the letters (las cartas) no es correcto

Pero, sin embargo, utilizamos el artculo 'THE' en la estructura 'T

a phrase para indicar a quin o a qu nos estamos refiriendo es
the advice of a counsellor
the love (that) Martha gave her children
the letters on Manuel's desk.


No se utiliza el artculo en ciertas frases preposicionales con 'ins

ejemplo. church (iglesia), college (colegio), home (hogar), hos
prison (crcel), school (escuela), university (universidad):
My wife's in hospital.
They go to church every Sunday.
He's in prison for armed robbery.
Go to bed immediately!!

En los ejemplos anteriores estamos pensando en la funcin de

Pero cuando cuando pensamos en la institucin como lugar esp
entonces utilizamos el artculo 'THE':
Susan's in the hospital round the corner.
I want to go to the church where the poet is buried.
The conditions in the old prison were really bad.
Don't put your shoes on the bed.

No se utiliza el artculo con nombres de persona:
Jane Fonda, Dr Valladares, Pope Paul.

Pero utilizamos el artculo 'THE' para enfatizar que alguien o alg

famoso de su especie o categora:
You mean the Jane Fonda?
Asimismo utilizamos el artculo 'THE' con ttulos de persona:
the Pope, the doctor, the Emperor of Japan.

Utilizamos los artculos 'A' o 'AN' con trabajos y profesiones (un aspe
gramatical que muchos hispano-parlantes no suelen recordar):
Sandra is a doctor, Mike is an engineer.


No se utiliza el artculo para referirse a sustantivos contables en plur

peroutilizamos la estructura 'THE' + an adjective para referirnos a u
categora de personas en forma global:

the old, the handicapped, the homeless, the Argentinians, the

No se utiliza el artculo con determinadas expresiones de tiempo:
at night, at sunset, before sunrise, after sunrise.

Pero con muchas expresiones de tiempo comunes, utilizamos el art

in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in the past,
at the moment, during the day.


No se utiliza el artculo cuando hacemos referencia al nombre de un

I don't like tennis, Do you play football?

Pero utilizamos el artculo 'THE' para referirnos a instrumentos musi

Jorge Essen plays the piano beautifully.


Uses of the article THE

Usos del artculo THE

Mr. Grammar explica los usos

del artculo THE ...


Los artculos:
SIETE puntos
para recordar

Los artculos
en ingls


Ejemplos: Paris, Peru,Asia.
3. Con NOMBRES INDIVIDUALES DE ISLAS. Ejemplo: Easter Island
4. Con NOMBRES DE LAGOS. Ejemplos: Lake Michigan, Lake
Nahuel Huapi.


5. Con PAISES cuya denominacin se encuentra en plural: the
Rockies, the Andes.
7. Con NOMBRES DE GRUPOS DE ISLAS. Ejemplos: the
Falklands,the West Indies.
8. Con NOMBRES DE RIOS. Ejemplos: the Nile, the River Nile.
9. Con NOMBRES DE OCEANOS Y MARES. Ejemplos: the
Atlantic,the Caspian Sea.
Ejemplos:the Guanabara Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, the Strait of
BRUJULAR. Ejemplos: the north, the southwest, the northeast.


Articles - Unit 28



Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is RIGHT?

Examples: Sue was very helpful. She gave me some good advice / advices ("advice" is r

Margaret has very long black


We had

when we were on vacation.

a very good w eather

Can I help you with your


I want something to read. I'm going to buy


I want to write some letters. I need

writing paper.

It's very difficult to find a

at the moment.
w ork


Bad news

make people happy.




from Paris to Frankfurt by train was very int



The apartment is empty. We don't have any



When the fire alarm rang, there was

a complete chaos


Can I talk to you? I need



Do you have any



Complete the sentences below using these words: PROGRESS,


Examples: The room was very crowded. We had to open the windows for (some) air.


I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got

2. They'll tell you all you want to know. The'll give you plenty of

3. You'll recognize Alan easily. He's got green

4. Carla's English has improved. She has made

5. I want to write down your address. Do you have

6. If you want to leave early, you have to ask for

7. George is unemployed at the moment. He is looking for

8. I didn't know what to do. So I asked Jack for


Write what you would say in these situations. Each time begin in t
way shown and use one of these words: NEWS, ADVICE, LUGGAG

Examples: Your friends have just arrived at the station. You can't see any suitcases or bag
You say: Do you have any luggage?

1. You go into the tourist office. You want to know about places to see in the tow
You say: I'd like

2. The weather is beautiful.

You say: What


3. You are a student. You want your teacher to advise you about which exams t
You say: Can you give me

4. You want to watch the news on television, but you don't know what time it is
You ask your friend: What time

5. You are standing at the top of a mountain. You can see a very long way. It is
You say: What


ANSWERS UNIT 28 - Exercise A

1. hair
2. very good weather
3. luggage
4. a newspaper
5. some
6. job
7. doesn't
8. trip
9. furniture
10. complete chaos
11. some
12. experience

ANSWERS UNIT 28 - Exercise B

1. experience or any/much/enough experience
2. information

3. hair
4. progress or some/a lot of progress
5. any paper or some/a piece of paper
6. permission (not the permission)
7. work / some work (not a work)
8. advice / some advice / his advice

UNIT 28 - Exercise C

1. I'd like some information about places to see in the town.

2. What a beautiful day !!!
3. Can you give some advice about which exams to take?
4. What time is the news on (television)?
5. What beautiful scenery !!!