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Running head: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES 1

Organizational Behavior Principles


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Institution

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES

Organizational Behavior Principles


Motivation is the outer representation of our reasons for our actions, our desires, and our
needs being an individual self drive internal force (Lauby, 2005). Motivation can drive one to
develop a positive inclination to specific behavior. In recent evolutions in the corporate world,
there are big steps achieved in consideration of human resources as the most crucial part in the
organizations goal achievements. Maintenance of the workforce depending on the motivation
programs that aligns with the organization goals can be accrued after the human resources are
satisfied hence resulting to positive motivation and thus high yields (Khalifa & Truong, 2010).
Expectancy theory
In this theory it intends to verify actions of an individual thus stipulating that one behaves
in a particular way and to particular situations with the motivation of the final resultants hence
positive motivation will at last accrue results of any tasks that are positive. This behavior is
selected by the desirability of the outcome. This theory purports that an outcome in any deeds are
simulated in the mental perception of the outcome. Expectancy theory explains why individuals
choose certain behavioral options over others-incase there is correlation between efforts from
performance, there shall accrue desirable awarding by the impaction thus employees efforts
being rendered worthwhile (Lussier, 2008).
The expectancy theory has currently been used in the following business sectors:

Management. Managers enhancing the performance-outcome tie, rewarding the


employees as they deserve and wanted .In order to link effort-performance, managers
should train their employees in order to improve their capabilities and boost their belief
that added efforts leads to better performance (Khalifa & Truong, 2010).

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES

Computer users. Computer users with previous experiences in certain usage bare
expertise in handling most tasks with easiness efforts due to skills possessed and
abilities to cruise through successfully thus accomplishing any task (Schmidt, 2013).

Hierarchy of needs theory


This is a psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 in a paper A Theory of
Human Motivation-idea that a human motivation is sequential (Lauby, 2005). This theory is
mainly in pyramid shape with fundamental levels at the bottom and final actualization at the top.
There shall raise demotivation in the employees work thus reflecting in the output in case the
fundamental needs are fulfilled. Maslow also described metamotivation to describe people who
go beyond the scope of basic needs and strive for constant betterment. This theory would be the
best to be executed in the corporate world as it encompasses realism in the business world
(Lauby, 2005).
Within the work place, an individuals basic physiological needs to provision of shelter,
warmth, food, and sleep for family can be met by factors such as the wage, working condition,
sick pay package, and contractual capacitating. Security needs such as guarantee of employment
and physical safety against harm can be met by pension schemes. Social needs relating to
companionship can be solved by instilling Human resource department to cater for the
employees welfare. Self esteem needs can be handled through recognizing employees effort by
promoting and giving development options for employees willing to enhance their capabilities
(Lauby, 2005).
Motivationhygiene theory

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES

This theory is rooted on the principles that due to existence of certain factors at the work
place, there are those that lead to either job satisfaction or others to job dissatisfaction (Lauby,
2005). This theory was developed by Fredrick Herzberg whom was a psychologist-he attested
that total satisfaction and dissatisfaction act in different phenomenon. These facts are harbored
from research that was carried by Herzberg with an interview of 203 participants from
accounting and engineering fields. This was chosen by the growing importance of professions in
the business sector (Khalifa & Truong, 2010). Herzberg asserted that employees were more
satisfied at their workplace with fulfillment of their dire needs that much concentrated on
psychological gratification rather than compensation policies of the organization. He further
added an idea that the existence of a single set of job characteristic results to work satisfaction
while a different set would lead to job dissatisfaction thus being independent phenomena rather
than continuum with each other (Lauby, 2005).
In order to improve efficiency in the organization, the management must come with a
balance between the two sets of characteristics. This theory has core purposed use with creation
of opportunities in the evaluation, planning, and performance of employees at work. Motivation
hygiene theory can be used in the following instances;

Removal of some management control methods for the employees and increase
accountability and responsibility over the employees work resulting to increased

employees work autonomy.


Creation of complete department to handle all the human resources welfare instead of
integrating all the employees grievances with other departments.
Keepingthemselvesdemotivation later hence might lead to collapse of the company due to
low yields.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES

Provision of periodic and constant feedback on job performance and productivity straight
to workers or employees without any supervision.

This theory has been put into practice in many communist countries with complete successful
implementation yielding positive results thus huge strides (Lauby, 2005). Despites this positive
feedback on the theory, this theory does not give any room for personal traits in most cases
failing to yield results because human beings posses different traits as a result of upbringing. The
assumption of detecting employees happiness by physical outlook is superficial as these
conditions are changed by the environment within a short period of time (Khalifa & Truong,
2010). Employment of these theory might cost a lot of moneys to first time companies due to the
nature, for example, creation of human resource office hence incorporating a lot of expenditure
instead of concentrating on concrete goals of organization with top most being profit
maximization.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES


References
Khalifa, M. H.-D., & Truong. (2010). The relationship between employee perceptions of equity
and job satisfaction in the egyptian private universities. Eurasian Journal of Business
and Economics, 3(5), 135-150.
Lauby, S. J. (2005). Motivating employees. Alexandria, Va: ASTD Press.
Lussier, R. N. (2008). Management fundamentals: Concepts, applications, skill development.
Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.